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Sample records for feed materials production center

  1. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  4. Reproduction and growth in American robins at the Feed Materials Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Jones, F.A. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    Birds have been useful in environmental monitoring within forest ecosystems and at a variety of industrial sites. Growth analyses have been shown to be a sensitive measure of environmental stress in gulls, eagles, and in passerine birds. As part of an intensive year-long baseline ecological study investigations were initiated in late spring 1987 in order to characterize growth and reproductive success in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). The current study was initiated in order to determine whether the pattern of suppressed growth and reproduction in FMPC birds still existed onsite. We selected only American robins (Turdus migratorius) for study because they appeared the most severely affected in 1987. 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Estimation of radon exposures to workers at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center 1952-1988.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Richard W; Pinney, Susan M; Lodwick, Jeffrey; Killough, George G; Brewer, David E; Nasuta, James

    2008-09-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio produced uranium metal products for use in Department of Energy defense programs. Radium-contaminated waste material was stored on-site in two K-65 silos on the west side of the facility and provided a source of 222Ra. The initial objective of this study was to estimate radon exposures to employees at FMPC working from 1952 to 1988. A modified Gaussian plume model was used to estimate exposures to workers. In an effort to validate these model-based estimates, we used 138 CR-39 film assays from window glass sampled in buildings throughout the site. Results from the CR-39 assays indicated a second substantial source of radon, the smaller Q-11 silos located in the production area. A response-surface regression analysis using a cubic spline model was fit to the CR-39 data to estimate 210Po surface activity levels at geographic coordinates throughout the facility. Knowledge of the age of the glass, the amount of contaminated waste in the Q-11 silos, and 210Po decay rates were used to estimate annual exposures to radon decay products (WLM: working level months). Estimated WLM levels associated with the Q-11 source term indicated that employees working in the vicinity during the period when they were filled with radium-contaminated waste (1952-1958) received substantially higher radon exposures than those from the K-65 source during this period. Results of the two models, corresponding to the K-65 and Q-11 sources, were combined to estimate WLM levels by year for each of the 7143 Fernald workers during the period 1952-1988. Estimated cumulative exposures to individual workers ranged from <0.5 to 751 WLM. Estimated radon exposures from this newly discovered source have important implications for future epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in workers at the Fernald facility. PMID:18183043

  6. Radon suppression in storage silos at the United States Department of Energy Feed Material Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Land, R.R. ); Biancheria, A. ); Craig, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Two silos at the Department of Energy Feed Material Production Facility in Fernald, Ohio, contain an estimated 8800 metric tons of high-grade pitchblende ore residue solids, which contain approximately 3,300 curies (Ci) of radium and 1810 Ci of thorium. These silos are the subject of an on-going CERCLA RI/F Program. Fugitive radon emissions from the silos exceed EPA limits. In addition, structural analyses have revealed that the silos have little credible remaining design life. While pursuing final remediation, a removal action is being taken to address the current situation. The removal action entails the emplacement of a covering layer of bentonite slurry inside the silos. The bentonite will reduce the fugitive emissions to EPA limits and mitigate the effects of dome structural failure, while presenting minimum impact on potential final remedial action alternatives for the silos. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Occurrence of uranium in ground water in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Process wastes are stored on site in rubber-lined and clay-lined pits and in large tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), where purified uranium and uranium compounds are produced. Water samples collected from off-site domestic and commercial wells in December 1981 and in August 1982, contained concentrations of dissolved uranium that ranged from < 0.4 to 430 micrograms/L (ug/L). The wells whose samples contained unusual concentrations of uranium (> 10 ug/L) lie roughly along a line extending about 2000 ft south from the southern boundary of FMPC. The offsite area affected by these concentrations is probably < 100 acres. It is not possible to determine the exact point of origination of contaminants in the groundwater on the basis of available data. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Mortality and ionising radiation exposures among workers employed at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center (1951–1985)

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Sharon R; Bertke, Stephen J; Hein, Misty Jena; Daniels, Robert D; Fleming, Donald A; Anderson, Jeri L; Pinney, Susan M; Hornung, Richard W; Tseng, Chih-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine mortality patterns and dose-response relations between ionising radiation and mortality outcomes of a priori interest in 6409 uranium workers employed for at least 30 days (1951–1985), and followed through 2004. Methods Cohort mortality was evaluated through standardised mortality ratios (SMR). Linear excess relative risk (ERR) regression models examined associations between cause-specific mortality and exposures to internal ionising radiation from uranium deposition, external gamma and x-ray radiation, and radon decay products, while adjusting for non-radiologic covariates. Results Person-years at risk totalled 236 568 (mean follow-up 37 years), and 43% of the cohort had died. All-cause mortality was below expectation only in salaried workers. Cancer mortality was significantly elevated in hourly males, primarily from excess lung cancer (SMR=1.25, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.42). Cancer mortality in salaried males was near expectation, but lymphohaematopoietic malignancies were significantly elevated (SMR=1.52, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.12). A positive dose-response relation was observed for intestinal cancer, with a significant elevation in the highest internal organ dose category and a significant dose-response with organ dose from internal uranium deposition (ERR=1.5 per 100 µGy, 95% CI 0.12 to 4.1). Conclusions A healthy worker effect was observed only in salaried workers. Hourly workers had excess cancer mortality compared with the US population, although there was little evidence of a dose-response trend for any cancer evaluated except intestinal cancer. The association between non-malignant respiratory disease and radiation dose observed in previous studies was not apparent, possibly due to improved exposure assessment, different outcome groupings, and extended follow-up. PMID:23322915

  9. Feed Materials Production Center. Final phase-in report volume 12 of 15, productivity retention program, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Elikan, L.

    1986-01-17

    This transition task focused on a review of the Productivity & Radiological Improvements Line Item Program (Package 1) and the Productivity Retention Programs (Packages 2, 3 & 4). Specific objectives include: (1) Understanding the status of the programs. (2) Identifying critical path projects. (3) Identifying current and potential problems. (4) Reviewing the process and procedures employed by NLO for Line Item projects, covering the planning, estimating, justifying, approving, and acquisition and construction of facilities. (5) Preparing recommendations. Primary effort in this study was focused on Packages 1 and 2, since this is where current NLO activity is concentrated. This allowed the authors to proceed with a minimum of interruptions to on-going work effort. This report will cover findings and recommendations for all four subtasks which were defined to address the completion of the four packages.

  10. Measurements of radon, thoron, isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and risk at Fernald Feed Materials Production Center. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.

    1998-06-01

    'The research objectives of this report are: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure during remediation. This personal monitor is a miniaturization and modification of the area {sup 222}Rn monitor that has proven accuracy and precision. (2) To develop a personal aerosol particle size sampler, based on the principles of the novel sampler the author has developed. The sampler measures not only {sup 222}Rn decay product aerosol size but long lived nuclides. There are, as yet, no size distribution data on the aerosol particle size distribution of these nuclides during remediation, yet the aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample for {sup 228,230,232}Th, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 234,235,238}U and {sup 210}Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry to accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment. To obtain historic and present radiochemical data to understand the need for supplemental soil/water etc. measurements.'

  11. Feeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Boyd C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on feeding livestock contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The lessons in this unit cover the importance of good feeding practices, the identification of nutritional needs and the composition of feeds for…

  12. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  13. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  14. Production of beams from solid materials at Center for Nuclear Study electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaka, S.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kotaka, Y.; Nishimura, M.; Kase, M.; Muto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimoura, S.

    2014-02-01

    Two methods for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the Center for Nuclear Study ECR ion source are described. A rod placed near the wall of the plasma chamber, operating up to a melting point of 2600 °C, has been used for CaO, SiO2, and FeO. An oven with a number of openings, operating up to 800 °C, has been used for P2O5, Li, and S. Typical ion beam intensities of 7Li2+, 6Li3+, 40Ca12+, and 56Fe15+ are achieved 280, 75, 28, and 7 eμA, respectively. High intensity heavy ion beams are stably supplied into the azimuthally varying field cyclotron.

  15. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  16. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  17. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  18. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center "Welding Processes and Technologies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Titov, D. A.; Shurupov, V. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies». New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed.

  19. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  20. [Refugee Materials Center Bibliography].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Kansas City, MO. Regional Office 7.

    The citations in this bibliography include textbooks, other instructional materials, and resource materials that can be used in teaching refugees in the United States. The title entries are grouped in series consisting of: (1) textbooks, workbooks, and other instuctional materials on teaching English to non-English speakers; (2) curricular and…

  1. Metal Atomization (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    The following video is a slow motion capture of an atomization event. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  2. Materials Characterization Center program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.D.; Ross, W.A.; Hill, O.F.; Mendel, J.E.; Merz, M.D.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) has been established at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Materials Characterization Organization for providing an authoritative, referenceable basis for establishing nuclear waste material properties and test methods. The MCC will provide a data base that will include information on the components of the waste emplacement package - the spent fuel or processed waste form and the engineered barriers - and their interaction with each other and as affected by the environment. The MCC will plan materials testing, develop and document procedures, collect and analyze existing materials data, and conduct tests as necessary.

  3. Improving Productivity via QWL Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Marion T.; Hansen, Gary B.

    1980-01-01

    Gives a brief history of productivity improvement legislation in the United States and of the development and demise of the National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life (QWL). Describes existing productivity and QWL centers, including their locations, scope, services, and activities, and urges greater support at the federal level.…

  4. Instructional Materials Centers; Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Rosario, Comp.

    An annotated bibliography lists 74 articles and reports on instructional materials centers (IMC) which appeared from 1967-70. The articles deal with such topics as the purposes of an IMC, guidelines for setting up an IMC, and the relationship of an IMC to technology. Most articles deal with use of an IMC on an elementary or secondary level, but…

  5. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  6. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  7. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  8. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  9. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  10. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  11. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  12. Nulcear materials production: Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF RADON, THORON, ISOTOPIC URANIUM AND THORIUM TO DETERMINE OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE & RISK AT FERNALD FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research at the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) site will provide radionuclide data, and realistic risk evaluation for isotopic radon, thorium, uranium and lead exposure.We have developed and tested a passive radon monitor with proven accur...

  14. Transforming Space in the Curriculum Materials Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transforming space to facilitate and compliment learning has become an integral component in the redesign and renovation of academic libraries. This article offers a framework of discussion based on the redesign and renovation of the existing curriculum materials center at East Carolina University Joyner Library. The curriculum materials center,…

  15. Instructional Materials Centers; Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Neville P.; Butler, Lucius

    Revolutionary innovation in the traditional school library has produced "the media center", where--in addition to books--films, television, tapes, and multimedia displays are available to increase student learning. This book represents a collection of eighty-three articles from library journals dealing with library science in its modern form. The…

  16. Production and feeding of single-cell protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Fiechter, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book addresses the technical and economic factors which must be considered when evaluating plans for the production of animal feed proteins from agricultural and forestry wastes. The work is divided into three parts, the first focusing on pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulostic materials, the second on upgrading of whey and the third on nutrition and toxicology. The presentation concludes with a Round Table discussion including evaluations and recommendations for submission to the Commission of the European Communities. CONTENTS: Special Section: Pretreatment and Degradation of Lignocellulosic Materials. Subject Area 1: Production of SCP Enriched Substrate from Cellulosic Materials. Lignin and Lignocellulose. Process Development. Carbohydrates. Subject Area 2: Single Cell Protein from Whey. Subject Area 3: Nutrition and Toxicology. Round Table Discussion: Evaluation and Recommendations. List of Participants. Index of Authors.

  17. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  18. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  19. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  1. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food...

  2. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  3. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  4. Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This strategic Plan was developed in keeping with the Department of Energy`s mission for partnership with its customers to contribute to our Nation`s welfare by providing the technical information and the scientific and educational foundation for the technology, policy and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The Plan provides the concepts for realigning the Departments`s Hazardous Materials Spill Center (HSC) in achieving its vision of becoming the global leader in meeting the diverse HAZMAT needs in the areas of testing, training, and technology. Each of these areas encompass many facets and a multitude of functional and operational requirements at the Federal, state, tribal, and local government levels, as well as those of foreign governments and the private sector. The evolution of the limited dimensional Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility into a multifaceted HAZMAT Spill Center will require us to totally redefine our way of thinking as related to our business approach, both within and outside of the Department. We need to establish and maintain a viable and vibrant outreach program through all aspects of the public (via government agencies) and private sectors, to include foreign partnerships. The HAZMAT Spill Center goals and objectives provide the direction for meeting our vision. This direction takes into consideration the trends and happenings identified in the {open_quotes}Strategic Outlook{close_quotes}, which includes valuable input from our stakeholders and our present and future customers. It is our worldwide customers that provide the essence of the strategic outlook for the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  5. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  6. The use of marine products in animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feeds represent a growing market for the nutrient rich by-products of marine fish and seafood processing. Fishmeal is one product obtained from fisheries that was traditionally used as a low-cost source of protein to supplement pig and poultry feeds. Fishmeal typically contains over 50 wt% cr...

  7. Material and energy productivity.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  8. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  9. Arc Casting Intermetallic Alloy (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Arc casting of intermetallic (La-Ni-Sn) AB5 alloy used for metal hydride hydrogen storage. Upon solidification the Sn is partially rejected and increases in concentration in the remaining liquid. Upon completing solidification there is a great deal of internal stress in the ingot. As the ingot cools further the stress is relieved. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  10. Effect of feed strategy on methane production and performance of an AnSBBR treating effluent from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lovato, Giovanna; Bezerra, Roberto A; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different feeding times (2, 4 and 6 h) and applied volumetric organic loads (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating effluent from biodiesel production. Polyurethane foam cubes were used as inert support in the reactor, and mixing was accomplished by recirculating the liquid phase. The effect of feeding time on reactor performance showed to be more pronounced at higher values of applied volumetric organic loads (AVOLs). Highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved at AVOL of 4.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1) were 87 % at 4-h feeding against 84 % at 2-h and 6-h feeding. At AVOL of 6.0 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), highest organic material removal efficiencies achieved with 4-h and 6-h feeding were 84 %, against 71 % at 2-h feeding. At AVOL of 7.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1), organic material removal efficiency achieved with 4-h feeding was 77 %. Hence, longer feeding times favored minimization of total volatile acids concentration during the cycle as well as in the effluent, guaranteeing process stability and safety. PMID:22373928

  11. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  12. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    PubMed

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). PMID:26769506

  13. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Abruña, Héctor; Mutolo, Paul F

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  14. Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan

    1994-03-16

    This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

  15. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  16. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other co-products from the fuel ethanol industry may be included in diets fed to pigs in all phases of production. The concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in DDGS and corn germ is similar to corn, but high protein dis...

  17. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowndes, Douglas

    2005-03-01

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be the first DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center to begin operation, with construction to be completed in April 2005 and initial operations in October 2005. The CNMS' scientific program has been developed through workshops with the national community, with the goal of creating a highly collaborative research environment to accelerate discovery and drive technological advances. Research at the CNMS is organized under seven Scientific Themes selected to address challenges to understanding and to exploit particular ORNL strengths (see http://cnms.ornl.govhttp://cnms.ornl.gov). These include extensive synthesis and characterization capabilities for soft, hard, nanostructured, magnetic and catalytic materials and their composites; neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor; computational nanoscience in the CNMS' Nanomaterials Theory Institute and utilizing facilities and expertise of the Center for Computational Sciences and the new Leadership Scientific Computing Facility at ORNL; a new CNMS Nanofabrication Research Laboratory; and a suite of unique and state-of-the-art instruments to be made reliably available to the national community for imaging, manipulation, and properties measurements on nanoscale materials in controlled environments. The new research facilities will be described together with the planned operation of the user research program, the latter illustrated by the current ``jump start'' user program that utilizes existing ORNL/CNMS facilities.

  18. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  19. Technical activities 1980: Center for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtman, J. B., Jr.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1980-10-01

    Part of the National Measurement Laboratory, one of the principal laboratories comprising the National Bureau of Standards, the Materials Science Center is organized in six divisions, each having responsibility in different areas of materials science appropriate to the major classes of materials metals, polymers, and ceramics and glass. These Divisions vary in their balance between theory and experiments, between direct standards work and research, and in their orientation toward industrial and Government needs and the needs of other components of the scientific and technical community. Achievements reported relate to signal processing and imaging; fracture theory; conformational changes in polymers; chemical stability and corrosion; fracture deformation; polymer science and standards; metallurgy and alloys; ceramics, glass, and solid state; and reactor radiation.

  20. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  1. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  2. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  3. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  4. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  5. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  6. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers...

  7. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers...

  8. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were. PMID:27086435

  9. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products. PMID:26243938

  10. Mesozooplankton community composition, feeding, and export production during SOIREE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeldis, John

    The community composition and feeding rates of mesozooplankton (>200 μm length) were determined using plankton hauls, bottle incubations and gut pigment determinations during Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) in the Southern Ocean in February 1999. Upper-ocean (0-65 m) mesozooplankton biomass (4.2 and 3.2 g m -2, inside and outside the iron-fertilised patch, respectively) was dominated by large copepodites (>1.5 mm). Salps and euphausiids were absent and very rare, respectively. Incubations using large copepods showed no significant difference in clearance rates of nano- (2-20 μm) and net- (>20 μm) plankton. Mean clearance rates inside and outside the iron-fertilised patch also did not differ and were very low (ca. 50 ml mg DW -1 d -1). Mean ingestion rate, however, was significantly greater in the patch due to higher algal and heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNAN) biomass there. Gut pigment analysis showed that most ingestion by large, medium and small copepods occurred at night, and that specific ingestion was greatest in small copepods. Daily integrated ingestion rates determined by the incubation and gut pigment methods were similar for comparable large copepods. Phytoplankton and HNAN ingestion met only 14% of the estimated daily respiratory carbon requirements of the large copepods inside the patch, and 4% outside. Little ciliate or detrital carbon was available in the system, which could have further supplemented the food supply. A number of other studies have found a similar disparity between ingestion and nutritional requirements in copepods. Reasons for this include the possibility that fine-scale aggregations of copepods and their food have not been adequately sampled, or that measured metabolic rates have been systematically overestimated. Ingestion of phytoplankton by the total copepod community was low, with <1% of standing stock removed per day (inside and outside the patch) and 4% and 8% of primary production removed (inside and

  11. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

  12. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

  13. Sustainable production of green feed from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form hydrocarbons was conducted on two iron-based catalysts, prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and on a new iron spinel catalyst. The CO2 conversion measured in a packed-bed reactor was limited to about 60% because of excessive amounts of water produced in this process. Switching to a system of three packed-bed reactors in series with interim removal of water and condensed hydrocarbons increased CO2 conversion to as much as 89%. The pure spinel catalyst displayed a significantly higher activity and selectivity than those of the other iron catalysts. This process produces a product called green feed, which is similar in composition to the product of a high-temperature, iron-based Fischer–Tropsch process from syngas. The green feed can be readily converted into renewable fuels by well-established technologies. PMID:24678062

  14. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  15. Materials for geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the geothermal materials project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved.

  16. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  17. Phase Center Stabilization of a Horn Antenna and its Application in a Luneburg Lens Feed Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakauskas, Brian H.

    With any reflecting or refracting structure, such as a parabolic reflector or lens antenna, the knowledge of the focal point is critical in the design as it determines the point at which a feeding signal should originate for proper operation. Spherically symmetrical lenses have a distinct advantage over other structure types in that there exists an infinite number of focal points surrounding the lens. Due to this feature, a spherical lens can remain in a fixed position while a beam can be steered to any direction by movement of the feed only. Unlike phased arrays that beam-steer electronically, a spherical lens exhibits no beam deterioration at wide angles. The lens that accomplishes this is in practice called the Luneburg lens which has been studied since the 1940s. Due to the electromechanical properties of the horn antenna, it is often used to feed the above mentioned configurations. In the focusing of any feed antenna, its phase center is an approximate point in space that should be coincident with a reflector or lens's focal point to minimize phase error over the radiating aperture. Although this is often easily accomplished over a narrow bandwidth, over wide bandwidths some antennas have phase centers that vary significantly, making their focusing a challenge. This thesis seeks to explain the problem with focusing a Luneburg lens with a canonical horn antenna and offers a modified horn design that remains nearly focused over a frequency band of 18 -- 45 GHz. In addition to simulating the feed / lens configurations, the lens and feed horn will be fabricated and mounted for far field measurements to be taken in an anechoic antenna range. A final feed design will be implemented in an array configuration with the Luneburg lens, capable of transmitting and receiving multiple beams without requiring any moving parts or complex electronic beam-forming networks. As a tradeoff, a separate receiver or switching network is required to accommodate each feed antenna. This

  18. NASA CORE - A Worldwide Distribution Center for Educational Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser-Holscott, K.

    2005-05-01

    The Lorain County Joint Vocational School District (JVS) administers NASA's Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE) for the purpose of: A. Operating a mail order service to supply educators around the world with NASA's educational materials; B. Servicing NASA Education Programs/Projects with NASA's educational materials; C. Supporting the NASA Educator Resource Center Network with technology resources for the next generation of ERC. D. Support NASA's mission to inspire the next generation of explorers...as only NASA can; E. Inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in geography, science, technology, engineering and mathematics. This is accomplished by the continued operation of a central site that educators can contact to obtain information about NASA educational programs and research; obtain NASA educational publications and media; and receive technical support for NASA multimedia materials. In addition CORE coordinates the efforts of the 67 NASA Educator Resource Centers to establish a more effective network to serve educators. CORE directly supports part of NASA's core mission, To Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers.as only NASA can. CORE inspires and motivates students to pursue careers in geography, science, technology, engineering and mathematics by providing educators with exciting and NASA-unique educational material to enhance the students' learning experience. CORE is located at the Lorain County Joint Vocational School (JVS) in Oberlin, Ohio. Students at the JVS assist with the daily operations of CORE. This assistance provides the students with valuable vocational training opportunities and helps the JVS reduce the amount of funding needed to operate CORE. CORE has vast experience in the dissemination of NASA educational materials as well as a network of NASA Education Resource Centers who distribute NASA materials to secondary and post-secondary schools and universities, informal educators, and other interested individuals and

  19. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  20. Materials for Geothermal Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1992-03-24

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved. Laboratory testing of BNL-developed phosphate modified calcium aluminate cements confirmed their hydrolytic stability in 300 C brine and their resistance to chemical attack by CO{sub 2}. Specimens were found to be >20 times more resistant to carbonation than Class H cement and twice as resistant as unmodified calcium aluminate cements. Testing of thermally conductive polymer cements as potential corrosion resistant liner materials for use in heat exchanger applications was continued. Field test were conducted in flowing hypersaline brine and the results indicated scale deposition rates lower than those on a high alloy steel. Additional tests for bottoming cycle heat exchange use are planned for FY 1992. Progress was also made with chemical systems for lost circulation control. If materials placement is to be performed by pumping through an open drillpipe or through a drillable straddle packer, a bentonite-ammonium polyphosphate-borax-magnesium oxide formulation, containing fibers or particulates when large fissures are encountered, can be used. This system was ready for demonstration in FY 1991, but a suitable test site did not become available. Optimization of this and three other formulations for use with other Sandia National Laboratories

  1. Fissile material production potential in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Nayyar, A.H.; Toor, A.H.; Mian, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The cases of India and Pakistan show how civilian nuclear activities could potentially contribute significantly to the production of weapons-grade fissile materials. The paper estimates the amount of weapons-grade plutonium that could have been produced from unsafeguarded power reactors in India if these reactors were operated deliberately for this purpose, and the rate at which Pakistan could accumulate weapons-grade uranium if it used its stockpile of low-enriched uranium as feed material to its enrichment facilities. These estimates are not judgments of what these countries have actually done or intend to do, but are forwarded to call attention to an issue that will have to be addressed under a fissile material production cutoff in South Asia and elsewhere. The prospect of a Fissile Material Cut-off convention raises important questions about the accumulated fissile material stocks in countries which are known to have nuclear weapons capability. We look here at the cases of India and Pakistan. These two countries have followed different routes to produce fissile material: India has reprocessed spent fuel from nuclear reactors to extract plutonium, while Pakistan has relied on uranium enrichment. While there are estimates available of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) production in India, they have assumed that the Indian nuclear power program has made no contribution to such production. Similarly, estimates for uranium enrichment in Pakistan have focused on production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and not examined the stockpiling of low enriched uranium (LEU) and the time it would take to turn such stockpiled material into weapons-grade material. 24 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. The fermentative production of L-lysine as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Kircher, M; Pfefferle, W

    2001-04-01

    A new and innovative process for the biotechnological production of L-lysine is presented, exemplified here by the fermentative production of the feed additive Biolys60. The novel feature of this product is that the entire manufacturing concept, i.e. the production strain, the raw materials, all process stages and the product specifications have been systematically tailored for optimal environmental compatibility and for minimum resource depletion and waste. The process completely dispenses with the need to discharge residual and waste material and reduces the handling of hazardous materials to a minimum. Since only a few process stages are involved, the method is economical to use and investment outlay is reduced. The process, which also leads to a higher grade product, is thus highly attractive in both ecological and economical terms. By boosting the nutrient value of the plant-based feedstuffs, the product itself makes an cost-effective contribution towards a more sustainable form of animal feeding and by reducing nitrogen emission levels promotes a more environmentally compatible form of animal husbandry. PMID:11233822

  3. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.4 Special... conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are not... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4...

  4. Nutrieconomics: improving performance and reducing CO2 footprint of channel catfish production with a phytogenic feed additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture growth is driven by the increasing demand for seafood products and at the same time by the decline in capture fisheries. This increase is in turn contributing to a growing demand for feed raw materials not only from aquaculture, but also from other animal production sectors and the b...

  5. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Naomi H. Harley, Ph.D.

    2004-07-01

    To develop a new and novel area and personal radon/thoron detector for both radon isotopes to better measure the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases at Fernald. These measurements are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium in the two silos at Fernald.

  6. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE) operable unit 5, AKA Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 5 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 5 consists of impacted environmental media including groundwater in the underlying Great Miami Aquifer, perched groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, flora, and fauna.

  7. PROGRESS REPORT. MEASUREMENTS OF RADON, THORON, ISOTOPIC URANIUM AND THORIUM TO DETERMINE OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE & RISK AT FERNALD FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are three basic research objectives: (1) To develop an accurate personal and area radon/thoron (222Rn/220Rn) detector for accurate measurement of the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases during remediation at Fernald. These are to be used to determine atmo...

  8. Staff Manual for Instructional Material Centers. Fourth Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Martha

    For media center volunteers or inexperienced technicians, a workshop training guide provides reference and assistance in everyday problems and situations that arise in an instructional material center (IMC). Two five-hour days of instruction and participation, using the guide, are suggested for workshops. Step-by-step processing of book materials,…

  9. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  10. Use of 'natural' products as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives in ruminant production.

    PubMed

    Jouany, J-P; Morgavi, D P

    2007-11-01

    The banning in 2006 of the use of antibiotics as animal growth promoters in the European Union has increased demand from producers for alternative feed additives that can be used to improve animal production. This review gives an overview of the most common non-antibiotic feed additives already being used or that could potentially be used in ruminant nutrition. Probiotics, dicarboxylic acids, enzymes and plant-derived products including saponins, tannins and essential oils are presented. The known modes of action and effects of these additives on feed digestion and more especially on rumen fermentations are described. Their utility and limitations in field conditions for modern ruminant production systems and their compliance with the current legislation are also discussed. PMID:22444918

  11. Assessment of the suitability of food colouring materials as indicators of bacterial contamination of enteral feeds.

    PubMed

    Anderton, A

    1988-04-01

    The suitability of using food colouring materials in enteral feeds as indicators of bacterial contamination was examined. Experiments using Triosorbon, Clinifeed ISO or Vivonex Standard plus amaranth, carmoisine, ponceau 4R, sunset yellow FCF, tartrazine or erythrosine demonstrated that although the change in appearance of coloured feed could be linked with the presence of high numbers of bacteria in the feed, the converse was not always true. PMID:2899111

  12. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations— for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards—is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  13. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  14. Dual Feed Support Assembly Standard Product for Telecommunications Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, O.; Liminana, C.; Martinez, R.; Garcia, E.; Santiago Prowal, J.

    2012-07-01

    As a result of demanding a high number of dual FSA’s installed in S/C, EADS CASA Espacio is carrying out a new development from the currently optimized design of the Dual FSA. This means a second step from the first development (FSA current design), which implies a complete standardization of this product, and consequently a high level of industrialization and important reduction of risk, planning and costs. This development has been carried out with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), and is taking into account an envelope of the main customer requirements in order to define a FSA which complies with the most demanding requirements defined for the most demanding telecom operators. The new structure has the capability to accommodate two heavy Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) (up to 15kg for each one) and a large range of different positions of subreflector dishes. All these have been possible due to the improved design of the structure, and the analysis of different configurations of Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) and subreflectors based in long CASA experience in this kind of structures. The new design improves the manufacturing process, making it easier, faster and minimizing risks from the definition of the structure up to the manufacturing and assembly processes. Structure definition is covered by the standard design, what implies a high reduction in cost and planning related with the design and manufacturing documentation. Manufacturing processes have been improved by using high quality technologies like Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) and Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) parts. On the other hand, performances have been improved achieving a good behaviour compliant with a severe stiffness requirement, first mode above 60 Hz including the air effect, showing a very comfortable MOS in dynamic analyses. Even the subreflectors thermo-elastic behaviour has been hard improved in terms of RMS. All these performances have been obtained with significant

  15. Instructional Materials Center, Project Director's Report: 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockman, Mitchell D.

    The Instructional Materials Center (IMC) originated in association with the development of a course to train teachers in specific techniques for teaching reading and the use of a wide range of multisensory reading materials. The major objective of the IMC project was to supply teachers with a wide variety of useful instructional materials for…

  16. Mesoporous materials for antihydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael; Galarneau, Anne; Di Renzo, Francesco; Quasso, Fiorenza

    2013-05-01

    Antimatter is barely known by the chemist community and this article has the vocation to explain how antimatter, in particular antihydrogen, can be obtained, as well as to show how mesoporous materials could be used as a further improvement for the production of antimatter at very low temperatures (below 1 K). The first experiments with mesoporous materials highlighted in this review show very promising and exciting results. Mesoporous materials such as mesoporous silicon, mesoporous material films, pellets of MCM-41 and silica aerogel show remarkable features for antihydrogen formation. Yet, the characteristics for the best future mesoporous materials (e.g. pore sizes, pore connectivity, shape, surface chemistry) remain to be clearly identified. For now among the best candidates are pellets of MCM-41 and aerogel with pore sizes between 10 and 30 nm, possessing hydrophobic patches on their surface to avoid ice formation at low temperature. From a fundamental standpoint, antimatter experiments could help to shed light on open issues, such as the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our universe and the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. To this purpose, basic studies on antimatter are necessary and a convenient production of antimatter is required. It is exactly where mesoporous materials could be very useful. PMID:23250616

  17. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, resulting in dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Process mineralogy has been utilized to characterize the feed and process products, and interpret the mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction paths.

  19. COST OF EXTRUSION PROCESSING OF COTTON GIN BY-PRODUCTS AS LIVESTOCK FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion processing can be used on cotton gin by-product (CGB)to produce livestock feed (roughage) products. Using the economic-engineering approach, estimates of unit processing cost for CGB livestock feed products were developed, indicating economies of size, with average per-ton cost as low as $...

  20. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

  1. Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design

    SciTech Connect

    Santurri, P.R.,; Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E.

    2008-08-26

    The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170°C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture

  2. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  3. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  4. Estimation of metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under different feeding regimes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, S. V.; Pandey, Priyanka; Kumar, Narendra; Hooda, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was designed to estimate the metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (Holstein-Friesian X Tharparkar) heifers under two different feeding regimes, i.e., feeding regime-1 as per the National Research Council (NRC) (2001) and feeding regime-2 having 15% higher energy (supplementation of molasses) than NRC (2001). Materials and Methods: Six (n = 6) healthy heifers of Sahiwal and Karan Fries with 18-24 months of age were selected from Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. An initial 15 days was maintained under feeding regime-1 and feeding regime-2 as adaptation period; actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. At the end of feeding regimes (on day 15th and 16th), expired air and volume were collected in Douglas bag for two consecutive days (morning [6:00 am] and evening [4:00 pm]). The fraction of methane and expired air volume were measured by methane analyzer and wet test meter, respectively. The oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by iWorx LabScribe2. Results: The heat production (kcal/day) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 as compared to feeding regimen-1 in both breeds. The heat production per unit metabolic body weight was numerically higher in feeding regime-1 than feeding regime-2; however, the values were found statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The energy loss as methane (%) from total heat production was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-1. The body weight (kg), metabolic body weight (W0.75), and basal metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 in both breeds. Conclusions: This study indicates that higher energy diet by supplementing molasses may reduce energy loss as methane and enhance the growth of Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers. PMID:27284226

  5. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-01-29

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  6. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-09-15

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  7. Subject Headings Listing for Small Instructional Materials Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Nancy

    Intended to facilitate the cataloging of both print and non-print materials in small instructional materials centers, where each item may require original cataloging, this system of subject headings enables the cataloger to find appropriate subject headings by referring to a single subject area listing of terms that have been specifically…

  8. NASA. Lewis Research Center materials research and technology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a long record of contributions to both materials and process technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature phenomena. This paper overviews the division staff, facilities, past history, recent progress, and future interests.

  9. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production. PMID:26263191

  10. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  11. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  12. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  13. Materials characterization center workshop on compositional and microstructural analysis of nuclear waste materials. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Shade, J.W.; Thomas, M.T.

    1981-06-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on Compositional and Microstructural Analysis of Nuclear Waste Materials, conducted November 11 and 12, 1980, was to critically examine and evaluate the various methods currently used to study non-radioactive, simulated, nuclear waste-form performance. Workshop participants recognized that most of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) test data for inclusion in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook will result from application of appropriate analytical procedures to waste-package materials or to the products of performance tests. Therefore, the analytical methods must be reliable and of known accuracy and precision, and results must be directly comparable with those from other laboratories and from other nuclear waste materials. The 41 participants representing 18 laboratories in the United States and Canada were organized into three working groups: Analysis of Liquids and Solutions, Quantitative Analysis of Solids, and Phase and Microstructure Analysis. Each group identified the analytical methods favored by their respective laboratories, discussed areas needing attention, listed standards and reference materials currently used, and recommended means of verifying interlaboratory comparability of data. The major conclusions from this workshop are presented.

  14. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Leeman, W R; Van Den Berg, K J; Houben, G F

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data concerning feed contaminant concentrations, feeding periods, residue levels in animal products, and other parameters were gathered and recorded. For each case a 'transfer factor', which was defined as the ratio of the concentration of a chemical in an animal product to the concentration of the chemical in animal feed, was calculated. Scientifically founded transfer factors were calculated and analysed for groups of chemicals based on their contaminant classes or physicochemical properties. These database-derived transfer factors enable a more accurate risk assessment in the case of a feed contamination, and enable rapid risk management decision-making and/or intervention. PMID:17164211

  15. Materials research and applications at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    The facilities and instruments of the Lewis Research Center specialized for materials research are discussed. The main objectives of the Center are to provide R & D relevant to main propulsion plants and auxiliary power systems for aeronautics, space, and energy conversion applications. The Center is concerned with microstructure-property relations and their effect on processing; intermetallic compounds and high temperature metal matrix composites; ceramics with improved reliability for use in heat engines; polymer matrix composites for aerospace applcations; understanding the high temperature corrosive attack in the hostile environments of aircraft, rockets, and other heat engines; high temperature lubrication and wear; and microgravity materials research. The various types of schemes and techniques, provided by the Center, for analyzing data are described.

  16. Follow-Up and Feed-Back Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cripwell, Kenneth R.

    1968-01-01

    Presented and discussed are a series of suggestions and examples concerned with improving ETV and ITV programs through feedback and increasing their effectiveness through the use of follow-up materials in the classroom. (LS)

  17. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    PubMed

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources. PMID:25980288

  18. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers’ breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Results: Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P < 0.05). Then the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was performed. Differences between the groups, i.e. massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P < 0.001), and massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain. PMID:24554949

  19. Occupation-based family-centered therapy approach for young children with feeding problems in South Korea; a case study.

    PubMed

    An, Sun-Joung L

    2014-03-01

    Documenting the effectiveness of an occupation-based family-centered therapy approach, when providing therapy for a young child with feeding problems, is needed in a culture such as Korea, which has a strong medical model of service. A case study was conducted involving a 16-month-old boy with feeding problems. An occupation-based family-centered therapy approach was carried out for 10 weeks. The results indicated that this approach addressed the physical components of the child's feeding problems and also the parent-child bonding, which together improved the overall family dynamics. Although these results may stimulate clinicians to consider an alternative approach to a medical model, further research with a larger sample is needed to provide sufficient evidence for therapists to shift to a new service delivery model. PMID:23934934

  20. Development of coal-feeding systems at the Morgantown Energy Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Systems for feeding crushed and pulverized coal into coal conversion reactor vessels are described. Pneumatic methods for feeding pulverized coal, slurry feeders, and coal pumps, methods for steam pickup, and a method for drying a water-coal slurry in a steam fluidized bed subsequent to feeding the coal into a reactor vessel are included.

  1. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  2. Effects of by-product feed-based silage on feeding, rumination, and excretion in growing Hanwoo heifers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Sang Moo; Lee, Youn Hee; Lee, Myeon; Choi, Do Young; Kwak, Wan Sup

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the behavior of growing Hanwoo heifers. Twelve Hanwoo heifers (13.2 months-old, 315 kg body weight; four heifers per pen) were assigned to three diets: a rice straw (RS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS), a RS and BF-based silage (RSBFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS and BF-based silage), and a BF-based silage (BFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to BF-based silage). Behavior was recorded for 5 days using camcorders. Compared to the RS group, the BFS group showed 21.7% higher dry matter intake, shorter feeding, rumination, and chewing times, as well as longer resting time (p < 0.05). Although all groups exhibited similar drinking, urination, and defecation frequencies, the BFS group exhibited higher feeding rates, rumination efficiency, and chewing efficiency than the RS group (p < 0.05). Compared to the BFS group, the RSBFS group showed higher peNDF8.0 intake (15.2% vs. 25.0% dry matter intake), longer feeding and sitting times, lower defecation frequency (p < 0.05), and similar rumination efficiency. In conclusion, complete replacement of conventional RS with BF-based silage reduced rumination and chewing activity in growing Hanwoo heifers, and BF-based silage feeding with large-particle straw is an effective approach in improving heifer behavior. PMID:26290723

  3. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  4. Nematode community composition and feeding shaped by contrasting productivity regimes in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Lidia; da Silva, Maria Cristina; Hauquier, Freija; Esteves, André Morgado; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-05-01

    In the Southern Ocean, during the ANT-XXVIII expedition (RV Polarstern), four stations contrasting in terms of surface primary productivity were studied along the Polar Front from 39°W to 10°E. We investigated to what extent differences in surface primary productivity, together with benthic environmental parameters (concentration of Chlorophyll a and its derivatives, and sediment fatty acid composition) mirrored in nematode standing stocks (i.e. density and biomass) and differences in community composition. Moreover, nematode fatty acid (FA) analyses were performed to unravel feeding selectivity patterns on "bulk" nematodes and particular nematode taxa (Desmodora and Desmoscolecidae). South Georgia station, located NW of South Georgia island, possessed not only highest surface primary productivity, but also highest Chlorophyll a (and its derivatives) and total sediment FA concentrations, also reflected in up to 10-fold higher nematode standing stocks. FA composition from "bulk" nematodes, Desmodora and desmoscolecids revealed a planktonic-based diet, as revealed by diatom biomarkers (16:1 ω 7/16:0 > 1) for "bulk" nematodes and Desmodora from South Georgia. Nematodes at the other stations situated more to the east showed non-selectivity for fresh diatom material based on the FA composition, associated with low surface primary productivity and low labile carbon concentrations (low Chlorophyll a values) in these areas. Uncommonly found in typical deep-sea environments, the nematode genus Desmodora exhibited high numbers at South Georgia station, probably as a response to the high primary productivity at the surface, confirming the strong benthic-pelagic coupling even at great depths. This study suggests that alterations in nematode standing stocks and community composition, together with selective feeding reflected by distinct FA composition, can be positively associated and shaped by surface productivity regimes.

  5. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  6. Catalog. Food and Nutrition Information and Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This catalog contains 2,366 annotated citations that include books, pamphlets, journal articles, and audiovisual aids of interest to the school food service and nutrition education community. These materials were required by the Center from 1971 through 1973 and are available on loan to persons working in these fields, with journal articles to be…

  7. Instructional Materials Center Project Director's Report 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    The Instructional Materials Center (IMC) was developed in August, 1969, to support the Title I Pyramids Reading Program (PRP) begun a year earlier. The PRP attempted to improve the reading skills of educationally disadvantaged children by (1) using one basal reading series in all Minneapolis Target Area elementary schools, (2) providing an…

  8. Is a Materials Resource Center Right for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2004-01-01

    When a commercial pilot steps into the cockpit of an airplane, it has been serviced by a host of personnel and will be supported by many more from takeoff to landing. In more and more places, when an elementary school teacher steps into inquiry-centered science instruction, his or her materials have been carefully prepared by a team of experts,…

  9. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. PMID:26938514

  10. Evaluation of Various Feeding Regimens in A Multiple-Batch Cropping System of Channel Catfish Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A four-year pond study was conducted to compare gross production, feed conversion, processing yield, and body composition of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fed once daily or every other day to satiation, or # 110 kg/ha per day in a multiple-batch cropping system. The greatest amount of feed fed...

  11. Effects of Dietary Protein Concentration and Feeding Regimen on Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A factorial experiment was conducted to examine effects of dietary protein concentration (24, 28, 32, or 36%) and feeding regimen (feeding once daily or every other d) on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus production in earthen ponds. Compared with fish fed daily, fish fed every other d had lower ...

  12. Evaluation of commercial marine fish feeds for production of juvenile cobia in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of feeding three commercially available diets manufactured by three U.S. feed companies on production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was evaluated in a 57 d growth trial. Juvenile cobia (26.7 +...

  13. Feeding deterrents from Zanthoxylum schinifolium against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua

    2009-11-11

    Screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the fruit pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium possessed significant feeding deterrence against two stored-product insects (Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais). From the methanol extract, two feeding deterrents were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schinifoline and skimmianine from their spectroscopic data. Schinifoline has feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum and S. zeamais adults with EC(50) values of 47.8 and 85.6 ppm respectively. Skimmianine possess feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum and S. zeamais adults with EC(50) values of 75.7 and 129.7 ppm respectively. PMID:19886679

  14. Materials characterization center workshop on corrosion of engineered barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Zima, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Westerman, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    A workshop on corrosion test procedures for materials to be used as barriers in nuclear waste repositories was conducted August 19 and 20, 1980, at the Battelle Seattle Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center in preparing test procedures to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The workshop identified test procedures that address failure modes of uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress corrosion, and hydrogen effects that can cause delayed failures. The principal areas that will require further consideration beyond current engineering practices involve the analyses of pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion, especially with respect to quantitative predictions of the lifetime of barriers. Special techniques involving accelerated corrosion testing for uniform attack will require development.

  15. The role of contaminated feed in the epidemiology and control of Salmonella enterica in pork production.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter R; Scott Hurd, H; Funk, Julie A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Jones, Frank T

    2004-01-01

    Food animal producers have ethical obligations to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards in animals under their care. Contaminated feed is a recognized source of Salmonella infection of food animals and regulations to control Salmonella contamination of animal feed have existed in some countries for decades. The impact of reducing Salmonella contamination of animal feeds on the risk of human foodborne salmonellosis is difficult to assess, and is likely to vary among food animal industries. In the context of U.S. pork production, factors that may attenuate or negate the impact (on public health) of regulatory interventions to control Salmonella in commercial feed include widespread use of on-farm mixing of swine feed; incomplete decontamination of feed during processing; post-processing contamination of feed at feed mills or in transportation or on-farm storage; the multitude of nonfeed sources of Salmonella infection; an apparently high risk of post-farm infection in lairage; and post-harvest sources of contamination. A structured survey of the extent of Salmonella contamination of animal feed in the United States is necessary to enable more informed debate on the feasibility and likely efficacy of enforcing a Salmonella-negative standard for animal feeds to reduce the incidence of human salmonellosis. PMID:15992282

  16. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  17. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. PMID:26258557

  18. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  19. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  20. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  1. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  2. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  3. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  4. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  5. A review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, S; Sørensen, J T

    1998-08-01

    Diseases may be an important link in the relationship between feeding and production in a dairy herd. The low frequency of relevant disorders calls for studies on survey data on a large population. However, this approach suffers from lack of detailed herd feeding data and consequently only few have studied feeding as a risk factor for disease. Therefore, we reviewed information from various studies to integrate what is known of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd. The need for putting together information from different sources, the herd effects, and the fact that the effect of one factor cannot be kept constant for investigation in a real-life dynamic herd call for a conceptual model as a framework for the review. The complexity is minimized to allow the representation of important elements. Within-cow relationships (such as feeding-disease relationships, disease interrelationships, and disease-production relationships) are reviewed specifically for: ketosis, milk fever, displaced abomasum, acidosis, sole ulcers and laminitis, and bloat. The major feeding management factors involved are concentrate feeding (level and how it is provided) and overconditioned cows. Disease interrelationships are important. Generalization of production loss from diseases is complicated due to the variety of estimates and measures used. PMID:9762733

  6. Products Available from the National Center for Education Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromboluti, Carol Sue

    This booklet lists some of the products available from the National Center for Education Statistics. Each product is described briefly, with some notes about its development and use, and ordering information, including cost and stock number. The following products are described: (1) "Student Data Handbook for Elementary, Secondary, and Early…

  7. By-products from seafood processing for aquaculture and animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska fish processing by-products can be used to make fertilizer and other products; however, most of the fish by-products produced in large shore-side fish processing operations are used to make fish meal and fish oil. Primary uses of fish meals and oils are as aquaculture feed ingredient for fish...

  8. Neutron production from polyethylene and common spacecraft materials.

    PubMed

    Maurer, R H; Roth, D R; Kinnison, J D; Jordan, T M; Heilbronn, L H; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C J

    2001-12-01

    We report experimental measurements of neutron production from collisions of neutron beams with polyethylene blocks simulating tissue at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Neutron Science Center and 1 GeV/amu iron nuclei with spacecraft shielding materials at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. PMID:12033226

  9. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  10. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... for source and byproduct materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG-1717; ... April 2010. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  11. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  12. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  13. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony. PMID:6754637

  14. Aflatoxins in dairy cow feed, raw milk and milk products from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Hilal Zeynep; Celik, Mehtap; Kotay, Seda; Kabak, Bulent

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to detect aflatoxins (AFs) in dairy cow feed, milk and milk products using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method. All the validation parameters met the method performance criteria of the European Union. The samples comprised 76 dairy cow feeds and 205 milk and milk products (including yoghurt and yoghurt-based beverage, ayran). AFs were present in 26.3% of the feed samples. Two feed samples exceeded the maximum limit (ML) of 5 µg kg(-1) for AFB1 as established by the EU. Nineteen milk samples (21.1%) contained aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of which three exceeded the EU ML of 0.05 µg l(-1). In addition, only two yoghurt samples and one ayran sample contained AFM1, but the levels were lower than the EU ML. PMID:26883580

  15. The Marketing of Information Analysis Center Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veazie, Walter H., Jr.; Connolly, Thomas F.

    Information analysis centers (IACs) represent a valuable national resource which has not been fully utilized, often because their products and services are not widely known. Recent Government economy measures demand consideration of increased marketability of these products and services and the institution of service charges as a possible source…

  16. Directory of Productivity and Quality of Working Life Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, Washington, DC.

    This directory was prepared to foster the mutually supportive relationships among the Productivity and Quality of Working Life Centers in the United States. It was also designed to be of value to innovative managers in the public and private sectors by making readily available sources of information on the various aspects of productivity and…

  17. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  18. A membrane stirrer for product recovery and substrate feeding.

    PubMed

    Femmer, T; Carstensen, F; Wessling, M

    2015-02-01

    During fermentation processes, in situ product recovery (ISPR) using submerged membranes allows a continuous operation mode with effective product removal. Continuous recovery reduces product inhibition and organisms in the reactor are not exposed to changing reaction conditions. For an effective in situ product removal, submerged membrane systems should have a sufficient large membrane area and an anti-fouling concept integrated in a compact device for the limited space in a lab-scale bioreactor. We present a new membrane stirrer with integrated filtration membranes on the impeller blades as well as an integrated gassing concept in an all-in-one device. The stirrer is fabricated by rapid prototyping and is equipped with a commercial micromesh membrane. Filtration performance is tested using a yeast cell suspension with different stirring speeds and aeration fluxes. We reduce membrane fouling by backflushing through the membrane with the product stream. PMID:25212847

  19. Electrorefiner system for recovering purified metal from impure nuclear feed material

    DOEpatents

    Berger, John F.; Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2015-10-06

    An electrorefiner system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a vessel configured to maintain a molten salt electrolyte and configured to receive a plurality of alternately arranged cathode and anode assemblies. The anode assemblies are configured to hold an impure nuclear feed material. Upon application of the power system, the impure nuclear feed material is anodically dissolved and a purified metal is deposited on the cathode rods of the cathode assemblies. A scraper is configured to dislodge the purified metal deposited on the cathode rods. A conveyor system is disposed at a bottom of the vessel and configured to remove the dislodged purified metal from the vessel.

  20. Enhanced curdlan production with nitrogen feeding during polysaccharide synthesis by Rhizobium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu-Zhu; Dong, Jin-Jun; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-10-01

    Curdlan is a secondary metabolite synthesized by Agrobacterium sp. and some other bacteria. A newly isolated exopolysaccharide-producing strain was identified to be Rhizobium radiobacter CGMCC 12099. The polysaccharide product was confirmed to be curdlan with a molecule weight of 1.4×10(5)Da, and its molecular structure was determined by HPLC and infrared spectrum. Although nitrogen source is necessary for cell reproduction, curdlan production is largely dependent on nitrogen limitation, as well as cell vitality. Here, a nitrogen feeding strategy was investigated to elevate the curdlan production by R. radiobacter. The optimal concentration and addition time of (NH4)2HPO4 were investigated. The results showed that the enhanced cell density was correlated to the amount of (NH4)2HPO4 added. Also, nitrogen addition in earlier fermentation stage was beneficial to the cell growth and curdlan production. Furthermore, continuously feeding strategy was employed by feeding (NH4)2HPO4 at a constant rate of 1.24g/h at 35(th)h of fermentation for 9h, achieving a final curdlan production of 65.27g/L, productivity of 0.544g/L/h and glucose conversion rate of 38.89%. The curdlan production was improved by 2.1 times compared with that without nitrogen addition. This study provides a feasible and cheap nitrogen feeding strategy to enhance curdlan production. PMID:27312649

  1. Impact of United States biofuels co-products on the feed industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although 140 biodiesel plants produced 1.2 billion liters of biodiesel in 2010, very little crude glycerol has been used in animal feeds in the U.S. due to relatively low volume produced compared to ethanol industry co-products, and its higher value for consumer products and industrial manufacturing...

  2. Feed-milk-manure nitrogen relationships in global dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) inputs from fertilizer, feed, and animal manure sustain productive agriculture. Agricultural systems are limited however in their ability to incorporate N into products, and environmental N losses may become local, regional and global concerns. The forecast increases in global demand fo...

  3. Efficient and reliable protocols for the production of live feeds for larval Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As is the case with most marine finfish species, production of live feed organisms represents the majority of time and labor associated with larviculture operations. As a byproduct of establishing a reproduction and larviculture research program at our facility, procedures for the production and en...

  4. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  5. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  6. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  7. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits. PMID:26812310

  8. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-05-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. PMID:23710634

  9. Feeding nine billion: the challenge to sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Peter J; George, Timothy S

    2011-11-01

    In the recent past there was a widespread working assumption in many countries that problems of food production had been solved, and that food security was largely a matter of distribution and access to be achieved principally by open markets. The events of 2008 challenged these assumptions, and made public a much wider debate about the costs of current food production practices to the environment and whether these could be sustained. As in the past 50 years, it is anticipated that future increases in crop production will be achieved largely by increasing yields per unit area rather than by increasing the area of cropped land. However, as yields have increased, so the ratio of photosynthetic energy captured to energy expended in crop production has decreased. This poses a considerable challenge: how to increase yield while simultaneously reducing energy consumption (allied to greenhouse gas emissions) and utilizing resources such as water and phosphate more efficiently. Given the timeframe in which the increased production has to be realized, most of the increase will need to come from crop genotypes that are being bred now, together with known agronomic and management practices that are currently under-developed. PMID:21841178

  10. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    PubMed Central

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  11. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  12. NASA Lewis Research Center's Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemets, Steve A.; Ehlers, Robert C.; Parrott, Edith

    1995-01-01

    The Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility (PCMTF) in the Engine Research Building (ERB) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is one of two unique combustor facilities that provide a nonvitiated air supply to two test stands, where the air can be used for research combustor testing and high-temperature materials testing. Stand A is used as a research combustor stand, whereas stand B is used for cyclic and survivability tests of aerospace materials at high temperatures. Both stands can accommodate in-house and private industry research programs. The PCMTF is capable of providing up to 30 lb/s (pps) of nonvitiated, 450 psig combustion air at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 g F. A 5000 gal tank located outdoors adjacent to the test facility can provide jet fuel at a pressure of 900 psig and a flow rate of 11 gal/min (gpm). Gaseous hydrogen from a 70,000 cu ft (CF) tuber is also available as a fuel. Approximately 500 gpm of cooling water cools the research hardware and exhaust gases. Such cooling is necessary because the air stream reaches temperatures as high as 3000 deg F. The PCMTF provides industry and Government with a facility for studying the combustion process and for obtaining valuable test information on advanced materials. This report describes the facility's support systems and unique capabilities.

  13. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds. PMID:24915369

  14. Effects of feeding various dosages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zaworski, E M; Shriver-Munsch, C M; Fadden, N A; Sanchez, W K; Yoon, I; Bobe, G

    2014-05-01

    Feeding 56 versus 0 g/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) can increase feed intake and milk production in transition dairy cows. To evaluate the effects of various dosages of SCFP, Holstein cows were given individually a supplement containing 0 (n=14), 56 (n=15), or 112 g (n=13) of SCFP daily during morning lockup as a topdressing to their total mixed ration. The supplement consisted of 0, 56, or 112 g of SCFP mixed with 84 g of molasses and 168, 112, or 56 g of corn meal, respectively. Supplement feeding began 28 d before predicted calving date (no less than 14 d) and ended 28 d postpartum, and supplement intake was evaluated daily. Blood samples were collected at d -21, -14, -7, -3, -1, 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure serum concentrations of macrominerals, metabolites, acute-phase proteins, immunoglobulin, and hormones. Milk weights were measured and milk samples were collected 2 times/wk on nonconsecutive days and analyzed for milk fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). During the first day after calving, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased serum cortisol concentrations and at least tended to increase supplement intake and serum concentrations of calcium, glucose, urea N, and serum amyloid A. During the first 4 wk postpartum, feeding SCFP versus no SCFP decreased milk SCC and increased milk production and serum phosphorus concentrations. Feeding 112 versus 56 g of SCFP/d did not show additional effects. Feeding SCFP may have a dosage-independent beneficial effect in supporting the physiologic adaptations after parturition, resulting in higher milk production and lower milk SCC. PMID:24612807

  15. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  16. Relationship between selection for feed efficiency and methane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric methane is a product of fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants. A group of archaea bacteria collectively called “methanogens” are responsible for the synthesis of methane. In ruminants, the methanogens grow in the reticulum-rumen complex and in the cecum. Most of the met...

  17. A novel method for material characterization of reusable products.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Product reuse contributes favorably to waste management and resource recovery by diverting products from terminal disposal to second-hand urban markets. Many organizations with social mission incorporate in their activities the process of reuse, thus making valuable products available to second-hand customers through their thrift stores. Data management and product classification are an important aspect of quantitative analysis of second-hand products circulating through reuse organizations. The New York City Center for Materials Reuse has, for the last 10years, organized the reuse activities of most not for profit organizations, and collected valuable information on the strengths and weaknesses of their operations. One such finding is the casual, and inconsistent approach used by these organizations to keep a record of the level and value of the reuse efforts they undertake. This paper describes a novel methodology developed to standardize record keeping and characterize commonly reused post-consumer products by assessing the outgoing product flow from reuse organizations. The approach groups material composition of individual products into main product categories, creating a simplified method to characterize products. Furthermore, by linking product categories and material composition, the method creates a matrix to help identify the material composition of products handled by reuse organizations. As part of the methodology, whenever adequate data are not available about certain types of products, a process identified as "field characterization study" is proposed and incorporated in the implementation to develop meaningful and useful data on the weight and material composition. Finally, the method incorporates the estimation of the environmental impact of reuse using standard models available through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other worldwide entities. The diversified weight and size of products poses a challenge to the statistical significance

  18. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  19. Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

  20. Effect of feeding strategies on lipid production by Lipomyces starkeyi.

    PubMed

    Anschau, Andréia; Xavier, Michelle C A; Hernalsteens, Saartje; Franco, Telma T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to produce microbial oil from Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296 grown in hemicellulose hydrolysate (H-H). Glucose and xylose were used for batch, fed-batch, repeated fed-batch, and continuous cultures, and H-H was tested at continuous culture. The highest cell and lipid concentrations of 85.4 and 41.8g/L, respectively, were obtained using repeated fed-batch strategy. Continuous culture with dilution rate of 0.03h(-1) presented the highest overall cell (0.443g/g) and lipid yields (0.236g/g). At 0.06h(-1) were obtained the highest cell and lipid productivities. Continuous cultivation using H-H at 0.03h(-1) resulted in higher cell productivity than that obtained using glucose:xylose. Gas chromatography analysis of the esterified lipids indicated that the major constituents of this complex are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid with an estimated cetane number (approximately 61) similar to that of palm biodiesel, which is important for biofuel production. PMID:24556374

  1. How Does the Secondary School Library Become an Instructional Materials Center? Personnel, Program, Materials, Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Margaret

    1968-01-01

    Objectives of this paper are: (1) to provide a practical point of view, based on experience of library and audiovisual practitioners, for expanding secondary school library programs into instructional materials center programs as demanded by instructional programs involving flexible scheduling, inquiry, and independent study; (2) to provide an…

  2. An Evaluation of Mother-Centered Anticipatory Guidance to Reduce Obesogenic Infant Feeding Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lisa; Skybo, Theresa; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Sternstein, Amy; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Beth; Groner, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 anticipatory guidance styles (maternal focused [MOMS] and infant focused [Ounce of Prevention]) directed at mothers of infants aged newborn to 6 months on their infant feeding behaviors at 1 year compared with routine advice as outlined in Bright Futures (BF). METHODS: This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 292 mother/infant dyads were enrolled at their first well-child visit to 3 urban pediatric clinics in Columbus, Ohio. Intervention-specific brief advice and 1-page handouts were given at each well visit. In addition to infant weights and lengths, surveys about eating habits and infant feeding practices were completed at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: Baseline data revealed a group with high rates of maternal overweight (62%) and obesogenic habits. At 12 months, the maternal-focused group gave their infants less juice (8.97 oz vs 14.37 oz, P < .05), and more daily servings of fruit (1.40 vs 0.94, P < .05) and vegetables (1.41 vs 1.03, P < .05) compared with BF mothers. Ounce of Prevention mothers also gave less juice (9.3 oz, P < .05) and more fruit servings (1.26 P < .05) than BF. CONCLUSIONS: Brief specific interventions added to well-child care may affect obesogenic infant feeding behaviors of mothers and deserves further study as an inexpensive approach to preventing childhood obesity. PMID:22891225

  3. Fabrication and characterization of MCC (Materials Characterization Center) approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

    SciTech Connect

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-..mu..m iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-..mu..m ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 ..mu..m, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  4. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  5. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  6. Application of different feeding strategies in fed batch culture for pullulanase production using sago starch.

    PubMed

    R, Shankar; M S, Madihah; E M, Shaza; K O, Nur Aswati; A A, Suraini; K, Kamarulzaman

    2014-02-15

    The production of pullulanase by Bacillus flavothermus KWF-1 in batch and fed batch culture were compared using 2L bioreactor. In batch culture, 0.0803 U/mL of pullulanase activity with specific activity of 0.0213 U/mg was produced by controlling the agitation speed and temperature at 200 rpm and 50 °C, respectively. Fed batch production was studied by feeding the culture with different sago starch concentrations in various feeding modes for enhanced pullulanase production. Exponential feeding mode at dilution rate of 0.01/h was the preeminent strategy for enhanced pullulanase production of 0.1710 U/mL with specific activity of 0.066 U/mg. It had shown an increment of pullulanase production and specific activity by 2.1 and 3.1-fold, respectively when compared to batch culture. Increment of pullulanase activity in exponential feeding mode improved hydrolyzation of sago starch into maltotriose and panose by 4.5 and 2.5-fold respectively compared to batch system. PMID:24507370

  7. Flexible biogas production for demand-driven energy supply--feeding strategies and types of substrates.

    PubMed

    Mauky, Eric; Jacobi, H Fabian; Liebetrau, Jan; Nelles, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Purpose of this work was the evaluation of demand driven biogas production. In laboratory-scale experiments it could be demonstrated that with diurnal flexible feeding and specific combination of substrates with different degradation kinetics biogas can be produced highly flexible in CSTR systems. Corresponding to the feedings the diurnal variation leads to alternations of the methane, carbon dioxide and acid concentrations as well as the pH-value. The long-time process stability was not negatively affected by the dynamic feeding regime at high OLRs of up to 6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1). It is concluded that the flexible gas production can give the opportunity to minimize the necessary gas storage capacity which can save investments for non-required gas storage at site. PMID:25280601

  8. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  9. Beef- and bovine-derived material identification in processed and unprocessed food and feed by PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Jorge H; Rodellar, Clementina; Zaragoza, Pilar; Osta, Rosario

    2002-09-11

    This research developed and evaluated a PCR procedure to detect beef in heated and unheated meat, sausages, and canned food, using a specific and sensitive method. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, we tested 45 cattle blood DNA samples (from different breeds) and obtained positive results. With 125 samples tested from other species, the specific beef amplification was not detected. Feed components intended for cattle nutrition were also checked, and bovine-derived material was detected. Using this method we can detect the degree of contamination up to 0.01% raw beef in pork. In the same way, 1% beef was detected in cooked meat mixtures and bovine-derived material in concentrate mixtures. Beef has been identified in both heated and unheated meat products, sausages, canned food, and hamburgers. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of a repetitive DNA element seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of beef in processed and unprocessed food, because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, feed components intended for cattle nutrition can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on RFLPs-PCR, immunodiffusion, and other techniques that need expensive equipment. PMID:12207458

  10. The effect of feeding lovastatin and colestipol on production and cholesterol content of eggs.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Miller, B G; Beitz, D C

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether feeding lovastatin or colestipol, or both, to laying hens would decrease the concentration of cholesterol in eggs. Forty-eight White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) were allocated randomly to one of four groups. For 5 wk, the birds were fed: 1) a control diet; 2) diets supplemented with 35 mg of lovastatin per kg of feed; 3) 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed; or 4) both 35 mg of lovastatin and 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed. Drug feeding did not affect egg production or the concentration of cholesterol in the yolk, muscle, or liver. Lovastatin residue was found in liver samples from hens receiving lovastatin, but no lovastatin residue was found in the muscle, egg-white, or egg-yolk samples from hens on any treatment. These findings suggest that lovastatin or colestipol, or both, fed at relatively low amounts do not decrease the concentration of cholesterol in egg yolk and do not depress egg production. PMID:2367274

  11. Effects of feeding on glassy-winged sharpshooter lipid content and egg production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter females emerge without mature eggs, and females must feed to produce mature eggs. As a result, allocation of incoming resources must be balanced between egg production and maintenance of other critical biological functions. Central to this process is allocation of lipids s...

  12. Estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products used as animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A veterinarian observed a reduction in embryo transfer success rates on beef and dairy farms in Minnesota, which were both feeding sugar beet by-products. Beet tailings and pelleted post-extraction beet pulp, associated with the affected farms were analyzed for estrogenicity by E-Screen (proliferati...

  13. Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved gronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley ...

  14. 7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. 305.26 Section 305.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS...

  15. Fabrication and characterization of MCC (Materials Characterization Center) approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were /sup 241/Am, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Space Weather Operational Products in the NOAA Space Environment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, W. J.; Onsager, T. G.

    2006-12-01

    The NOAA Space Environment Center (SEC) is the Nation's official source of space weather alerts and warnings, and provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events. The SEC, a 24- hour/day operations center, provides space weather products to the scientific and user communities in the United States and around the world. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the SEC current suite of space weather products, with an emphasis on models and products recently introduced into the Operations Center. Customer uses of products will be discussed, which will highlight the diverse customer base for space weather services. Also, models in SEC's testbed will be introduced. SEC's testbed facility is dedicated to moving space environment models from a research-development mode to an operational mode. The status of efforts to replace NASA's aging real-time monitor (ACE) in the solar wind ahead of Earth, an "upstream data buoy", will also be described. Numerous existing and planned space weather products and models rely on near real-time solar wind data.

  17. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  18. Optimization of chemically defined feed media for monoclonal antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Kishishita, Shohei; Katayama, Satoshi; Kodaira, Kunihiko; Takagi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya; Hirashima, Chikashi; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used mammalian host for large-scale commercial production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Chemically defined media are currently used for CHO cell-based mAb production. An adequate supply of nutrients, especially specific amino acids, is required for cell growth and mAb production, and chemically defined fed-batch processes that support rapid cell growth, high cell density, and high levels of mAb production is still challenging. Many studies have highlighted the benefits of various media designs, supplements, and feed addition strategies in cell cultures. In the present study, we used a strategy involving optimization of a chemically defined feed medium to improve mAb production. Amino acids that were consumed in substantial amounts during a control culture were added to the feed medium as supplements. Supplementation was controlled to minimize accumulation of waste products such as lactate and ammonia. In addition, we evaluated supplementation with tyrosine, which has poor solubility, in the form of a dipeptide or tripeptide to improve its solubility. Supplementation with serine, cysteine, and tyrosine enhanced mAb production, cell viability, and metabolic profiles. A cysteine-tyrosine-serine tripeptide showed high solubility and produced beneficial effects similar to those observed with the free amino acids and with a dipeptide in improving mAb titers and metabolic profiles. PMID:25678240

  19. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  20. Mitigation of methane production from cattle by feeding cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, T; Enishi, O; Mitsumori, M; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Takenaka, A; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Kobayashi, Y

    2012-09-01

    The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) feeding on methane production and rumen fermentation were investigated by repeatedly using 3 Holstein nonlactating cows with rumen fistulas. The cows were fed a concentrate and hay diet (6:4 ratio) for 4 wk (control period) followed by the same diet with a CNSL-containing pellet for the next 3 wk (CNSL period). Two trials were conducted using CNSL pellets blended with only silica (trial 1) or with several other ingredients (trial 2). Each pellet type was fed to cows to allow CNSL intake at 4 g/100 kg of body weight per day. Methane production was measured in a respiration chamber system, and energy balance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen microbial changes were monitored. Methane production per unit of dry matter intake decreased by 38.3 and 19.3% in CNSL feeding trials 1 and 2, respectively. Energy loss as methane emission decreased from 9.7 to 6.1% (trial 1) and from 8.4 to 7.0% (trial 2) with CNSL feeding, whereas the loss to feces (trial 1) and heat production (trial 2) increased. Retained energy did not differ between the control and CNSL periods. Digestibility of dry matter and gross energy decreased with CNSL feeding in trial 1, but did not differ in trial 2. Feeding CNSL caused a decrease in acetate and total short-chain fatty acid levels and an increase in propionate proportion in both trials. Relative copy number of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene and its expression decreased with CNSL feeding. The relative abundance of fibrolytic or formate-producing species such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Treponema bryantii decreased, but species related to propionate production, including Prevotella ruminicolla, Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, increased. If used in a suitable formulation, CNSL acts as a potent methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent through the alteration of rumen microbiota without adversely

  1. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; Goonewardene, L; Miglior, F; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Okine, E; Wang, Z

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties and costs of measuring individual feed intake in dairy cattle are the primary factors limiting the genetic study of feed intake and utilisation, and hence the potential of their subsequent industry-wide applications. However, indirect selection based on heritable, easily measurable, and genetically correlated traits, such as conformation traits, may be an alternative approach to improve feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed intake, production, and feed efficiency traits (particularly residual feed intake; RFI) with routinely recorded conformation traits. A total of 496 repeated records from 260 Holstein dairy cows in different lactations (260, 159 and 77 from first, second and third lactation, respectively) were considered in this study. Individual daily feed intake and monthly BW and body condition scores of these animals were recorded from 5 to 305 days in milk within each lactation from June 2007 to July 2013. Milk yield and composition data of all animals within each lactation were retrieved, and the first lactation conformation traits for primiparous animals were extracted from databases. Individual RFI over 301 days was estimated using linear regression of total 301 days actual energy intake on a total of 301 days estimated traits of metabolic BW, milk production energy requirement, and empty BW change. Pair-wise bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among the studied traits. Estimated heritabilities of total intake and production traits ranged from 0.27±0.07 for lactation actual energy intake to 0.45±0.08 for average body condition score over 301 days of the lactation period. RFI showed a moderate heritability estimate (0.20±0.03) and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with lactation 3.5 % fat-corrected milk and average BW over lactation. Among the conformation traits, dairy strength, stature, rear attachment width

  2. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  3. Feeding strategies for enhanced lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-04-01

    High-level production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under fed-batch fermentation was achieved in this study. Different feeding strategies were evaluated according to the physiological status and fermentation performance of P. taetrolens. A lactobionic acid titer of 164 g/L was obtained under co-feeding conditions affording specific and volumetric productivities of 1.4 g/g h and 2.05 g/L h, respectively. Flow cytometry assessment revealed that P. taetrolens cells exhibited a robust physiological status, which makes them particularly well-suited for employing concentrated nutrient solutions to further prolong the growth and production phases. Such detailed knowledge of the physiological status has been revealed to be a key issue to further support the development of high-yield lactobionic acid production processes under feeding strategies. The present study has demonstrated the feasibility of P. taetrolens to achieve high-level bio-production of lactobionic acid from whey through fed-batch cultivation, suggesting its major potential for industrial-scale implementation. PMID:23500570

  4. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material to provide fuels or chemical feed stock

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for hydrocracking coal or other carbonaceous material to produce various aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol and cresols in variable relative concentrations while maintaining a near constant maximum temperature. Variations in relative aromatic concentrations are achieved by changing the kinetic severity of the hydrocracking reaction by altering the temperature profile up to and quenching from the final hydrocracking temperature. The relative concentration of benzene to the alkyl and hydroxyl aromatics is increased by imposing increased kinetic severity above that corresponding to constant heating rate followed by immediate quenching at about the same rate to below the temperature at which dehydroxylation and dealkylation reactions appreciably occur. Similarly phenols, cresols and xylenes are produced in enhanced concentrations by adjusting the temperature profile to provide a reduced kinetic severity relative to that employed when high benzene concentrations are desired. These variations in concentrations can be used to produce desired materials for chemical feed stocks or for fuels.

  5. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products.

  6. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  7. Components of productivity in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla: Response to supplemental feeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the high productivity of black-legged kittiwakes in Britain, kittiwakes at many colonies in Alaska have failed chronically to reproduce since the mid 1970s. To determine if food is limiting productivity and, if so, at what stages of nesting food shortages are most severe, in 1996 and 1997 we supplementally fed kittiwakes nesting on an abandoned building. The effects of feeding were stronger in 1997 than in 1996, possibly because naturally occurring prey were of poorer quality in 1997. Consumption of supplemental herring declined as egg laying approached then increased slowly during incubation and more rapidly after hatching. All of the six components of productivity we studied were improved by supplemental feeding to some degree. Supplemental food did not significantly alter laying success in either year, although fed pairs bred at slightly higher rates than unfed pairs in 1997, the poorer food year. In 1996 and 1997, extra food noticeably increased clutch size and hatching success, but significantly so only in 1997. Fledging success and productivity were substantially augmented by feeding in both years. Fed pairs fledged twice as many chicks per nest as did unfed pairs in 1996 and three times as many in 1997. Fed and unfed pairs lost most of their potential productivity through the inability to hatch eggs, and secondarily because of their poor success at raising chicks. The benefits of supplemental feeding did not carry over from one stage of breeding to another. Pairs cut off from supplemental food after laying or hatching performed similarly to pairs that had not been previously fed. This study provides benchmark values of breeding performance attainable by kittiwakes in Alaska under optimal conditions. These values are comparable to highly productive colonies in Britain and suggest that differences in life-history characteristics between Pacific and Atlantic breeding populations are primarily controlled by food supply.

  8. New Data Products Available at the IRIS Data Management Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Zeleznik, M.; Ammon, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    With USArray data processing and services in full production, the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has developed an online tool to function as a library for products derived from raw USArray observations as well as other catalogs with broad interest produced and supplied by the geoscience community. The service, called SPADE, is a flexible, annotated cataloging system for storing heterogeneous data products supplied by registered providers. SPADE includes a web interface that allows users to search across the spectrum of varied data products using geographic, temporal, and/or keyword parameters to locate products of specific interest. In addition to cooperative product submissions from outside institutions, the IRIS DMC is collaborating and developing frameworks to produce and to provide interesting products that take advantage of data from USArray sensors. These products are automatically produced in near- real time following interesting seismic events, and broaden the range of information that IRIS delivers to the geoscience community. In this presentation we will demonstrate the SPADE query interface and present examples of the available data products such as Global Centroid Moment Tensor solutions from Harvard and Columbia Universities, historic earthquake data scanned from select WWSSN film chips, as well as IRIS-produced seismic record sections, and ground-motion animations derived from Transportable Array observations.

  9. Hazardous materials readiness of United States level 1 trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Ghilarducci, D P; Pirrallo, R G; Hegmann, K T

    2000-07-01

    Injuries caused by hazardous materials (hazmat) accidents are common in the United States, and emergency departments should be capable of decontaminating these patients. There are, however, no national studies that assess emergency department preparedness. The purpose of this survey was to assess the hazmat readiness of US Level 1 trauma centers (TCs). All 1996 Hospital Blue Book TCs (256) were queried by anonymous survey; 61% (156) responded to the survey. The TCs treated 43,046 +/- 28,455 patients (median, 40,500; range, 600 to 220,000); 15 +/- 29 (median, 6; range, 0 to 200) were hazmat-contaminated. Only 6% acknowledged having all necessary equipment required for safe decontamination. Many (83%) had hazmat response plans, but few (30%) of these plans were complete. Approximately 36% of the staff had received training. Thirteen staff required medical attention themselves after rendering care to a contaminated patient. Only 58% of the TCs performed a single drill. The preparedness of US Level 1 TCs to safely decontaminate hazmat patients seems to be inadequate. PMID:10914337

  10. Geospatial Products and Techniques at the Center for Transportation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Peterson, Bruce E

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights geospatial science-related innovations and developments conducted by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. CTA researchers have been developing integrated inter-modal transportation solutions through innovative and cost-effective research and development for many years. Specifically, this paper profiles CTA-developed Geographic Information System (GIS) products that are publicly available. Examples of these GIS-related products include: the CTA Transportation Networks; GeoFreight system; and the web-based Multi-Modal Routing Analysis System. In addition, an application on assessment of railroad Hazmat routing alternatives is also discussed.

  11. Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Anderson, D E; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary inclusion rates of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) on milk production and rumen parameters. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 90±13 d in milk (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis; alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements were varied to maintain similar nutrient concentrations across diets. Performance and measures of ruminal fermentation were monitored. Linear and quadratic effects of increasing WCGF inclusion rate were assessed using mixed-model analysis. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly increased dry matter intake (26.7, 25.9, 29.3, and 29.7 kg/d for 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF, respectively) and milk production (36.8, 37.0, 40.1, and 38.9 kg/d). Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; however, protein and lactose yields increased linearly and fat yield tended to increase linearly when more WCGF was fed. This led to greater production of energy-corrected milk (38.2, 38.8, 41.7, and 40.4 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (35.2, 35.7, 38.5, and 37.2 kg/d), but efficiency of production linearly decreased. Increased WCGF in the diet tended to linearly decrease ruminal pH (6.18, 6.12, 6.14, and 5.91), possibly because mean particle size was below typical recommendations for all diets, and diets with greater proportions of WCGF had a smaller mean particle size. Ruminal acetate concentration decreased linearly and propionate increased linearly as WCGF inclusion rate increased. Treatments had a quadratic effect on ammonia concentration, with greater concentrations for the 0 and 34% WCGF diets. In situ digestibility of soybean hulls showed a significant diet-by-time interaction, and

  12. Yeast product supplementation modulated feeding behavior and metabolism in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yuan, K; Liang, T; Muckey, M B; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J

    2015-01-01

    Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying such an effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and metabolism in cows during the transition to lactation. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21 d before expected calving to 42 d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR Inc., Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Dry matter and water intake, feeding behavior, and milk production were monitored. Plasma samples collected on -21, -7, 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake and water intake did not differ among treatments. Quadratic dose effects were observed for prepartum feeding behavior, reflecting decreased meal size, meal length, and intermeal interval, and increased meal frequency for cows received 30 and 60g/d of YC-EHY. Postpartum feeding behavior was unaffected by treatments. Milk yields were not affected (45.3, 42.6, 47.8, and 46.7kg/d for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) by treatments. Tendencies for increased percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were detected for cows receiving YC-EHY. Supplementing YC-EHY increased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and tended to decrease (quadratic dose effect) glucose but did not affect nonesterified fatty acids. Yeast product supplementation during the transition period did not affect milk production and dry matter intake but modulated feeding behavior and metabolism

  13. Effect of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition during the force-feeding period in foie gras production of male Mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2016-09-01

    In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively. PMID:26948181

  14. The Ridged Cross-Junction Multiple-Way Power Divider for Small Blockage and Symmetrical Slot Arrangement in the Center Feed Single-Layer Slotted Waveguide Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemitsu, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Goro; Goto, Naohisa; Hirokawa, Jiro; Ando, Makoto

    The center-feed in a single-layer slotted waveguide array [1]-[3] is one of the key components in polarization division duplex (PDD) wireless systems. Two center-feed arrays with orthogonal polarization and boresight beams are orthogonally arranged side-by-side for transmission and reception, simultaneously. Each antenna has extremely high XPD (almost 50dB in measurement) and a very high isolation (over 80dB in measurement) between two arrays is observed provided the symmetry of slot arrangement is preserved [4]. Unfortunately, the area blocked by the center feed causes high sidelobe levels. This paper proposes the ridged cross-junction multiple-way power divider for realizing blockage reduction and symmetrical slot arrangement at the same time.

  15. Target Cultivation and Financing Parameters for Sustainable Production of Fuel and Feed from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Léda N; Tester, Jefferson W; Beal, Colin M; Huntley, Mark E; Sills, Deborah L

    2016-04-01

    Production of economically competitive and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel faces technical challenges that are subject to high uncertainties. Here we identify target values for algal productivity and financing conditions required to achieve a biocrude selling price of $5 per gallon and beneficial environmental impacts. A modeling framework--combining process design, techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, and uncertainty analysis--was applied to two conversion pathways: (1) "fuel only (HTL)", using hydrothermal liquefaction to produce biocrude, heat and power, and (2) "fuel and feed", using wet extraction to produce biocrude and lipid-extracted algae, which can substitute components of animal and aqua feeds. Our results suggest that with supporting policy incentives, the "fuel and feed" scenario will likely achieve a biocrude selling price of less than $5 per gallon at a productivity of 39 g/m(2)/day, versus 47 g/m(2)/day for the "fuel only (HTL)" scenario. Furthermore, if lipid-extracted algae are used to substitute fishmeal, the process has a 50% probability of reaching $5 per gallon with a base case productivity of 23 g/m(2)/day. Scenarios with improved economics were associated with beneficial environmental impacts for climate change, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion, but not for human health. PMID:26942694

  16. Survey of Aspergillus and Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in raw materials and poultry feeds from Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Carina Elizabeth; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the present work were: (1) to determine both mycobiota in raw materials and finisher poultry feed, as well as the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus strains, and (2) to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in poultry feed by LC-MS/MS. Nineteen percent of raw materials and 79% of finisher poultry feed samples exceeded the maximum allowed total fungal count (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) to ensure hygienic quality. Aspergillus flavus was the only species belonging to section Flavi which was isolated while Fusarium verticilliodes was the prevalent species. Forty-seven percent of A. flavus strains were aflatoxin B1 producers and the highest frequency of aflatoxigenic strains was isolated from finisher poultry feeds. Principal component analysis showed that corn grains are closely related with total fungal and Fusarium counts. This positive relationship suggests that total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts in poultry feed might come mainly from corn grains. Regarding poultry feeds, in ground finisher type, Aspergillus spp. counts increased as water activity (aw) diminished. A positive relationship among aw, total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts was observed in both ground finisher and ground starter feed. Several mycotoxins were monitored in feeds by applying the LC MS/MS technique. One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with FB1, and the highest levels were detected in pelleted finisher poultry. AFB1, gliotoxin, DAS, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin were not detected in any poultry feed. The scarcity of available mycotoxicological studies from Argentinean poultry feed using a multitoxin analysis technique enhances the contribution of the findings of this report. PMID:23606049

  17. Evolution of a reaction center in an explosive material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. L.; Kapila, A. K.; Stewart, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the spatial structure and temporal evolution of a reaction center for a model involving Arrhenius kinetics. The center, which is characterized by peaks in pressure and temperature with little diminution in local density, is found to have one of two possible self-similar structures. The analysis uses a combination of asymptotics and numerics and terminates when pressure and temperature in the reaction center have peaked.

  18. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  19. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  20. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  1. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Shiqun; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18 h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94 µg kg(-1), which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn's method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09 g kg(-1) body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  2. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-07-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage.

  3. Determining the global maximum biofuel production potential without conflicting with food and feed consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumkaew, Watcharapol

    This study tries to resolve the competition between food and biofuel by balancing the allocation between food and feed areas and biofuel areas for the entire world. The maximum energy production is calculated by determining the theoretical amount of energy that can be grown, once food and feed consumption is taken into account, based on the assumption that unprotected grass and woody lands and forest lands can be converted into cultivated lands. The total optimum land area for biofuel energy, 4,926.49 Mha, consists of corn, rapeseed, sugar beet, sugar cane, and grasses. When considering energy conversion efficiency, the maximum energy production is 520.5 EJ. Of this amount, 5.9 EJ can be identified with food and feed energy and 514.6 EJ can be identified with biofuel energy. This result is a theoretical value to illustrate the potential global land area for biofuel. The biofuel energy production per area of land in this study is calculated to be 0.12 EJ/Mha. With regards to the limitation in the degree of invasion by grass and woody land and forest land areas, if it is not more than 10 percent, the biofuel energy production can serve about 76 percent of energy demand for transportation in 2009. The total optimum land area is about 45 percent of global cultivated land area. Sensitivity analysis shows that the land area of corn, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, grass, and woody crops is sensitive to energy content. The land area of sweet sorghum and soybeans is sensitive to the land area for food and feed consumption. Also, the land area of corn, sugar beet, and sugarcane is sensitive to the potential crop land area. This study, done at the global level, can also apply in a local area by using local constraints.

  4. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; MacNeice, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involves model evaluations, model transitions to operations, and the development of space weather forecasting tools. Owing to the pace of development in the science community, new model capabilities emerge frequently. Consequently, space weather products and tools involve not only increased validity, but often entirely new capabilities. This presentation will review the present state of space weather tools as well as point out emerging future capabilities.

  5. Dual feeding strategy for the production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus caldolyticus using complex media.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Karima; Bader, Johannes; Brokamp, Christian; Popović, Milan K; Bajpai, Rakesh; Berovic, Marin

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the objective was to investigate an exponential feeding strategy for fed-batch production of thermostable alpha-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.1.) from the Bacillus caldolyticus (DSM405). The parameters for establishing compositions of feed media and feeding rate were obtained by statistical analysis of batch and continuous shake flask experiments. These parameters were casitone to starch ratio of 2.67g(casitone)g(starch)(-1), maintenance coefficient 0.174g(casitone)g(DW)(-1)h(-1), cell yield 0.62g(DW)g(casitone)(-1) and mu(opt)=0.2h(-1). The exponentially fed fermentation resulted in yield of 120Uml(-1) alpha-amylase that was thermostable up to 105 degrees C. Results of the exponentially fed fermentation have been discussed in the light of a feed-back controlled fed-batch fermentation reported earlier by the authors. A comparison of the temperature and pH effects on amylase produced by B. caldolyticus and on several other commercially available amylases has also been presented. PMID:19439206

  6. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  7. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available, and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available, and used abundantly to maximiz...

  8. Optimization of glucose feeding approaches for enhanced glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine production by an engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-02-01

    In this work, a recombinant Escherichia coli was constructed by overexpressing glucosamine (GlcN) synthase and GlcN-6-P N-acetyltransferase for highly efficient production of GlcN and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). For further enhancement of GlcN and GlcNAc production, the effects of different glucose feeding strategies including constant-rate feeding, interval feeding, and exponential feeding on GlcN and GlcNAc production were investigated. The results indicated that exponential feeding resulted in relatively high cell growth rate and low acetate formation rate, while constant feeding contributed to the highest specific GlcN and GlcNAc production rate. Based on this, a multistage glucose supply approach was proposed to enhance GlcN and GlcNAc production. In the first stage (0-2 h), batch culture with initial glucose concentration of 27 g/l was conducted, whereas the second culture stage (2-10 h) was performed with exponential feeding at μ (set) = 0.20 h⁻¹, followed by feeding concentrated glucose (300 g/l) at constant rate of 32 ml/h in the third stage (10-16 h). With this time-variant glucose feeding strategy, the total GlcN and GlcNAc yield reached 69.66 g/l, which was enhanced by 1.59-fold in comparison with that of batch culture with the same total glucose concentration. The time-dependent glucose feeding approach developed here may be useful for production of other fine chemicals by recombinant E. coli. PMID:22009059

  9. Measuring physicians' productivity in a Veterans' Affairs Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Coleman, David L; Moran, Eileen; Serfilippi, Delchi; Mulinski, Paul; Rosenthal, Ronnie; Gordon, Bruce; Mogielnicki, R Peter

    2003-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Veterans Affairs includes patient care, education, research, and backup to the Department of Defense. Because the measurement of physicians' productivity must reflect both institutional goals and market forces, the authors designed a productivity model that uses measures of clinical workload and academic activities commensurate with the VA's investments in these activities. The productivity model evaluates four domains of physicians' activity: clinical work, education, research, and administration. Examples of the application of the productivity model in the evaluation of VA-paid physician-staff and in the composition of contracts for clinical services are provided. The proposed model is a relatively simple strategy for measuring a broad range of the work of academic physicians in VA medical centers. The model provides incentives for documentation of resident supervision and participation in administrative activities required for effective and efficient clinical care. In addition, the model can aid in determining resource distribution among clinical services and permits comparison with non-VA health care systems. A strategy for modifying the model to incorporate measures of quality of clinical care, research, education, and administration is proposed. The model has been a useful part of the process to ensure the optimum use of resources and to meet clinical and academic institutional goals. The activities and accomplishments used to define physician productivity will have a substantial influence on the character of the medical profession, the vitality of medical education and research, and the cost and quality of health care. PMID:12857686

  10. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals. PMID:22324295

  11. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  12. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  13. Improved large-scale production of vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas denitrificans with betaine feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Tai; Liu, Dong-Hong; Li, Yong-Liang; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2008-11-01

    The strategy of betaine control for vitamin B12 large-scale fermentation by Pseudomonas denitrificans was investigated in this paper. The results obtained in shake-flask experiments demonstrated that betaine could greatly stimulate vitamin B12 biosynthesis but had an inhibition to cell growth. Based on the influence of betaine on the fermentation of P. denitrificans, betaine feeding was a beneficial strategy to solve the inconsistency between cell growth and vitamin B12 production. As a result, an effective and economical strategy of betaine feeding was established for vitamin B12 fermentation in 120-m3 fermenter, in which betaine was continuously fed to maintain betaine concentration of the broth at the range of 5-7g/l during 50-140h of fermentation. PMID:18440227

  14. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  15. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  16. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  17. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  18. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-05-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  19. By-product feeds for meat goats: effects on digestibility, ruminal environment, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moore, J A; Poore, M H; Luginbuhl, J M

    2002-07-01

    Crossbred wether goats (n = 24; 50% Boer, 6 per diet) initially averaging 27.4+/-0.4 kg were fed either wheat middlings (wheat midds), soybean hulls (soyhulls), or corn gluten feed at 1% BW (as-fed) along with orchardgrass hay (10.7% CP) offered to ad-libitum consumption for 72 d followed by 5 d total fecal collection. The Control (hay) diet was supplemented with 5.7% soybean meal to bring total dietary protein to 12.5%, by-products were brought to a higher Ca:P ratio with limestone or dicalcium phosphate to make total dietary Ca:P 1.5:1, and soybean meal was added to soyhulls to bring them up to 17% CP (wheat midds = 17% and corn gluten feed = 21% CP). Total DMI (916 g/d+/-57 or 3.2%+/-0.2 BW) did not differ (P > 0.92) among treatments. Initial BW (P = 0.25), final BW (P = 0.48), and ADG (P = 0.56) did not differ for the four treatments. Carcass weight was greater (P = 0.05) for goats fed soyhulls (16.0 kg) or wheat midds (15.6 kg) as compared with goats fed the hay diet (14.5 kg), with carcass weight from goats fed corn gluten feed being intermediate (15.3 kg, SEM = 0.3 kg). Carcass grade did not differ (P = 0.80) and averaged 5.42+/-0.4. Dressing percentage tended (P = 0.12) to be lower for goats fed the hay diet (46.4%) compared with soyhull (48.3%), corn gluten feed (48.3%), or wheat midd (48.8%) diets (SEM = 0.7). Ruminal pH was highest (P < 0.01) for goats fed the hay diet (6.52) and lowest for goats fed wheat midds (6.23) with soyhull (6.41) and corn gluten feed diets (6.35) being intermediate (SEM = 0.05). Digestibility of DM (70.1+/-2.5%), OM (70.3+/-2.6%,), CP (75.5+/-2.0%), GE (68.5+/-2.7%), NDF (68.1+/-3.0%), ADF (65.4+/-3.4%), cellulose (70.1+/-2.9%), and lignin (31.1+/-8.2%) did not differ (P > 0.15). Total ruminal VFA did not differ (86.0+/-6.1 mM, P = 0.59), but acetate:propionate ratio was higher (P < 0.01) for hay (3.1) and soyhull diets (3.3) than for corn gluten feed (2.4) and wheat midd diets (2.4, SEM = 0.11). Ruminal ammonia (mg/100 mL) was

  20. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  1. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  2. The Minnesota Project English Center: Selected Materials. Unit 701: Introduction to the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This Minnesota Curriculum Center report recounts the development of teaching materials on the nature and uses of language for grades 7-12 and presents the first of five seventh-grade units. A description of the origins, purposes, and personnel of the Center is followed by brief discussions of (1) the Center's underlying assumption that a study of…

  3. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  4. Nanotube Production and Applications at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pavel; Files, Bradley; Arepalli, Sivaram; Scott, Carl; Holmes, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Promise of applications of carbon nanotubes has led to an intense effort at NASA/JSC, especially in the area of nanotube composites. Using the extraordinary mechanical strength of nanotubes, NASA hopes to design this revolutionary lightweight material for use in aerospace applications. Current research focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical applications. In pursuit of these goals, we have set up both laser and arc production processes for nanotubes. An in-depth diagnostic study of the plasma plume in front of the laser target has been studied to try to determine nanotube growth mechanisms. Complementary studies of characterization of nanotube product have added to knowledge of growth conditions. Results of our preliminary experiments in incorporating nanotubes into composites will be presented. Morphology and mechanical properties of the nanotubes composites will be discussed.

  5. [Use of partially hydrolyzed and untreated straw meal in the feeding of breeding sows. 3. Nutrient digestibility, feed passage time and mineral balance with the addition of variously treated straw materials compared to concentrate feeding alone].

    PubMed

    Münchow, H; Häger, H; Bergner, H

    1986-01-01

    In studies with 16 breeding sows of the country species the feed value of straw materials and their fitness for use were ascertained in a long-term experiment. On the feeding basis of a concentrate ration (IV) untreated (I), HCl treated (II = HCl treatment without steaming) and partly hydrolysed straw meal (III = HCl treatment with subsequent steaming) were tested. In the course of the experiment and at a nutrient level of 1 (maintenance requirement), the digestibility of the organic matter of the ration and that of some major and trace elements, N and mineral balances as well as feed passage rate and water excretion in faeces were ascertained at selected measuring times. The following mean results were achieved: The integration of all straw materials tested lead to a significant reduction of the digestibility of the organic matter of the total ration, the least negative effect was caused by partly hydrolysed straw meal (III). The fractions crude protein, crude fibre and N-free extracts were mainly affected. Straw meal integration had a gravidity-conditioned influence on the daily N balance. Increased N excretion in faeces could only be compensated by non-pregnant animals by a decreased N excretion in urine. The mineral balance (Ca, P, Na, Cu and Mn) remained largely uninfluenced by the straw supplement. The feed passage rate was reduced by the use of all straw meal variants to ca. 50% of the value measured after the sole feeding of concentrate (IV). Feed passage rate and water excretion in faeces were approximately reciprocal. The digestibility of the organic matter of the straw materials ascertained according to the difference method amounted to 7.4 (I), 18.1 (II) and 27.9% (III); that of the N-free extracts in the same sequence to 10.0, 22.0 and 34.9%. The calculated energetic feed value was for I = 70.7, for II = 154.9 and for III = 240.7 EFUpig/kg DM. PMID:3741131

  6. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA–ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  7. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  8. Novel Feed-through Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) Experiment for Characterization of Dynamic Material Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Saul; Gautam, Sudrishti; Fortin, Elizabeth; Lynch, Jenna; Loomis, Eric; Peralta, Pedro

    Hydrodynamic instabilities occur often in applications where forces act across a bimaterial interface. In Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, surface perturbations grow exponentially under opposing pressure and density gradients. In the closely related Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, the same perturbations grow linearly due to an impulsive acceleration, e.g., a passing shock wave. These effects are often analyzed with linear fluid theory, but it is well known that for materials possessing shear strength the perturbation evolution can be significantly affected. A challenge in modeling these effects is that existing knowledge of the interplay between strength and hydrodynamic instabilities in solids is limited for the loads and strain rates that are typically used to study them. We have developed novel feed-through RM instability experiments that are useful to understand and model this interplay. We will describe the experimental setup and show simulations that agree well with experimental results in two materials, one-phase copper, and iron loaded above and below the alpha-epsilon phase boundary, where modeling used a phase-aware strength model. In copper, the growth of surface perturbations is quite sensitive to strength model parameters, and so is the amplitude of the shock front perturbations. This is also observed in iron, along with an additional sensitivity in the modeling results to the parameters used to describe phase change kinetics. Work supported by Department of Energy (DOE) [Grant Number DE-SC0008683] from the Office of Fusion Energy Science.

  9. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  10. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  11. Production and analysis of thermal decomposition products from polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, D. A.; Einhorn, I. N.; Hileman, F. D.; Futrell, J. H.; Voorhees, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a strategy for analyzing the combustion process and the degradation products which are formed. One of three primary objectives in the study of polymer degradation is related to the characterization of the material to be studied and the investigation of the thermal behavior of the material. Another objective is concerned with the definition of the nature of the decomposition process by identification and quantitation of the degradation products. The third objective involves the determination of the mechanism and kinetics of the decomposition process. The methods of sample degradation include pyrolysis, oxidative degradation, flaming combustion, and the use of large-scale combustion chambers. Methods of chemical separation and identification are considered, taking into account low-boiling volatiles, high-boiling volatiles, and ancillary techniques.

  12. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  13. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  14. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Martín-Gómez, Yolanda; Vázquez-Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer for the quantification of four tetracyclines in feed is presented. Validation was performed following the guidelines of Decision 2002/657/EC. Results indicated that the four tetracyclines can be identified and quantified in a concentration range between 50 and 500 mg/kg with recoveries between 84% and 109% and RSD for precision under reproducible conditions between 12% and 16%. Satisfactory results were also obtained with interlaboratory studies and by comparing the method with an HPLC-Fluorescent method. PMID:27025516

  15. Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

    2011-07-30

    The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for δ(13)C. For these samples, the δ(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The δ(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High δ(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

  16. MULTI-MEDIA CATALOG OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginaw County Intermediate School District, MI.

    THIS IS A LISTING OF MATERIALS FOR K-12 AVAILABLE FOR TEACHERS AND PLANNERS, INCLUDING FILM LOOPS, TAPE RECORDINGS, FILMSTRIPS, SLIDES, TRANSPARENCIES, RECORDS, STUDY AND ART PRINTS, MODELS AND REALIA, SCULPTURE AND KITS. AN OVERALL SUBJECT INDEX IS FOLLOWED BY SEPARATE SUBJECT LISTS FOR EACH TYPE OF MATERIAL. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH…

  17. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to bring to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Initially motivated by the objective to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organization, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting. Over time, these activities have evolved into tailored products for partners, as well as into a direct support of the space weather needs within NASA robotic mission community. Accessible through a customizable interface, users within the US or at partnering institutions internationally have access to space weather tools driven by the most advanced space research models. Through partnering with agencies and institutions in the US and abroad, the CCMC strives to set up further data sharing agreements to the benefit of all participating institutions. In this presentation, we provide an overview of existing CCMC space weather services and products, and we will explore additional avenues for international collaborations.

  18. Space weather products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Michael

    In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Co-ordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to bring to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Initially motivated by the objective to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organization, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting. Over time, these activities have evolved into tailored products for partners, as well as into a direct support of the space weather needs within NASA robotic mission community. Accessible through a customizable interface, users within the US or at partnering institutions internationally have access to space weather tools driven by the most advanced space research models. Through partnering with agencies and institutions in the US and abroad, the CCMC strives to set up further data sharing agreements to the benefit of all participating institutions. In this presen-tation, we provide an overview of existing CCMC space weather services and products, and we will explore additional avenues for international collaborations.

  19. Ethanol production, corn gluten feed, and EC trade. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.

    1993-07-01

    The profitability of ethanol depends not only on sales of ethanol, but on sales of several coproducts of corn wet-milling such as corn gluten feed (CGF). CGF demand and supply are affected by several European Community (EC) and US policies, such as EC grain price supports and US energy policies. Changes in existing policies and programs could have a significant effect on the CGF market and, consequently, on the profitability of ethanol production. The report examines the implications of several policy options on demand, supply, and price of CGF and on the profitability of ethanol production. The policy changes examined include: (1) the effect of proposed changes in EC farm and trade policies, and (2) the effect of increased ethanol production due to proposed US environmental policies, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Air Act.

  20. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  1. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, or another method equivalent in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to AOCS... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  2. 21 CFR 589.2001 - Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed to prevent the transmission of bovine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51, or another method equivalent in accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to AOCS... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cattle materials prohibited in animal food or feed... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  3. Pilot-plant testing of materials proposed for use as NWCF feed and fuel nozzle caps. [New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    Results of a series of tests performed on materials proposed for use at New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) fuel and feed nozzle caps are described. Results show that Haynes Alloys 25 and 188 and Inconel Alloys 617, 625, and 690 have acceptable corrosion and erosion rates based upon the high-temperature oxidation, erosion, and corrosion tests conducted.

  4. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in foods and feed materials.

    PubMed

    Muscarella, Marilena; Iammarino, Marco; Nardiello, Donatella; Magro, Sonia Lo; Palermo, Carmen; Centonze, Diego

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with on-line post-column photochemical derivatization and fluorimetric detection for the simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of aflatoxin (AF) B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) in foodstuffs and feed materials is reported.The chromatographic separation is accomplished by using a C(18) column eluted with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water, methanol, and acetonitrile. The sample preparation requires a simple extraction of aflatoxins with a mixture of water and methanol, and a purification step by immunoaffinity column clean-up. The total analysis time, including sample preparation and chromatographic separation, does not exceed 40 min with a run time of 10 min. The procedure for the determination of aflatoxins in food samples and cereals for animal consumption has been extensively validated, in agreement with Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004, demonstrating the conformity of the method with provisions of Regulation (EC) No. 401/2006 in terms of sensitivity, linearity, selectivity, and precision. PMID:21567330

  5. Energy Frontier Research Center Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Allen

    2014-04-01

    Scientific Successes • The first phonon density of states (PDOS) measurements for UO2 to include anharmonicity were obtained using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), and an innovative, experimental-based anharmonic smoothing technique has enabled quantitative benchmarking of ab initio PDOS simulations. • Direct comparison between anharmonicity-smoothed ab initio PDOS simulations for UO2 and experimental measurements has demonstrated the need for improved understanding of UO2 at the level of phonon dispersion, and, further, that advanced lattice dynamics simulations including finite temperatures approaches will be required for handling this strongly correlated nuclear fuel. • PDOS measurements performed on polycrystalline samples have identified the phonon branches and energy ranges most highly impacted by fission-product and hyper-stoichiometry lattice defects in UO2. These measurements have revealed the broad-spectrum impact of oxygen hyper-stoichiometry on thermal transport. The reduction in thermal conductivity caused by hyper-stoichiometry is many times stronger than that caused by substitutional fission-product impurities. • Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements on UO2 samples irradiated with light (i.e. He) ions to introduce point defects have been coupled with MD simulations and lattice parameter measurements to determine the role of uranium and oxygen point defects in reducing thermal conductivity. • A rigorous perturbation theory treatment of phonon lifetimes in UO2 based on a 3D discretization of the Brillouin zone coupled with experimentally measured phonon dispersion has been implemented that produces improved predictions of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. • Atom probe investigations of the influence of grain boundary structure on the segregation behavior of Kr in UO2 have shown that smaller amounts of Kr are present at low angle grain boundaries than at large angle grain

  6. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  7. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  8. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  9. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  10. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  11. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  12. Implementation Plan for the NASA Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the implementation plans of the Center of Excellence (COE) for Structures and Materials. The plan documented herein is the result of an Agencywide planning activity led by the Office of the Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The COE Leadership Team, with a representative from each NASA Field Center, was established to assist LaRC in fulfilling the responsibilities of the COE. The Leadership Team developed the plan presented in this report.

  13. Enhanced Product Generation at NASA Data Centers Through Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Hinke, Thomas H.; Gavali, Shradha; Seufzer, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes how grid technology can support the ability of NASA data centers to provide customized data products. A combination of grid technology and commodity processors are proposed to provide the bandwidth necessary to perform customized processing of data, with customized data subsetting providing the initial example. This customized subsetting engine can be used to support a new type of subsetting, called phenomena-based subsetting, where data is subsetted based on its association with some phenomena, such as mesoscale convective systems or hurricanes. This concept is expanded to allow the phenomena to be detected in one type of data, with the subsetting requirements transmitted to the subsetting engine to subset a different type of data. The subsetting requirements are generated by a data mining system and transmitted to the subsetter in the form of an XML feature index that describes the spatial and temporal extent of the phenomena. For this work, a grid-based mining system called the Grid Miner is used to identify the phenomena and generate the feature index. This paper discusses the value of grid technology in facilitating the development of a high performance customized product processing and the coupling of a grid mining system to support phenomena-based subsetting.

  14. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section... production of plant materials. NRCS can produce plant materials in the quantity required to do a specific conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are...

  15. 23 CFR 635.411 - Material or product selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Material or product selection. 635.411 Section 635.411... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE General Material Requirements § 635.411 Material or product selection. (a) Federal..., nonproprietary material, semifinished or finished article or product that will fulfill the requirements for...

  16. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  17. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. PMID:26861226

  18. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis. Revision.

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multi-step approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage. The information generated by this analysis may be used to devise protective features for critical equipment. The method uses directed graphs, fault trees, and evaluation matrices. Expert knowledge of plant engineers and operators is used to determine the critical equipment and evaluate its attractiveness to potential attackers. The vulnerability of equipment can be ranked and sorted according to any criterion desired and presented in a readily grasped format using matrices.

  19. Young Children's Oral Language Production in Three Types of Play Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rebecca T.; Raines, Shirley C.

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the effects of three types of block, housekeeping, and changing thematic play centers on young children's language production. Although results indicated that language production and vocabulary varied according to the type of center, children produced more oral language and used more diverse vocabulary in the block center. (Author/BB)

  20. Significantly enhanced production of recombinant nitrilase by optimization of culture conditions and glycerol feeding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Ai-Tao; Pan, Jiang; Xu, Jian-He

    2011-02-01

    The production of a recombinant nitrilase expressed in Escherichia coli JM109/pNLE was optimized in the present work. Various culture conditions and process parameters, including medium composition, inducer, induction condition, pH and temperature, were systematically examined. The results showed that nitrilase production in E. coli JM109/pNLE was greatly affected by the pH condition and the temperature in batch culture, and the highest nitrilase production was obtained when the fermentation was carried out at 37°C, initial pH 7.0 without control and E. coli was induced with 0.2 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside at 4.0 h. Furthermore, enzyme production could be significantly enhanced by adopting the glycerol feeding strategy with lower flow rate. The enzyme expression was also authenticated by sodium dodecyl phosphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. Finally, under the optimized conditions for fed-batch culture, cell growth, specific activity and nitrilase production of the recombinant E. coli were increased by 9.0-, 5.5-, and 50-fold, respectively. PMID:20862583

  1. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, A E; Kamal, M; Mahmoud, N S

    2005-01-01

    Five plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater and suitability as fish feed: alfalfa, white clover, oat, fall rye, barley. The seeds were first germinated in water in a hydroponic system, and the plants were fed wastewater from Tilapia production facility. Clover and alfalfa seeds were infected with fungus shortly after germination, and their roots were completely destroyed by day 14. Oat, rye and barley had the fastest growth and showed greater tolerance to fungal disease compared with alfalfa and clover. Although substantial amounts of soluble and insoluble substances were released by the seeds during the germination period, the plants were able to remove all the pollutants in wastewater and significant portions of those released substances. The total reductions in total solids, COD, NO3-N, NO2-N, phosphate and potassium ranged from 54.7% to 91.0%, 56.0% to 91.5%, 82.9% to 98.1%, 95.9% to 99.5%, 54.5% to 93.6% and 99.6% to 99.8%, respectively. Oat, barley and rye grow well in this type of hydroponic system and can be used as a fish feed after being supplemented with fat, Ca, Na, Mn and Fe. Oil seeds and the chlorides of these elements could be added to these plants when formulating the fish feed. For a continuous operation, a two-unit system could be configured to allow for one week germination and one week cleaning and startup in one unit while the other unit is in operation. PMID:15607774

  2. Metal forming at the center of excellence for the synthesis and processing of advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Kassner, M. E.; Stout, M. G.; Vetrano, J. S.

    1998-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences recently established the Center for Excellence in the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials. Projects at the center typically include several national laboratories, industrial partners, and universities; metal forming is one of eight projects within the center. This article describes the center’s metal forming project, which emphasizes aluminum alloy forming, particularly as applicable to the automotive industry.

  3. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  4. Compilation of fission product yields Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is the ninth in a series of compilations of fission yield data made at Vallecitos Nuclear Center in which fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been utilized to produce a recommended set of yields for the known fission products. The original data with reference sources, as well as the recommended yields are presented in tabular form for the fissionable nuclides U-235, Pu-239, Pu-241, and U-233 at thermal neutron energies; for U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Th-232 at fission spectrum energies; and U-235 and U-238 at 14 MeV. In addition, U-233, U-236, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Np-237 at fission spectrum energies; U-233, Pu-239, Th-232 at 14 MeV and Cf-252 spontaneous fission are similarly treated. For 1979 U234F, U237F, Pu249H, U234He, U236He, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, and Cm242F yields were evaluated. In 1980, Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242Mt, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, and Es254T are also evaluated.

  5. Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Raymond S.; Carter, Robert

    The final report of the Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center (MAR-SEIMC) describes field services, information services, library services, and research and evaluation activities conducted from 1967 to August 1974. It is explained that 39 affiliate centers were established throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey,…

  6. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  7. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Howard; Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Boothe, Richard; Finchum, Charles; Finckenor, Miria

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been recognized for its contributions supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft development programs. These programs include the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Effects Group, with the Materials Contamination Team and the Space Environmental Effects Team has been an integral part of NASA's success by the testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials, hardware, and processes. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team. The Materials Contamination Team's realm of responsibility includes establishing contamination control during all phases of hardware development, including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment. The team continues its mission of reducing the risk of equipment failure due to molecular or particulate contamination. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitive bond-lines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for spacecraft with sensitive optics, such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection, identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) system, the Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (UVF) surface contamination detection, and the Surface Optics Corporation 400 (SOC 400) portable hand-held Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are state-of-the-art tools for in-process molecular contamination detection. The team of engineers and technicians also develop contamination calibration standards

  8. Evolution of Regolith Feed Systems for Lunar ISRU 02 Production Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project of the NASA Constellation Program, Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) has been engaged in the design and testing of various Lunar ISRU O2 production plant prototypes that can extract chemically bound oxygen from the minerals in the lunar regolith. This work demands that lunar regolith (or simulants) shall be introduced into the O2 production plant from a holding bin or hopper and subsequently expelled from the ISRU O2 production plant for disposal. This sub-system is called the Regolith Feed System (RFS) which exists in a variety of configurations depending on the O2 production plant oxygen being used (e.g. Hydrogen Reduction, Carbothermal, Molten Oxide Electrolysis). Each configuration may use a different technology and in addition it is desirable to have heat recuperation from the spent hot regolith as an integral part of the RFS. This paper addresses the various RFS and heat recuperation technologies and system configurations that have been developed under the NASA ISRU project since 2007. In addition current design solutions and lessons learned from reduced gravity flight testing will be discussed.

  9. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy beans. The results are based on an officially supervised HACCP based program including annual testing of around 4000 samples. Results During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The effectiveness of the HACCP based control was indicated by a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination in the clean area of the plant, which is considered to be the main reason for the successful prevention of Salmonella in the end product. Despite extensive testing, no sample from the finished soybean meal product was found to be Salmonella contaminated. Conclusions This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain. PMID:25011553

  10. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control. PMID:12778588

  11. Composite material and method for production of improved composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

  12. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  13. Mortality in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or with purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Bennett, G A; Richard, J L; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1993-09-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material (CM) of Fusarium proliferatum Containing fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and moniliformin in 3 separate feeding trials. Purified FB1 and moniliformin were given separately and in combination in a fourth feeding trial. Birds were given amended rations at day 1 (Trial 1 and 4), day 7 (Trial 2), and day 21 (Trial 3) and their respective ration was given for 28 days (Trial 1), 21 days (Trial 2), 7 days (Trial 3), and 14 days (Trial 4). FB1 concentrations were 546, 193, and 61 ppm; FB2 were 98, 38 and 14 ppm; and moniliformin were 367, 193, and 66 ppm in the first 3 feeding trial regimens. Chicks in Trial 4 were given dietary concentrations of purified FB1 at 274 and 125 ppm, and moniliformin at 154 and 27 ppm. FB1 and moniliformin, both alone and in combination, produced dose-responsive clinical signs, reduced weight gains and mortality in chicks. Age of birds given amended feeds had little difference in the clinical response; however, those given the rations from days 7 or 21 were slightly less susceptible than those given rations beginning at 1 day of age. Additive effects were noted when the toxins were given in combination. When toxins were given separately, adverse effects took longer to occur. A system to monitor pattern and rate of defecation (RD) was developed for assessing the chicks' approach to feed, water and heat source as illness progressed. Our results indicate that chicks fed corn heavily infected with F. proliferatum under field conditions could suffer acute death similar to that described for 'spiking mortality syndrome' during the first 3 weeks of age. PMID:8302366

  14. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  15. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves. PMID:26885987

  16. The estimation of ruminal protein degradation parameters of various feeds using in vitro modified gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Falahatizow, J; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Vakili, A R; Tahmasbi, A M; Nazari, M R

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine in vitro crude protein degradation (IVDP) parameters and effective crude protein degradability (EPD) of various feeds using the modified in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Feed samples were alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal. Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from four rumen fistulated lambs (49.4 ± 3.5 kg, body weight). Approximately 90 ml of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed samples and carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. Gas production (ml) and ammonia nitrogen concentration (mg) in each bottle were measured at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 h post incubation and IVDP was calculated via estimated intercept of linear regression between GP (as main variable, X) and ammonia nitrogen (as dependent variable, Y) using the linear regression procedure. Feed, time and feed × time interaction had significant effect on IVDP (P<0.001). Estimated EPD values at the outflow rate of 0.06/h for alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal were 0.56, 0.77, 0.59, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. PMID:27175150

  17. The estimation of ruminal protein degradation parameters of various feeds using in vitro modified gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Falahatizow, J.; Danesh Mesgaran, M.; Vakili, A. R.; Tahmasbi, A. M.; Nazari, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine in vitro crude protein degradation (IVDP) parameters and effective crude protein degradability (EPD) of various feeds using the modified in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Feed samples were alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal. Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from four rumen fistulated lambs (49.4 ± 3.5 kg, body weight). Approximately 90 ml of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed samples and carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. Gas production (ml) and ammonia nitrogen concentration (mg) in each bottle were measured at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 h post incubation and IVDP was calculated via estimated intercept of linear regression between GP (as main variable, X) and ammonia nitrogen (as dependent variable, Y) using the linear regression procedure. Feed, time and feed × time interaction had significant effect on IVDP (P<0.001). Estimated EPD values at the outflow rate of 0.06/h for alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal were 0.56, 0.77, 0.59, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. PMID:27175150

  18. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  19. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

    PubMed

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

  20. Life Cycle, Feeding and Production of Isoptena serricornis(Pictet, 1841)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derka, Tomá; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Krno, Il'ja

    2004-05-01

    Some aspects of the biology and ecology (life cycle, feeding and production) of a population of Isoptena serricornis in the Rudava River (Slovakia) are studied, reported and discussed. The life cycle is annual, with slow growth in autumn-winter and fast growth in late summer and spring. The growth decreased two weeks before the Fall Equinox and increased two weeks after the Spring Equinox. The flight period spans from the end of May to the beginning of July. The presence of large sand particles in the gut of all studied nymphs is of note, and indicates that I. serricornis acts as a deposit-collector species. Nymphal food is principally composed of detritus, unicellular organisms and, in nymphs of intermediate or large size, Chironomidae larvae. Adult food is composed fundamentally of different types of pollen grains. Males usually have lower food content than females. Annual production of this species (694-750 mg · m-2) is very high in relation to other previously studied Chloroperlidae. This is probably largely responsible for I. serricornis being one of the most abundant components of the macroinvertebrate community in its habitat in the Rudava River. A negative correlation between production and temperature was observed.

  1. Analysis of products of animal origin in feeds by determination of carnosine and related dipeptides by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, Jens

    2002-03-27

    Products of animal origin such as meat meal were commonly used as sources of protein and amino acids for the production of compound feeds. Because the feeding of such products is prohibited in Germany, the official feedstuff control of the government must evaluate feeds for the forbidden use of products of animal origin. Microscope examination is the official method to prove animal-originated adulterations of feeds. This paper proposes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of the dipeptide carnosine and related dipeptides (anserine and balenine) and shows the dependence of the contents of anserine, balenine, and carnosine in compound feeds on the content of meat meal in feeds. The presented method can complete and confirm the result of the microscopic method for evidence of components of animal origin in feeds. PMID:11902938

  2. Production of Penicillic Acid and Ochratoxin A on Poultry Feed by Aspergillus ochraceus: Temperature and Moisture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C. W.; Sweeney, J. G.; Robbins, J. D.; Burdick, D.

    1973-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, isolated from poultry feed, produced both penicillic acid and ochratoxin A. Studies demonstrating the ability of this fungus to colonize poultry feed and produce these two mycotoxins under various temperatures and moistures indicated that the interaction was complex. The optimal temperature for conidial development did not vary with moisture, but accumulation of both toxins did. A combination of low temperature, 15 or 22 C, and low moisture favored the production of penicillic acid, whereas high temperature, 30 C, and high moisture favored the production of ochratoxin A. PMID:4795527

  3. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  4. Multi-batch catfish production and economic analysis using alternative low-cost diets with corn gluten feed and traditional diets with meat-and-bone meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted concurrent feeding trials for one growing season with channel catfish in ponds in Mississippi and Arkansas to evaluate the production and economic effects of alternative (low-cost) feeds containing 28 or 32% protein and alternative (corn gluten feed) or traditional (porcine meat, bone a...

  5. Comparing the Net Ecosystem Exchange of Two Cropping Systems for Dairy Feed Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, M. F.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    A three-year study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine the net CO2 fluxes from corn and hay, the two main feed crops used in dairy production. The aim of this study is to better understand the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in annual and perennial cropping systems used in dairy production to benefit greenhouse gas emission model developments and the life cycle analysis of dairy production. The study was conducted on two 4-ha plots where one plot was a 5-year old hayfield and the other plot was planted in a continuous cycle corn. All plots were continuously monitored using the flux-gradient method deployed with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer and sonic anemometers. All plots received dairy manure as fertilizer applied according to common practice. The cumulative NEE for the three years of the study was -873.15 g C m-2 for corn and -409.36 g C m-2 for hay. Differences in respiration between the two cropping systems was found to be the larger factor compared to differences in gross ecosystem production (GEP) that resulted in the contrasting cumulative NEE where cumulative respiration for the three years for hay was 3094.23 g C m-2 as opposed to 2078.11 g C m-2 for corn. Cumulative GEP for the three years was 3503.60 and 2951.31 g C m-2 for hay and corn respectively. Inter-annual and inter-crop variability of the NEE, GEP and respiration will be discussed in relation to biomass production, climatic conditions and crop physiological characteristics.

  6. Libraries and Instructional Materials Centers. Educational Facilities Review Series Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baas, Alan M.

    The concept of the instructional materials center (IMC) has evolved in response to the limitations of the traditional single-resource library. The IMC is an organizational solution for integrating traditional library services with the variety of multimedia devices and materials necessary to contemporary educational practice. The concept grew from…

  7. Copyright Center Will Let Colleges Pay Blanket Fees to Reuse Print Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an annual copyright license for colleges created by the Copyright Clearance Center, a nonprofit group that manages licenses for the reuse of published material, that will allow institutions to pay a blanket fee to use copyrighted material instead of securing the rights to such content on a case-by-case basis. The blanket…

  8. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  9. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  10. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.

    PubMed

    Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

    2013-06-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate

  11. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  12. Pollution prevention for production systems of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Linninger, A.A.; Salomone, E.; Ali, S.A.; Stephanopoulos, E.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1998-07-01

    The Batch Design-Kit (BDK) environment is a software system for the development of batch manufacturing processes. Given a set of reaction pathways, BDK enables chemists and chemical engineers to investigate possible production routes, refine promising candidates and develop a detailed chemical recipe in an interactive manner. Automatic facility allocation of equipment for these conceptual recipes help determine the feasibility and efficiency of the processing idea at existing manufacturing sites. Material assessment reveals the environmental impact caused by the utilized chemical compounds and process mixtures. Automatic waste treatment synthesis generates efficient treatment strategies for all process wastes and calculates the residuals emitted to the environment. With process analysis based on the facility allocation, material assessment and treatment selection, alternative processing schemes can be ranked and potential problems, such as examination of equipment costs, regulatory compliance and expenditures for waste treatment, can be identified at an early stage of the process development. Through its material-centered design concept, BDK maintains a cause-effect relationship between process mixtures, operations and their economic and environmental performance. In that way, process improvement can be focused specifically on the replacement of offending chemicals and/or the improvement or modification of problematic operations or operation sequences.

  13. Effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known levels of fumonisin B1, on the young broiler chick.

    PubMed

    Weibking, T S; Ledoux, D R; Bermudez, A J; Turk, J R; Rottinghaus, G E; Wang, E; Merrill, A H

    1993-03-01

    The effects of feeding Fusarium moniliforme culture material, containing known concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1), were studied in broiler chicks. Day-old chicks were allotted randomly to dietary treatments containing 0, 1.02, 2.04, 3.06, 4.08, 5.10, 6.12, and 7.14% fumonisin culture material (FCM). These levels of FCM supplied 0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, and 525 mg of FB1/kg of feed. Each dietary treatment was fed to four pen replicates of six birds each for 21 days. Chicks fed FCM that supplied 450 and 525 mg FB1/kg diet had lower (P < .05) feed intakes and BW gains; increased (P < .05) liver and kidney weights; and increased (P < .05) mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentrations. Compared with controls, chicks fed FCM had increased (P < .05) free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Treatment-associated histological lesions were only observed in the liver of chicks fed diets containing FCM that supplied 225 mg FB1/kg or higher. Diets containing FCM that supplied levels as low as 75 mg FB1/kg affected the physiology of chicks by increasing free sphinganine levels and sphinganine:sphingosine ratios. Because inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis has been hypothesized as the mechanism of action of FB1, this suggests that diets containing 75 mg FB1/kg FCM may be toxic to young broiler chicks. PMID:8464788

  14. AN EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENGLISH INSTITUTE MATERIALS CENTER CURRICULUM MATERIALS IN NDEA SUMMER INSTITUTES IN ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHUGRUE, MICHAEL F.; AND OTHERS

    IN THE SUMMER OF 1966, THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA CONDUCTED A REVIEW OF THE USE AND EFFECTIVENESS OF EXPERIMENTAL CURRICULUM UNITS DISTRIBUTED BY THE ENGLISH INSTITUTE MATERIALS CENTER (EIMC) TO NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT (NDEA) SUMMER INSTITUTES IN ENGLISH AND CLOSELY RELATED AREAS. THE EVALUATORS VISITED 27 INSTITUTES,…

  15. Implementation of NASA Materials and Processes Requirements at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history and current practices of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Included in the presentation is a review of the general Materials and Processes (M&P) requirements in the NASA-STD-6016. The work that the Materials Engineering Branch does to support GSFC Projects is also reviewed. The Materials Engineering Branch capabilities are listed, the expertise that is available to GSFC projects is also listed. Included in the backup slides are forms that the MEB uses to identify the materials in the spacecraft under development.

  16. 23 CFR 635.411 - Material or product selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Material or product selection. 635.411 Section 635.411... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE General Material Requirements § 635.411 Material or product selection. (a) Federal... is used for research or for a distinctive type of construction on relatively short sections of...

  17. Enhancing the IGS Data and Products Infrastructure: A Data Center Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharber, Michael; Noll, Carey

    2004-01-01

    The Data Transfer and Data Centers session will present papers on current data center activities as well as various topics geared towards enhancing the availability and acquisition of International Global Positions System Service (IGS) data and products. These topics include: strategies for reducing data file latency at IGS Data Centers, standardization of data file replacement notification methods, improving the efficiency of data file transfer among IGS Data Centers, and defining a network topology for GPS data files for use in applications.

  18. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a pre-harvest feed supplement to reduce Salmonella in meat producing birds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental chlorate product (ECP) feed supplementation on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the crop and ceca of market-age broilers. In trial 1, 160 market-age broilers were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups, and replicated twice, with 20 broile...

  19. 75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  20. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  1. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  2. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  3. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  4. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  5. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing Salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...

  6. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  7. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  8. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed. PMID:26217023

  9. Algal Photosynthesis as the Primary Driver for a Sustainable Development in Energy, Feed, and Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Ida G.; Bekker, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO2 into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps—after acid hydrolysis—as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:20640935

  10. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  11. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Volke-Sepúlveda, Tania; González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470+/-7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145+/-10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead. PMID:17640800

  12. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  13. Materials experience and selection for nuclear materials production reactor heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The primary coolant systems for the heavy-water nuclear materials production reactors at the Savannah River Site are coupled to the secondary coolant systems through shell and tube heat exchangers. The head, shell, and tube sheets of these heat exchangers are fabricated from AISI Type 304 grades of austenitic stainless steel. The 8,957 tubes in each heat exchanger were originally fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, but service experience has lead to the use of Sea Cure tubing in newer systems. The design includes double tube sheets, core rods, and 33,410 square feet of heat transfer surface. Tubes are rolled into the tube sheets and seal welded after rolling. The tubes contain Type 304 stainless steel rods which are positioned in the center of each tube axis to increase the fraction of the cooling water contacting the heat transfer surface. Each reactor utilizes twelve heat exchangers; thus the 120+ reactor-years of operating experience provide approximately 1,440 heat exchanger-years of service. Fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, crevice corrosion, and pitting have been observed during the service life. This paper describes the observed degradation processes and uses the operational experience to recommend materials for the Heavy Water -- New Production Reactor (HW-NPR).

  14. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  15. Effect of Feed Restriction during Pregnancy on Performance and Productivity of New Zealand White Rabbit Does

    PubMed Central

    Nafeaa, Abeer; Ahmed, Souad Abd Elfattah; Fat Hallah, Said

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effect of stage of feed restriction on performance and productivity of pregnant does. New Zealand white female rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Control group was provided daily with 185 g of food increased to 200 g from the 15th day of gestation. R1 was offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 111 g) for the first half of pregnancy and then offered 200 g of food daily till parturition. R2 was provided with 185 g of food daily through the first half of pregnancy and then offered daily a restricted amount of food (60% restriction, 120 g) for the second half. After parturition, food was provided adlibitum. Maternal body weights, litter size, litter weight, and average body weight of kits at kindling of R1 showed no change, whereas R2 showed significant reduction in the weights of does at the 4th week of pregnancy and at kindling. The birth weight and weaning weight of R2 were significantly reduced. The highest mortality was recorded in kits of R2. No significant differences in blood parameters or serum prolactin were observed. The serum protein was significantly reduced R2. PMID:21904693

  16. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27043974

  17. Quantifying the Presence of Written Materials and the Use of Outside Texts in Nature Centers for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Nicolette L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread distribution of nature centers across North America and Europe, the written materials available to their visitors have yet to be enumerated. To address this gap, this study quantifies the types of written materials available in 563 American nature centers and addresses how nature centers use outside texts. The survey results…

  18. Effects of different types of solid feeds on health status and performance of Swiss veal calves. I. Basic feeding with milk by-products.

    PubMed

    Räber, B; Kaufmann, T; Regula, G; von Rotz, A; Stoffel, H M; Posthaus, H; Rérat, M; Kirchhofer, M; Steiner, A; Bähler, C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a suitable alternative to the current practice of complementing the feeding of milk by-products with straw. The influence of 5 different types of solid feeds on health and performance of Swiss veal calves was investigated in 2 production cycles of 200 veal calves each with a mean initial age of 40 days (d). The calves were housed in groups of 40 in stalls with outside pen. Liquid feeding consisted of a milk by-product combined with an additional skim milk powder ad libitum. Groups were assigned to 1 of the 5 following experimental solid feeds provided ad libitum: mix (composition: soy flakes, corn, barley, wheat, oat, barley middling, plant oil, molasses), whole plant corn pellets, corn silage, hay, and wheat straw as control. Daily dry matter intake per calf averaged 2.25 kg of the liquid food, 0.16 kg of straw, 0.33 kg of mix, 0.47 kg of corn silage, 0.38 kg of corn pellets, and 0.39 kg of hay. No significant differences (P > 0.05) among groups were found in calf losses that amounted to 4.8 % (68 % because of gastrointestinal disorders). Four percent of the calves were slaughtered prematurely. Daily doses of antibiotics were higher in the mix (36.9 d, P < 0.01) and in the corn silage groups (35 d, P < 0.01) compared to control. Compared to the 4 other groups, calves of the straw group showed the highest prevalence of abnormal ruminal content (73 %, P < 0.05), of abnormal ruminal papillae (42 %, P < 0.05), of abomasal fundic lesions (13.5 %, P < 0.1), and the lowest number of chewing movements per bolus (45, P < 0.05). The hemoglobin concentration averaged 85 g/l at the beginning and 99 g/l at the end of the fattening period with no significant differences among groups (P > 0.1). The duration of the fattening period averaged 114 d, slaughter age 157 d, and carcass weight 122 kg. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was highest in the control group straw (1.35 kg), and lowest in the hay group (1.22 kg, P < 0.01). The

  19. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOEpatents

    Dykes, Charles D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Wood, J. F. Barry

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  20. Influence of Feeding and Controlled Dissolved Oxygen Level on the Production of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) Copolymer by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 and Its Characterization.

    PubMed

    Shantini, K; Yahya, A R M; Amirul, A A

    2015-07-01

    Copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] has been the center of attention in the bio-industrial fields, as it possesses superior mechanical properties compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. The usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol was exploited as the carbon source for the production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer by using a locally isolated strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4. In this study, the productivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was improved by varying the frequency of feeding in fed-batch culture. The highest productivity (0.48 g/L/h) that represents 200 % increment was obtained by feeding the carbon source and nitrogen source three times and also by considering the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR). A significantly higher P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration of 25.7 g/L and PHA content of 66 wt% were obtained. The 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer composition obtained was 24 mol% with the growth of 13.3 g/L. The different frequency of feeding carried out has produced a blend copolymer and has broadened the monomer distribution. In addition, increase in number of granules was also observed as the frequency of feeding increases. In general, the most glaring increment in productivity offer advantage for industrial P(3HB-co-3HV) production, and it is crucial in developing cost-effective processes for commercialization. PMID:25951779

  1. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  2. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  3. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p < 0.05). The best results from the CCRD experiments were obtained using (A) 0.040% KH2 PO4, (B) 0.050% MgSO4  · 7H2O, and (C) 0.040% yeast extract, enhancing in 49-53 U mg(-1) protein. The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.92 and Fcalc was 7.48 times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The optimized culture medium increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. PMID:24026803

  4. Effects of monensin on metabolic parameters, feeding behavior, and productivity of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Mamedova, L K; Brouk, M J; Moore, C E; Green, H B; Perfield, K L; Smith, J F; Harner, J P; Bradford, B J

    2012-03-01

    The effects of monensin on transition cow metabolism may be dependent on modulation of feeding behavior, rumen pH, and expression of key metabolic genes. Multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of monensin (400mg/cow daily) on these variables. Cows were randomly assigned, based on calving date, to control or monensin treatments (n = 16 per treatment) 21 d before their expected calving date, and cows remained on treatments through 21 d postpartum. Feeding behavior and water intake data were collected daily. Liver biopsies were conducted after assessing BCS and BW on d -21, -7, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of triglyceride (TG) content as well as mRNA abundance of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, and apolipoprotein B. Blood samples were collected 21, 7, and 4 d before expected calving and 1 (day of calving), 4, 7, 14, and 21 d postpartum for nonesterified fatty acid, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin, and haptoglobin analyses. Ruminal pH was collected every 5 min on d 1 through 6 postpartum via a wireless indwelling probe. On d 7 postpartum, a caffeine clearance test was performed to assess liver function. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Monensin decreased mean plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (734 vs. 616 ± 41 μM) and peak concentrations (1,076 vs. 777 ± 70 μM on d 4 postpartum). Monensin also decreased time between meals prepartum (143 vs. 126 ± 5.0 min) and postpartum (88.8 vs. 81.4 ± 2.9 min), which was likely related to a smaller ruminal pH standard deviation in the first day after cows changed to a lactation ration (0.31 vs. 0.26 ± 0.015). Monensin also increased liver mRNA abundance of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (0.10 vs. 0.15 ± 0.002 arbitrary units), which corresponded to a slower rate of liver TG accumulation from d -7 to +7 (412 vs. 128 ± 83 mg of TG/g of protein over this time period). No significant effects of monensin

  5. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    . Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production. PMID:21943763

  6. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them. PMID:16978436

  7. Microgravity polymer and crystal growth at the Advanced Materials Center for the Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    The microgravity research programs currently conducted by the Advanced Materials Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) are briefly reviewed. Polymer processing in space, which constitutes the most active microgravity program at the Advanced Materials CCDS, is conducted in three areas: membrane processing, multiphase composite behavior, and plasma polymerization. Current work in microgravity crystal growth is discussed with particular reference to the development of the Zeolite Crystal Growth facility.

  8. [Engineering MEP pathway in Escherichia coli for amorphadiene production and optimizing the bioprocess through glucose feeding control].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Siliang; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The pathway of 2-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) is the exclusive isoprenoid precursor biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli, with a higher theoretical yield than mevalonate (MVA) pathway. However, due to lack of information about the regulation of MEP pathway, only engineering MEP pathway in E. coli achieved limited improvement of heterologous isoprenoid production. We used exogenous MEP pathway genes to improve MEP pathway in E. coli and optimized the glucose feeding to release the potential of MEP pathway. The results demonstrate that co-expression of dxs2 from Streptomyces avermitilis and idi from Bacillus subtilis can increase amorphadiene production with 12.2-fold compared with the wild-type strain in shake flask fermentation. Then we established a high-cell density fermentation process for the engineered strain, and found that the phase from 24 to 72 h is important for product biosynthesis. The optimization of glucose feeding rate during 24 to 72 h significantly improved product accumulation, which was improved from 2.5 to 4.85 g/L, within the same process time. Considering the attenuation of strain metabolism after 72 h, this study further modulated the glucose feeding rate during exponential phase to control strain growth and the amorphadiene yield eventually reached to 6.1 g/L. These results provided useful information to develop engineered E. coli for isoprenoid production through MEP pathway engineering. PMID:24818480

  9. A Post-Wall Center-Feed Waveguide Circuit Consisting of T-Junctions for Reducing the Slot-Free Area in a Parallel Plate Slot Array Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koh; Hirokawa, Jiro; Ando, Makoto

    A post-wall center-feed waveguide consisting of T-junctions is proposed for reducing the slot-free area of a parallel plate slot array antenna. The width of the slot-free area is reduced from 2.6 λ0 to 2.1 λ0. A sidelobe level in the E-plane is expected to be suppressed lower than that of the conventional center-feed antenna using cross-junctions. The method of moments with solid-wall replacement designs initially the T-junctions and HFSS including the post surfaces modifies only the reflection cancelling post. We have designed and fabricated a 61.25GHz model antenna with uniform aperture illumination. The sidelobe level in the E-plane is suppressed to -9.5dB while that of a conventional cross-junction type is -7.8dB. Also, we suppress it to -13.8dB by introducing a -8.3dB amplitude tapered distribution in the array of the radiation slot pairs.

  10. NATIONAL CARTOGRAPHIC INFORMATION CENTER: AN INFORMATION RESOURCE ON MAPPING PRODUCTS FOR THE NATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Alan R.

    1985-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974 the National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), US Geological Survey, has rapidly developed to become a focal point for providing information on the availability of cartographic data, including maps/charts, aerial photographs, satellite imagery, geodetic control, digital mapping data, map materials and related cartographic products. In early years NCIC concentrated its efforts on encoding and entering several major National Mapping Division record collections into its systems. NCIC is now stressing the acquisition of data from sources outside the National Mapping Division, including 37 Federal agencies and more than a thousand State and private institutions. A critical review has recently been conducted by NCIC of its systems with the aim of improving its efficiency and levels of operation. Several activities which resulted include improving its existing networks, refinement of digital data distribution, study of new storage media and related projects.

  11. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  12. National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped: Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The document outlines aspects of the new National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped (NCEMMH), whose establishment was approved by Public Law 91-61 in August, 1969. It will provide a setting where special education educators and educational technologists can create, design, and develop new instructional tools and…

  13. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL--PART III, THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COGSWELL, JOHN F.; EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER (IMC) OF THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL WAS DESCRIBED. THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL PLAN WAS DEVISED BY DR. EDWIN READ AND WAS BEING DEVELOPED AT THE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. THIS REPORT DESCRIBED HOW AN IMC MIGHT OPERATE RATHER THAN HOW ONE IS OPERATING OR IS PLANNED TO OPERATE. AS…

  14. Center for cement composite materials. Final report, 29 October 1986-30 November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Center has produced very strong MDF cements and has made significant progress in enhancing the water resistance of the material. The important factors in controlling water sensitivity have now been identified and studies are in progress to quantify their influences. Cement hydration has been followed by a novel in-situ technique involving nuclear magnetic resonance. Fiber-matrix interactions in MDF laminates were also studied. Characterization of DSP pastes have shown that the matrix is microporous; mesopores are absent unless the material is allowed to dry out. This results in water adsorption at low relative humidities, which adversely impacts on electrical properties. DSP plates are a good insulating, low dielectric material as long as it is kept dry. Hydration under autoclaving conditions may be a way of solving the problem and hydration chemistry at various temperatures have been studied. The Center has also studied a magnesium triphosphate cement, as a precursor to polyphosphate cements and is exploring inorganic-polymer composites at the molecular levels. Finally the Center has investigated the influence of packing and particle interactions on the rheology of suspensions with high solids contents. The Center also established and maintains a facility for the characterization of powders and porous materials.

  15. Enhancing Prospective Teachers' Coordination of Center and Spread: A Window into Teacher Education Material Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hollylynne S.; Lee, J. Todd

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a development and evaluation process used to create teacher education materials that help prepare middle and secondary mathematics teachers to teach data analysis and probability concepts with technology tools. One aspect of statistical reasoning needed for teaching is the ability to coordinate understandings of center and…

  16. Science and Mathematics Books for Elementary and Secondary Schools, A Bibliography from the Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Lois B.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of science and mathematics textbooks and juvenile trade books received in the Educational Materials Center between January, 1969 and February, 1970. The contents are divided into two major sections: Juvenile Literature, and Textbooks for Elementary and Secondary Schools. The first section includes only those books…

  17. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  18. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  19. Site-specific economic and ecological analysis of enhanced production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, J; Schwarz, M M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the cost structure and ecological performance of biomethane production and feed-in from organic wastes and manure in a site-specific approach for Upper Austria. The theoretically available quantities of biowaste and manure can feed representative biogas plant capacities resulting in relatively high biomethane full costs in the natural gas grid of at least 9.0 €-cents/kWh, which shows strong economies of scale when feed-in flows of methane from 30 to 120 Nm(3)/h are considered. From the ecological point of view small plant capacities are to be preferred since the environmental effect, i.e. the global warming potential (up to -22% of CO(2eq)), is lower in comparison to higher capacities as a consequence of reduced transport in the evaluated scenarios. To enforce the combined energetic use of the biowaste fraction, co-operation between compost facility, gas grid and biogas plant operators is necessary to use existing infrastructure, logistics and knowledge to promote the production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from biowastes at attractive locations in Upper Austria and in the whole of Europe. PMID:23202576

  20. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, P. K.

    2012-08-30

    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more

  1. Effect of prey concentrations and feed training on production of Hoplias lacerdae juvenile.

    PubMed

    Luz, Ronald K; Portella, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of daily prey concentration during the first 15 days of active feeding of Hoplias lacerdae larvae, and the juvenile size on the feed training. In the first phase, the larvae received five Artemia nauplii concentrations (P). In the second phase, the juveniles from each treatment were trained to accept formulated diet. Superior growth was related to higher initial daily prey concentrations (900 and 1100 nauplii larvae-1). During feed training, the growth tendency was similar to that verified in the first phase. The lowest values of specific growth rate (SGR) were registered after the introduction of the semi-moist diet used in the feed training. However, the values of SGR recovered along the experiment and similar rates were found among the treatments. Survival, mortality and cannibalism were similar in the different treatments at the end of both phases. It can be concluded that: the prey concentration affects growth of H. lacerdae during the first 15 days of active feeding, and feed training can be initialized with juveniles of about 16 mm of total length. PMID:25860973

  2. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

  3. Fly Ash as a Liming Material for Corn Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of sub-bituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was cond...

  4. Materials Production in Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains 19 papers grouped in three sections that lead the reader through the process of planning, producing, and presenting materials in open and distance learning, based on experience in Great Britain. Following an overview by Roger Lewis, the Planning section contains the following six papers: "Resources and Constraints in Open and…

  5. Keratin materials for new product development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material found as pure protein in over 90% by weight of fiber. As a polymeric amide, keratin is a rich source of intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) which are being investigated for a wide range of biomaterial applications. The po...

  6. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact.

  7. Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Heming

    Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

  8. Energy and materials flows in the production of primary aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.Y.

    1981-10-01

    The primary aluminum industry is one of the top five industrial energy users in the United States consuming about one quad annually. In 1980, for each ton of aluminum produced, an average smelting operation used about 157 million Btu of direct energy and another 70 million Btu were embodied in purchased materials. Producers employing the best practices used approximately 15% less energy per ton, or 132 million Btu of direct energy and 52 million Btu of embodied energy. These energy and materials flows are described in detail, using availability and input/output analyses and industry estimates. Energy consumption could be reduced further by developing (1) economical processes for using domestic nonbauxitic raw materials, a step that also would lessen the industry's present 94% dependence on foreign raw materials; (2) bulk alumina feeding equipment for handling more than one grade of alumina, thereby increasing the flexibility of smelting operations; (3) a reduction cell meter and temperature sensor for automatic control of alumina feeding and cell temperature; (4) a method for quickly and frequently measuring the NaF/AlF/sub 3/ ratio in a reduction cell for tighter control of electrolyte composition; and (5) a method for recovering waste heat.

  9. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance. PMID:22387426

  10. 76 FR 19996 - Cooperative Agreement With the University of Mississippi's National Center for Natural Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... National Center for Natural Products Research (U01) To Develop and Disseminate Botanical Natural Product Research With an Emphasis on Public Safety AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Products Research (UM-NCNPR). The goal of the cooperative agreement is to promote the efficient...

  11. Working for America: A Worker-Centered Approach to Productivity Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Donald W.

    This report examines worker-centered productivity and discusses the organizational and educational strategies for its improvement. Chapter 1 explores the meaning and measurement of productivity and the benefits of productivity improvement--profits, a weapon against inflation, success in international trade, increased standard of living, improved…

  12. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. PMID:25981076

  13. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  14. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  15. Plasma-Based Steel Rod or Rebar Production From In Situ Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, H.; Prisbrey, Keith

    1998-01-01

    The probability of lunar ice has redefined the importance of earlier research reporting Fe as a byproduct of O production from lunar regolith. That emphasis is now on Fe and other materials for in situ resources for construction. In pursuit of O from lunar ilmenite, we have tried (1) a resonating cavity microwave plasma reactor, (2) a nontransferred arc plasma torch feeding a cylindrical reactor, and (3) an inductively coupled plasma reactor feeding a quench chamber with relative success. Instead of using these or other O-focused strategies, and instead of using commercial submerged electric arc smelting of ilmenite to produce Fe, a compact, portable, light, plasma-based cyclone reactor could be adapted as another choice. Cyclone reactors have been under development for several decades, and P. R. Taylor and coworkers have extended their evolution and used them effectively on iron taconites as well as other materials. The advantages of the plasma reactor over other current steel making processes include continuous operation, higher through puts in small reactors, enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, higher temperatures, easy separation of liquids and gases, capture and recycle of plasma gases, and no feed agglomeration. The procedure for producing steel was to feed taconite and CO/CO2 mixtures into the cyclone reactor (Fig. 1), The results were excellent. The procedure and results for lunar ilmenite would be similar. Electrostatically concentrated ilmenite and magnetically concentrated Fe and associated agglutinates would be fed into the reactor along with reductant. Plasma reactors can be modified to produce Al, Ti, glass, ceramics, and advanced materials, and an already automated reactor system can be further automated for remote operation.

  16. Environmental footprints of beef production at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental footprints of beef produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, Nebraska were determined to quantify improvements achieved over the past 40 years. Relevant information for MARC operations was gathered and used to represent their production system with the...

  17. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  18. Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

  19. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

  20. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  1. [Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and its application in the determination for the quality of animal feed and products].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Yang, Jian-Song

    2010-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been the most rapidly developing and noticeable spectrographic analytical technique in recent years. The determining principle and progresses of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy are presented briefly. It mainly includes the progresses in pre-processing technique and analyzing model of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two pre-processing techniques, including differential coefficient-dealt with technique, the signal-smoothing technique, and four analyzing models of near-infrared spectroscopy, including the multiplied lined regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and artificial nerve network (ANN). The application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the first time. The investigation of reviewed papers shows that the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is widely applied in feed analysis and animal products analysis because of its rapidness, non-destruction and non-pollution. The near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been used to determine the feed common ingredient, such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat and so on, micro-components including amino acid, vitamin, and noxious components, and to determine the physical and chemical properties of animal products which including egg, mutton, beef and pork. Details of the analytical characteristics of feed and animal products described in the reviewed papers are given. New trends and limits to the application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in these fields are also discussed. PMID:20707134

  2. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources. PMID:12389223

  3. Impact melt products of chondritic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data concerning impact melting processes in chondritic material are reviewed. It is shown that a large variety of objects in chondritic meteorites could have formed as a result of impact melting, including: shock veins; metal-troilite mixtures; metal and sulfide nodules; melt pockets and vugs. The type of object produced in an impact melt is related to the interaction of the shock waves with the particular target rock. It is suggested that various iron meteorites (including groups IAB, IIICD, and IIE, as well as several ungrouped irons) were formed from individual melt pools in chondritic regoliths. The small-scale structure of impact-melted metallic Fe,Ni and troilite in Weston (H chondrite regolith breccia) is illustrated in a photograph.

  4. Serohematologic alterations in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material on fumonisin B1 and moniliformin.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M A; Richard, J L; Bennett, G A; Côté, L M; Buck, W B

    1995-10-01

    Two hundred twenty-eight male broiler chicks (Columbia x New Hampshire) were given feed amended with autoclaved culture material of Fusarium proliferatum containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) at 61, 193, and 546 ppm, fumonisin B2 (FB2) at 14, 38, and 98 ppm, and moniliformin at 66, 193, and 367 ppm in 3 separate feeding trials (amounts of toxin in each trial, respectively). Birds were started on amended rations at days 1, 7, and 21 and continuing for 14 days. Of serum chemistry parameters, only glucose was significantly decreased. Significant increases were noted in serum cholesterol, sodium, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Of the hematologic parameters, significant decreases were noted in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and white blood cell counts. Immunologic changes included impaired anti-Newcastle disease antibody hemagglutination inhibition titers associated with relative decreases in total serum globulins and increases in albumin/globulin ratios. The changes were noted in all treatment groups when compared to controls. PMID:8580176

  5. Nisin production in realkalized fed-batch cultures in whey with feeding with lactose- or glucose-containing substrates.

    PubMed

    Costas Malvido, Mónica; Alonso González, Elisa; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    Nisin production by Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 was followed in batch cultures in whey supplemented with different concentrations of glucose and in two realkalized fed-batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey, which were fed, respectively, with concentrated solutions of lactose and glucose. In the batch fermentations, supplementation of whey with glucose inhibited both the growth and bacteriocin production. However, fed-batch cultures were characterized with high productions of biomass (1.34 and 1.51 g l(-1)) and nisin (50.6 and 60.3 BU ml(-1)) in comparison to the batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey (0.48 g l(-1) and 22.5 BU ml(-1)) and MRS broth (1.59 g l(-1) and 50.0 BU ml(-1)). In the two realkalized fed-batch fermentations, the increase in bacteriocin production parallels both the biomass production and pH drop generated in each realkalization and feeding cycle, suggesting that nisin was synthesized as a pH-dependent primary metabolite. A shift from homolactic to heterolactic fermentation was observed at the 108 h of incubation, and other metabolites (acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. On the other hand, the feeding with glucose improved the efficiencies in glucose, nitrogen, and phosphorus consumption as compared to the batch cultures. The realkalized fed-batch fermentations showed to be an effective strategy to enhance nisin production in whey by using an appropriate feeding strategy to avoid the substrate inhibition. PMID:27112347

  6. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  7. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  8. Space Product Development of Commercial NLO Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.

    1998-01-01

    Growth on selected substrates under various processing conditions have been useful for preparing highly oriented and otherwise promising films of organic compounds for optical thin films and waveguides. The significance of processing conditions to uniformity in thickness, degree of orientation, film quality, and optical properties for a specific processing technique is the general focus of work in this area. A study on the effect of processing conditions relevant to thin-film deposition by various techniques is particularly difficult because of the possibility that convection may play a major role in some cases. It is a goal of some researchers to produce good quality anisotropic films, therefore, an important, yet understudied, requirement should be to assess the role of gravity during certain processing methods. This may be particularly true for the vapor deposition of diacetylenes where subsequent polymerization in the crystal is topochemical and occurs readily only when neighboring monomer molecules are sufficiently close and suitably oriented. Likewise, this requirement is equally viable for the vapor deposition of certain materials such as Pcs in view of the results of microgravity experiments by 3M Corporation involving the preparation of thin films of copper Pc (CuPc). Microgravity-grown CuPc had several desirable features which indicate that the vapor growth of organic films in low-g may result in better quality films for optical and electrical applications. Indeed, other materials vapor deposited onto specific substrates in microgravity produce films potentially beneficial for electro-optic applications. A novel technique, recently discovered, for growing polydiacetylene thin films involves exposing a transparent substrate, in contact with diacetylene monomer solution, to ultraviolet (LTV) light. A polymer film deposits on the side of the substrate in contact with monomer in solution, and there are distinct gravitational effects, which influence film

  9. Science-Ready Data Production in the DKIST Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kevin; Berukoff, Steven; Hays, Tony; Spiess, DJ; Watson, Fraser

    2015-08-01

    The NSO's new flagship solar observatory, the four-meter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is under construction on Halekalala, Hawaii and slated for first light in 2019. The facility will operate an initial suite of five complementary spectroscopic and polarimetric instruments, with up to 11 detectors running simultaneously at typical cadences of 5-30 frames per second, or more. The instruments will generate data of notable volume, dimensionality, cardinality, and diversity. The facility is expected to record several hundred million images per year, for a total data volume in excess of 4 petabytes.Beyond the crucial informatics infrastructure necessary to transport, store, and curate this deluge of data, there are significant challenges in developing the robust calibration workflows that can autonomously process the range of data to generate science-ready datasets for a heterogeneous and growing community. Efforts will be made to improve our ability to compensate for the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, to identify and assess instrument and facility contributions to the measured signal, and to use of quality and fitness-of-use metrics to characterize and advertise datasets.In this talk, we will provide an overview of the methods and tools we are using to define and evaluate the calibration workflows. We will review the type of datasets that may be made available to scientists at the time of the initial operations of DKIST, as well as the potential mechanisms for the search and delivery of those data products. We will also suggest some of the likely secondary data products that could possibly be developed successively in collaboration with the community.

  10. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), codifying a method of detection for residues of n-methyl-2....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), FDA... CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers,...

  11. Potential pitfalls of relying on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production to identify Salmonella in feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to stress, uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that several strains of Salmonella can be affected by environmental changes, resulting in H2S-negative colonies. This is a major concern, as H2S productio...

  12. Herbivory by a Phloem-Feeding Insect Inhibits Floral Volatile Production

    PubMed Central

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry. PMID:22384116

  13. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM FEED RESTRICTION ON PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND BODY SHAPE TRAITS IN MARKET-WEIGHT CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of feed restriction on channel catfish production, processing, and body shape traits were determined. Channel catfish (mean weight = 0.77 kg) were stocked in 0.04 ha ponds and assigned to three feeding regimes: fed daily to satiation, fed once weekly to satiation, and not fed for a 4-week t...

  14. EFFECTS OF THE ADDITION OF ROLLER MILL GROUND CORN TO PELLETED FEED DURING A 56 DAY PRODUCTION PERIOD ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND PROCESSING YIELDS OF BROILER CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor pelleting production rates can heighten milling cost and increase the frequency of feed outages for broiler integrated operations. The number of broilers marketed to heavy weights has been increasing and meeting feed delivery schedules can be problematic with “big bird” complexes. Adding roll...

  15. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  16. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  17. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  18. Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop entitled, Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials, was convened to define the need for simulated lunar materials and examine related issues in support of extended space exploration and development. Lunar samples are a national treasure and cannot be sacrificed in sufficient quantity to test lunar resource utilization process adequately. Hence, the workshop focused on a detailed examination of the variety of potential simulants and the methods for their production.

  19. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  20. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  1. Development Status for the Stennis Space Center LIDAR Product Characterization Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Berglund, Judith; Ross, Kenton

    2004-01-01

    The presentation describes efforts to develop a LIDAR in-flight product characterization range at Stennis Space Center as the next phase of the NASA Verification and Validation activities. It describes the status of surveying efforts on targets of interest to LIDAR vendors as well as the potential guidelines that will be used for product characterization.

  2. The Use and Value of Defense Technical Information Center Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Nancy K.; And Others

    This study describes the use and value of the major information products and services provided by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). These products and services include technical report distribution on an on-demand basis and through the Automatic Document Distribution (ADD) program; secondary information dissemination through online…

  3. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  4. Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

  5. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A number of spacecraft construction materials are evaluated for the toxic effects of their thermodegradation products on rats. Pyrolysis toxicity testing of pyrolysate fumes establish carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide as the most common intoxicating agents. Generally, COHb levels of animals expiring in the test chamber suggest higher concentrations of CO are produced with larger samples of most materials.

  6. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Moran, Bruce W; Lebrun, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step

  7. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  8. Status of Solar Sail Material Characterization at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehles, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar(TradeMark), Teonex(TraeMark), and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). Experimental data will be presented on sail material response to charged particle radiation and subsequent Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Data will also be presented indicating mechanical property variations in sail material resulting from electron exposure, proton exposure, and a combined electron and proton exposure. Tabular data consisting of areal density, thickness, thermo-optical, mechanical, and electrical properties, vacuum stability and outgassing will be presented.

  9. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. PMID:26928043

  10. Animal production for efficient phosphate utilization: from optimized feed to high efficiency livestock.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, Ermias; Hansen, Anja V; Strathe, Anders B

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for livestock but its efficiency of utilization is below 40%, contributing to environmental issues. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to optimize P availability in livestock diets and improve its utilization efficiency. Phase feeding could potentially reduce P excretion by 20%. Addition of phytase enzymes to diets increased P availability from 42 to 95%. Low phytate transgenic plants and transgenic animals increased P availability by 14% and 52-99%, respectively. In practice, a combination of phase feeding and enzymes has the highest potential for P reduction but legislation and ethics implications will prevent using transgenic animals in the short term. Functional and nutritional genomics may provide tools to improve efficiency in the future. PMID:22796051

  11. Debottlenecking recombinant protein production in Bacillus megaterium under large-scale conditions--targeted precursor feeding designed from metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Korneli, Claudia; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Godard, Thibault; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Wittmann, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    In the present work the impact of large production scale was investigated for Bacillus megaterium expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Specifically designed scale-down studies, mimicking the intermittent and continuous nutrient supply of large- and small-scale processes, were carried out for this purpose. The recombinant strain revealed a 40% reduced GFP yield for the large-scale conditions. In line with extended carbon loss via formation of acetate and carbon dioxide, this indicated obvious limitations in the underlying metabolism of B. megaterium under the large-scale conditions. Quantitative analysis of intracellular amino acids via validated fast filtration protocols revealed that their level strongly differed between the two scenarios. During cultivation in large-scale set-up, the availability of most amino acids, serving as key building blocks of the recombinant protein, was substantially reduced. This was most pronounced for tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine. In contrast alanine was increased, probably related to a bottleneck at the level of pyruvate which also triggered acetate overflow metabolism. The pre-cursor quantifications could then be exploited to verify the presumed bottlenecks and improve recombinant protein production under large-scale conditions. Addition of only 5 mM tryptophan, aspartate, histidine, glutamine, and lysine to the feed solution increased the GFP yield by 100%. This rational concept of driving the lab scale productivity of recombinant microorganisms under suboptimal feeding conditions emulating large scale can easily be extended to other processes and production hosts. PMID:22252649

  12. Optimization of reactive simulated moving bed systems with modulation of feed concentration for production of glycol ether ester.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Tie, Shan; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2014-09-19

    In this article, we extend the simulated moving bed reactor (SMBR) mode of operation to the production of propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA glycol ether) through the esterification of 1-methoxy-2-propanol (DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether) and acetic acid using AMBERLYST™ 15 as a catalyst and adsorbent. In addition, for the first time, we integrate the concept of modulation of the feed concentration (ModiCon) to SMBR operation. The performance of the conventional (constant feed) and ModiCon operation modes of SMBR are analyzed and compared. The SMBR processes are designed using a model based on a multi-objective optimization approach, where a transport dispersive model with a linear driving force for the adsorption rate has been used for modeling the SMBR system. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics parameters are estimated from the batch and single column injection experiments by the inverse method. The multiple objectives are to maximize the production rate of DOWANOL™ PMA glycol ether, maximize the conversion of the esterification reaction and minimize the consumption of DOWANOL™ PM glycol ether which also acts as the desorbent in the chromatographic separation. It is shown that ModiCon achieves a higher productivity by 12-36% over the conventional operation with higher product purity and recovery. PMID:25127692

  13. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  14. The Effects of Power and Feeding Rate on Production of Polyurethane Nanofiber with Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öteyaka, Mustafa Ö.; Özel, Emre; Yıldırım, M. Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, nanofiber made of polymers becomes popular on biomaterials research. One of the main reasons to need of nanofiber size is to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) that play a critical role in proliferation, cell motility and intercellular signaling in vascular graft replacement. In this study polyurethane (PU) is electrospuned for 1 hour to create a scaffold under different conditions. The average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers was determined by analyzing the SEM images using imageJ analysis program. For this purpose, a 3×3 general full factorial in completely randomized design using three levels of two factors; power (W = 20, 22 and 25 Watts) and feeding rate (V = 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 ml/h) was used to evaluate the response pattern and to determine the combined effect of independent variables. Three replicates were performed. The collected data were analyzed by using ANOVA test. Using α = 0.05, the main effects for power (W) and feeding rate (V) and the power (W)*feeding rate (V) interaction are statistically significant. Based on the statistical results of the experiment, we recommend for finer fiber 22 W and 1.00 ml/h and for less beads a 20 W and 1.50 ml/h to made PU scaffold. SEM analysis confirms a formation of random nanofiber mats.

  15. Products of combustion of non-metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate methodologies for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the gaseous products of combustion of non-metallic materials of interest to the aerospace community. The goal is to develop instrumentation and analysis procedures which qualitatively and quantitatively identify gaseous products evolved by thermal decomposition and provide NASA a detailed system operating procedure.

  16. 46 CFR 340.8 - Priorities for materials and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator, in accordance with the Defense Priorities and Allocation System (15 CFR part 330 et seq. (49 FR... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priorities for materials and production. 340.8 Section... production. (a) Vessel operators, port authorities and container and chassis suppliers may request...

  17. Feeding ecology of Liza spp. in a tidal flat: Evidence of the importance of primary production (biofilm) and associated meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Como, Serena; Dupuy, Christine; Lefrançois, Christel; Feunteun, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Grey mullets are unique among temperate-region fish species in their ability to feed on mudflat biofilm. In this study, we examined mullet feeding strategies on biofilm and associated meiofauna by using a diet study and stable isotope analysis to explore functional interactions between mullets and tidal flats. A stomach vacuity investigation showed that mullets did not import any materials from subtidal areas into the mudflat but exported mud, biofilm, and associated meiofauna. The results of mullet stomach content and fecal analyses, when compared to the availability of tidal flat resources, showed evidence of mullets' ability to ingest and assimilate biofilm and to concentrate major meiofauna grazers such as nematodes, copepods and, secondarily, foraminifers and ostracods. Isotopic ratios confirmed diet investigations, and as recently shown in salt marsh habitats, mullets exhibited an intermediate trophic position, supporting the hypothesis that they can assimilate both biofilm and major meiofauna grazers. The function of the tidal flat as a feeding habitat for gray mullets and the role of mullets as the main export pathway of biofilm from tidal flat ecosystems are discussed.

  18. Materials characterization of dusts generated by the collapse of the World Trade Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Clark, Roger N.; Gent, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The major inorganic components of the dusts generated from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 were concrete materials, gypsum, and man-made vitreous fibers. These components were likely derived from lightweight Portland cement concrete floors, gypsum wallboard, and spray-on fireproofing and ceiling tiles, respectively. All of the 36 samples collected by the USGS team had these materials as the three major inorganic components of the dust. Components found at minor and trace levels include chrysotile asbestos, lead, crystalline silica, and particles of iron and zinc oxides. Other heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel, were present at much lower levels occurring in a variety of chemical forms. Several of these materials have health implications based on their chemical composition, morphology, and bioaccessibility.

  19. Novel particulate production processes to create unique security materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Kodas, Toivo; Haubrich, Scott; Oljaca, Miki; Einhorn, Rich; Williams, Darryl

    2006-02-01

    Particles are frequently used to impart security features to high value items. These particles are typically produced by traditional methods, and therefore the security must be derived from the chemical composition of the particles rather than the particle production process. Here, we present new and difficult-to-reproduce particle production processes based on spray pyrolysis that can produce unique particles and features that are dependent on the use of these new-to-the-world processes and process trade secrets. Specifically two examples of functional materials are described, luminescent materials and electrocatalytic materials.

  20. Chemical Conversion of Energetic Materials to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S

    2005-04-19

    The objective of this program is to develop new processes for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is considered less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products can provide environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials (Explosive D, TNT) to higher value products will be described.

  1. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  2. Simplified feeding strategies for the fed-batch cultivation of Kluyveromyces lactis GG799 for enhanced recombinant xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah Mohamad; Razali, Firdausi; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Rahman, Roshanida A; Illias, Rosli Md

    2014-09-01

    A xylanase gene (xyn2) from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350 was previously cloned and expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis GG799. The production of the recombinant xylanase was conducted in a developed medium with an optimised batch and with fed-batches that were processed with glucose. The glucose served as a carbon source for cell growth and as an inducer for xylanase production. In a 1-L batch system, a glucose concentration of 20 g L(-1) and 80 % dissolved oxygen were found to provide the best conditions for the tested ranges. A xylanase activity of 75.53 U mL(-1) was obtained. However, in the batch mode, glucose depletions reduced the synthesis of recombinant xylanase by K. lactis GG799. To maximise the production of xylanase, further optimisation was performed using exponential feeding. We investigated the effects of various nitrogen sources combined with the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio on the production of xylanase. Of the various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the most useful for recombinant xylanase production. The highest xylanase production (110.13 U mL(-1)) was measured at a C/N ratio of 50.08. These conditions led to a 45.8 % increase in xylanase activity compared with the batch cultures. Interestingly, the further addition of 500 g L(-1) glucose led to a 6.2-fold increase (465.07 U mL(-1)) in recombinant xylanase activity. These findings, together with those of the exponential feeding strategy, indicate that the composition of the C/N molar ratio has a substantial impact on recombinant protein production in K. lactis. PMID:24633311

  3. Improved production of recombinant ovine interferon-tau by mut(+) strain of Pichia pastoris using an optimized methanol feed profile.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Plantz, Bradley A; Zhang, Wenhui; Gouthro, Mark; Schlegel, Vicki; Liu, Chih-Ping; Meagher, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant ovine interferon-tau (r-oIFN-tau) production by Pichia pastoris was studied using methanol as the sole carbon source during induction. The cells were grown on glycerol up to a certain cell density before induction of the AOX1 promoter by methanol for expression of the recombinant protein. Cell growth on methanol has been modeled using a substrate-feed equation, which served as the basis for an effective computer control of the process. The r-oIFN-tau concentration in the culture began to decline despite continued cell growth after 50 (+/- 6) h of induction, which was associated with an increase in proteolytic activity of the fermentation broth. A specific growth rate of 0.025 h(-1) was found to be optimal for r-oIFN-tau production. No significant improvement in r-oIFN-tau production was observed when the specific growth rate was stepped up before the critical point when r-oIFN-tau concentration started decreasing during fermentation. However, best results were obtained when the specific growth rate was stepped down from 0.025 to 0.02 h(-1) at 38 h of induction, whereby the active production period was prolonged until 70 h of induction and the broth protease activity was correspondingly reduced. The corresponding maximum protein yield was 391.7 mg x L(-1) after 70 h of fermentation. The proteolytic activity could be reduced by performing fermentations at specific growth rates of 0.025 h(-1) or below. The recombinant protein production can be performed at an optimal yield by directly controlling the methanol feed rate by a computer-controlled model. The production profile of r-oIFN-tau was found to be significantly different from other secreted and intracellular recombinant protein processes, which is an indication that recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris needs to be optimized as individual processes following established principles. PMID:12790641

  4. Growth and production performance of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with homemade feed in earthen mini ponds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, G U; Sultana, N; Shamsuddin, M; Hossain, M Belal

    2013-12-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of monosex tilapia using homemade feed with Peninsula Group fish meal and commercially available feed with local fish meal in earthen mini ponds from June-September 2010. Three ponds (T1) were supplied with prepared feed and the other three ponds (T2) with commercially available fish feed. Fish were fed at the rate of 10% of their body weight for the first thirty days then gradually reduced to 6% for the next ten days, 2% for the next ten days and 3% for remaining days. The temperature were ranged from 31.5-33.0 degrees C, DO from 5.5-15 mg L(-1) in T1 and 6.5-14 mg L(-1) in T2, pH from 7.1-8.0 in T1 and 7.1-7.7 in T2, alkalinity from 105-160 mg L(-1) inT1 and 100-145 mg L(-1) in T2, nitrate was 0.06 mg L(-1) in both treatments and ammonia from 0.02 and 0.04 mg L(-1) in T1 and T2, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the best weight gain was observed as 123.48 g in T1 than T2 (111.82 g). The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) was recorded 3.09 and 2.97 and the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) was 1.51 and 1.40 in T1 and T2, respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) variation among the survival rate (%) of fishes which were 75.55 and 90.37% in T1 and T2, respectively. The fish productions were 19076 and 16312.11 kg ha(-1) in T1 and T2. The highest net profit (Taka/ha/70 days) of Tk. 15, 83,213 was obtained with T1 So, the prepared feed showed better performance with monosex tilapia in compared with commercial fish feed with local fish meal. PMID:24506048

  5. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased. PMID:25959098

  6. Consequences of intraspecific variation in female body size in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae): feeding ecology, male attraction, and egg production.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Michael R; Frinchaboy, Caylin

    2014-02-01

    Body size is an important feature of organisms, influencing many components of life history and fitness, such as feeding success and reproductive output. Body size is considered especially salient for solitary predators, whose food intake hinges on individual predation success, which in turn is often driven by the relative sizes of predator and prey. The current study examined intraspecific variation in adult female length and its fitness consequences in a solitary predator, the praying mantid Stagmomantis limbata Hahn. Through a 5-yr integration of observational and experimental work in the field and captivity, we investigated the relationship between female pronotum length and prey size, diet breadth, male attraction, and measures of egg production (fecundity and ootheca mass). We found that longer females ate longer prey in the field and showed greater breadth of prey size than shorter females. Longer females did not necessarily feed at higher rates in the field, as measured by the rate of abdominal expansion. Female length failed to show significant effects on male attraction or on the incidence of cannibalism. Longer females had higher fecundity (mature eggs in body at death) and laid heavier oothecae than shorter females. In nature, longer females consistently emerged as adults earlier in the season than shorter females. Shorter female adults emerged when feeding rates were higher in the field, suggesting an incidental ecological benefit of shorter adult size. PMID:24341955

  7. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer

  8. Effect of milk feed source, frequency of feeding and age at turnout on calf performance, live-weight at mating and 1st lactation milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Female calves (n = 108) were assigned to 6 cold milk feeding treatments in two experiments for a 70-day period. Live-weight (LW) was measured weekly, with an additional LW taken at day 410 and post-calving for animals in experiment 1. In Experiment 1, the effect of feeding frequency and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance and 1st lactation milk yields were evaluated. The whole milk (WM) feeding treatments applied were (i) once daily feeding (OD), (ii) twice daily feeding (TD), (iii) OD feeding, outdoors at 38 days (ODO). In Experiment 2, the effects of feeding milk replacer (MR) as opposed to WM and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance were evaluated. The treatments applied were (i) OD feeding with WM (OD), (ii) OD feeding with milk replacer (MR) (ODMR), (iii) OD feeding with MR, outdoors at 38 days (ODMRO). Experiment 1: There were no differences (P > 0.05) in LW or average daily gain between TD and OD calves at day 80 or 410. ODO calves had lower LW at day 80 as compared to OD or TD (P < 0.001). Calf LW at day 80 was 86, 89 and 85 kg and at day 410 was 304, 309 and 316 kg for OD, TD and ODO, respectively. Milk feeding frequency or time of calf turnout had no effect on LW post calving, milk composition or 1st lactation milk yields. Experiment 2: Total LW at day 80 was higher (P < 0.05) for ODMR compared to OD or ODMRO calves. Calf LW was 87, 95, and 88 kg for OD, ODMR and ODMRO, respectively. However, LW at day 410 did not differ between treatments. This study showed that while some differences were observed in calf LW at day 80, these differences had no effect on LW at day 410 or 1st lactation milk yield. It can be concluded that calves can be successfully reared when fed OD with WM or MR, indoors and when turned out to pasture at 38 days of age. PMID:23078871

  9. A High Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data Base for Selected Materials Tested at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation test results for some 1000 high temperature commercial and experimental alloys have been collected in an EXCEL database. This database represents over thirty years of research at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The data is in the form of a series of runs of specific weight change versus time values for a set of samples tested at a given temperature, cycle time, and exposure time. Included on each run is a set of embedded plots of the critical data. The nature of the data is discussed along with analysis of the cyclic oxidation process. In addition examples are given as to how a set of results can be analyzed. The data is assembled on a read-only compact disk which is available on request from Materials Durability Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  10. A review on hydrogen production: methods, materials and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lang, Yizhao; Arnepalli, Ranga Rao; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2011-05-01

    In recent years hydrogen production and storage has attracted a lot of attention in both academia and industry due to its variety of applications in energy sector. Hydrogen is recognized as one of the most important components of the next generation clean energy technology. Within the whole cycle of the use of hydrogen energy, hydrogen production is considered as the key element of the upcoming hydrogen economy. Since the first production method invented for hydrogen on a smaller scale by dissolving iron in the acid vitriol in the 15th century, many improvements have been made to make the production viable and more cost effective. It is known that "nano" is playing its role in many technologies from medicine to material science and it has its say even in the production of hydrogen energy with continuous improvements in materials and methodologies. In this review we attempt to list various methods of producing hydrogen from different sources of materials followed by the description of most recent developments in the materials prospective. We explain the role of nanotechnology in making the hydrogen production technology a viable and cost effective process. The chemical reaction cycle, mechanism and configurations of various methods of hydrogen production are elaborated. PMID:21780363

  11. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  12. Combining UHPLC-High Resolution MS and Feeding of Stable Isotope Labeled Polyketide Intermediates for Linking Precursors to End Products.

    PubMed

    Klitgaard, Andreas; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Holm, Dorte K; Knudsen, Peter B; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Kristian F

    2015-07-24

    We present the results from stable isotope labeled precursor feeding studies combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the identification of labeled polyketide (PK) end-products. Feeding experiments were performed with (13)C8-6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) and (13)C14-YWA1, both produced in-house, as well as commercial (13)C7-benzoic acid and (2)H7-cinnamic acid, in species of Fusarium, Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Incorporation of 6-MSA into terreic acid or patulin was not observed in any of six evaluated species covering three genera, because the 6-MSA was shunted into (2Z,4E)-2-methyl-2,4-hexadienedioic acid. This indicates that patulin and terreic acid may be produced in a closed compartment of the cell and that (2Z,4E)-2-methyl-2,4-hexadienedioic acid is a detoxification product toward terreic acid and patulin. In Fusarium spp., YWA1 was shown to be incorporated into aurofusarin, rubrofusarin, and antibiotic Y. In A. niger, benzoic acid was shown to be incorporated into asperrubrol. Incorporation levels of 0.7-20% into the end-products were detected in wild-type strains. Thus, stable isotope labeling is a promising technique for investigation of polyketide biosynthesis and possible compartmentalization of toxic metabolites. PMID:26132344

  13. Method of heat treating a formed powder product material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.; Ashbrook, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Heat treating a product material of prealloyed powders after shaping by superplastic deformation restores the ability of the material to resist deformation at high temperatures. Heat treating is accomplished by heating to a temperature between the solidus and liquidus with the application of isostatic pressure to close any voids. This pressure may be simultaneously applied while the material is at the heat treating temperature. The pressure may also be applied when the material cools to a temperature between that at which it is shaped and the solidus.

  14. 76 FR 11330 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Bartkowiak, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug... Moines, IA 50322. BANMINTH Premix (pyrantel tartrate). Truow Nutrition, Inc., 1590 Todd Farm Dr., Elgin... Five NADAs by Truow Nutrition, Inc. NADA No. product 21 CFR section affected (sponsor drug...

  15. Enhanced L-phenylalanine production by recombinant Escherichia coli BR-42 (pAP-B03) resistant to bacteriophage BP-1 via a two-stage feeding approach.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiyan; Liao, Xianyan; Liu, Long; Wang, Tianwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2011-09-01

    The L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) production by Escherichia coli WSH-Z06 (pAP-B03) was frequently prevented by bacteriophage BP-1 infestation. To cope with the bacteriophage BP-1 problem for an improved L-Phe production, one bacteriophage BP-1-resistant mutant, E. coli BR-42, was obtained from 416 mutant colonies of E. coli WSH-Z06 after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis by selection for resistance to bacteriophage BP-1. The recombinant E. coli BR-42-carrying plasmid pAP-B03 had a high capacity in L-Phe production and a remarkable tolerance to 1 × 10(10) pfu (plaque-forming unit)/ml bacteriophage stock. For an enhanced L-Phe production by E. coli BR-42 (pAP-B03), the effects of different feeding strategies including pH-stat, constant rate feeding, linear decreasing rate feeding, and exponential feeding on L-Phe production were investigated; and a two-stage feeding strategy, namely exponential feeding at μ (set) = 0.18 h(-1) in the first 20 h and a following linear varying rate feeding with F = (-0.55 × t + 18.6) ml/h, was developed to improve L-Phe production. With this two-stage feeding approach, a maximum L-Phe titer of 57.63 g/l with a high L-Phe productivity (1.15 g/l/h) was achieved, which was 15% higher than the highest level (50 g/l) reported so far according to our knowledge. The recombinant E. coli BR-42 (pAP-B03) is a potential L-Phe over-producer in substantial prevention of bacteriophage BP-1 infestation compared to its parent strain WSH-Z06 (pAP-B03). PMID:21104105

  16. Production of lunar fragmental material by meteoroid impact.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of production of new fragmental lunar surface material is derived theoretically on the hypothesis that such material is excavated from a bedrock layer by meteoroid impacts. An overlaying regolith effectively shields the bedrock layer from small impacts, reducing the production rate of centimeter-sized and smaller blocks by a large factor. Logarithmic production rate curves for centimeter to motor-sized blocks are nonlinear for any regolith from centimeters to tens of meters in thickness, with small blocks relatively much less frequent for thicker (older) regoliths, suggesting the possibility of a statistical reverse bedding. Modest variations in the exponents of scaling laws for crater depth-diameter ratio and maximum block-diameter to crater diameter ratio are shown to have significant effects on the production rates. The production rate increases slowly with increasing size of the largest crater affecting the region.

  17. Impact of the lignocellulosic material on fast pyrolysis yields and product quality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marion; Joubert, Jan-Erns; Danje, Stephen; Hugo, Thomas; Görgens, Johann; Knoetze, Johannes Hansie

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes the fast pyrolysis conversion of lignocellulosic materials inside a bubbling fluidized bed. The impact of biopolymers distribution in the biomass feed, namely hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin, on the yields and properties of pyrolytic bio-oils and chars was investigated. Although it is not possible to deconvoluate chemical phenomena from transfer phenomena using bubbling fluidized bed reactors, the key role of hemicelluloses in biomass feedstocks was illustrated by: (i) its influence on the production of pyrolytic water, (ii) its impact on the production of organics, apparently due to its bonding relationship with the lignin and (iii) its ability to inhibit the development of chars porosity, while the cellulose appeared to be the precursor for the microporous character of the biochars. These results are of interest for the selection of suitable feedstocks aimed at producing bio-oil and char as fuels and soil amendment, respectively. PMID:24161551

  18. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  19. Production of farnesene and santalene by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fed-batch cultivations with RQ-controlled feed.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Stefan; Scalcinati, Gionata; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes have various applications as fragrances, cosmetics and fuels. One of the most prominent examples is the sesquiterpene farnesene, which can be used as diesel substitute in its hydrogenated form farnesane. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have enabled efficient production of several terpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Plant terpene synthases take on an essential function for sesquiterpene production as they catalyze the specific conversion of the universal precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to the sesquiterpene of interest and thereby impose limitations on the overall productivity. Using farnesene as a case study, we chose three terpene synthases with distinct plant origins and compared their applicability for farnesene production in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Differences regarding the efficiency of these enzymes were observed in shake flask cultivation with maximal final titers of 4 mg/L using α-farnesene synthase from Malus domestica. By employing two existing platform strains optimized for sesquiterpene production, final titers could be raised up 170 mg/L in fed-batch fermentations with RQ-controlled exponential feeding. Based on these experiments, the difference between the selected synthases was not significant. Lastly, the same fermentation setup was used to compare these results to production of the fragrance sesquiterpene santalene, and almost equivalent titers were obtained with 163 mg/L, using the highest producing strain expressing a santalene synthase from Clausena lansium. However, a reduction of the product yield on biomass by 50% could indicate a higher catalytic efficiency of the farnesene synthase. PMID:26108688

  20. Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material

    PubMed Central

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Donovan, Orla; Gelencsér, Eva; Ujhelyi, Gabriella; Szabó, Erika; Nagy, Andras; Ross, R. Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. Methodology/Principal Findings On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment); 1) non-Bt control maize diet or 2) Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ∼143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment). Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05), while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05) in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05), while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05) in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05). Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. Conclusions/Significance Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment. PMID:23091650

  1. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  2. Codon optimization of xylA gene for recombinant glucose isomerase production in Pichia pastoris and fed-batch feeding strategies to fine-tune bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Ata, Özge; Boy, Erdem; Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this work are the optimization of the codons of xylA gene from Thermus thermophilus to enhance the production of recombinant glucose isomerase (rGI) in P. pastoris and to investigate the effects of feeding strategies on rGI production. Codons of xylA gene from T. thermophilus were optimized, ca. 30 % of the codons were replaced with those with higher frequencies according to the codon usage bias of P. pastoris, codon optimization resulted in a 2.4-fold higher rGI activity. To fine-tune bioreactor performance, fed-batch bioreactor feeding strategies were designed as continuous exponential methanol feeding with pre-calculated feeding rate based on the pre-determined specific growth rate, and fed-batch methanol-stat feeding. Six feeding strategies were designed, as follows: (S1) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- sorbitol feeding; (S2) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding; (S3) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- mannitol feeding; (S4) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding and pulse-mannitol feeding; (S5) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1); and, (S6) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1) and pulse-mannitol feeding. The highest cell and rGI activity was attained as 117 g L(-1) at t = 66 h and 32530 U L(-1) at t = 53 h, in strategy-S5. The use of the co-substrate mannitol does not increase the rGI activity in methanol-stat feeding, where 4.1-fold lower rGI activity was obtained in strategy-S6. The overall cell yield on total substrate was determined at t = 53 h as 0.21 g g(-1) in S5 strategy. PMID:25492311

  3. Short communication: Effects of feeding sweet sorghum silage on milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Amer, S; Seguin, P; Mustafa, A F

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of sweet sorghum silage (SS) for dairy cows compared with alfalfa silage (AS). Two diets were formulated with a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio. Sweet sorghum silage and AS constituted 70% of the forage in each diet (dry matter basis). Twelve lactating Holstein cows in early lactation were used in a crossover experiment. Relative to AS, SS contained 58% more neutral detergent fiber and 36.6 and 72.7% less acid detergent lignin and crude protein, respectively. Milk yield (33.0 vs. 36.7 kg/d) was lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and feed efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Replacing AS with SS increased concentrations of milk fat (4.44 vs. 3.80%) and total solids (13.31 vs. 12.88%) and reduced concentrations of milk lactose (4.55 vs. 4.61%), milk solids-not-fat (8.88 vs. 9.08%), and milk urea nitrogen (10.0 vs. 14.0 mg/dL). We concluded that replacing AS with SS had negative effects on milk yield, whereas dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, and milk efficiency were similar. PMID:22281350

  4. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  5. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    .... Background In a notice published in the Federal Register of February 29, 2012 (77 FR 12226), FDA announced... Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry...

  6. All Source Solution Decision Support Products Created for Stennis Space Center in Response to Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and in response to the needs of SSC (Stennis Space Center), NASA required the generation of decision support products with a broad range of geospatial inputs. Applying a systems engineering approach, the NASA ARTPO (Applied Research and Technology Project Office) at SSC evaluated the Center's requirements and source data quality. ARTPO identified data and information products that had the potential to meet decision-making requirements; included were remotely sensed data ranging from high-spatial-resolution aerial images through high-temporal-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. Geospatial products, such as FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Advisory Base Flood Elevations, were also relevant. Where possible, ARTPO applied SSC calibration/validation expertise to both clarify the quality of various data source options and to validate that the inputs that were finally chosen met SSC requirements. ARTPO integrated various information sources into multiple decision support products, including two maps: Hurricane Katrina Inundation Effects at Stennis Space Center (highlighting surge risk posture) and Vegetation Change In and Around Stennis Space Center: Katrina and Beyond (highlighting fire risk posture).

  7. Use of honeydew production to determine reduction in feeding by Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) adults when exposed to cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid treatments.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Rachel; Lang, Edward B; Alvarez, Juan Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) whitefly populations produce economically important damage to crops by their direct feeding and also by transmitting plant viruses. Although there are several methods to reduce B. tabaci damage, most growers rely on the use of insecticides to decrease populations of this pest. Insecticides that reduce feeding of whitefly adults may also reduce the transmission of viruses that are harmful to crop plants. However, demonstrating the feeding reduction has proved challenging. In this study, water-sensitive paper was used to determine whitefly adult feeding, indirectly through honeydew production, when insects were placed on insecticide-treated and untreated plants. Plant treatments with two formulations of cyantraniliprole (Cyazypyr) showed a reduction in the amount of honeydew produced by B. tabaci adults equivalent to imidacloprid. The reduction in the amount of honeydew produced indicates reduced insect feeding and the possibility for a reduction in virus transmission. Plant treatments with two formulations of cyantraniliprole also resulted in higher mortality than imidacloprid. PMID:24772533

  8. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  9. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  10. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge enriched under periodic feeding with nonanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Kim, Jae Hee; Mishra, Debaraj; Ni, Yu-Yang; Rhee, Young Ha

    2011-05-01

    The potential use of activated sludge for the production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (MCL-PHAs) was investigated. The enrichment of bacterial populations capable of producing MCL-PHAs was achieved by periodic feeding with nonanoic acid in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to be predominant in the bacterial community during the SBR process. The composition of PHA synthesized by the enriched biomass from nonanoic acid consisted of a large concentration (>89 mol%) of MCL monomer units and a small amount of short-chain-length monomer units. Under fed-batch fermentation with continuous feeding of nonanoic acid at a flow rate of 0.225 g/L/h and a C/N ratio of 40, a maximum PHA content of 48.6% dry cell weight and a conversion yield (Y(p/s)) of 0.94 g/g were achieved. These results indicate that MCL-PHA production by activated sludge is a promising alternative to typical pure culture approaches. PMID:21463934

  11. Enhanced extracellular production of recombinant Bacillus deramificans pullulanase in Escherichia coli through induction mode optimization and a glycine feeding strategy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chun; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    Process optimization strategies were developed to improve extracellular production of recombinant Bacillus deramificans pullulanase in Escherichia coli. Cell growth and pullulanase production in shake-flask cultures were investigated as a function of the concentration of added glycine, and the type and concentration of inducer. From the results of these experiments, a fed-batch fermentation strategy for high-cell-density cultivation was applied in a 3-L fermentor. The gradual addition of lactose was utilized for the induction of protein expression. The optimal lactose feeding rate and induction point were 0.4gL(-1)h(-1) and a dry cell weight (DCW) of 15gL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, a glycine feeding strategy was formulated to promote the secretion of recombinant protein. The optimal total and extracellular pullulanase activity were 2523.5 and 1567.9UmL(-1), respectively, which represent 1.2 and 22.6-fold increases compared with those observed under unoptimized conditions. PMID:25261864

  12. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    PubMed

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

  13. Apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products of some polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of polymeric materials were evaluated to determine the apparent lethal concentrations of their pyrolysis products. The materials were compared on the basis of the apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals. Relative toxicity rankings based o apparent lethal concentration values can differ significantly depending on whether they are based on weight of sample charged or weight of sample pyrolyzed. The ranking of polyphenylene sulfide is particularly sensitive to this difference.

  14. Toxicity of thermal degradation products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.; Turner, J. E.; Sanford, C.; Foster, S.; Baldwin, E.; Oconnor, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three polymeric materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of their pyrolysis products to rats by inhalation: Y-7683 (LS 200), Y-7684 (Vonar 3 on Fiberglass), and Y-7685 (Vonar 3 on N W Polyester). Criteria employed for assessing relative toxicity were (1) lethality from in-chamber pyrolysis, (2) lethality from an outside-of-chamber pyrolysis MSTL Procedure, and (3) disruption of trained rats' shock-avoidance performance during sub-lethal exposures to in-chamber pyrolysis of the materials.

  15. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Data is presented which provides guides to (1) approximate temperature necessary to initiate thermodegradation of the polymeric materials tested, (2) the relative toxicity of thermodegradation products from the various materials, (3) the relative importance of carbon monoxide as the primary cause of death (as contrasted to cyanide or other toxic gases), and (4) whether or not the hazards of the fumes are confined to the time of exposure, or whether post-exposure death is likely. Two different experimental methods were employed.

  16. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  17. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  18. [Comparative biological value of the proteins comprising the products for the tube and regular feeding of patients with mandibular fractures].

    PubMed

    Kholodov, S V; Vitollo, A S; Kalamkarova, O M; Rud'ko, V F; Vysotskiĭ, V G

    1988-01-01

    A comparative clinical evaluation was made of the biological effectiveness of protein components in the composition of three types of diet for patients with fractures of the mandible who had received "Ensure" (USA), a product for complete tube feeding; an experimental sample developed at the Institute of Nutrition, Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR; and a routine clinical diet. The biological effectiveness of the proteins was estimated by some anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as on the basis of nitrogenous metabolism in the patients. It has been established that the protein content in the routine clinical diets does not meet the high requirements in amino acids of patients with fracture of the mandible. In this respect the products for tube and dietotherapy have proved to be effective and completely provide the need of such patients in essential amino acids that has been evidenced by the results of the investigations conducted. PMID:3146160

  19. Sustainable production of toxin free marine microalgae biomass as fish feed in large scale open system in the Qatari desert.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J

    2015-09-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae biomass for feed should be cost effective and toxin free. Evaporation loss in Qatar can be as high as 2 cm/d. Hence, production of marine microalgae biomass in Qatar would also require mitigating water loss as there was only very limited groundwater reserve. To address these issues, a combination of four growth conditions were applied to a 25,000 L raceway pond: locally isolated microalgae strain was selected which could grow in elevated salinity; strain that did not require silica and vitamins; volume of the culture would increase over time keeping denser inoculum in the beginning, and evaporation water loss would be balanced by adding seawater only. A local saline tolerant Nannochloropsis sp. was selected which did not require silica and vitamins. When the above conditions were combined in the pond, average areal biomass productivities reached 20.37 g/m(2)/d, and the culture was not contaminated by any toxic microalgae. PMID:26022971

  20. Biodiesel production from multi feedstock as feed with direct ultrasound assisted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. Favian; Dipo, Rheza; Okvitarini, Alimin, A. J.; Ali, Mas Fawzi Mohd

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 ° C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4:1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.

  1. Biodiesel production from multi feedstock as feed with direct ultrasound assisted

    SciTech Connect

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. Favian; Dipo, Rheza; Okvitarini; Alimin, A. J.; Ali, Mas Fawzi Mohd

    2015-12-29

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 ° C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4:1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.

  2. Direct observation of titanium-centered octahedra in titanium-antimony-tellurium phase-change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xiaosong; Xia, Mengjiao; Li, Wei; Ding, Keyuan; Feng, Xuefei; Zhu, Min; Feng, Songlin

    2015-11-01

    Phase-change memory based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material has one order of magnitude faster Set speed and as low as one-fifth of the Reset energy compared with the conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 based device. However, the phase-transition mechanism of the Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material remains inconclusive due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here we report a direct atom-by-atom chemical identification of titanium-centered octahedra in crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material with a state-of-the-art atomic mapping technology. Further, by using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density function theory simulations, we identify in amorphous Ti0.4Sb2Te3 the titanium atoms preferably maintain the octahedral configuration. Our work may pave the way to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the Ti-Sb-Te material, for promoting the development of dynamic random access memory-like phase-change memory as an emerging storage-class memory to reform current memory hierarchy.

  3. Direct observation of titanium-centered octahedra in titanium-antimony-tellurium phase-change material.

    PubMed

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xiaosong; Xia, Mengjiao; Li, Wei; Ding, Keyuan; Feng, Xuefei; Zhu, Min; Feng, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change memory based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material has one order of magnitude faster Set speed and as low as one-fifth of the Reset energy compared with the conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 based device. However, the phase-transition mechanism of the Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material remains inconclusive due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here we report a direct atom-by-atom chemical identification of titanium-centered octahedra in crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material with a state-of-the-art atomic mapping technology. Further, by using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density function theory simulations, we identify in amorphous Ti0.4Sb2Te3 the titanium atoms preferably maintain the octahedral configuration. Our work may pave the way to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the Ti-Sb-Te material, for promoting the development of dynamic random access memory-like phase-change memory as an emerging storage-class memory to reform current memory hierarchy. PMID:26610374

  4. Direct observation of titanium-centered octahedra in titanium–antimony–tellurium phase-change material

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xiaosong; Xia, Mengjiao; Li, Wei; Ding, Keyuan; Feng, Xuefei; Zhu, Min; Feng, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Phase-change memory based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material has one order of magnitude faster Set speed and as low as one-fifth of the Reset energy compared with the conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 based device. However, the phase-transition mechanism of the Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material remains inconclusive due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here we report a direct atom-by-atom chemical identification of titanium-centered octahedra in crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material with a state-of-the-art atomic mapping technology. Further, by using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density function theory simulations, we identify in amorphous Ti0.4Sb2Te3 the titanium atoms preferably maintain the octahedral configuration. Our work may pave the way to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the Ti–Sb–Te material, for promoting the development of dynamic random access memory-like phase-change memory as an emerging storage-class memory to reform current memory hierarchy. PMID:26610374

  5. A Guide to the Management of Curriculum Materials Centers for the 21st Century: The Promise and the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo Ann, Ed.

    Curriculum Materials Centers (CMCs), resource centers that support teacher education programs, are facing many challenges, including maintaining funding, meeting increased expectations, and coping with changes in technology. This volume covers a wide range of management issues from the perspective of 18 librarians, including practical advice on…

  6. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  7. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    FCR and RFI) (P < 0.05) and greater CH4 emissions (P = 0.017). In conclusion, agitated temperament and higher stress responsiveness is detrimental to productivity. A greater stress response is associated with a reduction in feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  8. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    FCR and RFI) (P < 0.05) and greater CH4 emissions (P = 0.017). In conclusion, agitated temperament and higher stress responsiveness is detrimental to productivity. A greater stress response is associated with a reduction in feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  9. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  10. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P < .01) daily DMI, ADG, and gain:feed ratios (G:F) compared with controls. However, due to compensatory gain and the fact that G/P replaced corn in the finishing phase, control steers had increased (P < .01) ADG and improved (P < .05) G:F vs steers fed G/P-containing diets. Over the entire study (growing and finishing phases) steers fed diets containing G/P and the control had similar performance. Amount of G/P in the diet had no effect (P > .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P < .01) juiciness compared with steaks from steers fed 30% G/P; no other sensory attributes were affected. Aluminum, zinc, and barium content of longissimus muscle and liver were within the normal expected ranges for all treatments. These data indicate that G/P can safely replace at least 30% of growing and finishing diets without impairing feedlot performance or carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  11. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  12. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  13. Influence of Condensed Tannins from Ficus bengalensis Leaves on Feed Utilization, Milk Production and Antioxidant Status of Crossbred Cows

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Avijit; De, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of condensed tannins (CT) from Ficus bengalensis leaves on the feed utilization, milk production and health status of crossbred cows. Eighteen crossbred dairy cows at their second and mid lactation (avg. BW 351.6±10.6 kg) were randomly divided into two groups of nine each in a completely randomized block design and fed two iso-nitrogenous supplements formulated to contain 0% and 1.5% CT through dried and ground leaves of Ficus bengalensis. The diets were designated as CON and FBLM, respectively and fed to cows with a basal diet of rice straw to meet requirements for maintenance and milk production. The daily milk yield was significantly (p<0.05) increased due to supplementation of FBLM diet. The 4% fat corrected milk yield was also significantly (p<0.01) higher due to increased (p<0.05) milk fat in cows under diet FBLM as compared to CON. The inclusion of CT at 1.5% in the supplement did not interfere with the feed intake or digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF by lactating cows. Digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) values of the composite diets were comparable between the groups. The blood biochemical parameters remained unaltered except significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum urea concentration in cows fed FBLM diet. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in cows supplemented with condensed tannins. The total thiol group (T-SH) was found to be higher with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in cows of FBLM group. The cost of feeding per kg milk production was also reduced due to supplementation of Ficus bengalensis leaves. Therefore, a perceptible positive impact was evident on milk production and antioxidant status in crossbred cows during mid-lactation given supplement containing 1.5% CT through Ficus bengalensis leaves. PMID:25049960

  14. Evaluation of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has been evaluated as an energy source for several farm animals. A study was conducted to examine the effects of various levels of glycerol in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Fish with mean i...

  15. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. D.; Finckenor, M. M.; Boothe, R. E.; Albyn, K. C.; Finchum, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team of the Environmental Effects Group, Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, has been recognized for its contribution to space flight, including space transportation, space science and flight projects, such as the reusable solid rocket motor, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station. The Materials Contamination Team s realm of responsibility encompasses all phases of hardware development including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch-site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment if required. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitivity bondlines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for sensitive optics, particularly spacecraft such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The team of engineers and technicians also develop and evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. Databases are maintained by the team for proces! materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D.; McFarland, Eric W.

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  17. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF LARGE-SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar cell production at rates needed to supply continuously 1% of projected U.S. power requirements in the year 2000 is examined. Si and CdS are followed from raw material extraction to finished cell; GaAs is reviewed less thoroughly. Numerical data are developed for air, water,...

  19. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  1. Operational space weather product development and validation at the joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space &Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that have been, or will soon be added to real-time operations include: 1) the Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSEND) suit - a set of four products that address HF communication, UHF satellite communication scintillation, radar auroral clutter, and GP S single- frequency errors; 2) a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite; and C) a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The RPC is also involved in a rather substantial "V&V" effort to produce multiple operational product verifications and validations, with an added end goal of a generalized validation software package. The presentation will provide a general overview of the RPC and each of the products mentioned above, to include background science, operational history, inputs, outputs, dissemination, and customer uses for each.

  2. Extruded soybean meal increased feed intake and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Giallongo, F; Oh, J; Frederick, T; Isenberg, B; Kniffen, D M; Fabin, R A; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of 2 extruded soybean meals (ESBM) processed at 2 extruder temperatures, 149°C (LTM) and 171°C (HTM), on performance, nutrient digestibility, milk fatty acid and plasma amino acid profiles, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were included in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods. The control diet contained 13% solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM; 53.5% crude protein with 74.1% ruminal degradability and 1.8% fat), which was replaced with equivalent amount (dry matter basis) of LTM (46.8%, 59.8%, and 10.0%) or HTM (46.9%, 41.1%, and 10.9%, respectively) ESBM in the 2 experimental diets (LTM and HTM, respectively). The diets met or exceeded the nutrient requirements of the cows for net energy of lactation and metabolizable protein. The 2 ESBM diets increased dry matter intake and milk yield compared with SSBM. Feed efficiency and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Milk protein yield tended to be increased by ESBM compared with SSBM. Milk urea N and urinary urea N excretions were increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Concentration of fatty acids with chain length of up to C17 and total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were generally decreased and that of C18 and total mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids was increased by the ESBM diets compared with SSBM. Blood plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Val were increased by HTM compared with LTM and SSBM. Plasma concentration of Met was decreased, whereas that of carnosine was increased by the ESBM diets. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation, but the proportion of Fibrobacter spp. in whole ruminal contents was increased by HTM compared with SSBM and LTM. Overall, data from this crossover experiment suggest that substituting SSBM with ESBM in the diet has a positive effect on feed intake and milk yield in dairy cows. PMID:26188569

  3. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Sanner, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    Objective of this program is to examine new routes for disposal of energetic materials, as there is need to reduce the stockpile of conventional munitions. Disposal through destruction (burning, detonation) is less feasible today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products useful in civilian and military applications is one area being explored. Initial focus has been on the conversion of TNT to other materials. Reduction of TNT to aminodinitrotoluenes, diaminonitrotoluenes and triaminotoluene is well known. Conversion of these TNT reduction products to corresponding iminodiacetic acid derivatives by N-dialkylation with chloroacetic acid should provide chelators of heavy metals. The preparation and characterization of chelating resins derived from TNT-related molecules and polystyrene are described.

  4. Potential for composting energetic material production wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, N.R.; Stratta, J.M.; Donahue, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Army installations that manufacture munitions generate large quantities of energetic material (EM) and solid waste contaminated with energetic material (energetic material-contaminated waste, or EMCW). Disposal of EM and EMCW by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD) has been the practice for many years, but increasingly stringent environmental regulations are curtailing OB/OD operations. Although composting has been used in some instances for explosive-contaminated soils, it has not been examined for use with munitions production wastes. A literature search showed that many explosives are biodegradable and that some explosive-contaminated soils can also be treated by composting. A potential exists to treat munition production wastes by composting or other biological treatment processes. This study concluded that further investigation is needed to determine and test: (1) the energetic compounds that can be biodegraded, and (2) the conditions under which biological treatment processes can occur.

  5. Short communication: The effect of feeding high protein distillers dried grains on milk production of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, K J; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Kelzer, J M; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG) on rumen degradability, dry matter intake, milk production, and milk composition. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous) averaging 80 +/- 14 d in milk were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments in a 2 x 2 crossover design. A portion of forage and all soy-based protein in the control diet were replaced by HPDDG (20% dry matter). Milk production and dry matter intake were recorded daily and averaged for d 19 to 21 of each 21-d period. Milk samples were collected on d 20 to 21 of each period. Milk yield increased with the inclusion of HPDDG (33.4 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.13 kg/d), and 3.5% FCM was higher for the ration containing HPDDG (36.3 vs. 33.1 +/- 2.24 kg/d). Percentage protein was not affected by treatment (average 3.04 +/- 0.08%), but protein yield increased with inclusion of HPDDG (0.95 to 1.00 +/- 0.05 kg/d). Milk fat concentration was not different between treatments (average 3.95 +/- 0.20%), but fat yield increased for the ration containing HPDDG (1.35 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.09 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected and averaged 21.9 +/- 0.80 kg across treatments. Because of greater milk production, feed conversion was improved by the inclusion of HPDDG (1.47 to 1.73 +/- 0.09). Milk urea N was greater for the HPDDG ration than the control (14.5 vs. 12.8 +/- 0.67 mg/dL). This research suggests that HPDDG may effectively replace soy-based protein in lactating dairy cow diets. PMID:19448023

  6. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  7. NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

  8. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  9. Thin film microelectronics materials production in the vacuum of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Sterling, M.; Horton, C.; Freundlich, A.; Pei, S.; Hill, R.

    1997-01-01

    The international Space Station era will open up a new dimension in the use of one of the unique attributes of space, vacuum, for the production of advanced semiconductor materials and devices for microelectronics applications. Ultra-vacuum is required for the fabrication in thin film form of high quality semiconductors. This can be accomplished behind a free flying platform similar to the current Wake Shield Facility which is specifically designed to support in-space production. The platform will require apparatus for thin film growth, a robotics interface to allow for the change out of raw materials and the harvesting of finished product, and a servicing plant incorporating Space Station that will support long-term utilization of the platform.

  10. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  11. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples. PMID:21548621

  12. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  13. Effect of feeding status on mortality response of adult bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to some insecticide products.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Fresh and aged residual deposits of several insecticide products were tested against bed bug adults to determine if a recent bloodmeal affected their mortality response to the residues. The bed bugs with a recent bloodmeal survived significantly longer compared with the unfed ones on their exposure to fresh or aged residual deposits of chlorfenapyr and aged residual deposits of deltamethrin on a wooden substrate. Even though the survival time of fed bed bugs was significantly longer than that of unfed ones on their exposure to fresh residue of deltamethrin and aged residue of desiccant pyrethrin dust, these treatments resulted in similarly high final mortalities regardless of feeding status of the insects. Mortality responses of fed and unfed bed bugs were similar to fresh or aged residual deposits of imidacloprid + cyfluthrin combination and fresh residual deposits of desiccant pyrethrin dust. Topical application assays indicated that a recent bloodmeal significantly increased the bed bug's survival time for chlorfenapyr, but not for deltamethrin. Pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs also showed a similar increase in their survival time for chlorfenapyr after a bloodmeal. The comparison of mortality responses between fed and unfed bed bugs treated with similar amount of chlorfenapyr per fresh body weight indicated that increased body mass was not the primary cause for this bloodmeal-induced tolerance increase for chlorfenapyr. Because the surviving bed bugs can continue ovipositing, the effectiveness of chlorfenapyr residual deposits in bed bug harborages could be significantly affected by the feeding status of the adult bed bug populations. PMID:25026684

  14. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p < 0.05); however, fish acclimated to the noise thereafter. This study further suggests that rainbow trout growth

  15. Overview of Space Weather Impacts and NASA Space Weather Center Services and Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into two major components. First, I will give an overview of space weather phenomenon and their associated impacts. Then I will describe the comprehensive list of products and tools that NASA Space Weather Center has developed by leveraging more than a decade long modeling experience enabled by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and latest scientific research results from the broad science community. In addition, a summary of the space weather activities we have been engaged in and our operational experience will be provided.

  16. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV–visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3–0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  17. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-17

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F(+) centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections. PMID:27319289

  18. Combined gene cluster engineering and precursor feeding to improve gougerotin production in Streptomyces graminearus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingjuan; Wei, Junhong; Li, Lei; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2013-12-01

    Gougerotin is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminearus . It is a specific inhibitor of protein synthesis and exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. Generation of an overproducing strain is crucial for the scale-up production of gougerotin. In this study, the natural and engineered gougerotin gene clusters were reassembled into an integrative plasmid by λ-red-mediated recombination technology combined with classic cloning methods. The resulting plasmids pGOU and pGOUe were introduced into S. graminearus to obtain recombinant strains Sgr-GOU and Sgr-GOUe, respectively. Compared with the wild-type strain, Sgr-GOU led to a maximum 1.3-fold increase in gougerotin production, while Sgr-GOUe resulted in a maximum 2.1-fold increase in gougerotin production. To further increase the yield of gougerotin, the effect of different precursors on its production was investigated. All precursors, including cytosine, serine, and glycine, had stimulatory effect on gougerotin production. The maximum gougerotin yield was achieved with Sgr-GOUe in the presence of glycine, and it was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. The strategies used in this study can be extended to other Streptomyces for improving production of industrial important antibiotics. PMID:24121866

  19. Cooling cows efficiently with water spray: Behavioral, physiological, and production responses to sprinklers at the feed bunk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2016-06-01

    Dairies commonly mount nozzles above the feed bunk that intermittently spray cows to dissipate heat. These sprinklers use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource-but there is little experimental evidence for how much is needed to cool cows in loose housing. Sprinkler flow rate may affect the efficacy of heat abatement, cattle avoidance of spray (particularly on the head), and water waste. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate affects cattle behavioral, physiological, and production responses when cows are given 24-h access to spray in freestall housing, and to evaluate heat abatement in relation to water use. We compared 3 treatments: sprinklers that delivered 1.3 or 4.9L/min (both 3min on and 9min off, 24h/d) and an unsprayed control. Nine pairs of high-producing lactating Holstein cows received each treatment at a shaded feed bunk for 2d in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design [air temperature (T): 24-h maximum=33±3°C, mean ± SD]. Cows spent 5.8±0.9h/24h (mean ± SD) at the feed bunk overall, regardless of treatment. With few exceptions, cows responded similarly to the 1.3 and 4.9L/min flow rates. Sprinklers resulted in visits to the feed bunk that were on average 23 to 27% longer and 13 to 16% less frequent compared with the control, perhaps because cows avoided walking through spray. Indeed, when the sprinklers were on, cows left the feed bunk half as often as expected by chance, and when cows chose to walk through spray, they lowered their heads on average 1.7- to 3-fold more often than in the control. Despite possible reluctance to expose their heads to spray, cows did not avoid sprinklers overall. In warmer weather, cows spent more time at the feed bunk when it had sprinklers (on average 19 to 21min/24h for each 1°C increase in T), likely for heat abatement benefits. Compared with the control, sprinklers resulted in 0.3 to 0.7°C lower body temperature from 1300 to 1500h and 1700 to 2000h overall and attenuated the rise in this

  20. The Benefits of Supplementary Fat in Feed Rations for Ruminants with Particular Focus on Reducing Levels of Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, J.; Harrison, A.

    2011-01-01

    Methane (CH4), a highly potent greenhouse gas, has repeatedly been identified as a significant contributor to global warming. In this connection, ruminants, animals that produce large quantities of methane, have been singled out as an area for reduction with regard to their emissions to the atmosphere. In an analysis of recently published data, we identify the underlying mechanisms of methane production in ruminants and focus on the efficacy of different fat sources in terms of their ability to reduce methane production. Specific attention has been placed on in vivo studies involving cattle and sheep, as well as studies based on a large number of animals (>10), recorded over a longer period (>21 days), and employing reliable techniques for the quantification of methane production. Data clearly indicate that supplementary fat, given to ruminants inhibits methane production, with medium-chain fatty acids (laurin, myristic acid) as well as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and especially linolenic acid) having a significant effect. It is also apparent that conflicting findings between individual published trials can largely be resolved when one takes into consideration differences in experimental design, the composition of the basic feeds, the fat sources used, and the number of animals involved. PMID:23738103