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Sample records for feed related prophylactic

  1. Aspects on feed related prophylactic measures aiming to prevent post weaning diarrhoea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coil as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given nonpathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coil within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  2. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  3. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  4. The progress and prospects of routine prophylactic antiviral treatment in hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Enze; Shangguan, Anna Junjie; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tang, Lin; Zhao, Shuang; Yu, Zhenghong

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Among all types of primary liver cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major histological subtype, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of HCC. Treatments for hepatitis B related HCC include hepatectomy, liver transplantation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), ablative therapy, and Sorafenib treatment. However, HBV reactivation can occur in patients who receive these treatments, resulting in poor clinical outcomes. However, prophylactic antiviral treatment in patients with hepatitis B-related HCC, can reduce the copies of HBV DNA, prevent HBV reactivation, reduce hepatic inflammation, reverse liver fibrosis, decrease tumor recurrence and metastasis, and extend survival time. Prophylactic antiviral treatment should be routinely performed as an important adjuvant therapy in HBV-related HCC patients. PMID:26272181

  5. Comparison of efficacy of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Başak; Aydoğan-Eren, Emel; Canbay, Özgür; Karagöz, Ayşe Heves; Üzümcügil, Filiz; Ankay-Yilbaş, Aysun; Çelebi, Nalan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of prophylactic ketamine and dexmedetomidine on postoperative bladder catheter-related discomfort/pain in patients undergoing cystoscopy. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients between 18-75 years of age and undergoing cystoscopy between November 2011 and June 2012 at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups to receive 1 µ/kg dexmedetomidine, 250 µ/kg intravenous ketamine, or normal saline. All patients were questioned regarding probe-related discomfort, patient satisfaction, and pain at the end of the operation 0 (t0) and 15 (t1), 60 (t2), 120 (t3), and 360 (t4) minutes postoperatively. Evaluations were performed in person at the post-anesthesia care unit, or in ambulatory surgery rooms, or by phone calls. Results: Pain incidence in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.042) was significantly lower than that in the control group (p=0.044). The sedation scores recorded at t0 in the dexmedetomidine and ketamine groups (p=0.004) were significantly higher than that of the control group (p=0.017). Patient groups were similar regarding the rate of hallucinations experienced at t1, no patients experienced hallucinations at t2, t3, or t4. Significantly more patients experienced hallucinations at t0 in the ketamine group than in the dexmedetomidine group (p=0.034) and the control group (p=0.005). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine and ketamine had similar analgesic effects in preventing catheter-related pain; however, dexmedetomidine had a more acceptable side effect profile. To identify the optimal doses of dexmedetomidine and ketamine, more large-scale interventional studies are needed. PMID:26739975

  6. Prelacteal feeding: influencing factors and relation to establishment of lactation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F U; Rahman, M E; Alam, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was carried out with a view to finding out factors influencing prelacteal feeding and its relation to establishment of lactation in rural Bangladesh. 420 mothers in early post-partum period were interviewed at home. Prelacteal feeding was given to 77% of the babies, and honey was given to 72% of them. The common methods of prelacteal feeding were by finger (41%) and spoon (40%). Twelve socio-demographic and health care variables were studied for their probable influence on prelacteal feeding. Nine of them accounted for 22% of the variability in giving prelacteal feeding. Reasons of giving prelacteal feeding and the time of first breast feeding influenced the practice significantly (P < 0.05). Type and duration of prelacteal feeding had significant negative influence on "coming in" of milk (P < 0.05). Prelacteal feeding accounted for 44% of variations in coming in of milk. Prelacteal feeding and coming in of milk formed a vicious cycle: the former delayed initiation of lactation and on the other hand delay in coming in of milk encouraged prelacteal feeding. These observation emphasized the need for coordinated efforts for promotion of proper infant feeding practices in our rural community. PMID:9103657

  7. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy. Methods This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy. Results Sixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9%) were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9%) understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27%) stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%), the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%), possible surgical complications (24%), and financial cost (6%). Conclusions In this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals. PMID:26848446

  8. Prophylactic Indomethacin and Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, John; Salas, Ariel A.; Bhat, Ramachandra; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Saha, Shampa; Stoll, Barbara J.; Bell, Edward F.; Walsh, Michele C.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Shankaran, Seetha; VanMeurs, Krisa P.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Ball, M. Bethany; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic indomethacin reduces severe intraventricular hemorrhage but may increase spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Early feedings improve nutritional outcomes but may increase the risk of SIP. Despite their benefits, use of these therapies varies largely by physician preferences in part because of the concern for SIP. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 15 751 ELBW infants in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from 1999 to 2010 who survived beyond 12 hours after birth. The risk of SIP was compared between groups of infants with and without exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding in unadjusted analyses and in analyses adjusted for center and for risks of SIP. RESULTS: Among infants exposed to prophylactic indomethacin, the risk of SIP did not differ between the indomethacin/early-feeding group compared with the indomethacin/no-early-feeding group (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–1.11). The risk of SIP was lower in the indomethacin/early-feeding group compared with the no indomethacin/no-early-feeding group (adjusted RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.90, P = .0159). Among infants not exposed to indomethacin, early feeding was associated with a lower risk of SIP compared with the no early feeding group (adjusted RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36–0.777, P = .0011). CONCLUSIONS: The combined or individual use of prophylactic indomethacin and early feeding was not associated with an increased risk of SIP in ELBW infants. PMID:25349317

  9. Distinct Types of Feeding Related Neurons in Mouse Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Benusiglio, Diego; Grinevich, Valery; Lin, Longnian

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades of research provided evidence for a substantial heterogeneity among feeding-related neurons (FRNs) in the hypothalamus. However, it remains unclear how FRNs differ in their firing patterns during food intake. Here, we investigated the relationship between the activity of neurons in mouse hypothalamus and their feeding behavior. Using tetrode-based in vivo recording technique, we identified various firing patterns of hypothalamic FRNs, which, after the initiation of food intake, can be sorted into four types: sharp increase (type I), slow increase (type II), sharp decrease (type III), and sustained decrease (type IV) of firing rates. The feeding-related firing response of FRNs was rigidly related to the duration of food intake and, to a less extent, associated with the type of food. The majority of these FRNs responded to glucose and leptin and exhibited electrophysiological characteristics of putative GABAergic neurons. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the diversity of neurons in the complex hypothalamic network coordinating food intake. PMID:27242460

  10. Are parenting style and controlling feeding practices related?

    PubMed

    Blissett, J; Haycraft, E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, feeding practices and BMI in a non-clinical sample of mothers and fathers of UK preschool children. Ninety-six cohabiting parents of 48 children (19 male, 29 female, mean age 42 months) completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing parenting style, feeding practices, eating psychopathology and a range of demographic information. There were no relationships between authoritarian parenting and controlling feeding practices. In both mothers and fathers, permissive parenting style was related to lower monitoring of children's unhealthy food intake. Permissive parenting was also associated with increased use of restriction by mothers and pressure to eat by fathers. Authoritative parenting style was also related to lower use of pressure to eat by fathers only. Parenting styles were not related to child BMI in this sample. Higher child BMI was best predicted by lower paternal application of pressure to eat and greater paternal reports of drive for thinness. Parenting style may not have a direct impact on child BMI until child food selection and consumption becomes more autonomous. PMID:18023502

  11. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    PubMed

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. PMID:23962403

  12. Is feeding behaviour related to glass eel propensity to migrate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Lambert, Patrick; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2008-11-01

    Several studies have shown that eel diadromy is facultative and that migratory divergences may appear during glass eel estuarine migration. The origin of the differences in migratory behaviour among glass eels remains unclear but initial evidence supports the role of individual energetic and thyroidal status. Even if starvation is usually associated with glass eel migration, feeding does seem to occur in some glass eels. The aim of the present study was to investigate feeding behaviour and glass eel growth in relation to the propensity to migrate. Feeding rate and weight gain were higher in fish having a high propensity to migrate (M + fish) than in fish having a low propensity to migrate (M - fish) in fed glass eels, whereas no clear difference in the variation in body weight was observed among unfed fish (controls). M - fish initially had lower percent dry weight than M + fish, which suggests a link between appetite, propensity to migrate, and energy content. We discuss the role played by endocrine signals on these processes. In fish, thyroid hormones contribute to the control of growth and development. In addition, they play a role in flatfish and leptocephalus metamorphosis and appear to be involved in smolt and glass eel migratory behaviour. As such, they represent a good candidate which would promote the propensity to migrate as well as digestive system development. Their role in the hormonal control of food intake however remains vague. The large and sharp decline in glass eel abundances observed since the 1980s could partly be explained by changes in ocean productivity. If so, it could be accompanied by a decrease in glass eel energy stores. The ability to resume feeding in the course of the estuarine crossing would then represent a serious advantage to maintain energy levels compatible with migration.

  13. Migraine: prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Rakesh; Sinh, Manish

    2010-04-01

    Prophylactic treatment constitutes an important aspect of migraine management and includes avoidance of trigger factors and life style advice followed by consideration of medications. The drugs of first choice are beta-blockers, flunarizine, topiramate, valproate and amitriptyline. Drugs of second choice with less efficacy and evidence are venlafaxine, gabapentin, naproxen, butterbur root, riboflavin and magnesium. Botulinum toxin type A has not yet been shown to be effective. The choice of prophylactic drugs would depend on efficacy, co-morbidity, side effects, availability and cost. Non-pharmacological treatments such as relaxation techniques, bio-feedback, cognitive behavioral therapy and acupuncture are supported by some evidence but require far more specialist time or technical devices. All the drugs used in migraine prophylaxis have been detected by serendipity. Drugs developed, in the future, on the basis of the current knowledge of pathophysiology will hopefully be more effective. PMID:21049704

  14. [Prophylactic medicines for migraine].

    PubMed

    Stovner, Lars Jacob; Tronvik, Erling; Hagen, Knut

    2012-05-15

    Migraine patients with frequent and disabling attacks should be given the opportunity to test prophylactic medicines, and general practitioners should know the indications and the main principles of treatment. When testing a preventative drug, it is important that the patient has realistic expectations, keeps a headache diary, increases the doses gradually, and takes an adequate dose for at least two months before the effect is assessed. Drugs licensed in Norway with adequate scientific documentation for use as migraine prophylactics include some antihypertensives (beta-blockers, candesartan and lisinopril), antiepileptics (topiramate, valproate and gabapentin), an antidepressant (amitriptyline), and botulinum toxin for chronic migraine. In the choice of medicine, one should consider scientific evidence, side effects and contraindications, effect on comorbid conditions, simplicity of use, and price. Patients who are severely affected should try at least three different drugs in succession. PMID:22614308

  15. [Prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Iacob, G; Iacob, Simona; Cojocaru, Inimioara

    2007-01-01

    Because of a low risk of infection (around 2-3%), prophylactic use of antibiotics in neurosurgery is a controversial issue. Some neurosurgeons consider that there are strong arguments against the use of antimicrobials (promotion of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, superinfection and adverse drug reactions) and meticulous aseptic techniques could be more usefully than prophylactic antibiotics. On the other hand, despite of being rare, the consequences of a neurosurgical infection can be dramatic and may result in a rapid death, caused by meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation or sepsis. Clinical studies emphasized that the most important factors influencing the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis in neurosurgery is the patient's immune status, virulence of the pathogens and the type of surgery ("clean contaminated"--procedure that crosses the cranial sinuses, "clean non-implant"--procedure that does not cross the cranial sinuses, CSF shunt surgery, skull fracture). Prophylaxis has become the standard of care for contaminated and clean-contaminated surgery, also for surgery involving insertion of artificial devices. The antibiotic (first/second generation of cephalosporins or vancomycin in allergic patients) should recover only the cutaneous possibly contaminating flora (S. aureus, S. epidermidis) and should be administrated 30' before the surgical incision, intravenously in a single dose. Most studies pointed that identification of the risk factors for infections, correct asepsis and minimal prophylactic antibiotic regimen, help neurosurgeons to improve patient care and to decrease mortality without selecting resistant bacteria. PMID:18293694

  16. A prophylactic fresh frozen plasma transfusion leads to a possible case of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debasree; Hussain, Rashid; Mazer, Jeffrey; Carino, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A 39-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma presented with fever and abdominal pain. He was hypotensive, jaundiced and had right upper quadrant tenderness. Laboratory testing showed a leucocytosis, elevated liver function tests, total bilirubin and International Normalised Ratio (INR). Given the concern for cholangitis, the patient was given antibiotics and three units of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) before biliary drain placement. After drain placement, and within 3 h of receiving blood products, the patient became tachypnoeic and hypoxic with a chest X-ray revealing new bilateral airspace disease. The rapid development of respiratory distress was determined to most likely be transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). He rapidly progressed to intubation and required 100% FiO2, high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and intermittent-prone ventilation for 48 h but eventually recovered and was extubated. TRALI is an under-recognised aetiology for respiratory distress in the critically ill. Adopting a conservative transfusion strategy may prevent TRALI. PMID:25053669

  17. Systematic review of clinical outcomes after prophylactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, C R; Trevatt, Aej; Dixit, A; Datta, V

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Prophylactic appendicectomy is performed prior to military, polar and space expeditions to prevent acute appendicitis in the field. However, the risk-benefit ratio of prophylactic surgery is controversial. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for prophylactic appendicectomy. It is supplemented by a clinical example of prophylactic surgery resulting in life-threatening complications. Methods A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE(®) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Keyword variants of 'prophylaxis' and 'appendicectomy' were combined to identify potential papers for inclusion. Papers related to prophylactic appendicectomy risks and benefits were reviewed. Results Overall, 511 papers were identified, with 37 papers satisfying the inclusion criteria. Nine reported outcomes after incidental appendicectomy during concurrent surgical procedures. No papers focused explicitly on prophylactic appendicectomy in asymptomatic patients. The clinical example outlined acute obstruction secondary to adhesions from a prophylactic appendicectomy. Complications after elective appendicectomy versus the natural history of acute appendicitis in scenarios such as polar expeditions or covert operations suggest prophylactic appendicectomy may be appropriate prior to extreme situations. Nevertheless, the long-term risk of adhesion related complications render prophylactic appendicectomy feasible only when the short-term risk of acute appendicitis outweighs the long-term risks of surgery. Conclusions Prophylactic appendicectomy is rarely performed and not without risk. This is the first documented evidence of long-term complications following prophylactic appendicectomy. Surgery should be considered on an individual basis by balancing the risks of acute appendicitis in the field with the potential consequences of an otherwise unnecessary surgical procedure in a healthy patient. PMID:27023639

  18. Structure of the lepidopteran proboscis in relation to feeding guild.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Matthew S; Beard, Charles E; Gerard, Patrick D; Kornev, Konstantin G; Adler, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Most butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) use modified mouthparts, the proboscis, to acquire fluids. We quantified the proboscis architecture of five butterfly species in three families to test the hypothesis that proboscis structure relates to feeding guild. We used scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the fine structure of the proboscis of both sexes and to quantify dimensions, cuticular patterns, and the shapes and sizes of sensilla and dorsal legulae. Sexual dimorphism was not detected in the proboscis structure of any species. A hierarchical clustering analysis of overall proboscis architecture reflected lepidopteran phylogeny, but did not produce a distinct group of flower visitors or of puddle visitors within the flower visitors. Specific characters of the proboscis, nonetheless, can indicate flower and nonflower visitors, such as the configuration of sensilla styloconica, width of the lower branches of dorsal legulae, presence or absence of dorsal legulae at the extreme apex, and degree of proboscis tapering. We suggest that the overall proboscis architecture of Lepidoptera reflects a universal structural organization that promotes fluid uptake from droplets and films. On top of this fundamental structural organization, we suggest that the diversity of floral structure has selected for structural adaptations that facilitate entry of the proboscis into floral tubes. PMID:26589780

  19. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Pluske, John R

    2013-01-01

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  20. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  1. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient. PMID:26715180

  2. Prophylactic Antibiotic Guidelines in Modern Interventional Radiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice; Tam, Matthew D.B.S.; Kikano, Raghid N.; Karuppasamy, Karunakaravel

    2010-01-01

    Modern interventional radiology practice is continuously evolving. Developments include increases in the number of central venous catheter placements and tumor treatments (uterine fibroid therapy, radio- and chemoembolization of liver tumor, percutaneous radiofrequency and cryoablation), and new procedures such as abdominal aortic aneurysm stent-graft repair, vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, and varicose vein therapies. There have also been recent advancements in standard biliary and urinary drainage procedures, percutaneous gastrointestinal feeding tube placement, and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Prophylactic antibiotics have become the standard of care in many departments, with little clinical data to support its wide acceptance. The rise in antibiotic-resistant strains of organisms in all hospitals worldwide have forced every department to question the use of prophylactic antibiotics. The authors review the evidence behind use of prophylactic antibiotics in standard interventional radiology procedures, as well as in newer procedures that have only recently been incorporated into interventional radiology practice. PMID:22550374

  3. [HPV prophylactic vaccines].

    PubMed

    Konopnicki, D

    2014-09-01

    Since 2007, two prophylactic vaccines against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV. induced lesions (both precancerous dysplasia and cancer) have been registered in Belgium. In multicentre randomized trials including more than 64,000 patients, these vaccines were shown to be highly efficient against the occurrence of condyloma and of dysplastic lesion in the cervix, vagina and vulva in females and in the anus in males. These vaccines display an excellent tolerance and safety profile, the most common adverse event being minor and transient side effects at the injection site. The protection given by these vaccines is more important in subjects that have not been in contact with HPV previously ; moreover the title of neutralizing antibodies against HPV are significantly higher in children vaccinated before 15 years-old age compared to young person vaccinated after this age. For these two reasons, it is recommended to vaccinate before the first sexual relationships. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that vaccination by two doses given at 0 and 6 months in children before 15 years-old was equivalent to the three doses scheme that should be given at 0, 1 or 2 and 6 months in subjects aged 15 years or more. In the countries that have achieved a high vaccine coverage among their young female population, the prevalence of HPV infection and the incidence of high grade cervical dysplasia have significantly decreased while condyloma has almost disappeared four years after the implementation of HPV vaccination. In HIV-positive subjects who are particularly susceptible to infection and lesions induced by HPV, vaccination brings levels of antibody comparable to what is found in the general population with similar safety. PMID:25675641

  4. The voluntary feed intake of pigs given feeds based on wheat bran, dried citrus pulp and grass meal, in relation to measurements of feed bulk.

    PubMed

    Kyriazakis, I; Emmans, G C

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the capacities of pigs for bulky feeds. In Expt 1 fifteen pigs were offered, from 12 to 25 kg live weight, ad lib. access to one of five feeds which were made by progressively diluting a high-quality feed with wheat bran. Intake initially increased, and then declined, as the proportion of wheat bran was increased. The pigs became better able to accommodate to the more bulky feeds over time. In Expt 2 thirty-six pigs, initially of 12 kg live weight, were used. The feeds were the same high-quality basal feed as in Expt 1 and three others made almost entirely of either wheat bran, dried grass or dried citrus pulp, respectively. The equal-parts mixtures of each of these three bulky feeds with the basal feed were also made to give three series of feeds each comprising the basal, the mixture and the bulky feed. The three feeds in each series were given ad lib. to twelve pigs in a design of two replicated Latin squares with three time-periods. Within each series, and across periods, the intakes of the feeds that were limiting intake were directly proportional to live weight and so a scaled intake, expressed as g/kg live weight per d, was calculated. Across the six limiting feeds, scaled intakes in the final 5 d of each period, when the pigs were in equilibrium with their feeds, were directly proportional to the reciprocal of the water-holding capacities (WHC) of the feeds, as measured by a centrifugation method. There were large effects of feed changes on intake, in the short term, with previous experience of a bulky feed leading to higher intakes of another bulky feed. The intake of the basal feed was not affected by the feed given previously. It was concluded that: (a) the time of adaptation to bulky feeds needs to be considered when attempting to measure, or predict, the rates of intake on different bulky feeds and, (b) the WHC of the feeds could be an appropriate measurement of 'bulk' responsible for limiting their

  5. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  6. Prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depression: An open-label, multicenter, pilot study of efficacy, safety and effect on headache-related disability, depression, and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Guy P; Grosberg, Brian M; McAllister, Peter J; Lipton, Richard B; Buse, Dawn C

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is associated with significant headache-related disability and psychiatric comorbidity. OnabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX®) is effective and well tolerated in the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. This study aimed to provide preliminary data on the efficacy and safety of prophylactic onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, multicenter pilot study. Eligible patients met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd edition Revision criteria for chronic migraine and had associated depressive symptoms, including Patient Health Questionnaire depression module scores of 5–19. Eligible participants received 155 units of onabotulinumtoxinA, according to the PREEMPT protocol, at baseline and week 12. Assessments included headache frequency, the Headache Impact Test™, the Migraine Disability Assessment, the Beck Depression Inventory®-II, the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression module, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire. Adverse events were also monitored. Results Overall, 32 participants received treatment. At week 24, there were statistically significant mean (standard deviation [SD]) improvements relative to baseline in the number of headache/migraine-free days (+8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) and in the number of headache/migraine days (−8.2 [5.8]) (P<0.0001) per 30-day period. In addition, there were significant improvements in Headache Impact Test scores (−6.3 [6.9]) (P=0.0001) and Migraine Disability Assessment scores (−44.2 [67.5]) (P=0.0058). From baseline to week 24, statistically significant improvements were also seen in Beck Depression Inventory-II (−7.9 [6.0]) (P<0.0001), Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (−4.3 [4.7]) (P<0.0001), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (−3.5 [5.0]) (P=0.0002) scores. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events

  7. Maternal anthropometry and infant feeding practices in Israel in relation to growth in infancy: the North African Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Forman, M R; Levy, A; Graubard, B I; Naggan, L; Berendes, H W

    1997-06-01

    Relations between maternal anthropometric status during pregnancy and infant feeding practices and growth from birth through the first 6 mo of life were examined in a cohort of 351 Israeli mother-infant pairs of North African descent. Maternal weight, height, and triceps skinfold thicknesses were determined at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy, while infants' weights and lengths were measured at birth and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 mo of age with concurrent collection of age-specific maternal-reported infant feeding data. On the basis of multiple-linear-regression analysis that adjusted for potential covariates, mean maternal weight at the first prenatal visit and at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy were positively associated with birth length (P for trend in all cases < 0.0001) and with linear growth between birth and 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Maternal skinfold thickness at 9 mo of pregnancy and maternal height were also significantly associated with birth length. Moreover, maternal height, weight, and skinfold thickness at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy were positively associated with mean birth weight. After adjustment for morbidity in the past month and other covariates, infants breast-fed exclusively had greater attained weight and weight gain in the first 3 mo compared with infants who were bottle-fed exclusively, breast-fed and bottle-fed, or solid-fed exclusively. These findings underscore the need for programs that improve the nutritional status of women before, during, and after pregnancy, and encourage exclusive breast-feeding of infants for at least the first 3 mo of life. PMID:9174468

  8. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. PMID:26231801

  9. [Prophylactic drug treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Massiou, H; Bousser, M-G

    2005-07-01

    Prophylactic treatment is mainly intended to reduce the frequency of migraine attacks. Based on the results of published controlled trials, the main prophylactic drugs are some beta-blockers, methysergide, pizotifene, oxetorone, flunarizine, amitriptyline, NSAIDs, sodium valproate and topiramate. With these drugs, the frequency of attacks can be reduced by half in 50 percent of patients. Some less evaluated substances such as aspirin, DHE, indoramine, and angiotensin II inhibitors may be useful. The decision to treat with drugs and the choice of a prophylactic drug are made together with the patient. The superiority of one major drug over another has never been demonstrated in a comparative trial, thus the choice of the drug to start with depends on the possible side effects and contraindications, the characteristics of the migraine attacks, and the associated morbidities and possible interactions with abortive medications. Doses should be increased gradually, in order to reach the recommended daily dose, only if tolerance permits. Treatment efficacy has to be assessed after 2 or 3 months, and in case of failure or poor tolerance, another treatment should be started. If the treatment is successful, it should be continued for 6 to 12 months, and then tapered off. The moderate efficacy and the frequency of the side effects observed with prophylactic drugs explain the high rate of withdrawals. Some patients nevertheless dramatically improve, warranting trying several drugs successively in order to find the most appropriate one. PMID:16141958

  10. Breast-feeding in preterm twins: Development of feeding behavior and milk intake during hospital stay and related caregiving practices.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2002-08-01

    In a prospective study of 13 preterm twins still in the hospital, 85% were breast-fed, of which 46% were breast-fed exclusively. Most mothers preferred simultaneous breast-feeding, using the football hold. Observations and maternal descriptions showed differences between the twins in their development of breast-feeding behavior, especially in sucking. The mothers' suggestions regarding special support for the breast-feeding mothers of preterm twins involved synchronizing feeding with the twins' behavioral states; twin cobedding; appropriate armchairs and breast-feeding pillows; experimenting with breast-feeding positions; information about breast milk production; nurses' spontaneous practical assistance, encouragement, and emotional support; the provision of privacy; the availability of parent rooms; and opportunities for fathers' presence in the hospital. PMID:12219324

  11. Prophylactic antibiotics in dermatological surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Paver, Robert

    2016-05-01

    This is a review of the common pathogens of surgical site infections, antibiotic coverage for particular anatomical sites, mechanisms by which surgical site infections occur and the latest data and recommendations for prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infections, infective endocarditis and haematogenous joint infections. Recent evidence-based guidelines on surgical prophylaxis is for restricted indications and a shorter duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in situations where no clinical benefit of prolonged therapy has been proven, in order to minimise the potential adverse ecological and clinical effects associated with antibiotic therapy. This review recommends the cautious use of prophylactic antibiotics in dermatological surgery to help prevent the growing problem of bacterial resistance as well as other morbidity and health-care costs. PMID:25752777

  12. System Thinking and Feeding Relations: Learning with a Live Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilam, Billie

    2012-01-01

    Considering well-documented difficulties in mastering ecology concepts and system thinking, the aim of the study was to examine 9th graders' understanding of the complex, multilevel, systemic construct of feeding relations, nested within a larger system of a live model. Fifty students interacted with the model and manipulated a variable within it…

  13. Catestatin and GABAAR related feeding habits rely on dopamine, ghrelin plus leptin neuroreceptor expression variations.

    PubMed

    Mele, Maria; Iachetta, Giuseppina; Alò, Raffaella; Avolio, Ennio; Fazzari, Gilda; Carelli, Antonio; Laforgia, Vincenza; Canonaco, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Catestatin (CST), an endogenously small sympathoinhibitory peptide is capable of interfering with the major cerebral neuroreceptor-blocking site, i.e. γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) system especially in limbic brain areas that are involved with feeding behaviors. The GABAARergic-related effects seem to derive from its interaction with other molecular neuroreceptors such as dopaminergic, ghrelin and leptinergic. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate probable feeding responses (eating and drinking) induced by treatment with CST and the GABAAR antagonist bicucullin (BIC) alone or simultaneously (CST+BIC) in the Syrian hibernating hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) model. Hamsters that received these compounds via intracerebroventricular infusions displayed notable variations of feeding and drinking bouts. In particular, an anorexigenic response was evident following treatment with CST while BIC evoked a significant increase of eating and drinking behaviors. Surprisingly when both agents were given simultaneously, a predominating anorexigenic response was detected as shown by evident CST-dependent reduction of feeding bouts. Contextually such behaviors, especially those following the combined treatment were tightly correlated with the significantly increased cerebral dopamine receptor 1 (D1) plus reduced ghrelin receptor (GhsR) and leptin receptor (LepR) transcript levels. Overall, the anorexigenic effect of CST deriving from its tight interaction with GABAARs activity plus D1 and GhsR transcripts tends to propose these neuronal elements as pivotal factors responsible for feeding disorders. PMID:26875516

  14. Post-feeding physiology in Rhodnius prolixus: the possible role of FGLamide-related allatostatins.

    PubMed

    Zandawala, Meet; Orchard, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Allatostatins (ASTs) are neuropeptides that were first identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by the corpora allata of some insect species. The FGLamide-related ASTs (FGLa/ASTs) belong to one of three families of insect ASTs. Previously, we showed that Rhodnius prolixus FGLa/ASTs (Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs) are present throughout the R. prolixus central nervous system and are associated with 5 dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons in the mesothoracic ganglionic mass. A similar set of neurons contain serotonin which is a diuretic hormone in R. prolixus. Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs inhibit both spontaneous contractions of the anterior midgut and leucokinin-1-induced hindgut contractions. Since these tissues are involved with post-feeding diuresis, these data suggest a possible role for FGLa/ASTs in events associated with feeding, and a possible interaction with serotonin. To investigate this possibility, we have examined the DUM neurons in more detail with regard to their peptide content, examined the potential release of Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs into the haemolymph following feeding, and further investigated the effects of Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs on feeding-related tissues. There are 10 DUM neurons in the abdominal neuromeres, 5 of which express serotonin-like immunoreactivity and the other 5 express FGLa/AST-like immunoreactivity. FGLa/AST-like immunoreactivity is reduced in the 5 DUM neuron cell bodies and their neurohaemal sites on abdominal nerves at 3-5 h post feeding. Rhopr-FGLa/ASTs do not inhibit serotonin-stimulated anterior midgut absorption or Malpighian tubule secretion but do inhibit hindgut contractions induced by an endogenous kinin, suggesting that they may only indirectly affect post-feeding diuresis in R. prolixus. PMID:24161751

  15. Breast, Formula and Combination Feeding in Relation to Childhood Obesity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Melissa D; Colapinto, Cynthia K; Khan, Mohammad K A; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patricia L; Kirk, Sara F L; Veugelers, Paul J

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding has been rigorously studied in relation to childhood obesity prevention. Few studies have examined whether combination feeding—breast milk and formula—may also be protective against obesity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding duration, combination feeding and overweight and obesity among Canadian school children. We analyzed data from a 2011 cross-sectional, population based survey (n = 5,560), which included self-reported infant feeding behaviours, a food frequency questionnaire and measured height and weight. Multilevel regression methods were used to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and overweight and obesity adjusting for socioeconomic status, diet quality and physical activity. Thirty-four percent of children were breastfed for <1 week or never while 32% were breastfed for at least 6 months. In the fully adjusted model, children who were only formula fed or who were combination fed for <6 months were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to children who were only breastfed (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60 and OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.69, respectively). When examining overweight and obese children separately, those who were only formula fed were more likely obese (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25) relative to their peers who were only breastfed. And those who were combination fed for <6 months relative to those only breastfed were more likely to be overweight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.66). Breastfeeding, in the absence of formula feeding, appears to have a protective effect on childhood obesity. While combination feeding confers less benefit than only breastfeeding, it is more desirable than formula feeding alone. Strategies and social policies are needed to promote exclusive and longer breastfeeding duration and should be integrated with comprehensive efforts to prevent childhood obesity and to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the long term. PMID:25656729

  16. Aggressive behaviour in immature captive Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, in relation to feeding.

    PubMed

    Morpurgo, B; Gvaryahu, G; Robinzon, B

    1993-06-01

    This study presents five aspects of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus, as observed in five cohorts of 6-18 month-old animals. During this period, the animals grew from a range of 35-55 cm, to a range of 65-115 cm. 1) Stock density related to aggression: decrease in density resulted in significant decrease in the frequency of agonistic events, with 0.64 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 6.7 crocodiles/m2, compared to 0.26 events/100 crocodiles/min observed in a density of 4.7 crocodiles/m2. 2) Aggression during feeding: in all five groups, there was a significantly higher level of aggression during feeding times. 3) Aggression related to body size: the largest crocodiles were the most aggressive group in agonistic events, mainly against the smallest ones. The largest group, the medium sized, was the least involved in agonistic events. 4) Aggression related to food preference: crocodile food preference was live fish > live chicks > dead fish > ground meat. Except for one food type (live chicks), a significant (p < 0.05) correlation was found between food preference and feeding related aggression in the prey diet groups. 5) Aggression related to an artificial selection for size: removal of the largest crocodiles (which formed 30% of the stock) from the population caused a dramatic decrease in all forms of aggressive behaviour. PMID:8346299

  17. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  18. Genetic parameters of ascites-related traits in broilers: correlations with feed efficiency and carcase traits.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Vereijken, A L J; Bovenhuis, H

    2005-02-01

    (1) Pulmonary hypertension syndrome followed by ascites is a metabolic disorder in broilers that occurs more often in fast-growing birds and at cool temperatures. (2) Knowledge of the genetic relationships among ascites-related traits and performance traits like carcase traits or feed efficiency traits is required to design breeding programmes that aim to improve the degree of resistance to ascites syndrome as well as production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate these genetic correlations. (3) Three different experiments were set up to measure ascites-related traits (4202 birds), feed efficiency traits (2166 birds) and carcase traits (2036 birds). The birds in different experiments originated from the same group of parents, which enabled the estimation of genetic correlations among different traits. (4) The genetic correlation of body weight (BW) measured under normal conditions and in the carcase experiment with the ascites indicator trait of right ventricle to total ventricle ratio (RV:TV) measured under cold conditions was 0.30. The estimated genetic correlation indicated that single-trait selecting for BW leads to an increase in occurrence of the ascites syndrome but that there are realistic opportunities of multi-trait selection of birds for improved BW and resistance to ascites. (5) Weak but positive genetic relationships were found between feed efficiency and ascites-related traits suggesting that more efficient birds tend to be slightly more susceptible to ascites. (6) The relatively low genetic correlation between BW measured in the carcase or in the feed efficiency experiments and BW measured in the ascites experiment (0.49) showed considerable genotype by environment interaction. (7) These results indicate that birds with high genetic potential for growth rate under normal temperature conditions have lower growth rate under cold-stress conditions due to ascites. PMID:15835251

  19. [Prophylactic drug management of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A

    2003-10-01

    Migraine prophylaxis with drugs is still an essential part of migraine therapy. This is especially true for those patients with frequent migraines who are in danger of developing drug-induced headaches. Migraine prophylaxis should be taken in consideration in patients who suffer from 7 or more migraine days per month in spite of all non-pharmacological efforts. When choosing a prophylactic drug not only efficacy but tolerability and safety for long-term intake should be considered. Prophylactic drugs used to be classified as drugs of first, second and third choice. According to this step care model treatment was started with a drug of first choice and only in case of lack of efficacy or adverse events a drug of lower choice was selected. Today, in contrast to the traditional step care a stratified care is favored. Treatment is individualized based on an assessment of the patients' medical needs, on comorbidity, the migraine phenotype and most importantly the individual situation of the patient in life. The paper gives an overview of the efficacy and tolerability of drugs used in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:14655662

  20. [Prophylactic drug management of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A

    2002-06-01

    Migraine prophylaxis with drugs is still an essential part of migraine therapy. This is especially true for those patients with frequent migraines who are in danger of developing drug-induced headaches. Migraine prophylaxis should be taken in consideration in patients who suffer from 7 or more migraine days per months in spite of all non-pharmacological efforts. When choosing a prophylactic drug not only efficacy but tolerability and safety for long-term intake should be considered. Prophylactic drugs used to be classified as drugs of first, second and third choice. According to this step care model treatment was started with a drug of first choice and only in case of lack of efficacy or adverse events a drug of lower choice was selected. Today, in contrast to the traditional step care a stratified care is favored. Treatment is individualized based on an assessment of the patients' medical needs, on comorbidity, the migraine phenotype and most important the individual situation of the patient in life. The paper gives an overview of the efficacy and tolerability of drugs used in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:12077682

  1. Migraine prophylactic medication usage patterns in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rahimtoola, H; Buurma, H; Tijssen, C C; Leufkens, H G; Egberts, A C G

    2003-05-01

    This study aims to investigate usage patterns of specific migraine prophylactic medications in ergotamine and triptan patients commencing this treatment for the first time during 1 January 1992 until 31 December 1998. Usage patterns of specific migraine prophylactic drugs were evaluated for each patient by accessing data from a large prescription database and were characterized as continued, switch or stop use during the patient observation period. Several patient and medication-related factors were explored in order to identify a possible relationship with the specific usage pattern defined. Approximately 75% of the study population (n = 729) had terminated (stop or switch) prophylactic treatment after 1 year. Age < 40 years (relative risk (RR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.2) and the concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (RR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-5.5) or specific abortive migraine drugs resulted in a faster onset of treatment modification (switch). Overall, migraine prophylactic treatment is used for a relatively short period, probably attributable to the common limitations associated with migraine prophylaxis, such as poor compliance and/or limited therapeutic efficacy. Patterns of use can be influenced by a variety of factors, including age, type of prescriber and certain co-medication. Patient interview studies are required to clarify these issues further. PMID:12716348

  2. Aggression, behavior and peripheral amine concentrations in relation to ractopamine feeding, sex, and social rank of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the widely used feed additive ractopamine (RAC) on behavioral and physiological responses in finishing pigs are limited. Aggression is of concern for its potential to impair pig’s productivity and well-being; thus its relation with feeding of RAC, an adrenoreceptor agonist, warrants f...

  3. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related tospontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  4. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure age on foaming characteristics. Animals were f...

  5. Associations between feed efficiency, sexual maturity and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, A B P; Montanholi, Y R; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-01-01

    The beef industry has emphasized the improvement of feed utilization, as measured by modeling feed intake through performance traits to calculate residual feed intake (RFI). Evidence supports an inverse relationship between feed efficiency and reproductive function. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of reproductive assessments and RFI unadjusted (RFI(Koch)) or adjusted for body composition (RFI(us)) and the relationship among fertility-related parameters. In total, 34 crossbred bulls were housed together for 112 days of performance evaluation, followed by assessment of scrotum IR imaging, scrotal circumference, testes ultrasonography and semen quality parameters at 377±33.4 days of age. Bulls were slaughtered at 389±34.0 days of age, and analyses of carcass composition, biometrics and histomorphometry of the testis and epididymis were conducted. Bulls were grouped into two subpopulations based on divergence of RFI, and within each RFI model either by including 50% of the population (Halves, high and low RFI, n=17) or 20.6% extremes of the population (Tails, high and low RFI, n=7). The means of productive performance and fertility-related measures were compared through these categories. Pearson's correlation was calculated among fertility-related measures. In the Halves subpopulation of the RFI(us), sperm of low-RFI bulls had decreased progressive motility (47.30% v. 59.90%) and higher abundance of tail abnormalities (4.30% v. 1.80%) than that of high-RFI bulls. In the Tails subpopulation of the RFI(Koch), low RFI displayed less variation in the scrotum surface temperature (0.62°C v. 1.16°C), decreased testis echogenicity (175.50 v 198.00 pixels) and larger (60.90 v. 56.80 mm(2)) but less-developed seminiferous tubules than high-RFI bulls. The evaluation of fertility-related parameters indicated that a higher percentage of immature seminiferous tubules was correlated with occurrence of sperm with distal droplets (r=0.59), a larger

  6. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that

  7. Racial and Ethnic Differences Associated With Feeding- and Activity-Related Behaviors in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Russell L.; Sanders, Lee M.; Skinner, Asheley C.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Throop, Elizabeth M.; Yin, H. Shonna

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine parental reports of feeding and activity behaviors in a cohort of parents of 2-month-olds and how they differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Parents participating in Greenlight, a cluster, randomized trial of obesity prevention at 4 health centers, were queried at enrollment about feeding and activity behaviors thought to increase obesity risk. Unadjusted associations between race/ethnicity and the outcomes of interest were performed by using Pearson χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted analyses were performed by using proportional odds logistic regressions. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-three parents (50% Hispanic, 27% black, 18% white; 86% Medicaid) were enrolled. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45%) as exclusive breastfeeding (19%); 12% had already introduced solid food; 43% put infants to bed with bottles; 23% propped bottles; 20% always fed when the infant cried; 38% always tried to get children to finish milk; 90% were exposed to television (mean, 346 minutes/day); 50% reported active television watching (mean, 25 minutes/day); and 66% did not meet “tummy time” recommendations. Compared with white parents, black parents were more likely to put children to bed with a bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.97, P < .004; bottle propping, aOR = 3.1, P < .001), and report more television watching (aOR = 1.6, P = .034). Hispanic parents were more likely than white parents to encourage children to finish feeding (aOR = 1.9, P = .007), bottle propping (aOR = 2.5, P = .009), and report less tummy time (aOR = 0.6, P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors thought to relate to later obesity were highly prevalent in this large, diverse sample and varied by race/ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally-adapted interventions. PMID:24639273

  8. Effects of auricular stimulation on feeding-related hypothalamic neuronal activity in normal and obese rats.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, T; Onoe, M; Kojima, T; Sameshima, Y; Kageyama, T

    1995-01-01

    It is known that auriculotherapy occasionally affects dramatic body weight reduction for obese patients, although the physiological and anorexigenic functions are not clear. Effects of auricular stimulation on feeding-related lateral (LHA) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic neuronal activity in normal and experimental (hypothalamic and dietary) obese rats were investigated. The LHA and/or VMH neuronal activity were recorded from feeding-related regions in Wistar SPF/VAF male and experimental (hypothalamic and dietary) obese rats, anesthetized with urethane-chloralose, under stereotaxic coordination. Recording was through 3 M KCI glass microelectrodes, while stimulating the ipsilateral vagal innervated region of the auricle. This is equivalent to the cavum conchae in the human, and was identified by resistance less than 10-50 k omega. The stimulating electrode was a stainless steel ear acupuncture (0.12 x 2.0 mm). The latency of potentials evoked in the LHA by unilateral stimulation of a specific site in the ear was 28.1 +/- 3.3 ms (8-92, n = 41). LHA neuronal activity was depressed 45.6% (n = 12, p < 0.01), and VMH activity was excited (60.5%, n = 18, p < 0.01). The auricular acupuncture stimulation clearly modulates feeding-related hypothalamic neuronal activity of experimental (both hypothalamic and dietary) obese rats. These auricle acupuncture stimulation effects were correlated to the degree of obesity. In conclusion, the results suggest that auricular acupuncture stimulation may not reduce appetite, but is more likely concerned with satiation formation and preservation. Thus, auricular acupuncture should be more effective on obese rats than on normal rats. PMID:7895091

  9. Relative bioavailability of phosphorus in feed and agricultural phosphates for poultry.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J I; Lima, F R; Mendonça, C X; Mabe, I; Albuquerque, R; Leal, P M

    1999-12-01

    Nine hundred fifty male Hubbard chicks were used in a 21-d study (10 birds per battery cage) to determine relative bioavailability of P (RBP) in four feed-grade phosphates (FP) [two Brazilian dicalcium and two U.S.-made phosphates (di-monocalcium and defluorinated)] and four Brazilian agricultural grade phosphates (AP) [single (AP-1), and triple (AP-2) superphosphates, monoammonium (AP-3), and thermomagnesium (AP-4) phosphates]. The reference standard was a purified-grade calcium phosphate dibasic (SP). Phosphates were added to the corn-soybean control diet (22% protein; 0.40% P + 0.08% P from SP), providing 0.08 and 0.16% additional P. Calcium level was 1.0% for all diets. Slope ratio was used to determine RBP, with BW, bone ash (BA), or bone strength (BS) regressed on P added within each P source. A relative biological value (RBV) was estimated using BW, BA, and feed efficiency. Performance was depressed (P < 0.01) by AP as compared with FP; BW was decreased by 11%, and feed intake (FI) was decreased by 14%. Mortality increased (P < 0.05) by 154% (7 vs 2.8%). Phosphate source AP-4, which had the lowest content of P and a high content of F, Fe, Ba, Ti, and Th, was toxic based on a 44% decrease (P < 0.01) in BW, 46% decrease in FI, 19% decrease in BA (32.4 vs 40.0%), 55% decrease in BS (7.1 vs 15.8 kg), and mortality increase (P < 0.05) from 0.7 to 26% compared with the average of AP-1, -2 and -3. The RBP could not be estimated for AP-4; and average availabilities for FP and AP, respectively, were 100.6 and 107.6% (BW), 88.3 and 93.2% (BA), 84.2 and 96.3% (BS), and 100.0 and 99.9% (RBP). The AP varied in RBP, with particularly high values calculated for AP-3. Performance and bone parameters in this study were not strongly affected by high levels of potentially toxic mineral elements in certain AP; this result may be explained by the low levels of phosphate addition and the short duration of the feeding period (21 d). However, considering their relatively high

  10. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group). All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society); 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician). Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine. PMID:22405186

  11. Prophylactic surgery in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Celentano, V; Luglio, G; Antonelli, G; Tarquini, R; Bucci, L

    2011-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by a germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes and is a dominantly inherited syndrome, responsible for 2-5% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. Mutation carriers have a 60-85% risk of developing CRC. With the increasing use of genetic predisposition testing, patients and health care providers must decide on cancer risk-reduction strategies. The cancers observed in families with LS are diagnosed at an unusually early age and may be multiple. The decision about which surgery is suitable should be made on the basis of patient factors and preferences, with special emphasis on age, comorbidity, sphincteric function, and the ability of the patient to cope with intensive surveillance. Colectomy decreases the risk of second CRC significantly. The estimated lifetime risk for endometrial adenocarcinoma is 40-60% in women with LS, and the mean age at diagnosis is around 50 years. This risk equals or exceeds the risk of CRC. The optimal management of the elevated risk for cancer in carriers of mutations for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is unclear. Patients who are gene mutation carriers should receive counseling about colectomy, and if women, prophylactic hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy. PMID:21287222

  12. Differential expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides in the first generation of quails divergently selected for low or high feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Kaley; Gilley, Alex; Piekarski, Alissa; Orlowski, Sara; Greene, Elizabeth; Bottje, Walter; Anthony, Nicholas; Dridi, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Livestock and poultry sectors are facing a combination of challenges, including a substantial increase in global demand for high quality animal protein, general droughts and steady rise in animal feed cost. Thus feed efficiency (FE), which defines the animal's ability to convert feed into body weight, is a vital economic and agricultural trait. Genetic selection for FE has been largely used in chickens and has been applied without knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Although it has made tremendous progress (breast yield, growth rate, egg production), there have been a number of undesirable changes such as metabolic disorders. In the present study we divergently selected male and female quail for high and low FE and we aimed to characterize the molecular basis of these differences at the central level, with the long-term goal of maximizing FE and avoiding the unfavorable consequences. The FE phenotype in first generation quails seemed to be achieved by reduced feed intake in female and increased body weight gain in males. At the molecular level, we found that the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic genes is gender- and line-dependent. Indeed, the expression of NPY, POMC, CART, CRH, melanocortin system (MC1R, MC2R, MC4R, MC5R), ORX, mTOR and ACCα was significantly decreased, however ORXR1/2, AMPKα1, S6K1 and STAT1, 5 and 6 were increased in high compared to low FE males (P<0.05). These genes did not differ between the two female lines. ADPN gene expression was higher and its receptor Adip-R1 was lower in LFE compared to HFE females (P<0.05). In male however, although there was no difference in ADPN gene expression between the genotypes, Adip-R1 and Adip-R2 mRNA abundances were higher in the LFE compared to HFE line (P<0.05). This study identified several key central feeding-related genes that are differentially expressed between low and high FE male and female quails which might explain the differences in feed intake/body weight gain observed

  13. Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in head and neck cancer patients: results of tertiary institute.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Jaakko; Rekola, Jami; Asanti, Mari; Grénman, Reidar

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the use and complications of a prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and cancer patients in our institute. A retrospective study of 194 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed upper aero digestive tract malignancy who underwent mainly prophylactic PEG tube placement. The procedure is relatively safe: 15 (7.7%) of the complications were considered serious; no deaths occurred. Of the patients 23 (12.5%) did not use the PEG tube at all, but it was not possible to single out a group of patients in which this could be predicted. The majority of the patients were considered to benefit from the prophylactic PEG insertion. PMID:24071857

  14. Feeding bionomics of juvenile chinook salmon relative to thermal discharges in the central Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford environs of the central Columbia River, Washington consumed almost entirely adult and larval stages of aquatic insects. The food organisms were dominated by midges (Diptera: Tendipedidae); by numbers, adult midges provided 64 and 58% of the diet and larval midges 17 and 18% of the diet, in 1968 and 1969, respectively. The families Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera), Notonectidae (Hemiptera) and Hypogastruridae (Collembola) were of secondary importance. Small fry fed almost exclusively on the small tendipedids. Over 95% of all food organisms originated within the river ecosystem. The distinctive features of food and feeding activity were fourfold: first, relatively few insect groups were utilized; second, the fish depended on drifting, floating, or swimming organisms; third, they visually selected living prey moving in or on the water; and fourth, they were habitat opportunists to a high degree. The 1969 data, were studied to reveal possible thermal effects of heated discharges from plutonium production reactors at Hanford on food and growth parameters. All data were characterized by considerable variation between and within stations. No discernable effects between coldwater and warmwater stations were revealed by analyses of: (1) groups of food organisms utilized, (2) food and feeding activity, (3) numbers of insects consumed, (4) seasonal increases in fish length, (5) fish length-weight relationships, (6) fish coefficients of condition, and (7) stomach biomass. The lack of detectable thermal effects was apparently due to the fact that the main effluent plumes discharge in midstream and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish groups at each station, influenced by changes in regulated river flows, and the availability of food organisms in the river drift were ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation in situ.

  15. Salmonella enterica in Commercial Swine Feed and Subsequent Isolation of Phenotypically and Genotypically Related Strains from Fecal Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-Ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Morrow, W. E. Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) when pigs reached market age (392/5,321 samples). Of the 280 Salmonella isolates systematically selected for further characterization, 50% of the feed isolates and 55.3% of the isolates of fecal origin showed similar phenotypes based on antimicrobial resistance patterns and serogrouping. About 44% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping grouped the 46 representative isolates into five genotypic clusters, of which four of the clusters consisted of genotypically related isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples. The occurrence of genotypically related and, in some cases, clonal strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates in commercially processed feed and fecal samples, suggests the high significance of commercial feed as a potential vehicle of Salmonella transmission. PMID:20851969

  16. Salmonella enterica in commercial swine feed and subsequent isolation of phenotypically and genotypically related strains from fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Molla, Bayleyegn; Sterman, Allyson; Mathews, Jennifer; Artuso-Ponte, Valeria; Abley, Melanie; Farmer, William; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Morrow, W E Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence and genotypic relatedness of Salmonella enterica isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples in commercial swine production units. Of 275 feed samples, Salmonella was detected in 10 feed samples that originated from 8 of 36 (22.2%) barns, with a prevalence of 3.6% (10/275 samples). In fecal samples, a prevalence of 17.2% was found at the early finishing stage (1,180/6,880 samples), with a significant reduction in prevalence (7.4%) when pigs reached market age (392/5,321 samples). Of the 280 Salmonella isolates systematically selected for further characterization, 50% of the feed isolates and 55.3% of the isolates of fecal origin showed similar phenotypes based on antimicrobial resistance patterns and serogrouping. About 44% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotyping grouped the 46 representative isolates into five genotypic clusters, of which four of the clusters consisted of genotypically related isolates recovered from feed and fecal samples. The occurrence of genotypically related and, in some cases, clonal strains, including multidrug-resistant isolates in commercially processed feed and fecal samples, suggests the high significance of commercial feed as a potential vehicle of Salmonella transmission. PMID:20851969

  17. Feeding habits of juvenile flatfish in relation to habitat characteristics in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ann-Britt; Lavados, Gaston

    2010-03-01

    To investigate feeding habits of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Psetta maxima) in relation to habitat characteristics a field survey with push net sampling was conducted in nursery areas with different ecological characteristics in the northern Baltic proper. Sampling sites were stratified to cover several different habitat types defined by substrate and wave exposure. Apart from flatfishes and epifauna, samples of macrofauna, meiofauna and hyperbenthic planktons were collected from each site together with data on vegetation, depth, salinity, temperature and turbidity. The diet differed between species where flounder diet was dominated by chironomids, copepods and oligochaetes while turbot apart from chironomids had a high incidence of amphipods, gobies and mysids. In both species there was a shift in diet with size, although this shift was influenced by the habitat. Among the environmental variables investigated, wave exposure was found to significantly influence flounder diet. Food preference in the most exposed areas was dominated by oligochaetes and copepods instead of chironomids, which dominated in sheltered areas. This study shows that habitat characteristics can have a major influence on feeding habits of juvenile flatfish.

  18. Application and effectiveness of prophylactic devices in model experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakurin, L. I.

    1977-01-01

    Material is presented for evaluating the effectiveness of prophylactic devices intended for maintaining: a relatively high functional level of the cardiovascular system; the nerve and muscle apparatus; and the water and salt status. The effects of the following are analyzed: physical training, lower body negative pressure, regulation of water and salt consumption, pharmacological preparations, and a combination of these. The author points out the need for further research.

  19. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM's effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon's perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient's quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM's effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  20. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katharine; Sisco, Mark; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in the United States among women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer, particularly young women. Approximately one-third of women <40 years old are undergoing CPM in the US. Most studies have shown that the CPM trend is mainly patient-driven, which reflects a changing environment for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. The most common reason that women choose CPM is based on misperceptions about CPM’s effect on survival and overestimation of their contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. No prospective studies have shown survival benefit to CPM, and the CBC rate for most women is low at 10 years. Fear of recurrence is also a big driver of CPM decisions. Nonetheless, studies have shown that women are mostly satisfied with undergoing CPM, but complications and subsequent surgeries with reconstruction have been associated with dissatisfaction with CPM. Studies on surgeon’s perspectives on CPM are sparse but show that the most common reasons surgeons discuss CPM with patients is because of a suspicious family history or for a patient who is a confirmed BRCA mutation carrier. Studies on the cost–effectiveness of CPM have been conflicting and are highly dependent on patient’s quality of life after CPM. Most recent guidelines for CPM are contradictory. Future areas of research include the development of interventions to better inform patients about CPM, modification of the guidelines to form a more consistent statement, longer term studies on CBC risk and CPM’s effect on survival, and prospective studies that track the psychosocial effects of CPM on body image and sexuality. PMID:27382334

  1. Pseudocomponent test of the relative utilization of feed components in fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, R.H.; Gatte, R.R.; Pereira, C.J. )

    1993-03-01

    A pseudocomponent mixture is used to test the relative reactivity of hydrocarbon classes over a range of zeolite catalysts (USY, CREY, Beta, Omega, and ZSM-5) under industrial fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) conditions. The hydrocarbon mixture (32.7% n-hexadecane, 45.3% phenyloctane, 17.3% cyclohexyloctane, and 2.3% 2-methylhexadecane) was chosen to reflect the molecular distribution of n-paraffins, i-paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in a standard FCC gas oil feed. Analysis of the cracking results of the hydrocarbon mixture determines relative kinetic reaction rates which are decoupled from deactivation, volume expansion, and some adsorption terms. Each zeolite type cracks the hydrocarbons in the mixture at different relative rates, which reflects differences in competitive adsorption, relative diffusion rates, and acid site strength. The relative reaction rates of the hydrocarbon classes over a given zeolite are a strong determinant of the molecular distribution of the gasoline produced by that zeolite catalyst for both the pseudocomponent mixture and the full gas oil. 24 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  3. The influence of diet and feeding state on FMRFamide-related peptides in the gut of Locusta migratoria L.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sharon R; Orchard, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Gut tissues of 2-week post-ecdysis female Locusta migratoria L. were assayed for FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (FLI) during various feeding states using both radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry. The feeding states investigated were: (a) 48- and 24-h starved; (b) 5-, 30-, or 60-min post-feeding initiation; and (c) a diet of wheat grass, carrots, or apples. We determined: (1) the feeding state of a locust influences FLI in all gut tissues; (2) variations in diet appear to influence FLI in all gut tissues; (3) more than one FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) responds to differences in diet and state of starvation in the gut tissues; and (4) the protein poor diets (carrot and apple), in conjunction with the assertion that protein to carbohydrate ratio in the diet is the key component for nutrient balancing, suggests that FaRPs may play a role in maintaining balanced nutrient content in the locust. PMID:15003362

  4. The aquaculture potential of Tilapia rendalli in relation to its feeding habits and digestive capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    Tilapia rendalli is a predominately macrophagous fish. However, it was able to colonise an oligotrophic dam (Flag Boshielo) with limited macrophytes. Therefore, the diet of T. rendalli in this dam was investigated; its stomach contents were examined over 12 months. A size related dietary shift was evident. Juveniles fed mainly on zooplankton while sub-adult and adult fish grazed on both macrophytes and marginal vegetation. T. rendalli’s ability to strive in an environment with limited food resources led to a subsequent study to determine its aquaculture potential. Its growth performance was compared to that of the commonly cultured Oreochromis mossambicus. Juveniles of both species were fed a commercial tilapia diet for 60 days. Specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio was comparable to that of O. mossambicus (P > 0.05, ANOVA). Feed conversion ratio was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T. rendalli (1.43) than in O. mossambicus (1.25) indicating a better efficiency in feed utilisation by O. mossambicus. At a physiological level, protease, lipase and cellulase activities did not differ significantly between the two fish species (P > 0.05). Amylase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in T. rendalli than in O. mossambicus. The highest amylase activities were recorded in the proximal intestines as 26.34 and 22.00 μmol/min/mg protein in T. rendalli and O. mossambicus respectively. This may be an indicator that T. rendalli is better equipped to digest plant diets. T. rendalli may be the aquaculture species of choice for emerging fish farmers who cannot afford the highly priced fishmeal as a protein source in fish diets.

  5. Flavor experiences during formula feeding are related to preferences during childhood.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Julie A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2002-07-01

    As part of a program of research designed to investigate the long-term effects of early feeding experiences, the present study exploited the substantial flavor variation inherent in three classes of commercially available infant formulas and determined whether flavor preferences during childhood differed as a function of the class of formula (i.e., milk, soy, hydrolysate) that 4- to 5-year-old children were fed during their infancy. Age appropriate, game-like tasks that were fun for children and minimized the impact of language development were used to examine their preferences for a wide range of food-related odor qualities including infant formulas, as well as the flavor of milk-based and hydrolysate formulas and plain, sour- and bitter-flavored apple juices. Formula type influenced children's flavor preferences when tested several years after their last exposure to the formula. When compared to children who were fed milk-based formulas (n=27), children fed protein hydrolysate formulas (n=50) were more likely to prefer sour-flavored juices, as well as the odor and flavor of formulas, and less likely to make negative facial expressions during the taste tests. Those fed soy formulas (n=27) preferred the bitter-flavored apple juice. That the effects of differential formula feeding also modified children's food preferences is suggested by mothers' reports that children fed hydrolysate or soy formulas were significantly more likely to prefer broccoli than were those fed milk formulas. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that flavor experiences influence subsequent flavor preferences even several years following the early experience. PMID:12113993

  6. [An overview of prophylactic therapy for migraine].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    The launch of triptans has significantly changed the treatment of migraine, leading to great improvement in the quality of life (QOL) of migraine patients. In routine clinical settings, few patients present with migraine attacks that clearly deviate from the typical frequency and severity of migraine, and migraine that is difficult to control with acute-phase treatment alone is frequently encountered. Under these circumstances, the importance of prophylactic therapy, including lifestyle guidance and drug treatment, has attracted attention. However, in Japan, only a small number of prophylactics are currently indicated for migraine, and the available options are insufficient. In this study, I have outlined the prophylactic strategies for migraine, including lifestyle guidance, on the basis of literature published in Europe and North America. In addition, I have presented my clinical experiences and research reports to introduce cases of migraine for which prophylactic therapy was indicated, to hypothesize the mechanisms of the prophylatic activity of specific drugs (e.g., anti-convulsants, anti-depressants, beta-blockers, AII antagonists, Ca channel blockers, leukotriene receptor antagonists, statins, anti-herpes zoster virus drugs) for their prophylactic effect on migraine, and to determine drug regimens. PMID:19882936

  7. The spatial distribution of avian relatives: do obligate army-ant-following birds roost and feed near family members?

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2008-06-01

    The ocellated antbird (Phaenostictus mcleannani) feeds in groups and therefore is an informative species in which to study the biological factors that modulate avian group living. These birds congregate at swarms of army ants to capture fleeing prey, and previous observations suggest that males may be philopatric, feed with close relatives, and defend communal feeding ranges. We assessed whether kin selection could be an important factor maintaining group formation in a population of ocellated antbirds inhabiting continuous forest at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, using radiotelemetry and 15 novel microsatellite markers. We predicted that the roosting areas of closely related adult males should overlap and that adult males feeding simultaneously at the same swarm should be highly related. We banded and genotyped 65 individuals (>or= 88% of the population) and radiotagged 30 of them. The results generally did not conform to our predictions. Little overlap occurred among the roosting areas of same-sex individuals, and nearest roosting neighbours (either same or opposite sex) were generally unrelated. A small proportion of male dyads suggested short-distance dispersal, but in general the distribution of genotypes within the study area approached randomness. We found little evidence of natal philopatry in either sex. Less than half of the feeding groups sampled included highly related males; most consisted of unrelated individuals. Hence, we found limited potential for kin selection to favour group living and suggest that other factors, particularly direct benefits (e.g. food intake), are probably more important than indirect effects (nepotism). PMID:18565030

  8. Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pavilonis, Brian T.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Merchant, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0 to 17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs was collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric ofeach child’s relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthmaand relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheezeas the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children’s cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

  9. Relative exposure to swine animal feeding operations and childhood asthma prevalence in an agricultural cohort.

    PubMed

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Sanderson, Wayne T; Merchant, James A

    2013-04-01

    Large swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) have become the model of livestock production throughout the United States. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an increase in adverse respiratory symptoms among workers at AFOs. However, the impact on communities surrounding these facilities is still being investigated. We evaluated the association between relative environmental exposure to AFOs and the prevalence of prescribed medication for wheeze and/or childhood asthma in rural Iowa. Demographic and health information on 565 children aged 0-17 was obtained from a previous population-based cohort study while data on the AFOs were collected from publically available tax records. We created a metric of each child's relative environmental exposure to swine CAFOs which incorporated the size of the AFO as well as distance and wind direction. We determined the association between self-reported prescription medication for wheeze and/or self-reported physician diagnosed asthma and relative exposure while controlling for recognized risk factors using correlated logistic regression. The prevalence of childhood asthma in the cohort was 11.0% while 22.7% of children had been previously prescribed medication for wheeze or had a lifetime asthma diagnosis. Children with a larger relative environmental exposure to AFOs had a significantly increased odds of both outcomes (OR=1.51, p=0.014 asthma; OR=1.38, p=0.023 asthma or medication for wheeze). When stratified into exposure quartiles a linear trend was observed with asthma or medication for wheeze as the dependent variable but not with asthma alone. This study is the first to investigate children's cumulative relative exposure to smaller AFOs and adds to the growing volume of literature supporting a link between proximity to swine AFOs and adverse respiratory health. PMID:23332647

  10. Mother-Child Touch Patterns in Infant Feeding Disorders: Relation to Maternal, Child, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Keren, Miri; Gross-Rozval, Orna; Tyano, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine mother and child's touch patterns in infant feeding disorders within a transactional framework. Method: Infants (aged 9-34 months) referred to a community-based clinic were diagnosed with feeding disorders (n = 20) or other primary disorder (n = 27) and were case matched with nonreferred controls (n = 47). Mother-child play…

  11. "Giving Guilt the Flick"?: An Investigation of Mothers' Talk about Guilt in Relation to Infant Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kate; Donaghue, Ngaire; Kurz, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Manuals offering advice to new parents on the topic of infant feeding have recently begun to attend to the possible implications of pro-breast-feeding discourses for mothers' subjective experiences, particularly with respect to guilt. In this article, we present a discursive analysis of focus groups with 35 Australian mothers in which we examine…

  12. Prophylactic HPV vaccination: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Castle, P E; Maza, M

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer-related death in females worldwide. HPV also causes anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines based on recombinantly expressed virus-like particles have been developed. Two first-generation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines prevent infections and disease caused by HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer, and one of these vaccines also prevents HPV6 and HPV11, the two HPV genotypes that cause 90% of genital warts. A next-generation vaccine, recently approved by the U.S. FDA, targets HPV16, HPV18, and five additional HPV genotypes that together causes approximately 90% of cervical cancer as well as HPV6 and HPV11. In clinical trials, these vaccines have shown high levels of efficacy against disease and infections caused by the targeted HPV genotypes in adolescent females and males and older females. Data indicate population effectiveness, and therefore cost effectiveness, is highest in HPV-naive young females prior to becoming sexually active. Countries that implemented HPV vaccination before 2010 have already experienced decreases in population prevalence of targeted HPV genotypes and related anogenital diseases in women and via herd protection in heterosexual men. Importantly, after more than 100 million doses given worldwide, HPV vaccination has demonstrated an excellent safety profile. With demonstrated efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety, universal HPV vaccination of all young, adolescent women, and with available resources at least high-risk groups of men, should be a global health priority. Failure to do so will result in millions of women dying from avertable cervical cancers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and many thousands of women and men dying from other HPV-related cancers. PMID:26429676

  13. Seasonal and long-term changes in relative abundance of bull sharks from a tourist shark feeding site in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity. PMID:21346792

  14. Seasonal and Long-Term Changes in Relative Abundance of Bull Sharks from a Tourist Shark Feeding Site in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Baensch, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Shark tourism has become increasingly popular, but remains controversial because of major concerns originating from the need of tour operators to use bait or chum to reliably attract sharks. We used direct underwater sampling to document changes in bull shark Carcharhinus leucas relative abundance at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a shark feeding site in Fiji, and the reproductive cycle of the species in Fijian waters. Between 2003 and 2009, the total number of C. leucas counted on each day ranged from 0 to 40. Whereas the number of C. leucas counted at the feeding site increased over the years, shark numbers decreased over the course of a calendar year with fewest animals counted in November. Externally visible reproductive status information indicates that the species' seasonal departure from the feeding site may be related to reproductive activity. PMID:21346792

  15. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    PubMed

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  16. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding. PMID:25338062

  17. Relative Roles of Grey Squirrels, Supplementary Feeding, and Habitat in Shaping Urban Bird Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds’ nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding. PMID:25338062

  18. 75 FR 79320 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Regulation of Carcinogenic Compounds in Food-Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ..., 1987, final rule (52 FR 49572 at 49586), suggests that an emphasis on no significant increase in the... test animals approach, reflects the original intent of the regulation. (See, e.g., 52 FR 49572 at 49575... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related...

  19. 75 FR 55676 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 520, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Chloramphenicol; Lincomycin.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal...

  20. Effects of plant water stress and temperature on glassy-winged sharpshooter feeding in relation to transmission of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), is an economically important pest of grapevine, stone fruits, nursery trees, and ornamental plants in California because it transmits Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Two related studies examined whether GWSS feeding behaviors that co...

  1. 76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 65565) amending the animal drug regulations. The October 26, 2010, final rule amended the... CFR part 558 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 360b, 371. Sec. 558.530 0 2. In Sec... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related...

  2. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  3. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  4. Effects of nicotine on the digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds reflect their relative tolerance to this alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Lerch-Henning, S; Nicolson, S W

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences compensatory feeding and digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds. High nicotine concentration negatively affected compensatory feeding and apparent assimilation efficiency of white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens; but nicotine slowed gut transit time only in the latter species. In contrast, food intake and digestive performance of dark-capped bulbuls Pycnonotus tricolor was unaffected by nicotine up to a concentration of 50μM. Bulbuls are primarily frugivorous; hence, they are more exposed to secondary metabolites than sunbirds and possibly white-eyes. Because their diet is richer in toxins, frugivorous birds may have evolved more efficient detoxification strategies than those of specialist nectar-feeding birds. PMID:26348126

  5. Three-dimensional computer simulations of feeding behaviour in red and giant pandas relate skull biomechanics with dietary niche partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Figueirido, Borja; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Serrano-Alarcón, Francisco J.; Martín-Serra, Alberto; Pastor, Juan F.

    2014-01-01

    The red (Ailurus fulgens) and giant (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) pandas are mammalian carnivores convergently adapted to a bamboo feeding diet. However, whereas Ailurus forages almost entirely on younger leaves, fruits and tender trunks, Ailuropoda relies more on trunks and stems. Such difference in foraging mode is considered a strategy for resource partitioning where they are sympatric. Here, we use finite-element analysis to test for mechanical differences and similarities in skull performance between Ailurus and Ailuropoda related to diet. Feeding simulations suggest that the two panda species have similar ranges of mechanical efficiency and strain energy profiles across the dentition, reflecting their durophagous diet. However, the stress distributions and peaks in the skulls of Ailurus and Ailuropoda are remarkably different for biting at all tooth locations. Although the skull of Ailuropoda is capable of resisting higher stresses than the skull of Ailurus, the latter is able to distribute stresses more evenly throughout the skull. These differences in skull biomechanics reflect their distinct bamboo feeding preferences. Ailurus uses repetitive chewing in an extended mastication to feed on soft leaves, and Ailuropoda exhibits shorter and more discrete periods of chomp-and-swallow feeding to break down hard bamboo trunks. PMID:24718096

  6. Maternal representations of their children in relation to feeding beliefs and practices among low-income mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Leung, Christy Y Y; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    Identifying maternal characteristics in relation to child feeding is important for addressing the current childhood obesity epidemic. The present study examines whether maternal representations of their children are associated with feeding beliefs and practices. Maternal representations refer to mothers' affective and cognitive perspectives regarding their children and their subjective experiences of their relationships with their children. This key maternal characteristic has not been examined in association with maternal feeding. Thus the purpose of the current study was to examine whether maternal representations of their children, reflected by Working Model of the Child Interview typologies (Balanced, Disengaged, or Distorted), were associated with maternal feeding beliefs (Authority, Confidence, and Investment) and practices (Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Monitoring) among low-income mothers of young children, with maternal education examined as a covariate. Results showed that Balanced mothers were most likely to demonstrate high authority, Distorted mothers were least likely to demonstrate confidence, and Disengaged mothers were least likely to demonstrate investment in child feeding. Moreover, Balanced mothers were least likely to pressure their children to eat. Findings are discussed with regard to implications for the study of childhood obesity and for applied preventions. PMID:26145277

  7. Electrophysiological characteristics of feeding-related neurons after taste avoidance Pavlovian conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis

    PubMed Central

    Sunada, Hiroshi; Takigami, Satoshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Taste avoidance conditioning (TAC) was carried out on the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. The conditional stimulus (CS) was sucrose which elicits feeding behavior; while the unconditional stimulus (US) was a tactile stimulus to the head which causes feeding to be suppressed. The neuronal circuit that drives feeding behavior in Lymnaea is well worked out. We therefore compared the physiological characteristics on 3 classes of neurons involved with feeding behavior especially in response to the CS in conditioned vs. control snails. The cerebral giant cell (CGC) modulates feeding behavior, N1 medial neuron (N1M) is one of the central pattern generator neurons that organizes feeding behavior, while B3 is a motor neuron active during the rasp phase of feeding. We found the resting membrane potential in CGC was hyperpolarized significantly in conditioned snails but impulse activity remained the same between conditioned vs. control snails. There was, however, a significant increase in spontaneous activity and a significant depolarization of N1M’s resting membrane potential in conditioned snails. These changes in N1M activity as a result of training are thought to be due to withdrawal interneuron RPeD11 altering the activity of the CGCs. Finally, in B3 there was: 1) a significant decrease in the amplitude and the frequency of the post-synaptic potentials; 2) a significant hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential in conditioned snails; and 3) a disappearance of bursting activity typically initiated by the CS. These neuronal modifications are consistent with the behavioral phenotype elicited by the CS following conditioning. PMID:27493506

  8. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFI<1 SD below the mean, n=15). The low RFI cows (more efficient) consumed 1.59 kg/day less dry matter than the high RFI group (P<0.01), while they produced nearly equal 4% fat-corrected milk. The milk : feed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.05). The levels of milk protein (P<0.01), total solids (P<0.05), and nonfat solids (P<0.05) were also higher for the low RFI group, whereas milk urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.01). The daily feeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization. PMID:26936644

  9. Identification and Characterization of Potential Performance-Related Gut Microbiotas in Broiler Chickens across Various Feeding Trials▿†

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Valeria A.; Hughes, Robert J.; Mikkelsen, Lene L.; Perez-Maldonado, Rider; Balding, Katherine; MacAlpine, Ron; Percy, Nigel J.; Ophel-Keller, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Three broiler feeding trials were investigated in order to identify gut bacteria consistently linked with improvements in bird performance as measured by feed efficiency. Trials were done in various geographic locations and varied in diet composition, broiler breed, and bird age. Gut microbial communities were investigated using microbial profiling. Eight common performance-linked operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified within both the ilea (180, 492, and 564–566) and ceca (140–142, 218–220, 284–286, 312, and 482) across trials. OTU 564–566 was associated with lower performance, while OTUs 140–142, 482, and 492 were associated with improved performance. Targeted cloning and sequencing of these eight OTUs revealed that they represented 26 bacterial species or phylotypes which clustered phylogenetically into seven groups related to Lactobacillus spp., Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiales, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidales, Clostridiales/Lachnospiraceae, and unclassified bacteria/clostridia. Where bacteria were identifiable to the phylum level, they belonged predominantly to the Firmicutes, with Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria also identified. Some of the potential performance-related phylotypes showed high sequence identity with classified bacteria (Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus aviarius, Lactobacillus crispatus, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Escherichia coli, Gallibacterium anatis, Clostridium lactatifermentans, Ruminococcus torques, Bacteroides vulgatus, and Alistipes finegoldii). The 16S rRNA gene sequence information generated will allow quantitative assays to be developed which will enable elucidations of which of these phylotypes are truly performance related. This information could be used to monitor strategies to improve feed efficiency and feed formulation for optimal gut health. PMID:21742925

  10. Seminal plasma protein concentrations vary with feed efficiency and fertility-related measures in young beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Montanholi, Y R; Fontoura, A B P; Diel de Amorim, M; Foster, R A; Chenier, T; Miller, S P

    2016-06-01

    Fertility-associated proteins (FAP) found in seminal plasma indicate sexual maturity, which appears to be influenced by feed efficiency in cattle. This study characterized FAP via proteomics and verified associations of these proteins with feed efficiency, body composition and fertility-related measures in yearling beef bulls. Assessments including testicular ultrasonography, infrared thermography, seminal quality, seminal plasma proteomics, carcass composition, and reproductive organ biometry were obtained. From a population of 31 bulls, the seven most and least feed efficient (efficient, inefficient) bulls were used for categorical comparisons. Correlations between FAP, productive performance and fertility-related measures were determined. These traits were also correlated with orthogonal factors summarized from the FAP. Efficient bulls had increased epididymal sperm-binding protein-1 and decreased concentration of protein-C inhibitor compared to inefficient bulls. Correlations between FAP with age, body size, body composition, reproductive organ biometry, scrotal temperature, and seminiferous tubule maturity are reported. Acrosin and cathepsin D increased with development of the testes and osteopontin increased with greater numbers of mature seminiferous tubules. Phosphoglycerate kinase-2 was higher in animals with a higher scrotum temperature and a higher prevalence of sperm morphology defects. The principal factor indicated that FAP variability concentrations were positively correlated with age, reproductive organ biometry, body size and composition. Our results indicate that FAP changes with body size and sexual development, and demonstrates differences in the proteomics of bulls with diverging feed efficiency. This is related to the delay in the sexual maturity of efficient young bulls. PMID:27288339

  11. The effects of auricular acupuncture on weight reduction and feeding-related cytokines: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hisayuki; Yamada, Osamu; Kira, Yuji; Tanaka, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Rumiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Auricular acupuncture is a common therapy used to control appetite; however, the underlying mechanism(s) of action is unclear. The present study examined changes in feeding behaviour and in the levels of several appetite-related hormones in response to auricular acupuncture, and attempted to identify the mechanism(s) by which this traditional medical treatment exerts its effects. Methods Ten healthy adult volunteers (nine female and one male) were recruited by the KOSAI Oriental Healthcare Center. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n=5 per group): an acupuncture group and a placebo group. Each received detention needle stimulus on a weekly basis for 1 month. Changes in diet, body weight, blood pressure and blood biochemistry were evaluated before treatment and at 1 week after the start of treatment. Results The difference in weight before treatment and after 1 week of treatment was significant for all participants in the acupuncture group (p=0.02). The percentage changes in active ghrelin in the acupuncture group were no significant changes observed in active ghrelin levels at 1 week after acupuncture in any individual participant (p=0.89). By contrast, the percentage changes in active ghrelin levels in the placebo group at 1 week after the start of acupuncture were significant (p=0.04). The insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, leptin and adiponectin levels did not change significantly in either group. Conclusions There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage change in body weight and active ghrelin levels in each individual participant in auricular acupuncture groups. This is a pilot study and the sample number is small; however, auricular acupuncture may reduce appetite by suppressing ghrelin production. PMID:26462269

  12. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Gloria D; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18-45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18<24.9 or BMI>28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (<100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006-March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P<0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  13. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18–45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18 < 24.9 or BMI > 28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (< 100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006–March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P <0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  14. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A; Pereyra, Carina M; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Ruiz, Francisco; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana M; Barberis, Isabel L

    2011-01-01

    Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain) as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B(1) production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B(1) producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2) to determine aflatoxin B(1) natural contamination levels, and (3) to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9 × 10(5) to 4.4 × 10(9) CFU g(-1). Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B(1) levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g(-1)) for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B(1)  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:21547231

  15. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A.; Pereyra, Carina M.; Cavaglieri, Lilia R.; Ruiz, Francisco; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana M.; Barberis, Isabel L.

    2011-01-01

    Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain) as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2) to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3) to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9 × 105 to 4.4 × 109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1) for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:21547231

  16. Tomato Pathogenesis-related Protein Genes are Expressed in Response to Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci Biotype B Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Puthoff, David P.; Holzer, Frances M.; Perring, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The temporal and spatial expression of tomato wound- and defense-response genes to Bemisia tabaci biotype B (the silverleaf whitefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (the greenhouse whitefly) feeding were characterized. Both species of whiteflies evoked similar changes in tomato gene expression. The levels of RNAs for the methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA)- or ethylene-regulated genes that encode the basic β-1,3-glucanase (GluB), basic chitinase (Chi9), and Pathogenesis-related protein-1 (PR-1) were monitored. GluB and Chi9 RNAs were abundant in infested leaves from the time nymphs initiated feeding (day 5). In addition, GluB RNAs accumulated in apical non-infested leaves. PR-1 RNAs also accumulated after whitefly feeding. In contrast, the ethylene- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated Chi3 and PR-4 genes had RNAs that accumulated at low levels and GluAC RNAs that were undetectable in whitefly-infested tomato leaves. The changes in Phenylalanine ammonia lyase5 (PAL5) were variable; in some, but not all infestations, PAL5 RNAs increased in response to whitefly feeding. PAL5 RNA levels increased in response to MeJA, ethylene, and abscisic acid, and declined in response to SA. Transcripts from the wound-response genes, leucine aminopeptidase (LapA1) and proteinase inhibitor 2 (pin2), were not detected following whitefly feeding. Furthermore, whitefly infestation of transgenic LapA1:GUS tomato plants showed that whitefly feeding did not activate the LapA1 promoter, although crushing of the leaf lamina increased GUS activity up to 40 fold. These studies indicate that tomato plants perceive B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum in a manner similar to baterical pathogens and distinct from tissue-damaging insects. PMID:20927641

  17. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), codifying a method of detection for residues of n-methyl-2....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), FDA... CFR Part 500 Animal drugs, Animal feeds, Cancer, Labeling, Packaging and containers,...

  18. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Laura E.; McGowan, Jay W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Lee, Joon-Hak

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats. PMID:18258048

  19. Mothers' beliefs and attitudes towards child weight, child feeding and related practices in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chit, Tin-Maung; Kyi, Hla; Thwin, Aye

    2003-01-01

    The aim is to identify mother's attitude and concern regarding child weight and feeding practices and also to explore the importance of growth monitoring activity in preventing Protein, Energy. Malnutrition (PEM). Trained interviewers from the respective State/Division nutrition team interviewed ninety mothers from different areas and Divisions. Mothers were categorized into three groups of thirty: those with a well-nourished child, a malnourished child or a child who had died of infectious disease. 90% of well-nourished children were weighed at birth and 100% of them had received regular weighing. 89% of their mothers could identify their child birth weight as normal and all of them know the negative health consequences of Low Birth Weight. Regarding attitude towards feeding during illness, most mothers of a well-nourished child believe that feeding during illness is better for recovery. That proportion is high as twice as of the remaining groups. Data regarding child feeding practices show mothers of a well nourished child have timely and appropriate starting of these practices. It is inferred from the recent finding that mothers who had received growth monitoring program since delivery have better preventive behavior for PEM and the role of basic health staff in these activity is also acknowledged. PMID:14703156

  20. Ethanol feeding enhances age-related deterioration of the rat hepatic mitochondrion

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Alan; Hershman, Stuart; Davies, Adrian; Sykora, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Chronic ethanol feeding damages the hepatic mitochondrion by increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidation, lowering mtDNA yields and impairing mitochondrial respiration. These effects are also seen during aging. By employing a 21-day chronic feeding regimen, we investigated the effects of ethanol consumption on mtDNA content and mitochondrial respiration in 2-, 12-, and 24-mo-old male rats. Aging resulted in decreased mtDNA content, increased mtDNA damage (as indicated by inhibition of Taq polymerase progression), and a decline in state 3 respiration; effects that were further exacerbated by ethanol feeding. Additionally, ethanol consumption caused an increase in the levels of citrate synthase while not impacting mitochondrial protein content. In conclusion, ethanol and aging combine to cause deterioration in the structural and functional integrity of the hepatic mitochondrion. The additive effects of aging and ethanol feeding may have serious consequences for hepatic energy metabolism in aged animals, and their detrimental combination may serve as one of the molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:16020655

  1. Analysis of products of animal origin in feeds by determination of carnosine and related dipeptides by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, Jens

    2002-03-27

    Products of animal origin such as meat meal were commonly used as sources of protein and amino acids for the production of compound feeds. Because the feeding of such products is prohibited in Germany, the official feedstuff control of the government must evaluate feeds for the forbidden use of products of animal origin. Microscope examination is the official method to prove animal-originated adulterations of feeds. This paper proposes a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of the dipeptide carnosine and related dipeptides (anserine and balenine) and shows the dependence of the contents of anserine, balenine, and carnosine in compound feeds on the content of meat meal in feeds. The presented method can complete and confirm the result of the microscopic method for evidence of components of animal origin in feeds. PMID:11902938

  2. [Prophylactic measures and acute treatment of migraine].

    PubMed

    Göbel, H; Heinze, A; Heinze-Kuhn, K

    2006-11-01

    The treatment of migraine consists of the acute treatment of the migraine attack and prophylactic measures for either pharmacological or non-pharmacological management. Since the retreat of the ergotamines one can only choose between one of the well-established analgesics and one of seven triptans for the treatment of the migraine attack. Although neither a new triptan nor an innovative new application form has been introduced, the year 2006 will be remembered as the year when the first triptan (naratriptan) was released as a prescription-free over-the-counter drug and when the first sumatriptan generics were marketed in Germany. In addition to the beta-blockers metoprolol and propranolol and the calcium antagonist flunarizine two antiepileptic drugs, topiramate and valproic acid, have been rated as first-line prophylactic drugs in Germany. Due to an extensive and successful study program topiramate has been officially approved in Germany. PMID:17048020

  3. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Without Prophylactic Antibiotics: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Nilay; Nandy, Mintu Mohan; Majhi, Jaganmay; Kuiri, Shibshankar; Kumar Ghosh, Pranab; Ghosh, Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the new gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Prophylactic antibiotics are used in elective surgery by the majority of surgeons, and their role in biliary tract surgery has been well established for a subpopulation of high-risk patients. This consensus has been derived from multiple studies involving biliary tract surgery before and in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But the use of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy especially in the low-risk group is now controversial and varied among the surgeons all over the world. To study the role of prophylactic antibiotics in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in different risk groups of patients, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Surgery of Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospital from January 2010 to July 2011. All patients with symptomatic gallstones who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy during this period are included in this study. One hundred and two patients with symptomatic gallstones were operated on by laparoscopic technique without receiving preoperative antibiotics and studied over a period of 1.5 years. Ages ranged from 11 to 70 years (mean age of 33 years). There were 14 males (13.72 % of the patients) and 88 females (86.27 % of the patients). There was no wound infection (class I) in 99 patients, and class II type of wound infection, i.e., surgical site infection, occurred in three patients (i.e., 2.94 %) out of a total of 102 patients. Swabs were taken for culture and sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus was found in two patients and Streptococcus viridans in one patient. In all three patients, infection occurred at the umbilical port sites, detected on the 3rd and 4th postoperative days. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in low-risk patients with symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent postoperative infection-related

  4. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: issues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Stefanek, M E

    1995-01-01

    At present, the care of women at increased risk of developing breast cancer poses a clinical dilemma and remains an area of controversy. A number of investigators have addressed the pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy versus close follow-up, utilizing annual mammography, semiannual or even more frequent physical examinations of the breast, and proficient monthly breast self-examinations. Recent efforts to isolate a gene (BRCA1) on chromosome 17q12-21 raise additional concerns about the management of women testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. These women are estimated to have an 85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Testing for BRCA1 mutation carriers may soon be available for population screening. This article describes preliminary studies investigating health care provider and patient perceptions of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. In addition, a number of research questions remain regarding the efficacy and utilization of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy as a treatment option for women at increased risk of developing breast cancer. These women include those testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. In addition, women with a strong family history opting against testing for BRCA1 mutations may express interest in surgery. PMID:8573451

  5. A clinical trial evaluating prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotic use on health and performance of preweaned calves.

    PubMed

    Berge, A C B; Lindeque, P; Moore, D A; Sischo, W M

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the influence of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics on health and performance in preweaned dairy calves on a calf ranch. One hundred twenty 1-d-old calves were enrolled into 3 management systems for antibiotic use and raised until 4 wk of age. Sixty calves were not eligible to receive prophylactic or therapeutic antibiotics. Thirty calves were eligible to receive individual antibiotic treatment for disease, but no prophylactic antibiotics in milk replacer. The remaining 30 calves received milk replacer medicated with neomycin and tetracycline HCl, and could be treated with antibiotics. Health status and treatments were monitored and recorded daily. The primary study outcomes were weight gain, morbidity, and mortality. The most important factor associated with morbidity and mortality was passive immune transfer through colostrum. In-feed antibiotics delayed onset of morbidity, decreased overall morbidity, and increased weight gain. Nonantibiotic therapies for clinical disease were associated with increased mortality and morbidity compared with antibiotic treatments. The study has shown that minimizing or eliminating the use of antibiotics in the feed requires measures to ensure adequate passive transfer of immunity, but that in the face of inadequate passive transfer of immunity, animal welfare may be endangered by replacing medicated milk replacer with nonmedicated milk replacer, and therapeutic antibiotics with nonantibiotic alternatives. PMID:15905446

  6. Economic and phosphorus-related effects of precision feeding and forage management at a farm scale.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, L T; Cerosaletti, P E; Veith, T L; Rotz, C A; Hamlett, J M; Gburek, W J

    2007-08-01

    Structural best management practices were implemented throughout the Cannonsville Reservoir Watershed (CRW) in an effort to reduce P losses to the reservoir. Yet long-term water quality control efforts within CRW are hindered by continuous P build-up in the soils resulting from dairy farm P imports exceeding exports. Addressing the P imbalance problems and maintaining economic viability of the farms requires a system-level redesign of farm management. One possible innovative strategy, precision feed management (PFM), reduces soil-P build-up by limiting feed and fertilizer purchases, and increasing high-quality homegrown forage production. This study applied the integrated farm system model (IFSM) to 2 CRW dairy farms to quantify the benefits of a PFM farm planning strategy in controlling P imbalance problems, and maintaining farm profit-ability and reducing off-farm P losses. The IFSM accurately simulated the 2 farms based on farm data supplied by farm planners; these scenarios were used as the baseline conditions. The IFSM simulations of more accurate feeding of P (based on P required in animal diets) integrated with increased productivity of grass-forage and increased proportion of forage in the diet reduced the P imbalance of 1 farm from 5.3 to 0.5 kg/ ha and from 9.6 to 0.0 kg/ha for the second farm. For both farms, soluble P lost to the environment was reduced by 18%. Feed supplement purchases declined by 7.5 kg/cow per year for dietary mineral P, and by 1.04 and 1.29 t/cow per year for protein concentrates through adoption of the PFM system. Moreover, when a land management practice of converting corn to grass was coupled with the precision feeding of P and improved forage management, IFSM predicted reductions of 5.8 and 9.3 kg/ha of converted land sediment-bound P in erosion loss each year. The model predicted slight purchase increases in corn grain to offset reductions in corn silage production and feeding rates, but no appreciable change in the farm P

  7. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade. PMID:25624022

  8. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K.; Simmons, Alvin M.; Wintermantel, William M.; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. PMID:26377567

  9. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-01

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. PMID:26377567

  10. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors in femoral neck fracture patients - A life - and cost-saving intervention.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Trickett, R; Meyer, Cer; Lewthwaite, S; Ford, D

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Acute gastrointestinal stress ulceration is a common and serious complication of trauma. Prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or histamine receptor antagonists have been used in poly-trauma, burns and head and spinal injuries, as well as on intensive care units, for the prevention of acute gastric stress ulcers. Methods We prospectively studied the use of prophylactic PPIs in with femoral neck fracture patients, gathering data on all acute gastric ulcer complications, including coffee-ground vomiting, malena and haematemesis. We then implemented a treatment protocol in which all patients were given prophylactic PPIs, again prospectively collecting all data. Results Five hundred and fifteen patients were included. Prior to prophylactic PPI, 15% of patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications, with 3% requiring acute intervention with oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), 5% requiring transfusions and 4% experiencing surgical delays. All patients had delayed discharges. Following PPI implementation, no patients developed gastric stress ulcer complications. Conclusions Femoral neck fracture patients create a substantial workload for orthopaedic units. The increasingly elderly population often have comorbidities, and concomitantly use medications with gastrointestinal side effects. This, combined with the stress of a fracture and preoperative starvation periods increases the risk of gastric ulcers. Here, the use of prophylactic PPIs statistically reduced the incidence of gastric stress ulcers in patients with femoral neck fractures, resulting in fewer surgical delays, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced stress ulcer-related mortality. PMID:27055405

  11. Parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, and level of acculturation of Chinese Americans in relation to their school-age child's weight status.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiao-Liang; Contento, Isobel

    2014-09-01

    Parents influence their child's eating behavior and attitudes directly as food providers and indirectly through their parental feeding styles and feeding concerns and practices. Chinese American parents' practices are likely influenced by culture. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between parental perceptions, feeding practices, feeding styles, level of parental acculturation (LPA), and child weight status via a self-administered questionnaire. This survey study involved a convenience sample of 712 individuals who were parents of 5- to 10-year old children attending Chinese language after-school programs. The prevalence of overweight was 11.5% and obesity was 11.1%. LPA was not directly predictive of child overweight in multiple regression but from categorical data, Chinese American parents tended to use indulgent (33.2%) and authoritarian (27.9%) feeding styles, with the former increasing with acculturation and the latter decreasing. Indulgent parents had more than expected overweight and obese children, and authoritarian and authoritative parents, fewer. LPA was negatively predictive of pressure to eat healthy foods (p < .01), which was negatively correlated with child weight status (p < .01). LPA was also independently positively correlated to responsiveness to child needs (p < .01), monitoring of child intake (p < .01), and perceived responsibility for child feeding. Parental perceptions and concerns about child weight were predictors of child weight. Consequently, parental concerns and responsiveness to child needs without also encouragement (demandingness) to eat healthy foods (indulgent feeding style) may promote overweight. The authoritative parental feeding style may contribute to children having healthy weights and therefore healthy lives. PMID:24816322

  12. Next generation prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schiller, John T; Müller, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The two licensed bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 (the major papillomavirus virion protein) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are regarded as safe, effective, and well established prophylactic vaccines. However, they have some inherent limitations, including a fairly high production and delivery cost, virus-type restricted protection, and no reported therapeutic activity, which might be addressed with the development of alternative dosing schedules and vaccine products. A change from a three-dose to a two-dose protocol for the licensed HPV vaccines, especially in younger adolescents (aged 9-13 years), is underway in several countries and is likely to become the future norm. Preliminary evidence suggests that recipients of HPV vaccines might derive prophylactic benefits from one dose of the bivalent vaccine. Substantial interest exists in both the academic and industrial sectors in the development of second-generation L1 VLP vaccines in terms of cost reduction-eg, by production in Escherichia coli or alternative types of yeast. However, Merck's nonavalent vaccine, produced via the Saccharomyces cerevisiae production system that is also used for their quadrivalent vaccine, is the first second-generation HPV VLP vaccine to be available on the market. By contrast, other pharmaceutical companies are developing microbial vectors that deliver L1 genes. These two approaches would add an HPV component to existing live attenuated vaccines for measles and typhoid fever. Prophylactic vaccines that are based on induction of broadly cross-neutralising antibodies to L2, the minor HPV capsid protein, are also being developed both as simple monomeric fusion proteins and as virus-like display vaccines. The strong interest in developing the next generation of vaccines, particularly by manufacturers in middle-to-high income countries, increases the likelihood that vaccine production will become decentralised with the hope that effective HPV vaccines will be

  13. New and emerging prophylactic agents for migraine.

    PubMed

    Krymchantowski, Abouch V; Bigal, Marcelo E; Moreira, Pedro F

    2002-01-01

    Frequent, severe and long-lasting migraine attacks require prophylaxis. Established drugs used for the prevention of migraine such as beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (beta-blockers), calcium channel antagonists, antidepressants and others have an unknown mode of action in migraine. Their prophylactic effect in migraine was discovered by chance in clinical practice when these drugs were used for other purposes. Recently, research into the mechanisms of migraine and the progressive recognition that cortical hyperexcitability and an imbalance between neuronal inhibition [mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] and excitation (mediated by excitatory amino acids) may play an important role in migraine pathophysiology have lead to the identification of potential new agents for the prevention of migraine attacks. This paper reviews the recent literature on these new agents. A search was conducted using MEDLINE from 1998 to November 2001 with the following search terms: migraine, preventive, prophylactic and treatment. Headache textbooks edited in 2000 and 2001 were also used. After analysing the available controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies as well as abstracts, divalproex sodium (valproate semisodium) can be recommended for the prevention of migraine. Lamotrigine may be useful for preventing aura associated with migraine, and topiramate seems a promising option pending trials with more patients, which are currently underway. Riboflavin (which is possibly involved in improving neuronal energy production) appears to be a promising agent, although comparisons with established prophylactic medications are needed. Gabapentin, magnesium, lisinopril and botulinum toxin A have recently been suggested to be effective; however, at present, there are insufficient rigorous and reliable controlled data on these drugs for them to be indicated for such use. Emerging options such as tiagabine, levetiracetam, zonisamide and petasites may all be useful, but controlled data are

  14. Suction among pickers: jaw mechanics, dietary breadth and feeding behaviour in beach-spawning Leuresthes spp. compared with their relatives.

    PubMed

    Higgins, B A; Horn, M H

    2014-06-01

    Jaw mechanics and dietary breadth in California grunion Leuresthes tenuis and Gulf grunion Leuresthes sardina were compared with three other members of the tribe Atherinopsini to test whether these two species have evolved a novel jaw protrusion that might be associated with feeding narrowly on abundant prey near spawning beaches. Quantitative comparison of cleared-and-stained specimens of five members of the atherinopsine clade showed that, compared with false grunion Colpichthys regis, topsmelt Atherinops affinis and jacksmelt Atherinopsis californiensis, L. tenuis and L. sardina have longer, more downwardly directed premaxillary protrusion, expanded dentary and premaxillary bones, greater lower jaw rotation and larger premaxilla-vomer separation. Leuresthes tenuis showed greater differences than L. sardina in these features. Comparison of the gut contents of L. tenuis and A. affinis with zooplankton samples collected simultaneously with these fishes in the water column within 1 km of shore showed that, as predicted, L. tenuis fed predominantly on mysid crustaceans and had a narrower diet than A. affinis. High-speed video analysis showed that L. tenuis exhibits a mean time to maximum jaw protrusion c. 2.5 times shorter than that of A. affinis. The grunion sister species, especially L. tenuis, have evolved suction feeding that may allow efficient feeding on common, evasive prey near spawning sites. The morphological traits seen in both species of Leuresthes signify a marked difference from their closest relatives in prey capture and suggest a type of jaw protrusion not yet seen in cyprinodontiforms or perciforms. PMID:24787078

  15. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

  16. Data-Independent MS/MS Quantification of Neuropeptides for Determination of Putative Feeding-Related Neurohormones in Microdialysate

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food consumption is an important behavior that is regulated by an intricate array of neuropeptides (NPs). Although many feeding-related NPs have been identified in mammals, precise mechanisms are unclear and difficult to study in mammals, as current methods are not highly multiplexed and require extensive a priori knowledge about analytes. New advances in data-independent acquisition (DIA) MS/MS and the open-source quantification software Skyline have opened up the possibility to identify hundreds of compounds and quantify them from a single DIA MS/MS run. An untargeted DIA MSE quantification method using Skyline software for multiplexed, discovery-driven quantification was developed and found to produce linear calibration curves for peptides at physiologically relevant concentrations using a protein digest as internal standard. By using this method, preliminary relative quantification of the crab Cancer borealis neuropeptidome (<2 kDa, 137 peptides from 18 families) was possible in microdialysates from 8 replicate feeding experiments. Of these NPs, 55 were detected with an average mass error below 10 ppm. The time-resolved profiles of relative concentration changes for 6 are shown, and there is great potential for the use of this method in future experiments to aid in correlation of NP changes with behavior. This work presents an unbiased approach to winnowing candidate NPs related to a behavior of interest in a functionally relevant manner, and demonstrates the success of such a UPLC-MSE quantification method using the open source software Skyline. PMID:25552291

  17. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Shen, René L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Krych, Łukasz; Nielsen, Dennis S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J; Burrin, Douglas G; Sangild, Per T

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models for preterm infants. Pigs were given either total parenteral nutrition (TPN, n = 14) or slowly advancing volumes (16-64 ml·kg(-1)·day(-1)) of preterm infant formula (IF, n = 15) or bovine colostrum (BC, n = 13), both given as adjunct to parenteral nutrition. On day 5, both enteral diets increased intestinal mass (27 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 g/kg) and glucagon-like peptide 2 release, relative to TPN (P < 0.05). The incidence of mild NEC lesions was higher in IF than BC and TPN pigs (60 vs. 0 and 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). Only the IF pigs showed reduced gastric emptying and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release, and increased tissue proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β and IL-8, P < 0.05) and expression of immune-related genes (AOAH, LBP, CXCL10, TLR2), relative to TPN. The IF pigs also showed reduced intestinal villus-to-crypt ratio, lactose digestion, and some plasma amino acids (Arg, Cit, Gln, Tyr, Val), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P < 0.05). Colonic microbiota analyses showed limited differences among groups. Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth. A diet-dependent feeding guideline may be required for newborn preterm infants. PMID:26138468

  18. Assessment of health and nutritional status of infants in relation to breast feeding practices in Karmouz area, Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Deghedi, B; Mahdy, N H; Abd, el-A H

    1999-01-01

    Infants are most precious part of nation's life. Infant health is a reflection of the health of the mother and it gives an indication of the health of the adult population of the future. The present work was designed to study the health and nutritional status of infants in Karmouz area in Alexandria as well as the effect of breast feeding practices on the health status of infants. Accordingly, a house to house survey was conducted through cluster sampling technique. The total sample amounted to 396 mothers and 409 infants. Data were collected about infants health status and their feeding practices. Weight and length were measured for all infants. Stool samples were collected and examined. The results revealed that 55.3% of infants had acute respiratory tract infections (ARI); 16.4% had bronchitis and 4.9% had pneumonia, 44% of the infants suffered from diarrhea, 13.2% were infected with parasites, Gardia lamblia was the most commonly found parasite (9.0%). High proportion of infants was found to be stunted (22.7%), 8.6% were wasted and 7.6% were underweight, 40.3% of mothers were in partial practice level. Infants below six months of age who received solid foods at three months or less had a significantly higher percentage of diarrhea (70.6%) compared to 51.5% among those of late weaning (four months or later). The diarrhea was significantly more common among infants aged 12 - < 18 months with about two times of risk relative to those aged < 6 months. A significantly higher risk of diarrhea was found for infants of bottle--or complementary feeding (OR = 2.05, 2.07 respectively, model X2 = 9.71, P < 0.01), in addition the protective effect of breast feeding persisted after adjustment of confounders by multiple logistic regression. High proportion of mothers (63.8%) continued to breast-feed their babies during diarrheal episodes. On the other hand breast-feeding was not significantly protective against the acute respiratory tract infection. Stunting of the infants

  19. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  20. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    PubMed

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  1. The pressures of suction feeding: the relation between buccal pressure and induced fluid speed in centrarchid fishes.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship between them has never been empirically determined in any suction feeder. We present the first simultaneous measurements of fluid speed and buccal pressure during suction feeding in fishes. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the maximum fluid speed in front of the mouth of four largemouth bass and three bluegill sunfish by positioning a vertical laser sheet on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. Peak magnitude of pressure inside the buccal cavity was quantified using a transducer positioned within a catheter that opened into the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity. In both species the time of peak pressure preceded the time of peak fluid speed by as much as 42 ms, indicating a role for unsteady flow effects in shaping this relation. We parameterized an existing model of suction feeding to determine whether the relationship between peak pressures and fluid speeds that we observed could be predicted using just a few kinematic variables. The model predicted much higher fluid speeds than we measured at all values of peak pressure and gave a scaling exponent between them (0.51) that was higher than observed (0.36 for largemouth bass, 0.38 for bluegill). The scaling between peak buccal pressure and peak fluid speed at the mouth aperture differed in the two species, supporting the recent conclusion that species morphology affects this relation such that a general pattern may not hold. PMID:16916963

  2. Metabolic action of neuropeptide Y in relation to its effect on feeding.

    PubMed

    Ruffin, M P; Even, P C; El-Ghissassi, M; Nicolaidis, S

    1997-12-01

    Because energy homeostasis depends on a continuous balance between food intake, energy expenditure, and energy storage, it was expected that neuropeptide Y (NPY) could act not only on food intake but also on metabolic parameters. Using an original calorimetric device that allows the computation of the background metabolism (energy expenditure free from the cost of locomotor activity), we assessed the effect of a microinjection of NPY upon the quantitative (background metabolism, thermic effect of food) and qualitative (respiratory quotient) components of energy metabolism. NPY was injected into the juxtafornical hypothalamus at a dose that promotes feeding behavior (1 microg/0.5 microL) and enhances locomotor activity. Although total metabolism was increased proportionally to locomotion, no effect of NPY on background metabolism was observed when no food was available. Only following a calibrated meal given 30 min after the microinjection did NPY induce a delayed decrease in respiratory quotient whereas the postprandial background metabolism remained unaffected. In conclusion, only the new-generation calorimeters can show that the NPY-induced rise in overall metabolic rate is entirely accounted for by the unavoidable enhancement in locomotor activity and that the only metabolic effect of NPY is the delayed postprandial respiratory quotient decrease, suggesting a postabsorptive orientation toward more lipid utilization. PMID:9383111

  3. Habitat selection of stone and starry flounders in an estuary in relation to feeding and survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyama, Takeshi; Omori, Michio

    2008-09-01

    Juveniles of both stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus utilize estuaries as nursery grounds. To understand their habitat selection and the functions of habitats such as food supply, we defined the seasonal distribution of recently settled fish of these species in shallow nursery areas and investigated their feeding habits in the Natori River estuary, Japan. Distribution of stone flounder was limited to the lower estuary (<3 km upriver from the mouth) and stone flounder were most abundant near the mouth. Recently settled starry flounder were first detected further upstream in areas characterized by low salinity <10 and by the absence of the predatory sand shrimp Crangon uritai. Early juvenile stone and starry flounders consumed mainly siphons of the bivalve Nuttallia olivacea and the mysid Neomysis awatschensis, respectively; however, 1- and 2-yr-old fish of both stone and starry flounders fed mainly on the bivalve siphons. These results indicate that habitat selections of juvenile stone and starry flounders enable utilization of preferred prey and predator avoidance, respectively, and that non-overlap of these species' habitats results in avoidance of inter-specific competition for food between these two species.

  4. Univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses of lipid related molecular structural components in relation to nutrient profile in feed and food mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to determine lipid related molecular structures components (functional groups) in feed combination of cereal grain (barley, Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) based dried distillers grain solubles (wheat DDGSs) from bioethanol processing at five different combination ratios using univariate and multivariate molecular spectral analyses with infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy, and (ii) to correlate lipid-related molecular-functional structure spectral profile to nutrient profiles. The spectral intensity of (i) CH3 asymmetric, CH2 asymmetric, CH3 symmetric and CH2 symmetric groups, (ii) unsaturation (Cdbnd C) group, and (iii) carbonyl ester (Cdbnd O) group were determined. Spectral differences of functional groups were detected by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results showed that the combination treatments significantly inflicted modifications (P < 0.05) in nutrient profile and lipid related molecular spectral intensity (CH2 asymmetric stretching peak height, CH2 symmetric stretching peak height, ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak area). Ratio of CH2 to CH3 symmetric stretching peak intensity, and carbonyl peak significantly correlated with nutrient profiles. Both PCA and HCA differentiated lipid-related spectrum. In conclusion, the changes of lipid molecular structure spectral profiles through feed combination could be detected using molecular spectroscopy. These changes were associated with nutrient profiles and functionality.

  5. Prophylactic lidocaine in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S L; Geiderman, J M; Bernstein, I J

    1979-06-01

    The incidence of serious ventricular arrhythmias following acute myocardial infarction is highest during the first few hours after injury, and thereafter declines. Several investigations into the prophylactic use of lidocaine to prevent the development of arrhythmias have shown that lidocaine, given in therapeutic doses, is effective in preventing ventricular fibrillation and in reducing early mortality. Lidocaine was found to be effective when given either by the intravenous or by the intramuscular routes. The recommended dosage is 100 mg given as an intravenous bolus followed by 2 to 4 mg/min as an infusion, which should be given by infusion pump. Another recommendation is to use two 100 mg boluses 20 minutes apart, along with the same infusion. We recommend that lidocaine be started as soon as possible in all patients suspected of having suffered acute myocardial infarction. PMID:449144

  6. Prevalence of Feeding Related Issues/Difficulties in Taiwanese Children with History of Prematurity, 2003-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Tsai, Mei-Wun

    2010-01-01

    Feeding problems are common problems seen in premature infants following their discharge from the NICU. However, the prevalence of feeding issues and failure to thrive among preterm infants in Taiwan is uncertain. All former studies of prevalence and identifications of feeding issues were from western countries. Those findings are therefore not…

  7. Can prophylactic application of immunoglobulin decrease radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis?

    PubMed

    Mose, S; Adamietz, I A; Saran, F; Thilmann, C; Heyd, R; Knecht, R; Böttcher, H D

    1997-08-01

    Therapeutic application of immunoglobulin is reported to be successful in radiation-induced oral and oropharyngeal mucositis. In this study the efficacy of prophylactic application of immunoglobulin was investigated. In 42 patients with head and neck cancer, postoperative radiation treatment or radiation combined with chemotherapy was performed. In 20 consecutive patients, prophylactic mucositis treatment consisted of panthenol (4 x 10 ml/day) and nystatin (4 x 1 ml/day). The 22 following patients received, supplementary to panthenol and nystatin, 800 mg (5 ml) human immunoglobulin intramuscularly once weekly. During the treatment time, the degree of mucositis was examined 3 times a week. The distribution of maximal mucositis degree revealed slightly more severe mucous membrane reaction in the control group compared with the immunoglobulin group (n.s.). The analysis of mean mucositis degrees in both groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (t test, p = 0.031) related to the entire group (n = 42) and to those 16 patients receiving radiation combined with chemotherapy. There was no significant immunoglobulin-induced effect on mucositis in patients treated by radiation alone. The time from the beginning of therapy to the first interruption could be prolonged 5 days in the immunoglobulin group (n.s.). In conclusion, it is demonstrated that the prophylactic application of immunoglobulin seems to lower the degree of radiation-induced mucositis. In comparison to the published data about therapeutically given immunoglobulin, the clinical efficacy of the prophylactic application of immunoglobulin as it is performed in this study is less evident. PMID:9256900

  8. Structural activity of bovidic acid and related compounds as feeding deterrents against Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-(1-hydroxynonyl)-2-tetrahydrofuranpentanoic acid (18-Bovidic acid), a compound recently identified as a mosquito deterrent from the hair of gaur, has been evaluated for its efficacy compared to known synthetic repellents. In the present study we have evaluated analogs of Bovidic acid, related hydr...

  9. 76 FR 72617 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Eprinomectin; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... Related Products; Eprinomectin; N- Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION.... The method of detection for residues of the carcinogenic excipient n-methyl-2- pyrrolidone (NMP) in... excipient n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), is a carcinogen. As required by section 512(d)(1)(I) of the...

  10. Spermidine feeding decreases age-related locomotor activity loss and induces changes in lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Minois, Nadège; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Smith, Terry K; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac

    2014-01-01

    Spermidine is a natural polyamine involved in many important cellular functions, whose supplementation in food or water increases life span and stress resistance in several model organisms. In this work, we expand spermidine's range of age-related beneficial effects by demonstrating that it is also able to improve locomotor performance in aged flies. Spermidine's mechanism of action on aging has been primarily related to general protein hypoacetylation that subsequently induces autophagy. Here, we suggest that the molecular targets of spermidine also include lipid metabolism: Spermidine-fed flies contain more triglycerides and show altered fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. We further determine that most of these metabolic changes are regulated through autophagy. Collectively, our data suggests an additional and novel lipid-mediated mechanism of action for spermidine-induced autophagy. PMID:25010732

  11. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with breast cancer: Trends, predictors, and areas for future research

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Michaela S.; Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Dominici, Laura; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed increasing rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among women with unilateral early stage breast cancer. This trend has raised concerns, given the lack of evidence for a survival benefit from CPM and the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer for most women in this setting. In this article, we review available data regarding the value of CPM, predictors and outcomes related to CPM, and areas for future research and potential intervention. PMID:23893127

  12. Prophylactic transfusion for pregnant women with sickle cell disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Ann Kinga; Shehata, Nadine; D'Souza, Rohan; Kuo, Kevin H M; Ward, Richard; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie

    2015-11-19

    Pregnancy in women with sickle cell disease is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Studies assessing the effects of prophylactic red blood cell transfusions on these outcomes have drawn inconsistent conclusions. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of prophylactic compared with on-demand red blood cell transfusions on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sickle cell disease. A systematic search of several medical literature databases was conducted. Twelve studies involving 1291 participants met inclusion criteria. The studies had moderate to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis demonstrated that prophylactic transfusion was associated with a reduction in maternal mortality (7 studies, 955 participants; odds ratio [OR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.91), vaso-occlusive pain episodes (11 studies, 1219 participants; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.09-0.76), pulmonary complications (9 studies, 1019 participants; OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.72), pulmonary embolism (3 studies, 237 participants; OR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.41), pyelonephritis (6 studies, 455 participants; OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51), perinatal mortality (8 studies, 1140 participants; OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-0.99), neonatal death (5 studies, 374 participants; OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.07-0.93), and preterm birth (9 studies, 1123 participants; OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.37-0.96). Event rates for most of the results were low. Prophylactic transfusions may positively impact several adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in women with sickle cell disease; however, the evidence stems from a relatively small number of studies with methodologic limitations. A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial is needed to determine whether the potential benefits balance the risks of prophylactic transfusions. PMID:26302758

  13. Strata of comprehending ecology: Looking through the prism of feeding relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilam, Billie

    2002-09-01

    The present paper focuses on ninth graders' difficulties in learning ecology. Three dimensions, in addition to the macrolevel dimension, were identified as basic obstacles that might hinder students' meaningful learning of ecology: the microlevel dimension, relating to the molecular and micro processes of matter and energy transfer in ecosystems; the spatial dimension of ecosystems, regarding simultaneous occurrences in space and the multiple roles of their biotic elements; and the time dimension, relating to long-term evolutionary forces acting in ecosystems. These four dimensions were examined in students' understanding of the concept of food chains in ecosystems. Four ninth grade classrooms participated in the study. Two of the classes studied ecology in the traditional mode and served as a control. Two classes were exposed to a novel, specifically designed learning context for ecology study, which integrated several elements known to influence learning, including a special curriculum to guide students' active involvement in a self-regulated process of inquiry. A qualitative analysis of students' written responses and recorded verbal interactions was used, as well as simple quantitative methods.

  14. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38’N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr. PMID:26421838

  15. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel L; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Jensen, Bent B; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM; raw bovine milk) would have less bioactivity than corresponding bovine colostrum (BC) in a preterm pig model, but have improved bioactivity relative to its homogenized, pasteurized, spray-dried equivalent, whole milk powder (WMP), or a bovine milk protein-based infant formula (IF). For 5 days, newborn preterm pigs received parenteral and enteral nutrition consisting of IF (n = 13), BM (n = 13), or BC (n = 14). In a second study, WMP (n = 15) was compared with IF (n = 10) and BM (n = 9). Compared with pigs fed IF, pigs that were fed BM had significantly improved intestinal structure (mucosal weight, villus height) and function (increased nutrient absorption and enzyme activities, decreased gut permeability, nutrient fermentation, and NEC severity). BC further improved these effects relative to BM (lactase activity, lactose absorption, plasma citrulline, and tissue interleukin-8). WMP induced similar effects as BM, except for lactase activity and lactose absorption. In conclusion, the maturational and protective effects on the immature intestine decreased in the order BC>BM>WMP, but all three intact bovine milk diets were markedly better than IF. The stage of lactation (colostrum vs. mature milk) and milk processing (e.g., homogenization, fractionation, pasteurization, spray-drying) are important factors in determining milk quality during the early postnatal period of preterm neonates. PMID:24157971

  16. [Prophylactic axillary radiotherapy for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rivera, S; Louvel, G; Rivin Del Campo, E; Boros, A; Oueslati, H; Deutsch, É

    2015-06-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy, after breast conserving surgery or mastectomy for breast cancer, improves overall survival while decreasing the risk of recurrence. However, prophylactic postoperative radiotherapy of locoregional lymph nodes for breast cancer, particularly of the axillary region, is still controversial since the benefits and the risks due to axillary irradiation have not been well defined. To begin with, when performing conformal radiotherapy, volume definition is crucial for the analysis of the risk-benefit balance of any radiation treatment. Definition and contouring of the axillary lymph node region is discussed in this work, as per the recommendations of the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO). Axillary recurrences are rare, and the recent trend leads toward less aggressive surgery with regard to the axilla. In this literature review we present the data that lead us to avoid adjuvant axillary radiotherapy in pN0, pN0i+ and pN1mi patients even without axillary clearance and to perform it in some other situations. Finally, we propose an update about the potential toxicity of adjuvant axillary irradiation, which is essential for therapeutic decision-making based on current evidence, and to guide us in the evolution of our techniques and indications of axillary radiotherapy. PMID:26044178

  17. Prophylactic peri-operative local antibiotic irrigation.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, L A

    2016-01-01

    An extensive review of the spinal and arthroplasty literature was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of local antibiotic irrigation during surgery. The efficacy of antibiotic irrigation for the prevention of acute post-operative infection after total joint arthroplasty was evaluated retrospectively in 2293 arthroplasties (1990 patients) between January 2004 and December 2013. The mean follow-up was 73 months (20 to 139). One surgeon performed all the procedures with minimal post-operative infection. The intra-operative protocol included an irrigation solution of normal saline with vancomycin 1000 mg/l and polymyxin 250,000 units/l at the rate of 2 l per hour. No patient required re-admission for primary infection or further antibiotic treatment. Two morbidly obese patients (two total hip arthroplasties) developed subcutaneous fat necrosis requiring debridement and one was revised because the deep capsular sutures were contaminated by the draining subcutaneous haematoma. One patient who had undergone total knee arthroplasty had unrecognised damage to the lateral superior geniculate artery and developed a haematoma that became infected secondarily four months after the surgery and underwent revision. The use of antibiotic irrigation during arthroplasty surgery has been highly effective for the prevention of infection in the author's practice. However, it should be understood that any routine prophylactic use of antibiotics may result in resistant organisms, and the wise stewardship of the use of antibiotics is an important part of surgical practice. PMID:26733636

  18. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  19. Influence of Aging and Gender Differences on Feeding Behavior and Ghrelin-Related Factors during Social Isolation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Chihiro; Saegusa, Yayoi; Nahata, Miwa; Sadakane, Chiharu; Hattori, Tomohisa; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress due to social isolation is known to cause abnormal feeding behaviors, but the influences of gender and aging on subchronic stress-induced changes in feeding behaviors are unknown. Thus, we examined the changes in body weight, food intake, and orexigenic ghrelin-related factors during 2 weeks of isolation stress in young and aged mice. Food intake increased significantly in young mice in the isolation group compared with the group-housed control throughout the experimental period. This isolation-induced increase in food intake was not observed in aged mice. In young mice, there were no significant differences in body weight between the isolated group and group-housed control up to 2 weeks. However, aged male mice exhibited significant weight loss at 2 weeks and a similar tendency was observed in aged female mice. Young male mice, but not female mice, had significantly increased (2.2-fold) plasma acylated ghrelin levels after 1 week of isolation compared with the group-housed control. A significant but lower increase (1.3-fold) was also observed in aged male mice. Hypothalamic preproghrelin gene expression decreased significantly with isolation in young male mice, whereas it increased significantly in female mice. The expression levels of NPY and AGRP in the hypothalamus, which are transmitted by elevated peripheral ghrelin signals, increased significantly in isolated young male mice, whereas the AGRP expression levels decreased significantly in young female mice. Isolation caused no significant differences in the expression levels of these genes in aged mice. In isolation, young female mice exhibited markedly increased dark- and light-phase locomotor activities compared with male mice, whereas male and female aged mice exhibited no obvious increases in activity immediately after the dark phase started. We conclude that the gender-specific homeostatic regulatory mechanisms required to maintain body weight operated during subchronic psychological

  20. Use of Prophylactic Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Al-Hinai, Alreem K.; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolisms, specifically pulmonary embolisms (PEs), represent a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide, particularly within the setting of trauma. According to the literature, PEs are the most common cause of in-hospital death; however, this condition can be prevented with a variety of prophylactic and therapeutic measures. This article aimed to examine current evidence on the use, indications for prophylaxis, outcomes and complications of prophylactic inferior vena cava filters in trauma patients. PMID:26909219

  1. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, m...

  2. Comparison of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary administration of capsaicin for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Orndorff, B W; Novak, C L; Pierson, F W; Caldwell, D J; McElroy, A P

    2005-12-01

    In three experiments the effects of prophylactic or therapeutic dietary inclusion of capsaicin, the pungent component of peppers, were evaluated as a nonantibiotic alternative for reduction of Salmonella in broiler chickens through culture and morphologic assessment of cecal tissue. Expt. 1 evaluated the effects of 0 or 10 ppm purified capsaicin (CAP) in the starter phase (days 1-16) on chicks challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) on day of age. Therapeutic inclusion of 10 ppm purified CAP increased (P < 0.05) liver/spleen (L/S) and ceca positive results for SE. In Expt. 2, capsaicin oleoresin (CO) was included in the finisher diet (days 30-37) at 0, 5, or 20 ppm with SE challenge on day 31. Inclusion of 5 ppm CO increased ceca positive results for SE, and a linear decrease in cecal lamina propria thickness of SE-challenged birds was observed with increased CO concentration in the diet. Expt. 3 evaluated prophylactic CO treatment at 0, 5, or 20 ppm in starter, grower, and finisher diets for resistance to SE or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) challenge on day 14 or 29. With challenge on day 14, 5 and 20 ppm prophylactic CO feeding reduced ceca SE positive results by 37% and 26%, respectively, and ST culture rate was reduced similarly with 5 ppm CO. Lamina propria thickness of the ceca increased with 5 ppm CO feeding in SE-challenged birds, whereas a decrease was observed in nonchallenged birds fed 5 ppm CO. Challenge on day 29 of birds fed 20 ppm CO resulted in reduced L/S positive results for SE. Lamina propria thickness decreased with 5 ppm CO and SE or ST challenge compared with nonchallenged birds fed 5 ppm. An increase was observed in ST- or SE-challenged birds fed 20 ppm CO compared with nonchallenged birds fed 20 ppm CO. No differences were observed in mast cell number in either Expt. 2 or 3. These data provide evidence that prophylactic or therapeutic dietary capsaisin differentially affects broiler susceptibility to Salmonella. PMID:16404994

  3. Possible precipitation of migraine attacks with prophylactic treatment.

    PubMed

    Donnet, A; Vuillaume De Diego, E; Lanteri-Minet, M

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of a prophylactic treatment in a migraine sufferer depends upon the stratification of the patient's frequency of attacks and the disability they cause, as well as the patient's acute consumption and comorbid diseases. We report on 14 patients who were among a group of 618 migraine sufferers who received a new preventative treatment. These 14 patients developed an increase in the frequency of their migraine attacks that was possibly induced by this new prophylactic treatment. The clinical description of the migraine attacks remained the same but the frequency of the attacks of migraine without aura was dramatically increased. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a possible precipitation of attacks of migraine without aura with a prophylactic treatment. There is no link with a specific class of prophylactic treatment. We hypothesize that the migraine sufferers who experienced aggravation after the new prophylactic drug had been introduced had a paradoxical decrease in the induction threshold for cortical spreading depression (CSD). Mechanisms of such a decrease are unknown and are probably multifactorial, but changes in serotonin neurotransmission have been experimentally demonstrated to modify cortical excitability and favour CSD. The aggravation was described only for attacks without aura. However, with only 14 patients, it is not possible to predict whether suffering from that the type of migraine is a factor that predisposes a patient to aggravation. While additional cases are necessary, physicians should be aware of the possibility that prophylactic treatment may exacerbate migraine attacks. PMID:18948696

  4. Hypothalamic agouti-related protein expression is affected by both acute and chronic experience of food restriction and re-feeding in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dunn, I C; Wilson, P W; Smulders, T V; Sandilands, V; D'Eath, R B; Boswell, T

    2013-10-01

    The central melanocortin system is conserved across vertebrates. However, in birds, little is known about how energy balance influences orexigenic agouti-related protein (AGRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression, despite the fact that commercial food restriction is critical to the efficient production of poultry meat. To enable contrasts to be made, in broiler-breeder chickens, between levels of food restriction, between birds with the same body weight but different feeding experience, and between birds moved from restricted feeding to ad lib. feeding for different periods, five groups of hens were established between 6 and 12 weeks of age with different combinations of food restriction and release from restriction. AGRP and neuropeptide Y expression in the basal hypothalamus was significantly increased by chronic restriction but only AGRP mRNA levels reflected recent feeding experience: hens at the same body weight that had recently been on ad lib. feeding showed lower expression than restricted birds. AGRP expression also distinguished between hens released from restriction to ad lib. feeding for different periods. By contrast, POMC and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mRNA levels were not different. These results showed that AGRP mRNA not only reflected differences between a bird's weight and its potential weight or set point, but also discriminated between differing feeding histories of birds at the same body weight. Therefore, AGRP expression potentially provides an integrated measure of food intake experience and an objective tool to assess a bird's perception of satiety in feeding regimes for improved poultry welfare. PMID:23957836

  5. The Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Complications in Macular Surgery After Prophylactic Preoperative Laser Retinopexy

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Esposti, Pierluigi; Romeo, Napoleone; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Massimo, Patrizio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Esposti, Giulia; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of intraoperative retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RRD) in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular disorders, who were treated preoperatively with prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy. This observational cohort study comprised of 254 patients who underwent macular surgery and were preoperatively subjected to prophylactic laser retinopexy anterior to the equator. The main outcome measures were the incidence and characteristics of intraoperative RBs and postoperative RRD. Intraoperative RBs occurred in 14 patients (5.5%). Ten patients presented a sclerotomy-related RB (3.9%) and 4 patients a nonsclerotomy-related RB (1.6%). Two patients showed postoperative RRD (0.7%). Neither of the 2 patients with postoperative RRD was macula-off at presentation: one of them was successfully operated on with scleral buckling and the other was managed by observation alone. A significantly increased risk for the intraoperative development of sclerotomy-related RB was found in 20-gauge PPV compared with 23/25-gauge PPV. Preoperative prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy does not guarantee the prevention of intraopertaive RBs or postoperative RRD. However, it might prevent the involvement of the macula when RRD occurs postoperatively. PMID:27057893

  6. A parametric design evaluation of lateral prophylactic knee braces.

    PubMed

    Daley, B J; Ralston, J L; Brown, T D; Brand, R A

    1993-05-01

    Six major mechanical design variables characterizing single-upright lateral prophylactic knee braces were studied experimentally, using a generic modular brace (GMB). Impulsive valgus loading tests were conducted with the GMB applied to a surrogate leg model. The surrogate involved anatomically realistic aluminum-reinforced acrylic components to model bone, and expendable polymeric blanks to mimic the major knee ligaments. Behavior of the surrogate system reasonably reproduced that of human cadaveric knees under similar loading conditions. Load at failure of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) analog, gross knee stiffness, and MCL relative strain relief were measured for each of twelve parametric brace design permutations. Compared to the unbraced condition, bracing provided statistically significant increases in valgus load uptake at failure and in MCL strain relief. Increasing the dimensions of individual brace components (hinge length and offset; upright length, breadth, and thickness; cuff area), relative to those of a GMB baseline configuration deemed representative of current commercial products, failed to achieve statistically significant improvements in brace performance. However, most below-baseline dimensioning of individual components did significantly compromise GMB performance. These surrogate test data indicate that geometric modifications of current single-upright lateral brace designs are unlikely to substantially improve upon the fairly modest valgus load protection afforded by this class of devices. PMID:8326718

  7. Prophylactic treatment with melatonin before recurrent neonatal seizures: Effects on long-term neurobehavioral changes and the underlying expression of metabolism-related genes in rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hong; Sun, Qi; Tian, Tian; Feng, Xing; Sun, Bao-liang

    2015-06-01

    Although it has been suggested that the protective effect of melatonin against seizure-induced neurotoxicity involves inhibition of neuronal lipid peroxidation, current data concerning the exact molecular mechanism are still limited. This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in neurobehavioral, cognitive and lipid metabolism-related gene expressions in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats subjected to recurrent neonatal seizures, and the effects of melatonin treatment before seizure (55mg/kg, 1mg/ml). 6-day-old (P6) SD rats were randomly divided into four groups of control (CONT, the same below), melatonin treated control (Mel), recurrent neonatal seizure (RS) and melatonin and RS combination treatment (Mel+RS). Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, negative geotaxis reaction reflex, Cliff avoidance reflex, forelimb suspension reflex) were observed on P31. Morris water maze test was performed during P29-P35. Then the protein levels of ACAT1, Cathepsin-E and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK II) in hippocampus and cerebral cortex were detected by western blot method. As expected, RS group showed a significant delay or reduce of the four reflexes, as well as bad performance in the Morris water maze test. Flurothyl-induced neurobehavioral toxicology was blocked by pre-treatment with melatonin. In parallel with these behavioral changes, gene expression by western blot method demonstrated that rats pretreated with melatonin (Mel+RS) showed a significant down-regulated expression of ACAT-1, Cathepsin-E and up-regulated CAMK II in hippocampus and cerebral cortex when compared with RS group. Our findings provide support for ACAT-1/Cathepsin-E as well as CaMK II being potential targets for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage by melatonin. PMID:25818576

  8. Ever closer to a prophylactic vaccine for HCV

    PubMed Central

    Swadling, Leo; Klenerman, Paul; Barnes, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With 3 – 4 million new infections occurring annually, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem. There is increasing evidence to suggest that HCV will be highly amenable to a vaccine approach, and despite advances in treatment, a vaccine remains the most cost-effective and realistic means to significantly reduce the worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with persistent HCV infection. Areas covered In this review we discuss immune responses to HCV during natural infection, and describe how they may inform vaccine design. We introduce the current candidate vaccines for HCV and compare how these fare against the expected requirements of an effective prophylactic HCV vaccine in relation to the breadth, functionality, magnitude and phenotype of the vaccine-induced immune response. Expert opinion Although the correlates of immune protection against HCV are not completely defined, we now have vaccine technologies capable of inducing HCV-specific adaptive immune responses to an order of magnitude that are associated with protection during natural infection. The challenge next is to i) establish well-characterised cohorts of people at risk of HCV infection for vaccine efficacy testing and ii) to better understand the correlates of protection in natural history studies. If these can be achieved, a vaccine against HCV appears a realistic goal. PMID:23651228

  9. Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tuvin, Daniel; Berger, Yaniv; Aycart, Samantha N; Shtilbans, Tatiana; Hiotis, Spiros; Labow, Daniel M; Sarpel, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Background Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising approach for preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis in high-risk patients. We report our initial experience with prophylactic HIPEC in a series of patients with appendiceal neoplasms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HIPEC in the absence of peritoneal disease. Patients with previously documented peritoneal surface disease were excluded. Data regarding clinical, operative and pathological features were analysed. Results Out of 322 HIPEC procedures performed between March 2007and August 2015, we identified 16 patients who underwent surgery with prophylactic intent. Primary diagnoses included high-grade and low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. Most patients presented originally with appendiceal perforation; all patients underwent initial surgery during which the appendix or right colon were resected. Following a median time interval of 2.2 months, a second surgery performed at our institution consisted of completion of omentectomy, partial colectomy and oophorectomy, with administration of prophylactic HIPEC (using mitomycin C). A totally laparoscopic approach was attempted and achieved in 11 patients in whom the median duration of surgery, estimated intraoperative blood loss and length of hospitalisation were 251 min, 100 cm(3) and 4 days, respectively. There were no cases of major perioperative morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Prophylactic HIPEC for appendiceal neoplasms is feasible, safe and may be performed laparoscopically. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether a survival benefit is associated with this treatment. PMID:27050712

  10. Prophylactic Circumferential Retinal Cryopexy to Prevent Pseudophakic Retinal Detachment after Posterior Capsule Rupture during Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Bertelmann, T.; Heun, C.; Paul, C.; Bari-Kacik, E.; Sekundo, W.; Schulze, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether prophylactic circumferential retinal cryopexy (CRC) can prevent pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) development after posterior capsule rupture (PCR) during phacoemulsification. Methods. Retrospective patient chart analysis of eyes experiencing a PCR during phacoemulsification. Comparison of PRD development between eyes receiving CRC (cryo+ group) or not (cryo− group). Results. Overall 106 patients were analyzed, thereof 61 (58%) in the cryo+ and 45 (42%) in the cryo− group. In both clusters a total of 10 PRDs (9.4%) occurred, thereof 3 (30%) in the cryo+ as well as 7 (70%) in the cryo− group (p = 0.087), 79.8 ± 81.58 weeks after PCR. Relative/absolute risk reduction in CRC-treated eyes was calculated to be 68%/11%. Prophylactic CRC reduced PRD development 0.3-fold. Number needed to treat was estimated to be 9.4. Conclusion. Prophylactic CRC might be a useful treatment option in eyes with PCR to hamper PRD development in the further course. Further research is indicated to evaluate this beneficial effect between eyes with and without a rupture of the anterior vitreous cortex and accompanying vitreous loss in an expanding number of eyes. PMID:26697214

  11. Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination and primary prevention of cervical cancer: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Poljak, M

    2012-10-01

    Two prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been recently approved: one quadrivalent and the other a bivalent vaccine. When administered in a three-dose course to HPV-naive individuals, both vaccines exhibited excellent safety profiles and were highly efficacious against targeted clinical endpoints in large-scale international phase III clinical trials. Where coverage has been high for the appropriate target population, a reduction of HPV-related diseases with the shortest incubation periods has already been seen. By March 2012, universal HPV vaccination had been introduced into national vaccination programmes in more than 40 countries, but only in a few low-income and middle-income countries. With the growing market for HPV vaccines and competition between manufacturers, negotiated prices are already beginning to decline although they still remain out of reach of many countries. The great majority of countries are struggling to reach a level of coverage that will have the most impact on cervical cancer rates. Increasing coverage and improving completion of the HPV vaccine schedule, particularly of sexually naive females, is now the most important public-health issue in HPV vaccine efforts. A clear strategy for integrating primary (HPV vaccination) and secondary (screening) cervical cancer prevention must be agreed as soon as possible. Several second-generation prophylactic vaccines are being developed with the aim of resolving some of the limitations of the two current HPV prophylactic vaccines. PMID:22862799

  12. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context. PMID:26804043

  13. A Systematic Review of Prophylactic Braces in the Prevention of Knee Ligament Injuries in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; Grindstaff, Terry L; Linens, Shelley W; Uczekaj, Elizabeth; Hertel, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative risk reduction associated with prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. Data Sources: An exhaustive search for original research was performed using the PubMed, SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases from 1970 through November 2006, with the search terms knee brace, knee braces, knee bracing and football, prophylactic brace, and prophylactic knee braces. Study Selection: Seven studies comparing knee injuries among braced and nonbraced collegiate football players were included. Study methods were assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. PEDro scores ranged from 2 to 5. Data Extraction: The number of participants and frequency of knee injuries were used to calculate the relative risk reduction or increase. Data Synthesis: We found a relative risk reduction for 3 studies with point estimates of 10% (36% to −26%), 58% (25% to 76%), and 56% (13% to 77%). Four studies demonstrated an increased risk of injury, with point estimates of 17% (19% to −71%), 49% (−31% to −69%), 114% (23% to −492%), and 42% (−18% to −70%). Conclusions: Data from existing research are inconsistent. Based on a Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy level of evidence of 2 with a grade B recommendation, we cannot conclusively advocate or discourage the use of prophylactic knee braces in the prevention of knee injuries in collegiate football players. PMID:18668174

  14. [Feed supplementation with selenium in relation to the vitamin E-selenium deficiency syndrome in pigs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K B; Simesen, M G

    1977-01-01

    After the addition of selenium to swine feed (max. 0.1 ppm) was legalized in Denmark in 1975, a marked reduction has occurred in the incidence of hepatosis dietetica (HD) in the material received at the State Veterinary Serum Laboratory for diagnostic examination, while the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) appears to be unchanged (Table I). In a material collected before the addition of selenium to swine feed was permitted, the selenium content in liver and heart was found to be significantly lower in the pigs that had died of MHD than in normal pigs, but higher than in pigs that had died of HD (Table II). These observations tend to support the view that feed supplementation with selenium is more effective to prevent HD than MHD. PMID:866121

  15. Pharmacological therapy of feed intolerance in the critically ills

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q

    2014-01-01

    Feed intolerance in the setting of critical illness is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and thus requires promptly and effective treatment. Prokinetic agents are currently considered as the first-line therapy given issues relating to parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric placement. Currently, the agents of choice are erythromycin and metoclopramide, either alone or in combination, which are highly effective with relatively low incidence of cardiac, hemodynamic or neurological adverse effects. Diarrhea, however, can occur in up to 49% of patients who are treated with the dual prokinetic therapy, which is not associated with Clostridium difficile infection and settled soon after the cessation of the drugs. Hence, the use of prokinetic therapy over a long period or for prophylactic purpose must be avoided, and the indication for ongoing use of the drug(s) must be reviewed frequently. Second line therapy, such as total parenteral nutrition and post-pyloric feeding, must be considered once adverse effects relating the prokinetic therapy develop. PMID:25133043

  16. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations--the Netherlands and United States.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Tempelman, R J; van Pelt, M L; Weigel, K A; VandeHaar, M; Lawlor, T J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Staples, C R; Hanigan, M; De Haas, Y

    2016-01-01

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformation traits can vary depending on the population. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic correlations between 6 feed-intake-related traits and 7 conformation traits within dairy cattle from 2 countries, the Netherlands (NL) and the United States (US). The feed-intake-related traits were dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), milk energy output (MilkE), milk yield (MY), body weight (BW), and metabolic body weight (MBW). The conformation traits were stature (ST), chest width (CW), body depth (BD), angularity (ANG), rump angle (RA), rump width (RW), and body condition score (BCS). Feed intake data were available for 1,665 cows in NL and for 1,920 cows in US, from 83 nutritional experiments (48 in NL and 35 in US) conducted between 1991 and 2011 in NL and between 2007 and 2013 in US. Additional conformation records from relatives of the animals with DMI records were added to the database, giving a total of 37,241 cows in NL and 28,809 in US with conformation trait information. Genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate animal model analyses. The model included the following fixed effects for feed-intake-related traits: location by experiment-ration, age of cow at calving modeled with a second order polynomial by parity class, location by year-season, and days in milk, and these fixed effects for the conformation traits: herd by classification date, age of cow at classification, and lactation stage at classification. Both models included additive genetic and residual random effects. The highest estimated genetic correlations involving DMI were with CW in both countries (NL=0.45 and US=0.61), followed by ST (NL=0.33 and US=0.57), BD (NL=0.26 and US

  17. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  18. Sharpshooter feeding behavior in relation to transmission of Xylella fastidiosa: A model for foregut-borne transmission mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes several scorch diseases in important crops, such as Pierce’s disease of grape. Bacteria form a dense biofilm on the foregut cuticle of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, H. vitripennis, and other xylem-feeding vectors. Bacteria are inoculate...

  19. 75 FR 24394 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of a New Animal Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... medicated article was voluntarily withdrawn (60 FR 37651, July 21, 1995) and approved conditions of use for... NADA 45-738, were removed (60 FR 39847, July 21, 1995). At this time, the tolerances for residues of... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 556 and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and...

  20. High fructose feeding induces copper deficiency in Sprague-Dawley rats: A novel mechanism for obesity related fatty liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary copper deficiency is associated with a variety of manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, including hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Fructose feeding has been reported to exacerbate complications of copper deficiency. In this study, we investigated whether copper deficiency plays a role in ...

  1. Hepatitis B virus reactivation after withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei Ping; Wang, Xiao Pei; Zheng, Wen; Ping, Ling Yan; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Gui Qiang; Song, Yu Qin; Zhu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The exact incidence and severity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy (delayed HBV reactivation) is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 107 newly diagnosed diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients with HBV infection who received chemotherapy. The median time from the cessation of antitumor therapy to the withdrawal of prophylactic antiviral therapy was 6.1 months. The incidence of delayed HBV reactivation was 21.7% in HBsAg-positive group and 0 in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive group (P < 0.001). No HBV-related fulminant hepatitis or hepatitis-related death occurred. The multivariate analysis showed that female gender and lengthy cycles of chemotherapy (>8 cycles) were independent risk factors of HBV reactivation in HBsAg-positive patients. In conclusion, prophylactic antiviral therapy could be withdrawn 6 months after the cessation of chemotherapy in HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients. However, a longer course of prophylactic antiviral drug administration may be an optimal option to prevent delayed HBV reactivation for HBsAg-positive patients. PMID:26727044

  2. Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to availability of human and domestic animals in suburban landscapes of central North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephanie L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Apperson, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major nuisance mosquito and a potential arbovirus vector. The host-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus were investigated during the 2002 and 2003 mosquito seasons in suburban neighborhoods in Wake County, Raleigh, NC. Hosts of blood-fed Ae. albopictus (n = 1,094) were identified with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, by using antisera made in New Zealand White rabbits to the sera of animals that would commonly occur in peridomestic habitats. Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on mammalian hosts (83%). Common mammalian hosts included humans (24%), cats (21%), and dogs (14%). However, a notable proportion (7%) of bloodmeals also was taken from avian hosts. Some bloodmeals taken from birds were identified to species by a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay (PCR-HDA). Ae. albopictus fed predominantly on chickens and a northern cardinal. PCR-HDA failed to produce detectable products for 29 (58%) of 50 bloodmeals for which DNA had been amplified, indicating that these mosquitoes took mixed bloodmeals from avian and nonavian hosts. Ae. albopictus preference for humans, dogs, and cats was determined by calculating host-feeding indices for the three host pairs based on the proportion of host specific blood-fed mosquitoes collected in relation to the number of specific hosts per residence as established by a door-to-door survey conducted in 2003. Estimates of the average amount of time that residents and their pets (cats and dogs) spent out of doors were obtained. Host-feeding indices based only on host abundance indicated that Ae. albopictus was more likely to feed on domestic animals. However, when feeding indices were time-weighted, Ae. albopictus fed preferentially upon humans. Ae. albopictus blood feeding on humans was investigated using a STR/PCR-DNA profiling technique that involved amplification of three short tandem repeats loci. Of 40 human bloodmeals, 32 (80%) were from a single human, whereas

  3. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  4. Prophylactic interventions on children: balancing human rights with public health

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, F; Svoboda, J; Van Howe, R S

    2002-01-01

    Bioethics committees have issued guidelines that medical interventions should be permissible only in cases of clinically verifiable disease, deformity, or injury. Furthermore, once the existence of one or more of these requirements has been proven, the proposed therapeutic procedure must reasonably be expected to result in a net benefit to the patient. As an exception to this rule, some prophylactic interventions might be performed on individuals "in their best interests" or with the aim of averting an urgent and potentially calamitous public health danger. In order to invoke these exceptions, a stringent set of criteria must first be satisfied. Additionally, where the proposed prophylactic intervention is intended for children, who are unlikely to be able to provide a meaningfully informed consent, a heightened scrutiny of any such measures is required. We argue that children should not be subjected to prophylactic interventions "in their best interests" or for public health reasons when there exist effective and conservative alternative interventions, such as behavioural modification, that individuals could employ as competent adolescents or adults to avoid adverse health outcomes. Applying these criteria, we consider the specific examples of prophylactic mastectomy, immunisations, cosmetic ear surgery, and circumcision. PMID:11834752

  5. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections are no longer routinely recommended. A large number of children must be given prophylaxis to prevent one infection and antibiotic resistance is a major concern when treating community-acquired urinary tract infections. The results of three recent significant studies are examined, with focus on the efficacy of prophylaxis, and recommendations are made. PMID:25722643

  6. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalm, Marie; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus; Nyman, Jan; Hietala, Max Albert; Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars; Elam, Mikael; Blennow, Kaj; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  7. Venting during prophylactic nailing for femoral metastases: current orthopedic practice

    PubMed Central

    Dalgorf, Dustin; Borkhoff, Cornelia M.; Stephen, David J.G.; Finkelstein, Joel; Kreder, Hans J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Reamed intramedullary nailing, recommended for impending fracture of a femur weakened by bone metastases, causes a rise in intramedullary pressure and increases the risk of a fat embolism syndrome. The pressure can be equalized by the technique of venting — drilling a hole into the distal cortex of the femur. Our objective was to study the current practice of orthopedic surgeons in Ontario with respect to venting during prophylactic intramedullary nailing for an impending femoral fracture due to bone metastases. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to all orthopedic surgeons from the Province of Ontario listed in the 1999 Canadian Medical Directory or on the Canadian Orthopaedic Association membership list, asking if they vent when prophylactically nailing an impending pathologic femoral fracture. The responses were modelled as a function of surgeon volume and year of graduation. Results Of the 415 surveys mailed, 223 (54%) surgeons responded. Of these, 81% reported having prophylactically treated a femoral metastatic lesion during the previous year; 67% treated 1 to 3 metastatic lesions and 14% treated more than 3; 19% did not treat a metastatic femoral lesion prophylactically. Over two-thirds of surgeons had never considered venting, whereas one-third always or sometimes vented the femoral canal. More recent graduates were 3 times more likely to vent than earlier (before 1980) graduates (odds ratio [OR] = 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–6.5) as were those who treat a greater number of impending fractures (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.7). Conclusions Although there is a theoretical rationale for routine venting, there is disagreement among Ontario orthopedic surgeons regarding the use of this technique during prophylactic nailing for femoral metastatic lesions. Prospective evidence will be required to warrant a change in the standard of care. PMID:14680349

  8. Paralytic Ileus and Prophylactic Gastrointestinal Motility Medication after Spinal Operation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hyun, Dongkeun; Park, Hyeong-chun; Kim, Yeo Ju

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prevalence of paralytic ileus after spinal operation in the supine or prone operative position and to determine the efficacy of prophylactic gastrointestinal motility medications in preventing symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation. Materials and Methods All patients received spinal surgery in the supine or prone operative position. The study period was divided into two phases: first, to analyze the prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation, and second, to determine the therapeutic effects of prophylactic gastrointestinal motility medications (postoperative intravenous injection of scopolamine butylbromide and metoclopramide hydrochloride) on symptomatic paralytic ileus after a spinal operation. Results Basic demographic data were not different. In the first phase of this study, 27 patients (32.9%) with radiographic paralytic ileus and 11 patients (13.4%) with symptomatic paralytic ileus were observed. Radiographic paralytic ileus was more often noted in patients who underwent an operation in the prone position (p=0.044); whereas the occurrence of symptomatic paralytic ileus was not different between the supine and prone positioned patients (p=0.385). In the second phase, prophylactic medications were shown to be ineffective in preventing symptomatic paralytic ileus after spinal surgery [symptomatic paralytic ileus was observed in 11.1% (4/36) with prophylactic medication and 16.7% (5/30) with a placebo, p=0.513]. Conclusion Spinal surgery in the prone position was shown to increase the likelihood of radiographic paralytic ileus occurrence, but not symptomatic paralytic ileus. Unfortunately, the prophylactic medications to prevent symptomatic paralytic ileus after spine surgery were shown to be ineffective. PMID:26446646

  9. The Relative Concentrations of Nutrients and Toxins Dictate Feeding by a Vertebrate Browser, the Greater Glider Petauroides volans.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lora M; Wallis, Ian R; Foley, William J

    2015-01-01

    Although ecologists believe that vertebrate herbivores must select a diet that allows them to meet their nutritional requirements, while avoiding intoxication by plant secondary metabolites, this is remarkably difficult to show. A long series of field and laboratory experiments means that we have a good understanding of the factors that affect feeding by leaf-eating marsupials. This knowledge and the natural intraspecific variation in Eucalyptus chemistry allowed us to test the hypothesis that the feeding decisions of greater gliders (Petauroides volans) depend on the concentrations of available nitrogen (incorporating total nitrogen, dry matter digestibility and tannins) and of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs), potent antifeedants unique to Eucalyptus. We offered captive greater gliders foliage from two species of Eucalyptus, E. viminalis and E. melliodora, which vary naturally in their concentrations of available nitrogen and FPCs. We then measured the amount of foliage eaten by each glider and compared this with our laboratory analyses of foliar total nitrogen, available nitrogen and FPCs for each tree offered. The concentration of FPCs was the main factor that determined how much gliders ate of E. viminalis and E. melliodora, but in gliders fed E. viminalis the concentration of available nitrogen was also a significant influence. In other words, greater gliders ate E. viminalis leaves with a particular combination of FPCs and available nitrogen that maximised the nutritional gain but minimised their ingestion of toxins. In contrast, the concentration of total nitrogen was not correlated with feeding. This study is among the first to empirically show that browsing herbivores select a diet that balances the potential gain (available nutrients) and the potential costs (plant secondary chemicals) of eating leaves. The major implication of the study is that it is essential to identify the limiting nutrients and relevant toxins in a system in order to

  10. The Relative Concentrations of Nutrients and Toxins Dictate Feeding by a Vertebrate Browser, the Greater Glider Petauroides volans

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Lora M.; Wallis, Ian R.; Foley, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Although ecologists believe that vertebrate herbivores must select a diet that allows them to meet their nutritional requirements, while avoiding intoxication by plant secondary metabolites, this is remarkably difficult to show. A long series of field and laboratory experiments means that we have a good understanding of the factors that affect feeding by leaf-eating marsupials. This knowledge and the natural intraspecific variation in Eucalyptus chemistry allowed us to test the hypothesis that the feeding decisions of greater gliders (Petauroides volans) depend on the concentrations of available nitrogen (incorporating total nitrogen, dry matter digestibility and tannins) and of formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs), potent antifeedants unique to Eucalyptus. We offered captive greater gliders foliage from two species of Eucalyptus, E. viminalis and E. melliodora, which vary naturally in their concentrations of available nitrogen and FPCs. We then measured the amount of foliage eaten by each glider and compared this with our laboratory analyses of foliar total nitrogen, available nitrogen and FPCs for each tree offered. The concentration of FPCs was the main factor that determined how much gliders ate of E. viminalis and E. melliodora, but in gliders fed E. viminalis the concentration of available nitrogen was also a significant influence. In other words, greater gliders ate E. viminalis leaves with a particular combination of FPCs and available nitrogen that maximised the nutritional gain but minimised their ingestion of toxins. In contrast, the concentration of total nitrogen was not correlated with feeding. This study is among the first to empirically show that browsing herbivores select a diet that balances the potential gain (available nutrients) and the potential costs (plant secondary chemicals) of eating leaves. The major implication of the study is that it is essential to identify the limiting nutrients and relevant toxins in a system in order to

  11. Nuttalliella namaqua: A Living Fossil and Closest Relative to the Ancestral Tick Lineage: Implications for the Evolution of Blood-Feeding in Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Ben J.; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; Latif, Abdalla A.

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are monophyletic and composed of the hard (Ixodidae) and soft (Argasidae) tick families, as well as the Nuttalliellidae, a family with a single species, Nuttalliella namaqua. Significant biological differences in lifestyle strategies for hard and soft ticks suggest that various blood-feeding adaptations occurred after their divergence. The phylogenetic relationships between the tick families have not yet been resolved due to the lack of molecular data for N. namaqua. This tick possesses a pseudo-scutum and apical gnathostoma as observed for ixodids, has a leathery cuticle similar to argasids and has been considered the evolutionary missing link between the two families. Little knowledge exists with regard to its feeding biology or host preferences. Data on its biology and systematic relationship to the other tick families could therefore be crucial in understanding the evolution of blood-feeding behaviour in ticks. Live specimens were collected and blood meal analysis showed the presence of DNA for girdled lizards from the Cordylid family. Feeding of ticks on lizards showed that engorgement occurred rapidly, similar to argasids, but that blood meal concentration occurs via malpighian excretion of water. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear and 16S mitochondrial genes indicate that N. namaqua grouped basal to the main tick families. The data supports the monophyly of all tick families and suggests the evolution of argasid-like blood-feeding behaviour in the ancestral tick lineage. Based on the data and considerations from literature we propose an origin for ticks in the Karoo basin of Gondwanaland during the late Permian. The nuttalliellid family almost became extinct during the End Permian event, leaving N. namaqua as the closest living relative to the ancestral tick lineage and the evolutionary missing link between the tick families. PMID:21858204

  12. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Sharon Galper

    2015-01-01

    Background Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery. PMID:26886774

  13. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  14. Prophylactic Oophorectomy: Reducing the U.S. Death Rate from Epithelial Ovarian Cancer. A Continuing Debate.

    PubMed

    Piver

    1996-01-01

    previous hysterectomy for benign disease with ovarian preservation, 57.4% of which were performed in women over the age of 40 [10]. Prophylactic oophorectomy in such cases has not been a uniformly accepted practice because it has been assumed that preserved ovaries continue to function normally and thus delay both the onset of osteoporosis and menopause with its effect on the cardiovascular system. However, as many as 30% of women have postmenopausal symptoms within 24 months of hysterectomy with preservation of the ovaries [11]. In addition, in an important cross-sectional study of bone density of premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy with ovarian conservation compared with a matched group which had not had hysterectomy, investigators reported that bone density in the hysterectomy group was significantly reduced [12]. They concluded that premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy with ovarian preservation will have a significantly low bone density, somewhat negating the value of ovarian preservation. Women age 40 or over who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy for benign uterine conditions can be started immediately on hormone replacement therapy, thus helping to prevent loss of bone density and the onset of osteoporosis. PROPHYLACTIC OOPHORECTOMY IN WOMEN WITH A FAMILY HISTORY OF OVARIAN CANCER: Since familial (also known as site-specific or hereditary) ovarian cancer is considered to be an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable penetrance, sisters and daughters of families with a history of familial ovarian cancer (two or more first-degree relatives [mother, sister, daughter-who share one-half of one's genes]) may have as high as a 50% chance of inheriting the deleterious gene. Easton has estimated that for women with a BRCA1 mutation, the lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer by age 70 is 63% [13]. The lifetime risk for BRCA2 mutations has not yet been calculated [14]. We have included women with two or more

  15. Feeding behaviors of low-income mothers: Directive control relateds to a lower BMI in children, and a nondirective control relates to a healthier diet in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore whether and how directive (external, observable pressure on the child to eat a healthy diet) and nondirective (motivating the child to eat a healthy diet through praising, asking questions, and organizing the home food environment) type of parental feeding ...

  16. Patient and parent preferences for characteristics of prophylactic treatment in hemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Roberto; Krishnan, Sangeeta; Vietri, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction New longer-acting factor products will potentially allow for less frequent infusion in prophylactic treatment of hemophilia. However, the role of administration frequency relative to other treatment attributes in determining preferences for prophylactic hemophilia treatment regimens is not well understood. Aim To identify the relative importance of frequency of administration, efficacy, and other treatment characteristics among candidates for prophylactic treatment for hemophilia A and B. Method An Internet survey was conducted among hemophilia patients and the parents of pediatric hemophilia patients in Australia, Canada, and the US. A monadic conjoint task was included in the survey, which varied frequency of administration (three, two, or one time per week for hemophilia A; twice weekly, weekly, or biweekly for hemophilia B), efficacy (no bleeding or breakthrough bleeding once every 4 months, 6 months, or 12 months), diluent volume (3 mL vs 2.5 mL for hemophilia A; 5 mL vs 3 mL for hemophilia B), vials per infusion (2 vs 1), reconstitution device (assembly required vs not), and manufacturer (established in hemophilia vs not). Respondents were asked their likelihood to switch from their current regimen to the presented treatment. Respondents were told to assume that other aspects of treatment, such as risk of inhibitor development, cost, and method of distribution, would remain the same. Results A total of 89 patients and/or parents of children with hemophilia A participated; another 32 were included in the exercise for hemophilia B. Relative importance was 47%, 24%, and 18% for frequency of administration, efficacy, and manufacturer, respectively, in hemophilia A; analogous values were 48%, 26%, and 21% in hemophilia B. The remaining attributes had little impact on preferences. Conclusion Patients who are candidates for prophylaxis and their caregivers indicate a preference for reduced frequency of administration and high efficacy, but preferences

  17. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  18. Bovine respiratory disease: efficacy of different prophylactic treatments in veal calves and antimicrobial resistance of isolated Pasteurellaceae.

    PubMed

    Rérat, M; Albini, S; Jaquier, V; Hüssy, D

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two prophylactic antibiotic treatments against bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in veal calves. In addition, the antibiotic susceptibilities of isolated Pasteurellaceae were tested. The calves were treated either on the day of arrival by a single administration of tulathromycin (group A, n=20), by a peroral administration of chlortetracycline, sulphadimidine, and tylosin (group B, n=20) for seven consecutive days, or were not prophylactically treated (group C, n=19). On the first day of clinically diagnosed BRD, transtracheal lavage samples were obtained prior to therapeutic treatment and were subsequently cultured. Pasteurellaceae isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents by the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentrations. During the first 56 d after arrival, different calves in group A and B suffered from one episode of clinically diagnosed BRD while calves of group C experienced two episodes. The average daily weight gain during the same period was significantly lower in group C (0.89 ± 0.04kg/d) than in the two prophylactically treated groups (1.14 ± 0.05 and 1.15 ± 0.04 kg/d for group A and B, respectively). The improved performance of groups A and B in comparison to group C could be related to a lower incidence of respiratory disorders during the first days after arrival in the prophylactically treated animals. No differences in the clinical efficacy were seen between the two tested prophylactic treatments. The most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated (n=79) were Pasteurella multocida (23% of isolated pathogens), Mycoplasma bovis (18%), and Mannheimia varigena (16%). For the isolated Pasteurellaceae, a high resistance pattern was observed to tylosin (83% of the tested P. multocida and 88% of the Mannheimia spp. isolates resistant) and tilmicosin (56% of the tested P. multocida isolates non-sensitive). PMID:21945813

  19. Leukoencephalopathy in childhood hematopoietic neoplasm caused by moderate-dose methotrexate and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy - an MR analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Ko |; Takahashi, Shoki; Higano, Shuichi

    1995-07-15

    The main purpose of this study was to determine influential factors related to minor leukoencephalopathy (LEP) caused by moderate-dose methotrexate (MTX) and prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in childhood hematopoietic malignancies. We also compared the incidence of LEP following this treatment to that reported in the literature following treatment with high-dose MTX alone. Thirty-eight pediatric patients of hematopoietic malignancies (37 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 1 non-Hodgkin lymphoma) who were given CRT (18-24 Gy) as well as prophylactic intrathecal and per os MTX were studied for leukoencephalopathy by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. All the patients were free from grave neuropsychiatric disturbances. The data were examined to elucidate the influential ones of five factors (patients` age, doses of intrathecal and per os MTX, dose of CRT, interval between treatment, and MR study) to develop LEP using multiple regression analysis. To compare the effect of moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT on LEP to that of high-dose MTX alone, we conducted a literature review. Seven out of 38 patients (18%) developed LEP. From multiple regression analysis and partial correlation coefficients, the age and CRT dose seemed influential in the subsequent development of LEP. The incidence of LEP following treatment with moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT appears to be less than that reported in the literature following treatment with intravenous high-dose MTX. However, even moderate-dose MTX in combination with CRT can result in a significant incidence of MR-detectable LEP, particularly in children 6 years of age or younger receiving 24 Gy. Leukoencephalopathy was caused by moderate-dose MTX and prophylactic CRT in pediatric patients, probably less frequently than by high-dose MTX treatment alone. The influential factors were patient`s age and CRT dose. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Prophylactic vaccinations in chronic kidney disease: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2015-01-01

    In this review, recent data on results concerning prophylactic vaccinations against hepatitis B virus, influenza viruses, and pneumococci are presented. Effects of active immunization in chronic kidney disease depend on category of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The lower GFR category the better results of response to vaccination. Abnormalities in toll-like receptors and down-regulation of B-cell activating factor receptor in transitional B cells were recently included into uremia-associated deficits in immunocompetence. Development of novel, more potent vaccines containing toll-like receptor agonists as adjuvants may help to achieve more effective immunization against hepatitis B virus in immunocompromised patients. Experimental studies announce further vaccine adjuvants. A vaccine against hepatitis C virus is not available yet, but promising results were already obtained in the experimental and preliminary clinical studies. Prophylactic vaccinations against influenza viruses and pneumococci become increasingly popular in dialysis facilities due to their proved benefits. PMID:25911956

  1. Prophylactic gastrectomy in a 16-year-old.

    PubMed

    Wickremeratne, Tehara; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Kirk, Judy; Charlton, Amanda; Thomas, Gordon; Gaskin, Kevin J

    2014-03-01

    We performed a total gastrectomy in a 16-year-old asymptomatic CDH1 gene mutation carrier in whom two prior gastroscopies with biopsies were normal. The patient's mother died aged 39 years and her aunt died aged 21 years of gastric cancer. A germline CDH1 mutation (associated with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer) was initially identified in her mother at diagnosis and was later identified by predictive testing in this patient. Our patient is the youngest CDH1 carrier to date to have a prophylactic gastrectomy, and is several years below the age at which existing guidelines recommend consideration of gastrectomy. Multiple foci of early-stage carcinoma were found in her gastrectomy specimen. Given the family history of advanced gastric cancer in the late second decade, the unpredictable time course to development of advanced gastric cancer, and the futility of gastroscopic surveillance, we recommend consideration of prophylactic gastrectomy in adolescent asymptomatic CDH1 mutation carriers on an individual basis. PMID:24240619

  2. Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: Challenging Considerations for the Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Angelos, Peter; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Euhus, David M; Herrmann, Virginia M; Katz, Steven J; Pusic, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The use of both bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) has increased significantly during the last decade. Various risk models have been developed to identify patients at increased risk for breast cancer. The indications for bilateral prophylactic mastectomy for patients without a diagnosis of breast cancer include high risk from mutation in BRCA or other breast cancer predisposition gene, very strong family history with no identifiable mutation, and high risk based on breast histology. Additionally, the use of CPM has more than doubled in the last decade, and this increase is noted among all stages of breast cancer, even in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (stage 0). The risk of contralateral breast cancer often is overestimated by both patients and physicians. Nevertheless, specific risk factors are associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer, including BRCA or other genetic mutation, young age at diagnosis, lobular histology, family history, and prior chest wall irradiation. Although CPM reduces the incidence of contralateral breast cancer, the effect on disease-free survival and, more importantly, overall survival is questionable and underscored by the fact that the reason most patients choose CPM is to achieve "peace of mind." Newer and effective reconstructive options have made the procedure more attractive. This panel addresses the indications and rationale for bilateral prophylactic mastectomy and CPM, the decision-making process by patients, and ethical considerations. Changes in the physician-patient relationship during the past few decades have altered the approach, and ethical considerations are paramount in addressing these issues. PMID:26259752

  3. Short course prophylactic cranial irradiation for small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Feld, R.; Clamon, G.H.; Blum, R.; Moran, E.; Weiner, R.; Kramer, B.; Evans, W.K.; Herman, J.G.; Hoffman, F.; Burmeister, L.

    1985-10-01

    Ninety-one patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were given a shortened, intensive course of prophylactic cranial irradiation consisting of 2,000 rad in five fractions. The CNS relapse rate was 21%, but in only one of 91 patients was the brain the first and only site of relapse. Acute toxicities consisting of headache (16%) and nausea and vomiting (15%) were observed. Results are compared with previous results from other studies of cranial irradiation.

  4. Development of a new Sonovue™ contrast-enhanced ultrasound approach reveals temporal and age-related features of muscle microvascular responses to feeding

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William Kyle; Phillips, Bethan E; Williams, John P; Rankin, Debbie; Smith, Kenneth; Lund, Jonathan N; Atherton, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Compromised limb blood flow in aging may contribute to the development of sarcopenia, frailty, and the metabolic syndrome. We developed a novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique using Sonovue™ to characterize muscle microvasculature responses to an oral feeding stimulus (15 g essential amino acids) in young (∼20 years) and older (∼70 years) men. Intensity-time replenishment curves were made via an ultrasound probe “fixed” over the quadriceps, with intermittent high mechanical index destruction of microbubbles within muscle vasculature. This permitted real-time measures of microvascular blood volume (MBV), microvascular flow velocity (MFV) and their product, microvascular blood flow (MBF). Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by Doppler and insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Steady-state contrast concentrations needed for comparison between different physiological states were achieved <150 sec from commencing Sonovue™ infusion, and MFV and MBV measurements were completed <120 sec thereafter. Interindividual coefficients of variation in MBV and MFV were 35–40%, (N = 36). Younger men (N = 6) exhibited biphasic vascular responses to feeding with early increases in MBV (+36%, P < 0.008 45 min post feed) reflecting capillary recruitment, and late increases in MFV (+77%, P < 0.008) and MBF (+130%, P < 0.007 195 min post feed) reflecting more proximal vessel dilatation. Early MBV responses were synchronized with peak insulin but not increased LBF, while later changes in MFV and MBF occurred with insulin at post absorptive values but alongside increased LBF. All circulatory responses were absent in old men (N = 7). Thus, impaired postprandial circulation could impact age-related declines in muscle glucose disposal, protein anabolism, and muscle mass. PMID:24303186

  5. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were

  6. Relative importance of bacteria and fungi in a tropical headwater stream: leaf decomposition and invertebrate feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Wright, M S; Covich, A P

    2005-05-01

    Bacteria and fungi provide critical links between leaf detritus and higher trophic levels in forested headwater food webs, but these links in tropical streams are not well understood. We compared the roles of bacteria and fungi in the leaf decomposition process and determining feeding preference for two species of freshwater shrimp found in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using experimental microcosms. We first tested the effects of four treatments on decomposition rates for leaves from two common riparian species, Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae) and Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae), in laboratory microcosms. Treatments were designed to alter the microbial community by minimizing the presence of bacteria or fungi. The fastest decay rate was the control treatment for D. excelsa where both bacteria and fungi were present (k = -0.0073 day(-1)) compared to the next fastest rate of k = -0.0063 day(-1) for the bacterial-conditioned D. excelsa leaves. The fastest decay rate for C. scheberiana was also the control treatment (k = -0.0035 day(-1)), while the next fastest rate was for fungal-conditioned leaves (k = -0.0029 day(-1)). The nonadditive effect for leaf decomposition rates observed in the control treatments where both fungi and bacteria were present indicate that bacteria and fungi perform different functions in processing leaf litter. Additionally, leaf types differed in microbial colonization patterns. We next tested feeding preference for leaf type and microbe treatment in microcosms using two species of freshwater shrimp: Xiphocaris elongata, a shredder, and Atya lanipes, a scraper/filterer. To estimate feeding preferences of individual shrimp, we measured change in leaf surface area and the amount of particles generated during 5-day trials in 16 different two-choice combinations. X. elongata preferred D. excelsa over C. scheberiana, and leaves with microbial conditioning over leaves without conditioning. There was no clear preference for fungal

  7. [Fattening and slaughter values of pigs in relation to their genotype and to the protein source in their feed rations].

    PubMed

    Jacyno, E; Czarnecki, R; Owsianny, J; Lachowicz, K; Gajowiecki, L

    1996-01-01

    The studies were carried out on F1 progeny of multiparous Polish Large White sows and boars of Belgian Landrace, Hampshire x Pietrain hybrid, and Pietrain breed. The control group consisted of purebred Polish Large White pigs. The experimental part of the studies was performed on 120 fatteners divided up to 4 race groups, with 30 heads in each (namely 15 barrows and 15 gilts). Moreover, each group was divided into two following subgroups: the SoS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted soybean meal and the RpS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted rapeseed meal. The fattening started with 23 kg of body weight and was realized up to 100 kg. Twenty fatteners from each group (including 5 barrows and 5 gilts from a subgroup) were subjected to the control slaughter. The fatteners average daily body weight gains, and energy and digestible crude protein conversion per 1 kg of gain were as follows: after Belgain Landrace boars 788 g, 32.3 MJ and 358 g; after Hampshire x Pietrain boars 766 g, 33.6 MJ and 373 g; after Pietrain boars 720 g, 34.4 MJ and 382 g; after control group boars 705 g, 36.3 MJ and 403 g, respectively. It was found that hybrids after boars of evaluated breeds have positively (P < or = 0,01) better carcass meatness, and in a better way use digestible protein and metabolizable energy for production of 1 kg of meat. On that reason the best are hybrids after Belgian Landrace boars, carcasses of which yielded 52.4% of meat and converted 27% less of digestible crude protein and metabolizable energy for 1 kg meat production, than the White Large Polish fatteners. For no examined feature interaction between genotype and protein source in feeding diet was found. The growth rate and utilization of fodder were better for pigs fed on mixture with extracted soybean meal than for the ones fed on mixture with extracted rapeseed meal (P < or = 0.05). The fodders with high protein content did not differentiate meatness traits, whereas digestible crude

  8. Prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Péchoux, Cécile Le; Sun, Alexander; Slotman, Ben J; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Belderbos, José; Gore, Elizabeth M

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of brain metastases in patients with lung cancer has increased as a result of improved local and systemic control and better diagnosis from advances in brain imaging. Because brain metastases are responsible for life-threatening symptoms and serious impairment of quality of life, resulting in shortened survival, prophylactic cranial irradiation has been proposed in both small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to try to improve incidence of brain metastasis, survival, and eventually quality of life. Findings from randomised controlled trials and a meta-analysis have shown that prophylactic cranial irradiation not only reduces the incidence of brain metastases in patients with SCLC and with non-metastatic NSCLC, but also improves overall survival in patients with SCLC who respond to first-line treatment. Although prophylactic cranial irradiation is potentially associated with neurocognitive decline, this risk needs to be balanced against the potential benefit in terms of brain metastases incidence and survival. Several strategies to reduce neurotoxicity are being investigated. PMID:27396646

  9. Functional MRI in medulloblastoma survivors supports prophylactic reading intervention during tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ping; Conklin, Heather M; Scoggins, Matthew A; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Jones, Melissa M; Palmer, Shawna L; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Development of reading skills is vulnerable to disruption in children treated for brain tumors. Interventions, remedial and prophylactic, are needed to mitigate reading and other learning difficulties faced by survivors. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted to investigate long-term effects of a prophylactic reading intervention administered during radiation therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma. The fMRI study included 19 reading-intervention (age 11.7 ± 0.6 years) and 21 standard-of-care (age 12.1 ± 0.6 years) medulloblastoma survivors, and 21 typically developing children (age 12.3 ± 0.6 years). The survivors were 2.5 [1.2, 5.4] years after completion of tumor therapies and reading-intervention survivors were 2.9 [1.6, 5.9] years after intervention. Five fMRI tasks (Rapid Automatized Naming, Continuous Performance Test using faces and letters, orthographic and phonological processing of letter pairs, implicit word reading, and story reading) were used to probe reading-related neural activation. Woodcock-Johnson Reading Fluency, Word Attack, and Sound Awareness subtests were used to evaluate reading abilities. At the time of fMRI, Sound Awareness scores were significantly higher in the reading-intervention group than in the standard-of-care group (p = 0.046). Brain activation during the fMRI tasks was detected in left inferior frontal, temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and subcortical regions, and differed among the groups (p < 0.05, FWE). The pattern of group activation differences, across brain areas and tasks, was a normative trend in the reading-intervention group. Standardized reading scores and patterns of brain activation provide evidence of long-term effects of prophylactic reading intervention in children treated for medulloblastoma. PMID:25967954

  10. A Review of Clinical Trials of Human Papillomavirus Prophylactic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, John T.; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    End of study analyses of the phase III trials of prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines in young women are now largely completed. Two distinct vaccines were evaluated, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ USA) a quadrivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 6, 11, 16 and 18 and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium), a bivalent vaccine containing VLPs of types 16 and 18. Both vaccines exhibited excellent safety and immunogenicity profiles. The vaccines also demonstrated remarkably high and similar efficacy against the vaccine-targeted types for a range of cervical endpoints from persistent infection to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) in women naïve to the corresponding type at the time of vaccination. However, protection from incident infection or disease from non-vaccine types was restricted, and the vaccines had no effect on prevalent infection or disease. Gardasil® also demonstrated strong protection against genital warts and vulvar/vaginal neoplasia associated with the vaccine types. In other trials, Gardasil® protected mid-adult women from incident infection and CIN caused by the vaccine types and protected men for incident infection, genital warts and anal intraepithelial neoplasia by the vaccine types. Cervarix® protected against vaccine-targeted anal infections in women in an end of study evaluation. For practical reasons, efficacy studies have not been conducted in the primary target populations of current vaccination programs, adolescent girls and boys. However, immunogenicity bridging studies demonstrating excellent safety and strong immune responses in adolescence, coupled with the documentation of durable antibody responses and protection in young adults, leads to an optimistic projection of the effectiveness of the vaccines in adolescent vaccination programs. Taken together, the excellent clinical trial results strongly support the potential of the vaccines as

  11. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  12. Prophylactic Subclavian Artery Intraaortic Balloon Counter-Pulsation is Safe in High-Risk Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mark J; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Hur, Michael J; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Siffring, Travis; Shah, Atman P; Raman, Jaishankar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the safety of prophylactic subclavian artery intraaortic balloon pumps (SCA-IABP) in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a bridge to recovery (BTR). From November 2011 to January 2013, 11 consecutive patients at three institutions underwent prophylactic insertion of a SCA-IABP as a BTR. All patients (n = 11) had preoperative ejection fractions of 30% or less. Patients concurrently underwent one or a combination of the following procedures: coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve surgery, aortic valve replacement, left ventricular aneurysm resection, and ventricular/atrial septal defect closure. The primary outcome measure was a composite endpoint of device-related complications (including limb ischemia, stroke, device failure, bleeding requiring reoperation, brachial plexus injury, device-related infection, and vascular complications) and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included interval to patient ambulation and postoperative length of stay. There were no device-related complications or in-hospital mortalities in this cohort of 11 consecutive patients. Mean time to ambulation, balloon pump support, and postoperative length of stay were 3.70 ± 2.50 days, 8.50 ± 7.00 days, and 15.9 ± 8.25 days, respectively. Prophylactic SCA-IABPs appear to be safe in high-risk cardiac surgery patients as a BTR. PMID:26313557

  13. The Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Complications in Macular Surgery After Prophylactic Preoperative Laser Retinopexy: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Gian Marco; Esposti, Pierluigi; Romeo, Napoleone; Marigliani, Davide; Cevenini, Gabriele; Massimo, Patrizio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Esposti, Giulia; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of intraoperative retinal breaks (RBs) and postoperative retinal detachment (RRD) in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular disorders, who were treated preoperatively with prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy.This observational cohort study comprised of 254 patients who underwent macular surgery and were preoperatively subjected to prophylactic laser retinopexy anterior to the equator. The main outcome measures were the incidence and characteristics of intraoperative RBs and postoperative RRD.Intraoperative RBs occurred in 14 patients (5.5%). Ten patients presented a sclerotomy-related RB (3.9%) and 4 patients a nonsclerotomy-related RB (1.6%). Two patients showed postoperative RRD (0.7%). Neither of the 2 patients with postoperative RRD was macula-off at presentation: one of them was successfully operated on with scleral buckling and the other was managed by observation alone. A significantly increased risk for the intraoperative development of sclerotomy-related RB was found in 20-gauge PPV compared with 23/25-gauge PPV.Preoperative prophylactic peripheral laser retinopexy does not guarantee the prevention of intraopertaive RBs or postoperative RRD. However, it might prevent the involvement of the macula when RRD occurs postoperatively. PMID:27057893

  14. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

  15. The prophylactic effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride in an epidemic of Hong Kong influenza in Leningrad in 1969*

    PubMed Central

    Smorodintsev, A. A.; Karpuhin, G. I.; Zlydnikov, D. M.; Malyševa, A. M.; Švecova, E. G.; Burov, S. A.; Hramcova, L. M.; Romanov, Ju. A.; Taros, L. Ju.; Ivannikov, Ju. G.; Novoselov, S. D.

    1970-01-01

    The effectiveness of amantadine hydrochloride as a prophylactic against influenza was studied during an epidemic caused by viruses related to influenza A2/Hong Kong/1968 variants in Leningrad, USSR, early in 1969. In all, 8169 subjects, assigned to amantadine-dosed, placebo-dosed, internal control and external control groups, were assessed. The index of effectiveness of the prophylactic medication, based on clinical diagnosis, in subjects who took amantadine regularly was 1.95. When the clinical diagnoses were confirmed serologically the index of effectiveness for the amantadine compared with the placebo group increased to 2.7. A comparison of the medicated group with the non-medicated, non-isolated internal control group showed an index of effectiveness of 5.34. A daily dose of 100 mg of amantadine was associated with an increase of 1.14% in complaints of sleep disturbances but these had no effect on the working capacity of subjects. PMID:5312248

  16. Prophylactic volume expansion therapy for the prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia after early aneurysm surgery. Results of a preliminary trial.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R A; Fink, M E; Lennihan, L

    1988-03-01

    From June 1986 to June 1987, 47 consecutive patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated with immediate aneurysm surgery and prophylactic volume expansion therapy for ten to 14 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty-four patients were admitted within three days of SAH. Twenty-three of these patients had an excellent result, and one patient died. There were no cases of delayed cerebral infarction. In 18 of 23 patients admitted more than three days after SAH, there was an excellent result. The other five patients had permanent morbidity related to the original SAH. These preliminary data suggest that immediate aneurysm surgery and aggressive postoperative prophylactic volume expansion in all patients can substantially reduce rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischemia, potential causes of morbidity, after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A more extensive prospective trial of this approach will be required to test this hypothesis. PMID:3277601

  17. Stylet morphometrics and citrus leaf vein structure in relation to feeding behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of citrus huanglongbing bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the primary vector of the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (LAS) associated with huanglongbing (HLB, citrus greening), considered the world's most serious disease of citrus. Stylet morphometrics of ACP nymphs and adults were studied in relation to citrus vein structure and to their putative (histologically verified) feeding sites on Valencia orange leaves. ACP nymphs preferred to settle and feed on the lower (abaxial) side of young leaves either on secondary veins or on the sides of the midrib, whereas adults preferred to settle and feed on the upper (adaxial) or lower secondary veins of young or old leaves. Early instar nymphs can reach and probe the phloem probably because the distance to the phloem is considerably shorter in younger than in mature leaves, and is shorter from the sides of the midrib compared to that from the center. Additionally, the thick-walled 'fibrous ring' (sclerenchyma) around the phloem, which may act as a barrier to ACP stylet penetration into the phloem, is more prominent in older than in younger leaves and in the center than on the sides of the midrib. The majority (80-90%) of the salivary sheath termini produced by ACP nymphs and adults that reached a vascular bundle were associated with the phloem, whereas only 10-20% were associated with xylem vessels. Ultrastructural studies on ACP stylets and LAS-infected leaves suggested that the width of the maxillary food canal in first instar nymphs is wide enough for LAS bacteria to traverse during food ingestion (and LAS acquisition). However, the width of the maxillary salivary canal in these nymphs may not be wide enough to accommodate LAS bacteria during salivation (and LAS inoculation) into host plants. This may explain the inability of early instar nymphs to transmit LAS/HLB in earlier reports. PMID:23555830

  18. Morphological specializations of the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Yashpal, Madhu; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2009-06-01

    The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish, Cirrhinus mrigala, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine its surface ultrastructure. The buccal cavity shows significant adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of the fish. The buccal cavity of the fish is of modest size and limited capacity, which is considered an adaptation with respect to the small-sized food items primarily consumed by the fish that could be accommodated in a small space. Modification of surface epithelial cells, on the upper jaw, into characteristic structures-the unculi-is considered an adaptation to browse or scrap, to grasp food materials, e.g., algal felts, and to protect the epithelial surface against abrasions, likely to occur during their characteristic feeding behavior. Differentiation of the highly specialized lamellar organ on the anterior region of the palate could be an adaptation playing a significant role in the selection, retention, and sorting out of palatable food particles from the unpalatable items ingested by the fish. The filamentous epithelial projections and the lingulate epithelial projections on the palatal organ in the posterior region of the palate are considered to serve a critical function in final selection, handling, maneuvering, and propelling the food particles toward the esophagus. The abundance of different categories of taste buds in the buccal cavity suggests that gustation is well developed and the fish is highly responsive in the evaluation and the selection of the preferred palatable food items. The secretions of mucous cells in the buccal cavity are associated with multiple functions-particle entrapment, lubrication of the buccal epithelium and food particles to assist smooth passage of food, and to protect the epithelium from possible abrasion. These morphological characteristics ensure efficient working of the buccal cavity in the assessment of the quality and palatability of ingested food, their retention and

  19. Pharmacokinetics and interactions of headache medications, part II: prophylactic treatments.

    PubMed

    Sternieri, Emilio; Coccia, Ciro Pio Rosario; Pinetti, Diego; Guerzoni, Simona; Ferrari, Anna

    2006-12-01

    The present part II review highlights pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (excluding those of minor severity) of medications used in prophylactic treatment of the main primary headaches (migraine, tension-type and cluster headache). The principles of pharmacokinetics and metabolism, and the interactions of medications for acute treatment are examined in part I. The overall goal of this series of two reviews is to increase the awareness of physicians, primary care providers and specialists regarding pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of headache medications. The aim of prophylactic treatment is to reduce the frequency of headache attacks using beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, antidepressants, antiepileptics, lithium, serotonin antagonists, corticosteroids and muscle relaxants, which must be taken daily for long periods. During treatment the patient often continues to take symptomatic drugs for the attack, and may need other medications for associated or new-onset illnesses. DDIs can, therefore, occur. As a whole, DDIs of clinical relevance concerning prophylactic drugs are a limited number. Their effects can be prevented by starting the treatment with low dosages, which should be gradually increased depending on response and side effects, while frequently monitoring the patient and plasma levels of other possible coadministered drugs with a narrow therapeutic range. Most headache medications are substrates of CYP2D6 (e.g., beta-blockers, antidepressants) or CYP3A4 (e.g., calcium-channel blockers, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, corticosteroids). The inducers and, especially, the inhibitors of these isoenzymes should be carefully coadministered. PMID:17125412

  20. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  1. Dose of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusions and Prevention of Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Kaufman, Richard M.; Assmann, Susan F.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Strauss, Ronald G.; Gernsheimer, Terry B.; Ness, Paul M.; Brecher, Mark E.; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Konkle, Barbara A.; Woodson, Robert D.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Hillyer, Christopher D.; Skerrett, Donna L.; McCrae, Keith R.; Sloan, Steven R.; Uhl, Lynne; George, James N.; Aquino, Victor M.; Manno, Catherine S.; McFarland, Janice G.; Hess, John R.; Leissinger, Cindy; Granger, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We conducted a trial of prophylactic platelet transfusions to evaluate the effect of platelet dose on bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. METHODS We randomly assigned hospitalized patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or chemotherapy for hematologic cancers or solid tumors to receive prophylactic platelet transfusions at a low dose, a medium dose, or a high dose (1.1×1011, 2.2×1011, or 4.4×1011 platelets per square meter of body-surface area, respectively), when morning platelet counts were 10,000 per cubic millimeter or lower. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily. The primary end point was bleeding of grade 2 or higher (as defined on the basis of World Health Organization criteria). RESULTS In the 1272 patients who received at least one platelet transfusion, the primary end point was observed in 71%, 69%, and 70% of the patients in the low-dose group, the medium-dose group, and the high-dose group, respectively (differences were not significant). The incidences of higher grades of bleeding, and other adverse events, were similar among the three groups. The median number of platelets transfused was significantly lower in the low-dose group (9.25×1011) than in the medium-dose group (11.25×1011) or the high-dose group (19.63×1011) (P = 0.002 for low vs. medium, P<0.001 for high vs. low and high vs. medium), but the median number of platelet transfusions given was significantly higher in the low-dose group (five, vs. three in the medium-dose and three in the high-dose group; P<0.001 for low vs. medium and low vs. high). Bleeding occurred on 25% of the study days on which morning platelet counts were 5000 per cubic millimeter or lower, as compared with 17% of study days on which platelet counts were 6000 to 80,000 per cubic millimeter (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Low doses of platelets administered as a prophylactic transfusion led to a decreased number of platelets transfused per patient but an

  2. [The prophylactic aspects of dental caries in the antenatal period].

    PubMed

    Tumshevits, O N; Leont'ev, V K; Boginskaia, L M

    1990-01-01

    To elucidate the contribution of stress exposures of pregnant women to the development of deciduous teeth caries in their children, the authors have analyzed the stomatological status of 320 infants with favorable and unfavorable antenatal period complicated by stress situations (that were detected with the help of questionnaires) in 3 regions of Moscow, where fluorine levels in potable water are different. The study has revealed that mother's emotional stress in the period of formation of deciduous teeth hard tissues in the fetus reduced infant teeth resistance to caries and lowered the prophylactic effect of fluorine. PMID:2251711

  3. Rumen papillae morphology of beef steers relative to gain and feed intake and the association of volatile fatty acids with kallikrein gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed costs are the most expensive input in beef production. Improvement in the feed efficiency of beef cattle would lower feed inputs and reduce the cost of production. The rumen epithelium is responsible for absorption and metabolism of nutrients and microbial by-products, and may play a significan...

  4. Clinical investigation into feed-related hypervitaminosis D in a captive flock of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus): morbidity, mortalities, and pathologic lesions.

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Burrough, Eric; Madison, Darin; Ensley, Steve; Horst, Ronald; Janke, Bruce H; Schwartz, Kent; Stevenson, Gregory W; Gauger, Phillip; Cooper, Vickie L; Arruda, Paulo; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2015-03-01

    The Blank Park Zoo began suffering mortalities in the spring of 2012 within a flock of 229 captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) housed in an interactive public-feeding aviary. Clinical signs in affected birds included weakness, posterior paresis, inability to fly, or acute death. Gross and microscopic lesions were not initially apparent in acutely affected deceased birds. Many birds had evidence of trauma, which is now hypothesized to have been related to the birds' weakness. Investigation into the cause(s) of morbidity and mortality were complicated by the opening of a new interactive enclosure. For this reason, environmental conditions and husbandry protocols were heavily scrutinized. Microscopic examination of dead budgies later in the course of the investigation revealed mineralization of soft tissues consistent with hypervitaminosis D. Pooled serum analysis of deceased birds identified elevated vitamin D3 levels. Vitamin D3 analysis was performed on the feed sticks offered by the public and the formulated maintenance diet fed to the flock. This analysis detected elevated levels of vitamin D3 that were 22.5-times the manufacturer's labeled content in the formulated diet. These findings contributed to a manufacturer recall of more than 100 formulated diets fed to a wide variety of domestic and captive wild animal species throughout the United States and internationally. This case report discusses the complexities of determining the etiology of a toxic event in a zoologic institution. PMID:25831571

  5. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  6. Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed Central

    Weil, J.; Colin-Jones, D.; Langman, M.; Lawson, D.; Logan, R.; Murphy, M.; Rawlins, M.; Vessey, M.; Wainwright, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the risks of hospitalisation for bleeding peptic ulcer with the current prophylactic aspirin regimens of 300 mg daily or less. DESIGN--A case-control study with hospital and community controls. SETTING--Hospitals in Glasgow, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, and Portsmouth. SUBJECTS--1121 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer bleeding matched with hospital and community controls. RESULTS--144 (12.8%) cases had been regular users of aspirin (taken at least five days a week for at least the previous month) compared with 101 (9.0%) hospital and 77 (7.8%) community controls. Odds ratios were raised for all doses of aspirin taken, whether compared with hospital or community controls (compared with combined controls: 75 mg, 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.4); 150 mg, 3.2 (1.7 to 6.5); 300 mg, 3.9 (2.5 to 6.3)). Results were not explained by confounding influences of age, sex, prior ulcer history or dyspepsia, or concurrent non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Risks seemed particularly high in patients who took non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs concurrently. CONCLUSION--No conventionally used prophylactic aspirin regimen seems free of the risk of peptic ulcer complications. PMID:7711618

  7. Quaternary heteroaromatic salts with prophylactic and antidotal activity towards soman

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, R.J.; Dalvie, D.; Cordero, J.; Sabat, M.

    1993-05-13

    A series of quaternary heteroaromatic salts has been prepared and evaluated for prophylactic and antidotal activity towards the lethal toxicity of soman. One series of compounds contains 2-, 3-, or 4-(dimethylaminocarbonyloxy)phenoxymethyl substituents at the 2 position of the following rings: 1,3-dimethylimidazolium, 1-methylpyridinium, 1-methylquinolinium, 1,3-dimethylbenzimidazolium and 1-methylimidazo1,2-Apyridinium. The compounds were evaluated both in vitro, by determining the IC50 for electric eel acetylcholinesterase, and in vivo, using both antidotal and prophylactic assays in mice. Compound 2b was most active in the in vitro assay (IC50 = 0.01 M). However, its toxicity is high and compound la is more effective in vivo with 80-100% protective activity against 2 LD50 of soman at 6.2 to 62.5 mg/kg. A second series of compounds consisted of 6-substituted 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-(dimethylaminocarbonyloxy) phenylimidazo (1,2-a) pyridinium salts (8).

  8. Network Effects of Risk Behavior Change Following Prophylactic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Rajmohan; Sun, Zhifeng; Sundaram, Ravi; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2013-01-01

    We formulated a network-based model to understand how risk behavior change in conjunction with failure of prophylactic interventions can lead to unintended outcomes where “less (intervention) is more (effective).” Our model captures the distinction between one- and two-sided risk behavior change. In one-sided situations (e.g. influenza/H1N1) it is sufficient for either individual in an interaction to exhibit risk behavior change whereas in two-sided situations (e.g. AIDS/HIV) it is necessary for both individuals in the interaction to exhibit risk behavior change, for a potential transmission of the disease. A central discovery is that this phenomenon occurs at differing levels of intervention coverage depending upon the “sidedness” of the interaction. We find that for one-sided interactions, sufficiently high vaccination coverage is necessary for mitigating the effects of risk behavior; for two-sided interactions, it is essential to combine prophylactic treatments with programs aimed at reducing risky behavior. Furthermore, again dependent on the “sidedness,” targeting highly connected nodes can be strictly worse than uniformly random interventions at the same level of coverage. PMID:23936290

  9. Usefulness of Prophylactic Percutaneous Gastrostomy Placement in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Joana; Faias, Sandra; Fidalgo, Catarina; Serrano, Miguel; Pereira, A Dias

    2016-02-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has evolved as the preferred organ preservation strategy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). This approach increases malnutrition, and thus, establishing a direct enteral feeding route is essential. To evaluate the usefulness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in HNC patients receiving definitive CRT, we performed a prospective evaluation of HNC patients over a 6-month period. Patients and tumor characteristics, nutritional status 30 days after PEG insertion and technique complications were evaluated. We also assessed the long-term PEG usage. Forty-seven PEGs were placed and only 2 patients did not use it. The mean time of PEG use was 131 days (4-255) and mean duration of exclusive utilization was 71 days (4-180). On 30th day after procedure, 34/45 (76 %) patients had lost weight, but only 10/45 (22 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their initial weight. The most frequent complications were minor peristomal infections, which were correlated with proton-pump inhibitor use before PEG placement (OR 3.91, 95 % CI 1.01-15.2, and p = 0.049). One year later, 19 % of patients in remission continue needing PEG. Enteric nutritional support is essential during and after CRT in HNC patients. Most patients lost weight even with PEG. One-fifth of patients in remission required long-term PEG utilization. PMID:26487063

  10. A landmark contribution to poultry science--prophylactic control of coccidiosis in poultry.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H D

    2009-04-01

    "Continuous feeding of low concentrations of sulfaquinoxaline for the control of coccidiosis in poultry" by L. C. Grumbles, J. P. Delaplane, and T. C. Higgins [Poult. Sci. (1948) 27:605-608] was the first paper to demonstrate that it was possible to control coccidiosis by the continuous inclusion of a low level of a drug in the feed of chickens. The principle involved (prevention or prophylaxis) has had a profound impact on our ability to grow chickens and turkeys under intensive conditions. Indeed, it is possible that the modern poultry industry could never have developed to its present extent without the advent of drugs used prophylactically to control coccidiosis. One particular insight was that use of a compound in this manner did not necessarily prevent the acquisition of immunity, an important principle that helps explain the continued efficacy of ionophorous antibiotics used today. The significance of this work to the poultry industry and individuals involved in research, whether employed by government, academia, or pharmaceutical companies, cannot be overstated. Economic benefits, in terms of improved productivity, have been demonstrated in numerous studies published in Poultry Science. In addition, the livelihoods of many poultry farmers have been helped by the control of a disease that in the past caused substantial morbidity and mortality in their flocks. The paper is brief and contains no critical science involving novel procedures but has had a profound influence on the health of poultry for the last 6 decades. For this reason, it is nominated as a landmark contribution from the first 100 yr of Poultry Science. PMID:19276426

  11. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  12. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  13. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  14. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following coplanar waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  15. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  16. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-09-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  17. PS2-36: Population-based Evaluation of Patients with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection in Relation to Animal Feeding Operations in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian; Pollak, Jonathan; Mercer, Dione; DeWalle, Joseph; Stewart, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims New MRSA strains and epidemiologic patterns of infection have emerged in the past decade, with community-associated patterns now dominant. In Europe, these new community strains have been linked to animal feeding operations (AFOs), raising concerns about the widespread use of non-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feeds. No prior population-based studies have evaluated the risk of MRSA infection in relation to AFOs in the U.S. Methods We used Geisinger Clinic electronic health record data from 2001 to February 2010 on all primary care patients (n = 440,000). Three groups of patients were identified using specific ICD-9 codes: Community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA) without risk factors (i.e., infection diagnosed as an outpatient, no antibiotics or hospitalizations in the prior year, no household contacts, no history of MRSA colonization); Hospital-onset MRSA (HO-MRSA) with risk factors (i.e., diagnosed in the hospital with at least one MRSA risk factor); and Skin infection (e.g., cellulitis, carbuncle, skin abscess) without MRSA infection or colonization history and without MRSA risk factors. MRSA cases were frequency-matched to controls with no history of MRSA or risk factors. Information on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) were obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and included data on animal species (e.g., swine, dairy cattle, chickens), counts, animal equivalent units (AEUs), farm acreage, and manure generated, exported, and stored. Measures of density (e.g., AEUs per sq. mi. in township) and accessibility (e.g., distance from residence to nearest CAFO, gravity models) were derived and used in logistic regression models comparing the four groups. Results A total of 1926 MRSA cases were identified from 2003 to 2010. Of these, 1058 (55%) were identified in outpatient records, 530 (28%) from inpatient records, and 290 (15%) from medication orders. Inpatient cases increased from 2 in 2003 to 88 in 2005, remained

  18. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)

    PubMed Central

    Freitak, Dalial; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni). We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13) and in recognition and metabolism (16). 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR) in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also in the adult stage

  19. Optimizing Prophylactic Antibiotic Practice for Cardiothoracic Surgery by Pharmacists’ Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jie; Chen, Shiqi; Bao, Jianan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pharmacists’ role may be ideal for improving rationality of drug prescribing practice. We aimed to study the impact of multifaceted pharmacist interventions on antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated operations in cardiothoracic department. A pre-test–post-test quasiexperimental study was conducted in a cardiothoracic ward at a tertiary teaching hospital in Suzhou, China. Patients admitted to the ward were collected as baseline group (2011.7–2012.12) and intervention group (2013.7–2014.12), respectively. The criteria of prophylaxis antibiotic utilization were established on the basis of the published guidelines and official documents. During the intervention phase, a dedicated pharmacist was assigned and multifaceted interventions were implemented in the ward. Then we compared the differences in antibiotic utilization, bacterial resistance, clinical and economic outcomes between the 2 groups. Furthermore, patients were collected after the intervention (2015.1–2015.6) to evaluate the sustained effects of pharmacist interventions. 412 and 551 patients were included in the baseline and intervention groups, while 156 patients in postintervention group, respectively. Compared with baseline group, a significant increase was found in the proportion of antibiotic prophylaxis, the proportion of rational antibiotic selection, the proportion of suitable prophylactic antibiotic duration, and the proportion of suitable timing of administration of the first preoperative dose (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, a significant reduction was seen in the rate of unnecessary replacement of antibiotics and the rate of unnecessary combinations (P < 0.001). Besides, pharmacist intervention resulted in favorable outcomes with significantly decreased rates of surgical site infections, prophylactic antibiotic cost, and significantly shortened length of stay (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were also significant decreases of the rates of

  20. Optimizing Prophylactic Antibiotic Practice for Cardiothoracic Surgery by Pharmacists' Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Ma, Jingjing; Gao, Jie; Chen, Shiqi; Bao, Jianan

    2016-03-01

    Pharmacists' role may be ideal for improving rationality of drug prescribing practice. We aimed to study the impact of multifaceted pharmacist interventions on antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated operations in cardiothoracic department. A pre-test-post-test quasiexperimental study was conducted in a cardiothoracic ward at a tertiary teaching hospital in Suzhou, China. Patients admitted to the ward were collected as baseline group (2011.7-2012.12) and intervention group (2013.7-2014.12), respectively. The criteria of prophylaxis antibiotic utilization were established on the basis of the published guidelines and official documents. During the intervention phase, a dedicated pharmacist was assigned and multifaceted interventions were implemented in the ward. Then we compared the differences in antibiotic utilization, bacterial resistance, clinical and economic outcomes between the 2 groups. Furthermore, patients were collected after the intervention (2015.1-2015.6) to evaluate the sustained effects of pharmacist interventions. 412 and 551 patients were included in the baseline and intervention groups, while 156 patients in postintervention group, respectively. Compared with baseline group, a significant increase was found in the proportion of antibiotic prophylaxis, the proportion of rational antibiotic selection, the proportion of suitable prophylactic antibiotic duration, and the proportion of suitable timing of administration of the first preoperative dose (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, a significant reduction was seen in the rate of unnecessary replacement of antibiotics and the rate of unnecessary combinations (P < 0.001). Besides, pharmacist intervention resulted in favorable outcomes with significantly decreased rates of surgical site infections, prophylactic antibiotic cost, and significantly shortened length of stay (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were also significant decreases of the rates of antibiotic resistant

  1. Potential Harm of Prophylactic Platelet Transfusion in Adult Dengue Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua G. X.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Thein, Tun-Linn; Ng, Ee-Ling; Lee, Linda K.; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a hallmark of dengue infection, and bleeding is a dreaded complication of dengue fever. Prophylactic platelet transfusion has been used to prevent bleeding in the management of dengue fever, although the evidence for its benefit is lacking. In adult dengue patients with platelet count <20,000/mm3 without bleeding, we aimed to assess if prophylactic platelet transfusion was effective in reducing clinical bleeding and other outcomes. Method We conducted a retrospective non-randomised observational study of dengue patients with platelet count < 20,000/mm3 without bleeding (except petechiae) admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2005 to December 2008. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between the non-transfused vs. transfused groups. Outcomes studied were clinical bleeding, platelet increment, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit admission and death. Results Of the 788 patients included, 486 received prophylactic platelet transfusion. There was no significant difference in the presence of clinical bleeding in the two groups (18.2% in non-transfused group vs. 23.5% in transfused group; P = 0.08). Patients in the transfused group took a median of 1 day longer than the non-transfused group to increase their platelet count to 50,000/mm3 or more (3 days vs. 2 days, P <0.0001). The median duration of hospital stay in the non-transfused group was 5 days vs. 6 days in the transfused group (P< 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the proportion requiring ICU admission (non-transfused 0.66% vs. transfused 1.23%, P = 0.44) and death (non-transfused 0% vs. transfused 0.2%, P = 0.43). Conclusion Platelet transfusion in absence of bleeding in adult dengue with platelet count <20,000/mm3 did not reduce bleeding or expedite platelet recovery. There was potential harm by slowing recovery of platelet count to >50,000/mm3 and increasing length of hospitalization. PMID:27015272

  2. Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Rawat, Tara; Dwivedi, Anil K.; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P.; Sharma, Vishnu L.; Gupta, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ∼30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (P<0.001) thiol-sensitive sperm hexokinase. However, the molecule completely lost all its biological activities once its thiol group was blocked by alkylation. PPC was subsequently formulated into a mucoadhesive vaginal film using GRaS excipients and evaluated for spermicidal and microbicidal activities (in vitro), and contraceptive efficacy in rabbits. PPC remained fully active in quick-dissolving, mucoadhesive vaginal-film formulation, and these PPC-films significantly reduced pregnancy and fertility rates in rabbits. The films released ∼90% of PPC in simulated vaginal fluid (pH 4.2) at 37°C in 5 minutes, in vitro. We have thus discovered a common target (reactive thiols) on chiefly-anaerobic, redox-sensitive cells like sperm and Trichomonas, which is susceptible to designed chemical interference for prophylactic contraception. The active thiol in PPC inactivates sperm and Trichomonas via interference with crucial sulfhydryl-disulfide based reactions, e.g. hexokinase activation in human sperm. In comparison to non-specific surfactant action of OTC spermicide nonoxynol-9, the action of thiol-active PPC

  3. Designed Chemical Intervention with Thiols for Prophylactic Contraception.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Kumar, Lokesh; Jain, Ashish; Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lalit; Rawat, Tara; Dwivedi, Anil K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Unlike somatic cells, sperm have several-fold more available-thiols that are susceptible to redox-active agents. The present study explains the mechanism behind the instant sperm-immobilizing and trichomonacidal activities of pyrrolidinium pyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (PPC), a novel thiol agent rationally created for prophylactic contraception by minor chemical modifications of some known thiol drugs. PPC, and its three derivatives (with potential active-site blocked by alkylation), were synthesized and evaluated against live human sperm and metronidazole-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas vaginalis, in vitro. Sperm hexokinase activity was evaluated by coupled enzyme assay. PPC irreversibly immobilized 100% human sperm in ∼30 seconds and totally eliminated Trichomonas vaginalis more efficiently than nonoxynol-9 and metronidazole. It significantly inhibited (P<0.001) thiol-sensitive sperm hexokinase. However, the molecule completely lost all its biological activities once its thiol group was blocked by alkylation. PPC was subsequently formulated into a mucoadhesive vaginal film using GRaS excipients and evaluated for spermicidal and microbicidal activities (in vitro), and contraceptive efficacy in rabbits. PPC remained fully active in quick-dissolving, mucoadhesive vaginal-film formulation, and these PPC-films significantly reduced pregnancy and fertility rates in rabbits. The films released ∼90% of PPC in simulated vaginal fluid (pH 4.2) at 37°C in 5 minutes, in vitro. We have thus discovered a common target (reactive thiols) on chiefly-anaerobic, redox-sensitive cells like sperm and Trichomonas, which is susceptible to designed chemical interference for prophylactic contraception. The active thiol in PPC inactivates sperm and Trichomonas via interference with crucial sulfhydryl-disulfide based reactions, e.g. hexokinase activation in human sperm. In comparison to non-specific surfactant action of OTC spermicide nonoxynol-9, the action of thiol-active PPC

  4. Severe neuropsychiatric reaction in a deployed military member after prophylactic mefloquine.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; Seegmiller, Robert A; Schindler, Libby S

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of military personnel who have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan have reported a number of combat-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and traumatic brain injury. This case report involves a 27-year-old male active-duty US military service member who developed severe depression, psychotic hallucinations, and neuropsychological sequelae following the prophylactic use of the antimalarial medication mefloquine hydrochloride. The patient had a recent history of depression and was taking antidepressant medications at the time of his deployment to the Middle East. Psychiatrists and other health care providers should be aware of the possible neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine in deployed military personnel and should consider the use of other medications for malaria prophylaxis in those individuals who may be at increased risk for side effects. PMID:22937403

  5. [Preliminary results of prophylactic program of allergic diseases in children in Lodz district].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Korzeniewska, Aleksandra; Piechota, Mariusz; Podsiadłowicz-Borzecka, Małgorzata; Majak, Paweł; Stelmach, Iwona

    2002-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most important problems in medicine. As a consequence of increased frequency of allergic diseases, negative health, economical and social problems appear. To eliminate these consequences prophylactic programmes are created. In this paper preliminary results of Prophylactic Program of Allergic Diseases in Children in Łodz district in 2000-2001 years is presented. PMID:12884565

  6. Feeding preferences of two detritivores related to size and metal content of leaves: the crustaceans Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet) and Echinogammarus meridionalis (Pinkster).

    PubMed

    Quintaneiro, C; Ranville, J; Nogueira, A J A

    2014-11-01

    The equilibrium of the structure and functioning of freshwater ecosystems is dependent of detritivores that link all the other functional groups. The preference for feeding leaves with different diameters (particle size) and leaves with metal contamination (several concentrations of the essential metals copper and zinc) were determined for two detritivores, the decapod Atyaephyra desmarestii and the amphipod Echinogammarus meridionalis. Several no-choice and multi-choice assays were done to determinate which leaf diameter the amphipod and the decapod species would eat when they had or not had alternatives available and include a set of dual-choice assays with contaminated and uncontaminated foods. No significant preference was shown by either species relative to the diameter of leaves, either on no-choice or multi-choice assays. The presence of essential metals on food did not had any influence on the feeding choice of these organisms over the concentration range studied. Both showed no preference on ingesting food spiked with these essential metals, except E. meridionalis which preferred ingesting leaves with 2.19 μg.l(-1) of copper instead of uncontaminated leaves. For further works, despite no preference for leaves with a certain diameter, the leaves with 0.70 cm (0.385 cm(2)of area) and with 0.50 cm (1.767 cm(2) of area) should be used for A. desmarestii and E. meridionalis, respectively. Furthermore, to maintain E. meridionalis, the diet should include some percentage of copper in order to accomplish metabolic needs. PMID:24938812

  7. Effect of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome in children with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Tarek; Al Wadani, Hamed; El-Masry, Ragaa; Zakaria, Ossama

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few previous studies proved that complications related to sickle cell disease (SCD) were common with regional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia while others reported no differences. This study was carried out to evaluate the role of prophylactic vitamin D on anesthetic outcome among male children with SCD undergoing circumcision. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was carried out on 58 children undergoing circumcision with the regional block under light general anesthesia. The study sample was classified into two groups: one group received daily 400 IU vitamin D for 6 months before surgery while the other group without vitamin D. All patients were followed regarding the post-operative analgesia and the incidence of post-operative SCD related complications (acute chest syndrome, painful crisis and cerebrovascular accident). Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 13, produced by IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: There was a highly significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001) regarding first analgesic request and total analgesic consumption per day: there was delayed analgesic request and less total analgesic consumption per day in vitamin D group. Comparison of post-operative sedation scores showed highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between the two groups, Sedation scores was increased significantly in vitamin D group. This study also reported that the administration of vitamin D was associated with less noticeable post-operative SCD complications. Conclusion: The use of prophylactic vitamin D in SCD will result in delayed post-operative analgesic request and less total analgesic requirement. Administration of vitamin D was also associated with less post-operative complications. PMID:24574588

  8. Better contralateral breast cancer risk estimation and alternative options to contralateral prophylactic mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Kalatu R; Cantor, Scott B; Brewster, Abenaa M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) has increased among women with breast cancer, despite uncertain survival benefit and a declining incidence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Patient-related reasons for undergoing CPM include an overestimation of the risk of CBC, increased cancer worry, and a desire to improve survival. We summarize the existing literature on CBC risk and outcomes and the clinical benefit of CPM among women with unilateral breast cancer who have a low-to-moderate risk of developing a secondary cancer in the contralateral breast. Published studies were retrieved from the MEDLINE database with the keywords “contralateral breast cancer” and “contralateral prophylactic mastectomy”. These include observational studies, clinical trials, survival analyses, and decision models examining the risk of CBC, the clinical and psychosocial effects of CPM, and other treatment strategies to reduce CBC risk. Studies that have evaluated CBC risk estimate it to be approximately 0.5% annually on average. Patient-related factors associated with an increased risk of CBC include carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, young age at breast cancer, and strong family history of breast cancer in the absence of a BRCA1/2 mutation. Although CPM reduces the risk of CBC by approximately 94%, it may not provide a significant gain in overall survival and there is conflicting evidence that it improves disease-free survival among women with breast cancer regardless of estrogen receptor (ER) status. Therefore, alternative strategies such as the use of tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, which reduce the risk of CBC by approximately 50%, should be encouraged for eligible women with ER-positive breast cancers. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of decision and educational tools that can be used for personalized counseling of patients regarding their CBC risk, the uncertain role of CPM, and alternative CBC risk reduction strategies. PMID:25678823

  9. Better contralateral breast cancer risk estimation and alternative options to contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kalatu R; Cantor, Scott B; Brewster, Abenaa M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) has increased among women with breast cancer, despite uncertain survival benefit and a declining incidence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Patient-related reasons for undergoing CPM include an overestimation of the risk of CBC, increased cancer worry, and a desire to improve survival. We summarize the existing literature on CBC risk and outcomes and the clinical benefit of CPM among women with unilateral breast cancer who have a low-to-moderate risk of developing a secondary cancer in the contralateral breast. Published studies were retrieved from the MEDLINE database with the keywords "contralateral breast cancer" and "contralateral prophylactic mastectomy". These include observational studies, clinical trials, survival analyses, and decision models examining the risk of CBC, the clinical and psychosocial effects of CPM, and other treatment strategies to reduce CBC risk. Studies that have evaluated CBC risk estimate it to be approximately 0.5% annually on average. Patient-related factors associated with an increased risk of CBC include carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, young age at breast cancer, and strong family history of breast cancer in the absence of a BRCA1/2 mutation. Although CPM reduces the risk of CBC by approximately 94%, it may not provide a significant gain in overall survival and there is conflicting evidence that it improves disease-free survival among women with breast cancer regardless of estrogen receptor (ER) status. Therefore, alternative strategies such as the use of tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, which reduce the risk of CBC by approximately 50%, should be encouraged for eligible women with ER-positive breast cancers. Future research is needed to evaluate the impact of decision and educational tools that can be used for personalized counseling of patients regarding their CBC risk, the uncertain role of CPM, and alternative CBC risk reduction strategies. PMID:25678823

  10. [Severe sickle cell disease and pregnancy. Systematic prophylactic transfusions in 16 cases].

    PubMed

    Moussaoui, D R; Chouhou, L; Guelzim, K; Kouach, J; Dehayni, M; Fehri, H S

    2002-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a major cause of maternal and neonatal mortality in tropical regions. Treatment consists of regular blood transfusion during pregnancy and delivery. Transfusion may be performed selectively (in function of the clinical status of the mother, fetus, and pregnancy) or prophylactically. Both management strategies result in a significant improvement in the obstetric outcome. However systematic prophylactic transfusion has been shunned due to the risk of transmitting infections and allo-immunization. The16-case series reported here demonstrates a real benefit for prophylactic blood transfusion during pregnancy complicated by sickle cell disease in tropical zones. Improvements in our transfusion curves resulting from better donor selection, follow-up, and phenotyping support arguments previously made over one decade ago in favor of the prophylactic approach especially in countries with high transfusional risks. In our experience the risks associated with more transfusions was offset by the greater safety margin and better efficacy of the prophylactic approach. PMID:12731306

  11. Consensus perspectives on prophylactic therapy for haemophilia: summary statement.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, E; Astermark, J; Björkman, S; Blanchette, V S; Fischer, K; Giangrande, P L F; Gringeri, A; Ljung, R C; Manco-Johnson, M J; Morfini, M; Kilcoyne, R F; Petrini, P; Rodriguez-Merchan, E C; Schramm, W; Shapiro, A; van den Berg, H M; Hart, C

    2003-05-01

    Participants in an international conference on prophylactic therapy for severe haemophilia developed a consensus summary of the findings and conclusions of the conference. In the consensus, participants agreed upon revised definitions for primary and secondary prophylaxis and also made recommendations concerning the need for an international system of pharmacovigilance. Considerations on starting prophylaxis, monitoring outcomes, and individualizing treatment regimens were discussed. Several research questions were identified as needing further investigation, including when to start and when to stop prophylaxis, optimal dosing and dose interval, and methods for assessment of long-term treatment effects. Such studies should include carefully defined cohorts, validated orthopaedic and quality-of-life assessment instruments, and cost-benefit analyses. PMID:12709030

  12. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  13. Tackling Ebola: new insights into prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1976, Ebolavirus has caused periodic outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever associated with severe and often fatal disease. Ebolavirus is endemic in Central Africa and the Philippines. Although there is currently no approved treatment available, the past 10 years has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathogenicity of Ebolavirus and the development of prophylactic and post-exposure therapies against it. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that Ebolavirus pathogenicity is multifactorial, including viral and host determinants. Besides their function in the virus replication cycle, the viral glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, minor matrix protein and polymerase cofactor are viral determinants of pathogenicity, with evasion of the host innate and adaptive immune responses as the main mechanism. Although no licensed Ebolavirus vaccines are currently available, vaccine research in non-human primates, the 'gold standard' animal model for Ebolavirus, has produced several promising candidates. A combination of DNA vaccination and a recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 boost resulted in cross-protective immunity in non-human primates. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine vector protected non-human primates in pre- and post-exposure challenge studies. Several antiviral therapies are currently under investigation, but only a few of these have been tested in non-human primate models. Antisense therapies, in which oligonucleotides inhibit viral replication, have shown promising results in non-human primates following post-exposure treatment. In light of the severity of Ebolavirus disease and the observed increase in Ebolavirus outbreaks over the past decade, the expedited translation of potential candidate therapeutics and vaccines from bench to bedside is currently the most challenging task for the field. Here, we review the current state of Ebolavirus research, with emphasis on prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies

  14. Plant-based solutions for veterinary immunotherapeutics and prophylactics.

    PubMed

    Kolotilin, Igor; Topp, Ed; Cox, Eric; Devriendt, Bert; Conrad, Udo; Joensuu, Jussi; Stöger, Eva; Warzecha, Heribert; McAllister, Tim; Potter, Andrew; McLean, Michael D; Hall, J Christopher; Menassa, Rima

    2014-01-01

    An alarming increase in emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens worldwide has become a serious threat to our ability to treat infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. Extensive use of antibiotics by livestock producers promotes the spread of new resistant strains, some of zoonotic concern, which increases food-borne illness in humans and causes significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Furthermore, consumer preferences for meat/poultry/fish produced without the use of antibiotics shape today's market demand. So, it is viewed as inevitable by the One Health Initiative that humans need to reduce the use of antibiotics and turn to alternative, improved means to control disease: vaccination and prophylactics. Besides the intense research focused on novel therapeutic molecules, both these strategies rely heavily on the availability of cost-effective, efficient and scalable production platforms which will allow large-volume manufacturing for vaccines, antibodies and other biopharmaceuticals. Within this context, plant-based platforms for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins offer significant advantages over conventional expression systems, including lack of animal pathogens, low production costs, fast turnaround and response times and rapid, nearly-unlimited scalability. Also, because dried leaves and seeds can be stored at room temperature for lengthy periods without loss of recombinant proteins, plant expression systems have the potential to offer lucrative benefits from the development of edible vaccines and prophylactics, as these would not require "cold chain" storage and transportation, and could be administered in mass volumes with minimal processing. Several biotechnology companies currently have developed and adopted plant-based platforms for commercial production of recombinant protein therapeutics. In this manuscript, we outline the challenges in the process of livestock immunization as well as the current

  15. Efficacy testing of antimycotic prophylactics in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Treiber, A; Pittermann, W; Schuppe, H C

    2001-12-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is both zoophilic and a common causative organism in human dermatomycosis. Therefore this dermatophyte is widely used for experimental efficacy testing of antimycotic agents and their active ingredients. The use of the guinea pig as an animal model for dermatomycosis is based on the predisposition of this species to spontaneous dermal fungal infections. A previously described guinea pig model was modified according to the results of pilot experiments. The modification consists of 1) evaluation of the infectious activity of the primary mycotic tissue cultures obtained from patients and 2) the efficacy testing itself with treatment of the infected skin area including the continuous clinical observation for 28 days. At first the required duration of cultivation and the number of spores for a reproducible infection of all animals were determined. The following efficacy test consisted of four groups with ten animals each. Group I (control of infection) remained without further treatment after experimental infections, groups II-IV received a single treatment by spraying at the day of infection with isopropanol (70%) (negative control), water (mechanic control) and the antimycotic agent (treated group), respectively. After 28 days under continuous examination, clinical symptoms (scabs; reddening, scaliness) were statistically analyzed. The model takes into account the duration and severity of infection in order to evaluate the differences between the four groups. The experimental protocol presented allows the efficacy of antimycotic agents to be demonstrated by means of statistical analyses. As an example the results of a successful prophylactic treatment against T. mentagrophytes with the antimycotic prophylactic Laudamonium (1%) are presented. PMID:11833296

  16. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  17. Relationship of the Chemokine, CXCL12, to Effects of Dietary Fat on Feeding-Related Behaviors and Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Systems

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Kinning; Barson, Jessica R.; Ho, Hui T.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    The intake of a high fat diet (HFD), in addition to stimulating orexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalamus while promoting overeating and reducing locomotor behavior, is known to increase inflammatory mediators that modulate neuronal systems in the brain. To understand the involvement of chemokines in the effects of a HFD, we examined in rats whether HFD intake affects a specific chemokine, CXCL12, and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in the hypothalamus together with the neuropeptides and whether CXCL12 itself acts similarly to a HFD in stimulating the neuropeptides and altering ingestion and locomotor behavior. Compared to low-fat chow, a HFD for 5 days significantly increased the expression of CXCL12 and its receptors, in both the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) where the neuropeptides enkephalin (ENK) and galanin were also stimulated and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH) where orexin (OX) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were increased. In contrast, the HFD had no impact on expression of CXCL12 or its receptors in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) where the carbohydrate-related peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), was suppressed. Analysis of protein levels revealed a similar stimulatory effect of a HFD on CXCL12 levels in the PVN and PFLH, as well as in blood, and an increase in the number of CXCR4-positive cells in the PVN. In the ARC, in contrast, levels of CXCL12 and number of CXCR4-positive cells were too low to measure. When centrally administered, CXCL12 was found to have similar effects to a HFD. Injection of CXCL12 into the third cerebral ventricle immediately anterior to the hypothalamus significantly stimulated the ingestion of a HFD, reduced novelty-induced locomotor activity, and increased expression of ENK in the PVN where the CXCR4 receptors were dense. It had no impact, however, on NPY in the ARC or on OX and MCH in the PFLH where the CXCR4 receptors were not detected. These results, showing CXCL12 in the hypothalamus to be stimulated by a HFD

  18. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  19. Prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy for the prevention of ovarian cancers: What is happening in Italy?

    PubMed

    Venturella, Roberta; Rocca, Morena; Lico, Daniela; Trapasso, Simona; Di Cello, Annalisa; Gizzo, Salvatore; Zullo, Fulvio; Morelli, Michele

    2016-09-01

    In 2011, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology of Canada encouraged physicians to discuss with their patients the risks and benefits of prophylactic bilateral salpingectomy (PBS) at the time of hysterectomy or tubal ligation for prevention of ovarian cancers (OCs). The aim of this study was to examine obstetrician-gynaecologists' knowledge, opinions and practice patterns relating to opportunistic salpingectomy in the general population. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to residents, academic and hospital staff in Italian OBGYN departments. The survey included questions on demographics, knowledge and attitudes in terms of the implementation of PBS in women at average population risk of OC. At least 80% of the 479 respondents reported performing PBS during hysterectomy for benign indications, chiefly with the intent of OC risk reduction but also to decrease the risk of reoperation and subsequent tubal pathologies. Among the 86 colleagues who do not routinely perform PBS, more than 50% stated that they have doubts regarding the benefits associated with the procedure. Most of the respondents declared that they were familiar with the literature on the topic and were aware of the data reporting the safety of the procedure, and only 21 (4.53%) had never heard of PBS. Over 40% of the respondents worked in hospitals in southern Italy. PBS as a prophylactic measure to reduce the incidence of OC is a well-known strategy among the Italian OBGYNs interviewed. Given the unequal distribution of respondents, however, wider educational initiatives should be undertaken, at least in Italy, to increase the implementation of salpingectomy among OBGYNs. PMID:26275007

  20. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications....

  1. A Feed-Forward Circuit of Endogenous PGC-1α and Estrogen Related Receptor α Regulates the Neuronal Electron Transport Chain

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rachit; Mittal, Shuchi; Liao, Zhixiang; Scherzer, Clemens R.

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor  γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a central regulator of cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. Cellular bioenergetics are critically important in “energy-guzzling” neurons, but the components and wiring of the transcriptional circuit through which PGC-1α regulates the neuronal electron transport chain have not been established. This information may be vital for restoring neuronal bioenergetics gene expression that is compromised during incipient Parkinson's neuropathology and in aging-dependent brain diseases. Here we delineate a neuronal transcriptional circuit controlled by endogenous PGC-1α. We show that a feed-forward circuit of endogenous neuronal PGC-1α and the orphan nuclear estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) activates the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial electron transport chain. PGC-1α not only trans-activated expression of ERRα, but also coactivated ERRα target genes in complexes I, II, IV, and V of the neuronal electron transport chain via association with evolutionary conserved ERRα promoter binding motifs. Chemical activation of this transcriptional program induced transcription of the neuronal electron transport chain. These data highlight a neuronal transcriptional circuit regulated by PGC-1α that can be therapeutically targeted for Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27088034

  2. Parent-led or baby-led? Associations between complementary feeding practices and health-related behaviours in a survey of New Zealand families

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sonya L; Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine feeding practices and selected health-related behaviours in New Zealand families following a ‘baby-led’ or more traditional ‘parent-led’ method for introducing complementary foods. Design, setting and participants 199 mothers completed an online survey about introducing complementary foods to their infant. Participants were classified into one of four groups: ‘adherent baby-led weaning (BLW)’, the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6–7 months; ‘self-identified BLW’, mothers reported following BLW at 6–7 months but were using spoon-feeding at least half the time; ‘parent-led feeding’, the mother reported not having tried BLW; and ‘unclassified method’, the mother reported they were not following BLW at 6–7 months but reported the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6–7 months. Results 8% were following ‘adherent BLW’, 21% ‘self-identified BLW’ and 0% were following the ‘unclassified method’. Compared with ‘self-identified BLW’ and ‘parent-led feeding’, a higher proportion of the ‘adherent BLW’ met the WHO recommendations to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to introduce complementary foods at 6 months. The ‘adherent BLW’ group was more likely to have family foods (p=0.018), and less likely (p=0.002) to have commercially prepared baby food. Both BLW groups were more likely to share meals with the family compared with ‘parent-led feeding’. In contrast to ‘self-identified BLW’ and ‘parent-led feeding’, the ‘adherent BLW’ group did not offer iron-fortified cereal as a first food. Conclusions This study suggests that although many parents consider they follow BLW, a very few are following it strictly. The extent to which BLW was followed was associated with potential benefits (eg, sharing family meals) and risks (eg, low iron first foods) highlighting the importance for health professionals and researchers of accurately determining the

  3. Condition of larval and early juvenile Japanese temperate bass Lateolabrax japonicus related to spatial distribution and feeding in the Chikugo estuarine nursery ground in the Ariake Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. Shahidul; Hibino, Manabu; Nakayama, Kouji; Tanaka, Masaru

    2006-02-01

    The present study investigates feeding and condition of larval and juvenile Japanese temperate bass Lateolabrax japonicus in relation to spatial distribution in the Chikugo estuary (Japan). Larvae were collected in a wide area covering the nursery grounds of the species in 2002 and 2003. Food habits of the fish were analysed by examining their gut contents. Fish condition was evaluated by using morphometric (the length-weight relationship and condition factor) and biochemical (the RNA:DNA ratio and other nucleic acid based parameters) indices and growth rates. The nucleic-acid contents in individually frozen larvae and juveniles were quantified by standard fluorometric methods. Two distinct feeding patterns, determined by the distribution of prey copepods, were identified. The first pattern showed dependence on the calanoid copepod Sinocalanus sinensis, which was the single dominant prey in low-saline upper river areas. The second pattern involved a multi-specific dietary habit mainly dominated by Acartia omorii, Oithona davisae, and Paracalanus parvus. As in the gut contents analyses, two different sets of values were observed for RNA, DNA, total protein, growth rates and for all the nucleic acid-based indices: one for the high-saline downstream areas and a second for the low-saline upstream areas, which was significantly higher than the first. The proportion of starving fish was lower upstream than downstream. Values of the allometric coefficient ( b) and the condition factor ( K) obtained from the length-weight relationships increased gradually from the sea to the upper river. Clearly, fish in the upper river had a better condition than those in the lower estuary. RNA:DNA ratios correlated positively with temperature and negatively with salinity. We hypothesise that by migration to the better foraging grounds of the upper estuary (with higher prey biomass, elevated temperature and reduced salinity), the fish reduce early mortality and attain a better condition

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p < 0.0001) and corpora lutea (CL) (p = 0.02) compared with the control cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post

  5. When less is more: can we abandon prophylactic platelet transfusion in Dengue fever?

    PubMed

    Kurukularatne, Changa; Dimatatac, Frederico; Teo, Diana Lt; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee Sin

    2011-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF) has several hematological manifestations including thrombocytopenia and increased bleeding risk. Prophylactic platelet transfusion-in the absence of major bleeding-is utilized in DF with thrombocytopenia with the intention of preventing hemorrhagic complications. However, prophylactic platelet transfusion in DF is neither standardized nor supported by clinical evidence. We conclude that risks, costs and poor resource utilization associated with prophylactic platelet transfusion in DF far outweigh any potential hematological benefit, and as such, should not constitute routine clinical practice. PMID:22294065

  6. Long-Term Physiological Alterations and Recovery in a Mouse Model of Separation Associated with Time-Restricted Feeding: A Tool to Study Anorexia Nervosa Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Stéphanie; Leterme, Damien; Ghali, Olfa; Tolle, Virginie; Zizzari, Philippe; Bellefontaine, Nicole; Legroux-Gérot, Isabelle; Hardouin, Pierre; Broux, Odile; Viltart, Odile; Chauveau, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder, with non-negligible rates of mortality and morbidity. Some of the related alterations could participate in a vicious cycle limiting the recovery. Animal models mimicking various physiological alterations related to anorexia nervosa are necessary to provide better strategies of treatment. Aim To explore physiological alterations and recovery in a long-term mouse model mimicking numerous consequences of severe anorexia nervosa. Methods C57Bl/6 female mice were submitted to a separation-based anorexia protocol combining separation and time-restricted feeding for 10 weeks. Thereafter, mice were housed in standard conditions for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, body composition, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, blood levels of GH, reproductive function and glucose tolerance were followed. Gene expression of several markers of lipid and energy metabolism was assayed in adipose tissues. Results Mimicking what is observed in anorexia nervosa patients, and despite a food intake close to that of control mice, separation-based anorexia mice displayed marked alterations in body weight, fat mass, lean mass, bone mass acquisition, reproductive function, GH/IGF-1 axis, and leptinemia. mRNA levels of markers of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and the brown-like adipocyte lineage in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also changed. All these alterations were corrected during the recovery phase, except for the hypoleptinemia that persisted despite the full recovery of fat mass. Conclusion This study strongly supports the separation-based anorexia protocol as a valuable model of long-term negative energy balance state that closely mimics various symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa, including metabolic adaptations. Interestingly, during a recovery phase, mice showed a high capacity to normalize these parameters with the exception of plasma leptin levels. It will be interesting therefore to explore further the central

  7. Breast feeding: success or failure.

    PubMed

    Houston, M J

    1981-11-01

    Awareness of the important role of breast feeding in child health and the reproductive cycle, which is well documented elsewhere, necessitates an examination of the changing practice of breast feeding. This paper reviews these changing practices both in Western and developing societies, examines the problems which lead to lactation failure, and looks at factors related to success in breast feeding. In the light of the need for practical help for successful breast feeding. the present system of support both in hospital and at home is then discussed. An alternative system of structured home support for post-natal women, which has been shown to increase the success rate of breast feeding, is outlined. The way in which this system acts is discussed and the implications for both mothers and health staff are considered. PMID:6915047

  8. Prophylactic octreotide for pancreatoduodenectomy: more harm than good?

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Matthew T; Christein, John D; Callery, Mark P; Behrman, Stephen W; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Kent, Tara S; Miller, Benjamin C; Lewis, Russell S; Vollmer, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    Background Most accrued evidence regarding prophylactic octreotide for a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) predates the advent of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification system for a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF), and its efficacy in the setting of high POPF risk is unknown. The Fistula Risk Score (FRS) predicts the risk and impact of a clinically relevant (CR)-POPF and can be useful in assessing the impact of octreotide in scenarios of risk. Methods From 2001–2013, 1018 PDs were performed at four institutions, with octreotide administered at the surgeon’s discretion. The FRS was used to analyse the occurrence and burden of POPF across various risk scenarios. Results Overall, 391 patients (38.4%) received octreotide. A CR-POPF occurred more often when octreotide was used (21.0% versus 7.0%; P < 0.001), especially when there was advanced FRS risk. Octreotide administration also correlated with an increased hospital stay (mean: 13 versus 11 days; P < 0.001). Regression analysis, controlling for FRS risk, demonstrated that octreotide increases the risk for CR-POPF development. Conclusion This multi-institutional study, using ISGPF criteria, evaluates POPF development across the entire risk spectrum. Octreotide appears to confer no benefit in preventing a CR-POPF, and may even potentiate CR-POPF development in the presence of risk factors. This analysis suggests octreotide should not be utilized as a POPF mitigation strategy. PMID:25041506

  9. Therapeutic and Prophylactic Potential of Morama (Tylosema esculentum): A Review.

    PubMed

    Chingwaru, Walter; Vidmar, Jerneja; Kapewangolo, Petrina T; Mazimba, Ofentse; Jackson, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Tylosema esculentum (morama) is a highly valued traditional food and source of medicine for the San and other indigenous populations that inhabit the arid to semi-arid parts of Southern Africa. Morama beans are a rich source of phenolic acids, flavonoids, certain fatty acids, non-essential amino acids, certain phytosterols, tannins and minerals. The plant's tuber contains griffonilide, behenic acid and starch. Concoctions of extracts from morama bean, tuber and other local plants are frequently used to treat diarrhoea and digestive disorders by the San and other indigenous populations. Information on composition and bioactivity of phytochemical components of T. esculentum suggests that the polyphenol-rich extracts of the bean testae and cotyledons have great potential as sources of chemicals that inhibit infectious microorganisms (viral, bacterial and fungal, including drug-resistant strains), offer protection against certain non-communicable diseases and promote wound healing and gut health. The potential antinutritional properties of a few morama components are also highlighted. More research is necessary to reveal the full prophylactic and therapeutic potential of the plant against diseases of the current century. Research on domestication and conservation of the plant offers new hope for sustainable utilisation of the plant. PMID:26206567

  10. Prophylactic antibiotics in elective hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, C. J.; Metcalfe, D.; Elgohari, S.; Oswald, T.; Masters, J. P.; Rymaszewska, M.; Reed, M. R.; Sprowson†, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We wanted to investigate regional variations in the organisms reported to be causing peri-prosthetic infections and to report on prophylaxis regimens currently in use across England. Methods Analysis of data routinely collected by Public Health England’s (PHE) national surgical site infection database on elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures between April 2010 and March 2013 to investigate regional variations in causative organisms. A separate national survey of 145 hospital Trusts (groups of hospitals under local management) in England routinely performing primary hip and/or knee arthroplasty was carried out by standard email questionnaire. Results Analysis of 189 858 elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures and 1116 surgical site infections found statistically significant variations for some causative organism between regions. There was a 100% response rate to the prophylaxis questionnaire that showed substantial variation between individual trust guidelines. A number of regimens currently in use are inconsistent with the best available evidence. Conclusions The approach towards antibiotic prophylaxis in elective arthroplasty nationwide reveals substantial variation without clear justification. Only seven causative organisms are responsible for 89% of infections affecting primary hip and knee arthroplasty, which cannot justify such widespread variation between prophylactic antibiotic policies. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:181–189. PMID:26585304

  11. Low-dose prophylactic craniospinal radiotherapy for intracranial germinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Gordon O.; Amdur, Robert J. . E-mail: amdurrj@ufl.edu; Schmalfuss, Ilona M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Keole, Sameer R.; Mendenhall, William M.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes of patients with localized intracranial germinoma treated with low-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI) followed by a boost to the ventricular system and primary site. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients had pathologically confirmed intracranial germinoma and no spine metastases. Low-dose CSI was administered in 29 patients: usually 21 Gy of CSI, 9.0 Gy of ventricular boost, and a 19.5-Gy tumor boost, all at 1.5 Gy per fraction. Our neuroradiologist recorded three-dimensional tumor size on magnetic resonance images before, during, and after radiotherapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.0 years, 29 of 31 patients (94%) are disease free. One failure had nongerminomatous histology; the initial diagnosis was a sampling error. Of 3 patients who did not receive CSI, 1 died. No patient developed myelopathy, visual deficits, dementia, or skeletal growth problems. In locally controlled patients, tumor response according to magnetic resonance scan was nearly complete within 6 months after radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone with low-dose prophylactic CSI cures almost all patients with localized intracranial germinoma. Complications are rare when the daily dose of radiotherapy is limited to 1.5 Gy and the total CSI dose to 21 Gy. Patients without a near-complete response to radiotherapy should undergo resection to rule out a nongerminomatous element.

  12. Population level impact of an imperfect prophylactic HSV-2 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Alsallaq, Ramzi A.; Schiffer, Joshua T.; Longini, Ira M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The continuation of developing HSV-2 prophylactic vaccines requires parallel mathematical modeling to quantify the impact on the population of these vaccines. Methods Using mathematical modeling we derived three summary measures for the population impact of imperfect HSV-2 vaccines as a function of their efficacies in reducing susceptibility (VES), genital shedding (VEP), and infectivity during shedding (VEI). In addition, we studied the population level impact of vaccine intervention using representative vaccine efficacies. Results A vaccine with limited efficacy of reducing shedding frequency (VEP =10%) and infectivity (VEI =0%) would need to reduce susceptibility by 75% (VES =75%) to substantially reduce the sustainability of HSV-2 infection in a population. No reduction in susceptibility would be required to reach this target in a vaccine that decreased shedding by 75% (VES =0%, VEP =75%, VEI =0%). Mass vaccination using a vaccine with imperfect efficacies (VES =30%, VEP =75%, and VEI =0%) in Kisumu, Kenya in 2010 would decrease prevalence and incidence in 2020 by 7% and 30% respectively. For lower prevalence settings, vaccination is predicted to have a lower impact on prevalence. Conclusion A vaccine with substantially high efficacy of reducing HSV-2 shedding frequency would have a desirable impact at the population level. The vaccine’s short-term impact in a high prevalence setting in Africa would be a substantial decrease in incidence, whereas its immediate impact on prevalence would be small and would increase slowly over time. PMID:20351622

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Prophylactic Cefazolin in Parturients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Elkomy, Mohammed H.; Sultan, Pervez; Epshtein, Ekaterina; Galinkin, Jeffery L.; Carvalho, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to characterize the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in pregnant women undergoing elective cesarean delivery and in their neonates; (ii) to assess cefazolin transplacental transmission; (iii) to evaluate the dosing and timing of preoperative, prophylactic administration of cefazolin to pregnant women; and (iv) to investigate the impact of maternal dosing on therapeutic duration and exposure in newborns. Twenty women received 1 g of cefazolin preoperatively. Plasma concentrations of total cefazolin were analyzed from maternal blood samples taken before, during, and after delivery; umbilical cord blood samples obtained at delivery; and neonatal blood samples collected 24 h after birth. The distribution volume of cefazolin was 9.44 liters/h. The values for pre- and postdelivery clearance were 7.18 and 4.12 liters/h, respectively. Computer simulations revealed that the probability of maintaining free cefazolin concentrations in plasma above 8 mg/liter during scheduled caesarean surgery was <50% in the cord blood when cefazolin was administered in doses of <2 g or when it was administered <1 h before delivery. Therapeutic concentrations of cefazolin persisted in neonates >5 h after birth. Cefazolin clearance increases during pregnancy, and larger doses are recommended for surgical prophylaxis in pregnant women to obtain the same antibacterial effect as in nonpregnant patients. Cefazolin has a longer half-life in neonates than in adults. Maternal administration of up to 2 g of cefazolin is effective and produces exposure within clinically approved limits in neonates. PMID:24733461

  14. Effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of myocardial hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Cutilletta, A F; Rudnik, M; Arcilla, R A; Straube, R

    1977-11-01

    The effect of prophylactic digitalization on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy was studied in adult rats. Digitoxin, 0.1 mg/100 g body wt or solvent was given daily for 1 wk prior to either aortic constriction or sham operation and was continued until the animals were killed, either 1 or 4 wk after surgery. A hemodynamic study was done in those animals killed 1 wk after surgery; hearts of all animals were examined for evidence of myocardial hypertrophy. Constriction of the ascending aorta had no significant effect on cardiac output but did reduce peak flow velocity and flow acceleration. An increase in left ventricular mass, RNA, and hydroxyproline was found in the animals with aortic constriction. Digitoxin treatment did not alter peak flow velocity or flow acceleration, but did significantly increase isovolumic (dP/dt)P-1. Digitoxin had no effect on body weight, heart weight, RNA, or hydroxyproline in either the sham-operated animals or in the animals with aortic constriction. Therefore, despite plasma digitoxin levels sufficient to affect myocardial contractility, left ventricular hypertrophy still developed after aortic constriction. PMID:144440

  15. Nutritional status and feeding-tube placement in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy-based larynx preservation program.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Alexandre; Benezery, Karen; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Ettaiche, Marc; Vandersteen, Clair; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Riss, Jean-Christophe; Hannoun-Lévi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Leysalle, Axel; Saada, Esma; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Hebert, Christophe; Falewee, Marie-Noelle; Demard, François; Santini, José; Peyrade, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the nutritional status and determine its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer included in an induction chemotherapy (ICT)-based larynx preservation program without prophylactic feeding-tube placement. All patients with locally advanced (T3/4, N0-3, M0) hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, technically suitable for total pharyngolaryngectomy, treated by docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF)-ICT for larynx preservation at our institution between 2004 and 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Patients' nutritional status was closely monitored. Enteral nutrition was used if and when a patient was unable to sustain per-oral nutrition and hydration. The impact of nutritional status on clinical outcomes was investigated in univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 53 patients (42 men and 11 women, mean age = 58.6 ± 8.2 years) were included in this study. Six (11.3 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their usual body weight before therapy. Compared with patients' usual weight, the mean maximum patient weight loss during therapeutic management was 8.7 ± 4.5 kg. Enteral nutrition was required in 17 patients (32 %). We found no influence of the tested nutritional status-related factors on response to ICT, toxicity of ICT, overall, cause-specific and recurrence-free survival, and on post-therapeutic swallowing outcome. Maximum weight loss was significantly associated with a higher risk of enteral tube feeding during therapy (p = 0.03) and of complications (grade ≥3, p = 0.006) during RT. Without prophylactic feeding-tube placement, approximately one-third of the patients required enteral nutrition. There was no significant impact of nutritional status on oncologic or functional outcomes. PMID:26395117

  16. Prophylactic Administration of Bacterially Derived Immunomodulators Improves the Outcome of Influenza Virus Infection in a Murine Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Clements, John D.; Voss, Thomas G.; Cárdenas-Freytag, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for promoting distinct immunological profiles. BALB/c mice were treated nasally with either cholera toxin (CT), a mutant form of the CT-related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin designated LT(R192G), or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24 h after the last immunomodulation treatment and either monitored for survival or sacrificed postchallenge for viral and immunological analysis. Treatment with the three immunomodulators prevented or delayed mortality and weight loss, but only CT and LT(R192G) significantly reduced initial lung viral loads as measured by plaque assay. Analysis performed 4 days postinfection indicated that prophylactic treatments with CT, LT(R192G), or CpG resulted in significantly increased numbers of CD4 T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and altered costimulatory marker expression in the airways of infected mice, coinciding with reduced expression of pulmonary chemokines and the appearance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue-like structures in the lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that, despite different immunomodulatory mechanisms, CT, LT(R192G), and CpG induce an initial inflammatory process and enhance the immune response to primary influenza virus challenge while preventing potentially damaging chemokine expression. These studies provide insight into the immunological parameters and immune modulation strategies that have the potential to enhance the nonspecific host response to influenza virus infection. PMID:20053748

  17. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to age-related impairments of endothelium-dependent dilation in rat soleus feed arteries

    PubMed Central

    Trott, Daniel W.; Seawright, John W.; Luttrell, Meredith J.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that age-related endothelial dysfunction in rat soleus muscle feed arteries (SFA) is mediated in part by NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). SFA from young (4 mo) and old (24 mo) Fischer 344 rats were isolated and cannulated for examination of vasodilator responses to flow and acetylcholine (ACh) in the absence or presence of a superoxide anion (O2−) scavenger (Tempol; 100 μM) or an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 100 μM). In the absence of inhibitors, flow- and ACh-induced dilations were attenuated in SFA from old rats compared with young rats. Tempol and apocynin improved flow- and ACh-induced dilation in SFA from old rats. In SFA from young rats, Tempol and apocynin had no effect on flow-induced dilation, and apocynin attenuated ACh-induced dilation. To determine the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), dilator responses were assessed in the absence and presence of catalase (100 U/ml) or PEG-catalase (200 U/ml). Neither H2O2 scavenger altered flow-induced dilation, whereas both H2O2 scavengers blunted ACh-induced dilation in SFA from young rats. In old SFA, catalase improved flow-induced dilation whereas PEG-catalase improved ACh-induced dilation. Compared with young SFA, in response to exogenous H2O2 and NADPH, old rats exhibited blunted dilation and constriction, respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit gp91phox protein content was greater in old SFA compared with young. These results suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to impaired endothelium-dependent dilation in old SFA. PMID:21233343

  18. NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to age-related impairments of endothelium-dependent dilation in rat soleus feed arteries.

    PubMed

    Trott, Daniel W; Seawright, John W; Luttrell, Meredith J; Woodman, Christopher R

    2011-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that age-related endothelial dysfunction in rat soleus muscle feed arteries (SFA) is mediated in part by NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). SFA from young (4 mo) and old (24 mo) Fischer 344 rats were isolated and cannulated for examination of vasodilator responses to flow and acetylcholine (ACh) in the absence or presence of a superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) scavenger (Tempol; 100 μM) or an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 100 μM). In the absence of inhibitors, flow- and ACh-induced dilations were attenuated in SFA from old rats compared with young rats. Tempol and apocynin improved flow- and ACh-induced dilation in SFA from old rats. In SFA from young rats, Tempol and apocynin had no effect on flow-induced dilation, and apocynin attenuated ACh-induced dilation. To determine the role of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), dilator responses were assessed in the absence and presence of catalase (100 U/ml) or PEG-catalase (200 U/ml). Neither H(2)O(2) scavenger altered flow-induced dilation, whereas both H(2)O(2) scavengers blunted ACh-induced dilation in SFA from young rats. In old SFA, catalase improved flow-induced dilation whereas PEG-catalase improved ACh-induced dilation. Compared with young SFA, in response to exogenous H(2)O(2) and NADPH, old rats exhibited blunted dilation and constriction, respectively. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit gp91phox protein content was greater in old SFA compared with young. These results suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to impaired endothelium-dependent dilation in old SFA. PMID:21233343

  19. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  20. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  1. Brain damage following prophylactic cranial irradiation in lung cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simó, Marta; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Fuentes, Rafael; Cardenal, Felipe; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bruna, Jordi

    2016-03-01

    Long-term toxic effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on cognition in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients have not yet been well-established. The aim of our study was to examine the cognitive toxic effects together with brain structural changes in a group of long-term SCLC survivors treated with PCI. Eleven SCLC patients, who underwent PCI ≥ 2 years before, were compared with an age and education matched healthy control group. Both groups were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery and multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry and Tract-based Spatial Statistics were used to study gray matter density (GMD) and white matter (WM) microstructural changes. Cognitive deterioration was correlated with GMD and Fractional Anisotropy (FA). Finally, we carried out a single-subject analysis in order to evaluate individual structural brain changes. Nearly half of the SCLC met criteria for cognitive impairment, all exhibiting a global worsening of cognitive functioning. Patients showed significant decreases of GMD in basal ganglia bilaterally (putamen and caudate), bilateral thalamus and right insula, together with WM microstructural changes of the entire corpus callosum. Cognitive deterioration scores correlated positively with mean FA values in the corpus callosum. Single-subject analysis revealed that GMD and WM changes were consistently observed in nearly all patients. This study showed neuropsychological deficits together with brain-specific structural differences in long-term SCLC survivors. Our results suggest that PCI therapy, possibly together with platinum-based chemotherapy, was associated to permanent long-term cognitive and structural brain effects in a SCLC population. PMID:26015269

  2. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic prophylactic treatment with undiluted cyanoacrylate for gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Matheus Cavalcante; Gomes, Gustavo Flores; Nakao, Frank Shigeo; de Paulo, Gustavo Andrade; Ferrari Jr, Angelo Paulo; Libera Jr, Ermelindo Della

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of undiluted N-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate plus methacryloxysulfolane (NBCM) as a prophylactic treatment for gastric varices (GV) bleeding. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at a single tertiary-care teaching hospital between October 2009 and March 2013. Patients with portal hypertension (PH) and GV, with no active gastrointestinal bleeding, were enrolled in primary prophylactic treatment with NBCM injection without lipiodol dilution. Initial diagnosis of GV was based on endoscopy and confirmed with endosonography (EUS); the same procedure was used after treatment to confirm eradication of GV. After puncturing the GV with a regular injection needle, 1 mL of undiluted NBCM was injected intranasally into GV. The injection was repeated as necessary to achieve eradication or until a maximum total volume of 3 mL of NBCM had been injected. Patients were followed clinically and evaluated with endoscopy at 3, 6 and 12 mo. Later follow-ups were performed yearly. The main outcome measures were efficacy (GV eradication), safety (adverse events related to cyanoacrylate injection), recurrence, bleeding from GV and mortality related to GV treatment. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients (15 male) with PH and GV were enrolled in the study and treated with undiluted NBCM injection. Only 2 (10%) patients had no esophageal varices (EV); 18 (90%) patients were treated with endoscopic band ligation to eradicate EV before inclusion in the study. The patients were followed clinically and endoscopically for a median of 31 mo (range: 6-40 mo). Eradication of GV was observed in all patients (13 patients were treated with 1 session and 7 patients with 2 sessions), with a maximum injected volume of 2 mL NBCM. One patient had GV recurrence, confirmed by EUS, at 6-mo follow-up, and another had late recurrence with GV bleeding after 35 mo of follow-up; overall, GV recurrence was observed in 2 patients (10%), after 6 and 35 mo of follow-up, and GV

  3. Enteral Feeding Tubes in Patients Undergoing Definitive Chemoradiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Koyfman, Shlomo A.; Adelstein, David J.

    2012-11-01

    Definitive chemoradiation therapy has evolved as the preferred organ preservation strategy in the treatment of locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (LA-HNC). Dry mouth and dysphagia are among the most common and most debilitating treatment-related toxicities that frequently necessitate the placement of enteral feeding tubes (FT) in these patients to help them meet their nutritional requirements. The use of either a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube or a nasogastric tube, the choice of using a prophylactic vs a reactive approach, and the effects of FTs on weight loss, hospitalization, quality of life, and long-term functional outcomes are areas of continued controversy. Considerable variations in practice patterns exist in the United States and abroad. This critical review synthesizes the current data for the use of enteral FTs in this patient population and clarifies the relative advantages of different types of FTs and the timing of their use. Recent developments in the biologic understanding and treatment approaches for LA-HNC appear to be favorably impacting the frequency and severity of treatment-related dysphagia and may reduce the need for enteral tube feeding in the future.

  4. Prophylactic ankle bracing vs. taping: effects on functional performance in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    MacKean, L C; Bell, G; Burnham, R S

    1995-08-01

    Ankle support devices are commonly used for prevention and treatment of ankle injury, but the effect of these on sport performance has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ankle support devices on four basketball-related performance tests. Eleven female basketball players underwent four performance tests (vertical jump, jump shot, sprint drill, and submaximal treadmill run) while wearing five different types of ankle support on both ankles (no support, tape, Swede-O-Universal, Active Ankle, and Aircast). Ankle support effect on overall performance was assessed using Friedman's analysis of variance (ANOVA) by ranks and on specific performance parameters using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures. Overall performance was impaired by ankle support. The Active Ankle brace impaired performance the least out of the support devices. Vertical jump was less with ankle tape as compared with no tape (p < .05), whereas jump shot accuracy was better with tape as compared with the Swede-O-Universal (p < .05). Oxygen consumption (VO2) and energy expenditure were higher with the Aircast as compared with tape (p < .05). It was concluded that the use of ankle support by female basketball players does adversely affect basketball-related performance tests, and the prophylactic benefit of bracing needs to be weighed against performance impairment. PMID:7581435

  5. Prophylactic Vancomycin Drops Reduce the Severity of Early Bacterial Keratitis in Keratoprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Tan, Xiao Wei; Goh, Gwendoline Tze Wei; Saraswathi, Padmanabhan; Chen, Liyan; Nyein, Chan Lwin; Zhou, Lei; Beuerman, Roger; Tan, Donald Tiang Hwee; Mehta, Jod

    2015-01-01

    Background Artificial cornea transplantation, keratoprosthesis, improves vision for patients at high risk of failure with human cadaveric cornea. However, post-operative infection can cause visual loss and implant extrusion in 3.2–17% of eyes. Long-term vancomycin drops are recommended following keratoprosthesis to prevent bacterial keratitis. Evidence, though, in support of this practice is poor. We investigated whether prophylactic vancomycin drops prevented bacterial keratitis in an animal keratoprosthesis model. Methodology Twenty-three rabbits were assigned either to a prophylactic group (n = 13) that received vancomycin 1.4% drops 5 times/day from keratoprosthesis implantation to sacrifice, or a non-prophylactic group (n = 10) that received no drops. All rabbits had Staphylococcus aureus inoculation into the cornea at 7–12 days post-implantation and were sacrificed at predetermined time-points. Prophylactic and non-prophylactic groups were compared with slit-lamp photography (SLP), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and histology, immunohistochemistry and bacterial quantification of excised corneas. Corneal vancomycin pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 additional rabbits. Results On day 1 post-inoculation, the median SLP score and mean±SEM AS-OCT corneal thickness (CT) were greater in the non-prophylactic than the prophylactic group (11 vs. 1, p = 0.049 and 486.9±61.2 vs. 327.4±37.1 μm, p = 0.029 respectively). On days 2 and 4, SLP scores and CT were not significantly different. Immunohistochemistry showed a greater CD11b+ve/non-CD11b+ve cell ratio in the non-prophylactic group (1.45 vs. 0.71) on day 2. Bacterial counts were not significantly different between the two groups. Corneal vancomycin concentration (2.835±0.383 μg/ml) exceeded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus only after 16 days of vancomycin drops. Two of 3 rabbits still developed infection despite bacterial inoculation after 16 days of

  6. Plant-feeding insects harbor double-stranded RNA viruses encoding a novel proline-alanine rich protein and a polymerase distantly related to that of fungal viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel double-stranded RNAs (~8 kbp) were isolated from three cornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) and beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), two plant-feeding hemipteran insect pests. Genomes of the two new viruses, designated as Spissistilus festinus virus 1 (SpFV1) and Circulifer tenell...

  7. Novel double-stranded RNA viruses of plant-feeding insects encode a serine-alanine-proline rich protein and a polymerase distantly related to fungal viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel double stranded RNAs (~8 kbp) were isolated from the three cornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) and beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), two plant-feeding hemipteran insect pests. Genome organization of the two new viruses, designated as Spissistilus festinus virus 1 (SpFV1) and ...

  8. A therapeutic-only versus prophylactic platelet transfusion strategy for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, Gemma L; Estcourt, Lise J; Wood, Erica M; Trivella, Marialena; Doree, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-01-01

    expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified seven RCTs that compared therapeutic platelet transfusions to prophylactic platelet transfusions in haematology patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or HSCT. One trial is still ongoing, leaving six trials eligible with a total of 1195 participants. These trials were conducted between 1978 and 2013 and enrolled participants from fairly comparable patient populations. We were able to critically appraise five of these studies, which contained separate data for each arm, and were unable to perform quantitative analysis on one study that did not report the numbers of participants in each treatment arm. Overall the quality of evidence per outcome was low to moderate according to the GRADE approach. None of the included studies were at low risk of bias in every domain, and all the studies identified had some threats to validity. We deemed only one study to be at low risk of bias in all domains other than blinding. Two RCTs (801 participants) reported at least one bleeding episode within 30 days of the start of the study. We were unable to perform a meta-analysis due to considerable statistical heterogeneity between studies. The statistical heterogeneity seen may relate to the different methods used in studies for the assessment and grading of bleeding. The underlying patient diagnostic and treatment categories also appeared to have some effect on bleeding risk. Individually these studies showed a similar effect, that a therapeutic-only platelet transfusion strategy was associated with an increased risk of clinically significant bleeding compared with a prophylactic platelet transfusion policy. Number of days with a clinically significant bleeding event per participant was higher in the therapeutic-only group than in the prophylactic group (one RCT; 600 participants; mean difference 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10 to 0.90; moderate-quality evidence). There was insufficient evidence to determine

  9. Determination of caffeoylquinic acids in feed and related products by focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tena, M T; Martínez-Moral, M P; Cardozo, P W

    2015-06-26

    A method to determine caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in three sources (herbal extract, feed additive and finished feed) using for the first time focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry is presented. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was also tested as extraction technique but it was discarded because cynarin was not stable under temperature values used in PLE. The separation of the CQAs isomers was carried out in only seven minutes. FUSLE variables such as extraction solvent, power and time were optimized by a central composite design. Under optimal conditions, FUSLE extraction was performed with 8mL of an 83:17 methanol-water mixture for 30s at a power of 60%. Only two extraction steps were found necessary to recover analytes quantitatively. Sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision were established. Matrix effect was studied for each type of sample. It was not detected for mono-CQAs, whereas the cynarin signal was strongly decreased due to ionization suppression in presence of matrix components; so the quantification by standard addition was mandatory for the determination of di-caffeoylquinic acids. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of herbal extracts, feed additives and finished feed. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the predominant CQA, followed by criptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cynarin. The method allows an efficient determination of chlorogenic acid with good recovery rates. Therefore, it may be used for screening of raw material and for process and quality control in feed manufacture. PMID:25981290

  10. A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Jeong, In Gab; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol; Lim, Dae Jung; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Won Hee; Jung, Hee Chang

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. PMID:20191044

  11. Prophylactic antibiotic regimens in tumour surgery (PARITY): protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ghert, Michelle; Deheshi, Benjamin; Holt, Ginger; Randall, R Lor; Ferguson, Peter; Wunder, Jay; Turcotte, Robert; Werier, Joel; Clarkson, Paul; Damron, Timothy; Benevenia, Joseph; Anderson, Megan; Gebhardt, Mark; Isler, Marc; Mottard, Sophie; Healey, John; Evaniew, Nathan; Racano, Antonella; Sprague, Sheila; Swinton, Marilyn; Bryant, Dianne; Thabane, Lehana; Guyatt, Gordon; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Limb salvage with endoprosthetic reconstruction is the standard of care for the management of lower-extremity bone tumours in skeletally mature patients. The risk of deep postoperative infection in these procedures is high and the outcomes can be devastating. The most effective prophylactic antibiotic regimen remains unknown, and current clinical practice is highly varied. This trial will evaluate the effect of varying postoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens on the incidence of deep infection following surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of lower-extremity bone tumours. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre, blinded, randomised controlled trial, using a parallel two-arm design. 920 patients 15 years of age or older from 12 tertiary care centres across Canada and the USA who are undergoing surgical excision and endoprosthetic reconstruction of a primary bone tumour will receive either short (24 h) or long (5 days) duration postoperative antibiotics. Exclusion criteria include prior surgery or infection within the planned operative field, known colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus at enrolment, or allergy to the study antibiotics. The primary outcome will be rates of deep postoperative infections in each arm. Secondary outcomes will include type and frequency of antibiotic-related adverse events, patient functional outcomes and quality-of-life scores, reoperation and mortality. Randomisation will be blocked, with block sizes known only to the methods centre responsible for randomisation, and stratified by location of tumour and study centre. Patients, care givers and a Central Adjudication Committee will be blinded to treatment allocation. The analysis to compare groups will be performed using Cox regression and log-rank tests to compare survival functions at α=0.05. Ethics and dissemination This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University

  12. Need for Prophylactic Application of Verapamil in Transradial Coronary Procedures: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hizoh, Istvan; Majoros, Zsuzsanna; Major, Laszlo; Gulyas, Zalan; Szabo, Gabor; Kerecsen, Gabor; Korda, Andras; Molnar, Ferenc; Kiss, Robert Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Background Verapamil is traditionally applied prophylactically in transradial procedures to prevent radial artery spasm. However, verapamil may have side effects and is contraindicated in some clinical settings. Methods and Results During an investigator‐initiated, randomized, double‐blind trial, we evaluated the need for preventive verapamil administration. After vascular access was established, patients received either 5 mg verapamil (n=297) or placebo (n=294). We compared the rate of access site conversions as primary end point using a superiority margin of 5%. Occurrence of code breaks (composite of conversions and unplanned use of verapamil), overall verapamil use, procedural and fluoroscopic times, contrast volume, and subjective pain were investigated as secondary end points. The rate of access site conversions was not different in the 2 arms (placebo 1.7% versus verapamil 0.7%, P=0.28, difference 1.0%, 95% CI for the difference −1.1% to 3.3%). Proportion of code breaks was similar in the 2 groups (3.4% versus 1.3%, P=0.11), whereas overall verapamil use was markedly lower in the placebo arm (2.0% versus 100%, P<0.0001). Procedural time (median [IQR] 16.0 minutes [9.0 to 30.0 minutes] versus 17.0 minutes [10.0 to 31.0 minutes], P=0.37), fluoroscopic time (4.4 minutes [2.1 to 9.6 minutes] versus 4.8 minutes [2.4 to 10.7 minutes], P=0.28), contrast volume (72.5 mL [48.0 to 146.0 mL] versus 75.5 mL [47.0 to 156.5 mL], P=0.74), and pain score (P for trend=0.12) were comparable in the 2 groups. Conclusions The preventive use of verapamil may be unnecessary for transradial procedures. The omission of prophylactic verapamil may not only reduce the rate of potential complications related to the drug but also allow the safe extension of the transradial method to those with contraindications to verapamil. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01402427. PMID:24732918

  13. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Officials. The collective names are as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING...

  14. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Officials. The collective names are as follows: (1) Animal protein products include one or more of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING...

  15. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients. 501.110 Section 501.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements §...

  16. Molecular basis of protein structure in combined feeds (hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles) in relation to protein rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Yu, P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to reveal protein molecular structure in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in combined feeds of hulless barley with bioethanol coproduct [pure wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)] at 5 different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100) in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed included 1) protein chemical profiles, 2) protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, 3) in situ protein degradation kinetics, 4) truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine (DVE), metabolizable protein characteristics and degraded protein balance (OEB), 5) protein molecular structure spectral profiles, and 6) correlation between protein molecular structure and protein nutrient profiles and metabolic characteristics. We found that 1) with increasing inclusion of wheat DDGS in feed combinations, protein chemical compositions of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent-insoluble CP, acid detergent-insoluble CP, and nonprotein N were increased, whereas soluble CP was decreased linearly; CP subfractions A, B₃, and C were increased linearly, but CP subfractions B₁ and B₂ were decreased; truly digestible CP increased but total digestible nutrients at 1× maintenance decreased linearly; protein degradation rate was decreased without affecting potentially soluble, potentially degradable, and potentially undegradable fractions, and both rumen-degradable protein and rumen-undegradable protein were increased; by using the DVE/OEB system, the DVE and OEB values were increased from 98 to 226 g/kg of dry matter and -1 to 105 g/kg of dry matter, respectively; 2) by using the molecular spectroscopy technique, the spectral differences in protein molecular structure were detected among the feed combinations; in the original combined feeds, amide I and II peak area and ratio of amide I to II were increased linearly; although no difference existed in α-helix and

  17. Acarboxyprothrombin concentration [corrected] after oral prophylactic vitamin K.

    PubMed Central

    von Kries, R; Kreppel, S; Becker, A; Tangermann, R; Göbel, U

    1987-01-01

    The effect of prophylaxis with oral vitamin K (1 mg vitamin K1 given with the first feed) on the rate of detection of acarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) and factor II clotting concentration [corrected] were analysed. Introducing such prophylaxis reduced the rates of detection of PIVKA II concentration [corrected] on day 5 from 48% to zero. None of the babies given prophylaxis had factor II clotting concentration [corrected] below 40%, compared with 34 of 95 babies not given prophylaxis. This study has important implications in the prophylaxis of both classical and late onset haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. PMID:3435609

  18. Feeding Babies: From Breast Milk to the Family Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1992-01-01

    Focusing on the issue of feeding infants, this journal covers a wide range of information, research, and issues related to breast-feeding and its alternatives for feeding infants in both developing and industrialized countries. The journal is divided into the following sections: (1) "The Epidemiology of Breast-feeding: Frequency and Duration,"…

  19. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  20. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  1. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  2. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  3. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. 573.380 Section 573...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin...

  4. 29 CFR 780.214 - Feed sales and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Feed sales and other activities. 780.214 Section 780.214... Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.214 Feed sales and other activities. In some situations, the hatchery also operates a feed store and furnishes feed to the growers. As...

  5. Parental feeding practices and concerns related to child underweight, picky eating, and using food to calm differ according to ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Seth, Jennifer Greenberg; Smith, Shanna; Harris, Karol Kaye; Loyo, Jennifer; Spaulding, Carol; Van Eck, Mary; Gottlieb, Nell

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in parental feeding practices according to ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation (for Hispanic participants only), and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program among parents living in a southern state in the United States. For this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 1-5 years living throughout Texas were recruited through random digit dialing with screening questions during Fall 2006. Eligible parents who agreed to participate completed the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) and a demographic questionnaire over the phone in either English or Spanish. The PFQ included five subscales: child overeating concerns, child underweight concerns, difficulty with picky eating, using food to calm, and pushing child to eat. Demographic questions assessed ethnicity/race, household income, parent education level, acculturation, and WIC participation. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), with the demographic variables as predictors, was used to predict the five PFQ subscales. Complete data were obtained from 721 parents, 50% of whom were Hispanic. Significant differences for the PFQ subscales were noted for ethnicity/race, acculturation, and income level. Spanish-speaking Hispanic participants were significantly more worried about their child being underweight than English-speaking Hispanic participants. High-income non-WIC respondents were more likely to report that they have difficulty with picky eaters compared to WIC respondents. Spanish-speaking Hispanics and Black respondents were more likely than English-speaking Hispanics to use food to calm the child. Health practitioners need to be aware of differences in parental feeding practices and concerns among parents of diverse demographic backgrounds. Results from this study can be used to tailor health programs that promote healthy feeding practices among

  6. Prophylactic efficacy of fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline, paroxetine, and concomitant psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: outcome after long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peselow, Eric D; Tobia, Gabriel; Karamians, Reneh; Pizano, Demetria; IsHak, Waguih William

    2015-02-28

    The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence. PMID:25496869

  7. Prophylactic action of lipoic acid on oxidative stress and growth performance in broilers at risk of developing ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, Antonio; Serret, Maurilio; Ramírez, Guadalupe; Avila, Ernesto; Guinzberg, Raquel; Piña, Enrique

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with lipoic acid (LA) on broilers maintained at 2235 m above sea level with high risk to develop ascites syndrome (AS). A total of 2040 chicks were fed under commercial conditions with water and specific diets ad libitum during 7 weeks in two consecutive experiments. Mortality and indicators of performance and oxidative stress were compared weekly in broilers fed a basal diet plus 0, 10, 20, or 40 parts/10(6) LA. The effects of LA at 40 parts/10(6) were also studied during the initial 3 weeks or the last 4 weeks of the production cycle. Diets supplemented with 40 parts/10(6) of LA during 7 weeks significantly improved feed conversion, decreased general mortality and mortality attributable to AS, and lowered thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroxyl radicals in liver, and increased total glutathione pool. Smaller doses or shorter periods of exposure to LA were partially effective. In conclusion, LA under our experimental conditions has a prophylactic action in broilers with high risk to develop AS due to oxygen availability limitation. PMID:14676017

  8. Oncological safety of prophylactic breast surgery: skin-sparing and nipple-sparing versus total mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Maijers, Marike C.; van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Koppert, Linetta B.

    2015-01-01

    Women with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation and others with a high breast cancer risk may opt for bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. To allow for immediate breast reconstruction the skin envelope is left in situ with or without the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Although possibly leading to a more natural aesthetic outcome than the conventional total mastectomy, so-called skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM) may leave some breast glandular tissue in situ. The oncological risk associated with remaining breast glandular tissue is unclear. We present a case of primary breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy followed by a review of the literature on remaining breast glandular tissue after various mastectomy techniques and oncological safety of prophylactic mastectomies. PMID:26645001

  9. Assessing cost effectiveness of empirical and prophylactic therapy for managing leptospirosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Galloway, R L; Levett, P N; Tumeh, J W; Flowers, C R

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluates the utility and cost effectiveness of empirical and prophylactic antibiotic treatment of leptospirosis compared with conventional management. We developed decision trees comparing empirical antibiotic treatment (within 4-7 days of symptom onset) or prophylaxis to conventional antibiotic treatment (initiated 7 days post-onset). Costs were calculated using both US and Barbados pricing. Empirical treatment provided slightly lower probability of survival, while prophylactic treatment resulted in slightly higher survival rates. Antibiotic treatment initiated after 4-7 symptomatic days was ineffective in preventing serious health outcomes, but cost less with the exception of azithromycin (US pricing). Empirical treatment in Barbados cost less than conventional treatment. Prophylaxis reduced rare serious health outcomes and resulted in significant cost savings for the United States and Barbados. Prophylactic therapy for high-risk individuals or prompt diagnosis and early treatment (before 4 days of symptoms) appear to be cost-effective approaches to prevent severe complications of leptospirosis. PMID:19161641

  10. Estimating the Radiation Dose to the Fetus in Prophylactic Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion: Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Kentaro; Hamada, Tomohiro; Yuge, Akitoshi; Kiyosue, Hiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although radiation exposure is of great concern to expecting patients, little information is available on the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion (IIABO). Here we estimated the fetal radiation dose associated with prophylactic IIABO in Caesarean section (CS). Cases. We report our experience with the IIABO procedure in three consecutive patients with suspected placenta previa/accreta. Fetal radiation dose measurements were conducted prior to each CS by using an anthropomorphic phantom. Based on the simulated value, we calculated the fetal radiation dose as the absorbed dose. We found that the fetal radiation doses ranged from 12.88 to 31.6 mGy. The fetal radiation dose during the prophylactic IIABOs did not exceed 50 mGy. Conclusion. The IIABO procedure could result in a very small increase in the risk of harmful effects to the fetus. PMID:26180648

  11. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  12. Prophylactic tracheal intubation for upper GI bleeding: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Almashhrawi, Ashraf A.; Rahman, Rubayat; Jersak, Samuel T.; Asombang, Akwi W.; Hinds, Alisha M.; Hammad, Hazem T.; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Bechtold, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate usefulness of prophylactically intubating upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients. METHODS UGIB results in a significant number of hospital admissions annually with endoscopy being the key intervention. In these patients, risks are associated with the bleeding and the procedure, including pulmonary aspiration. However, very little literature is available assessing the use of prophylactic endotracheal intubation on aspiration in these patients. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 in Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, Embase, and published abstracts from national gastroenterology meetings in the United States (2004–2014). Included studies examined UGIB patients and compared prophylactic intubation to no intubation before endoscopy. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 by Mantel-Haenszel and DerSimonian and Laird models with results presented as odds ratio for aspiration, pneumonia (within 48 h), and mortality. Funnel plots were utilized for publication bias and I2 measure of inconsistency for heterogeneity assessments. RESULTS Initial search identified 571 articles. Of these articles, 10 relevant peer-reviewed articles in English and two relevant abstracts were selected to review by two independent authors (Almashhrawi AA and Bechtold ML). Of these studies, eight were excluded: Five did not have a control arm, one was a letter the editor, one was a survey study, and one was focused on prevention of UGIB. Therefore, four studies (N = 367) were included. Of the UGIB patients prophylactically intubated before endoscopy, pneumonia (within 48 h) was identified in 20 of 134 (14.9%) patients as compared to 5 of 95 (5.3%) patients that were not intubated prophylactically (P = 0.02). Despite observed trends, no significant differences were found for mortality (P = 0.18) or aspiration (P = 0.11). CONCLUSION Pneumonia within 48 h is more likely in UGIB patients who received prophylactic endotracheal intubation

  13. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  14. Measurement of circulating salmon IGF binding protein-1: assay development, response to feeding ration and temperature, and relation to growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Munetaka; Beckman, Brian R; Hara, Akihiko; Dickhoff, Walton W

    2006-01-01

    Fish plasma/serum contains multiple IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), although their identity and physiological regulation are poorly understood. In salmon plasma, at least three IGFBPs with molecular masses of 22, 28 and 41 kDa are detected by Western ligand blotting. The 22 kDa IGFBP has recently been identified as a homolog of mammalian IGFBP-1. In the present study, an RIA for salmon IGFBP-1 was established and regulation of IGFBP-1 by food intake and temperature, and changes in IGFBP-1 during smoltification, were examined. Purified IGFBP-1 from serum was used for as a standard, for tracer preparation and for antiserum production. Cross-linking (125)I-labelled IGFBP-1 with salmon IGF-I eliminated interference by IGFs. The RIA had little cross-reactivity with salmon 28 and 41 kDa IGFBPs (< 0.5%) and measured IGFBP-1 levels as low as 0.1 ng/ml. Fasted fish had significantly higher IGFBP-1 levels than fed fish (21.6 +/- 4.6 vs 3.0 +/- 2.2 ng/ml). Plasma IGFBP-1 was measured in individually tagged 1-year-old coho salmon reared for 10 weeks under four different feeding regimes as follows: high constant (2% body weight/day), medium constant (1% body weight/day), high variable (2% to 0.5% body weight/day) and medium variable (1% to 0.5% body weight/day). Fish fed with the high ration had lower IGFBP-1 levels than those fed with the medium ration. Circulating IGFBP-1 increased following a drop in feeding ration to 0.5% and returned to the basal levels when feeding ration was increased. Another group of coho salmon were reared for 9 weeks under different water temperatures (11 or 7 degrees C) and feeding rations (1.75, 1 or 0.5% body weight/day). Circulating IGFBP-1 levels were separated by temperature during the first 4 weeks; a combined effect of temperature and feeding ration was seen in week 7; only feeding ration influenced IGFBP-1 level thereafter. These results indicate that IGFBP-1 is responsive to moderate nutritional and temperature changes. There was a clear

  15. Incidence of ascites syndrome and related hematological response in short-term feed-restricted broilers raised at low ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Kamely, Mohammad; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Amir; Rahimi, Shaban

    2015-09-01

    Ascites is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in modern broiler production. Reduction of early growth, followed by compensatory gain, seems a practical and viable method to minimize losses caused by ascites. An experiment was conducted to determine if early feed restriction can reduce the incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to cool temperatures. Ross 308 cockerels (N=180) were assigned to 5 diet treatments and 2 temperature regimes, with 3 replicate pens of 6 birds per treatment and temperature. A standard grower diet was diluted by adding rice hulls at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60% by weight from 7 to 14 d of age. On d 21 through 42, the temperature was maintained at 20 to 25°C (thermoneutral), or at 11 to 15°C (cool). Broilers exposed to cool temperatures developed higher right ventricle (RV) to total ventricle (TV) and RV to BW ratios, increased plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations, and elevated blood values for hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and hematocrit (P<0.05) but did not develop clinical ascites. Diluting the feed with rice hulls from d 7 to 14 resulted in proportional reductions in BW by d 14 (P<0.001) that tended to persist through d 28 (P=0.005), after which compensatory growth eliminated all differences in BW between diet treatment groups by d 35 (P=0.099) and d 42 (P>0.1). Exposure to cool temperatures increased key indices of ascites susceptibility, and these preascitic changes were partially prevented by diluting the feed to reduce growth performance. PMID:26217021

  16. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    PubMed

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C

    2016-08-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  17. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  18. [Human papillomavirus and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region : Prognostic, therapeutic and prophylactic implications].

    PubMed

    Reuschenbach, M; Wagner, S; Würdemann, N; Sharma, S J; Prigge, E-S; Sauer, M; Wittig, A; Wittekindt, C; von Knebel Doeberitz, M; Klussmann, J P

    2016-07-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are responsible for approximately half of all oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and incidence rates of HPV-associated OPSCC continue to increase substantially. The defined viral carcinogenesis permits development of specific diagnostic, therapeutic, and prophylactic approaches. Laboratory identification of HPV-associated OPSCC may be achieved by p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry combined with HPV DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using tumor tissue. Patients with HPV-associated OPSCC have a relatively good prognosis; therefore, the HPV status plays an important role in patient guidance. Due to the relatively favorable prognosis, ongoing studies are evaluating whether less rigorous therapy for HPV-positive patients results in equally good cure rates. The criteria for patient selection are, however, still uncertain. Particularly markers for detection of HPV-positive patients with a high risk of treatment failure are lacking. Besides tumor stage and comorbidities, distinct genomic, epigenetic, and immunologic alterations are prognostically relevant for HPV-associated OPSCC, and might be of predictive value. Furthermore, the characteristic molecular alterations suggest the possibility of novel vigilant and specific therapy approaches. These may be inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is frequently activated in HPV-associated OPSCC, and immunotherapeutic methods, e. g., therapeutic vaccination. Although prophylactic HPV vaccinations may also prevent development of HPV-associated OPSCC, foreseeable effects on OPSCC incidence will be low, given the low vaccination rates in Germany. This highlights the fact that interdisciplinary research networks should enhance the necessary activities related to HPV-associated OPSCC. PMID:26864190

  19. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. Sex-Age Related Rumination Behavior of Père David’s Deer under Constraints of Feeding Habitat and Rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted on the rumination behavior of domestic herbivores. However, studies on wild animals are limited, particularly wild animals with specific ruminating parameters. In this study, Père David’s deer, a previously extirpated species, was observed to analyze the effects of sex-age, feeding habitat, and rainfall on rumination behavior in the Dafeng Nature Reserve, China. Rumination behavior was investigated based on four parameters: proportion of bedding time spent chewing, bolus processing time (s/bolus), chewing frequency (chews/bolus), and chewing rate (chews/s). Results showed that all three factors affect rumination behavior. The extent of their effects varied based on the four rumination parameters. Chewing rate and frequency decreased based on sex–age levels, i.e., from fawns to juvenile female, juvenile male, adult female, stag, and harem holder. Therefore, body size played a major role in shaping rumination behavior. Deer found in grasslands could chew faster compared with deer found in woodlands. This result might be caused by the effects of dietary composition and sunlight intensity. A deer spends a longer time ruminating while bedding during rainy days compared with rainless days to maximize energy and nutrition intake and compensate for the loss of feeding time during rainy days. Therefore, rumination behavior is plastic and is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:23823072

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  3. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine in the maintenance phase of bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Peselow, Eric D; Clevenger, Steven; IsHak, Waguih W

    2016-07-01

    Mood stabilizers are used clinically for the management of bipolar disorder. Prophylactic therapy with mood stabilizers is the primary treatment for preventing depressive and manic relapses in bipolar patients once they are stabilized. In this study, we examined the relative efficacy of the three most commonly used mood-stabilizing agents: lithium (Li), valproic acid (VPA), and carbamazepine (CBZ), in preventing relapse episodes. A total of 225 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the present analysis. Patients taking Li, VPA, or CBZ were followed up for up to 124 months, until suffering a manic, mixed, or depressive episode (relapse), or until the end of the study/study termination (no relapse), whichever came first. The median unadjusted survival time was 36 months for patients taking VPA, 42 months for patients taking CBZ, and 81 months for patients taking Li. These results indicate that patients stayed longer on Li, suggesting that it might have been better tolerated than either CBZ or VPA. χ-Analysis showed that patients taking Li were significantly less likely to experience relapse during the observational period than patients taking either VPA or CBZ (P<0.05). A Cox regression model showed that the hazard of experiencing relapse was significantly predicted by the total number of depressive (P=0.007) and manic symptoms (P=0.02) assessed before the observation period. In addition, after controlling for symptom covariates, the hazard of experiencing relapse was 1.66 times (95% confidence interval 1.03-2.67) or 66% higher for patients taking VPA compared with patients taking Li (P=0.037). Although the hazard of experiencing relapse was higher for patients taking CBZ compared with those taking Li, the risk was not elevated by a significant amount. Notwithstanding the limitations of the naturalistic design of this study, the differences in relapse prevention and survival time observed in these medications show Li fairing relatively better in

  4. Total thyroidectomy without prophylactic central neck dissection in clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer: is it an adequate treatment?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid cancer are common. Although central neck dissection is indicated in clinically nodal-positive disease, it remains controversial in patients with no clinical evidence of nodal metastasis. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of clinically lymph node-negative patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy without a central neck dissection, in order to determine the rates of recurrence and reoperation in these patients compared with a group of patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection. Methods Two-hundred and eighty-five patients undergoing total thyroidectomy with preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer, in the absence of suspicious nodes, were divided in two groups: those who underwent a thyroidectomy only (group A; n = 220) and those who also received a central neck dissection (group B; n = 65). Results Six cases (2.1%) of nodal recurrence were observed: 4 in group A and 2 in group B. Tumor histology was associated with risk of recurrence: Hürthle cell-variant and tall cell-variant carcinomas were associated with a high risk of recurrence. Multifocality and extrathyroidal invasion also presented a higher risk, while smaller tumors were at lower risk. Conclusions The role of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in the management of papillary thyroid cancer remains controversial. Total thyroidectomy appears to be an adequate treatment for clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer. Prophylactic central neck dissection could be considered for the more appropriate selection of patients for radioiodine treatment and should be reserved for high-risk patients only. No clinical or pathological factors are able to predict with any certainty the presence of nodal metastasis. In our experience, tumor size, some histological types, multifocality, and locoregional infiltration are related to an

  5. Prophylactic Bilateral Gonadectomy for Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development in a Patient With Mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)q11.222 Karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Russell E.N.; Akhavan, Ardavan

    2016-01-01

    Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is historically thought to confer a relatively low risk of germ cell malignancy relative to other disorders of sex development. This is likely due in part to the high prevalence of a normal 46,XX karyotype in these patients. However, disorders of sex development represent a broad phenotypic spectrum, and often patients cannot be neatly categorized with a single diagnosis. We report an atypical case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a child with ambiguous genitalia and 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy was performed at age 14 months. PMID:26793590

  6. Prophylactic Bilateral Gonadectomy for Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development in a Patient With Mosaic 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)q11.222 Karyotype.

    PubMed

    Becker, Russell E N; Akhavan, Ardavan

    2016-03-01

    Ovotesticular disorder of sex development is historically thought to confer a relatively low risk of germ cell malignancy relative to other disorders of sex development. This is likely due in part to the high prevalence of a normal 46,XX karyotype in these patients. However, disorders of sex development represent a broad phenotypic spectrum, and often patients cannot be neatly categorized with a single diagnosis. We report an atypical case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development in a child with ambiguous genitalia and 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype. Prophylactic bilateral gonadectomy was performed at age 14 months. PMID:26793590

  7. Feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea): the effect of leaf litter decomposition and its relation to the phenolic and flavonoid content

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Camila Timm; Schlindwein, Carolina Casco Duarte; Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gonçalves; Araujo, Paula Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to compare the feeding rates of Balloniscus sellowii on leaves of different decomposition stages according to their phenolic and flavonoid content. Leaves from the visually most abundant plants were offered to isopods collected from the same source site. Schinus terebinthifolius,the plant species consumed at the highest rate, was used to verify feeding rates at different decomposition stages. Green leaves were left to decompose for one, two, or three months, and then were offered to isopods. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined for all decomposition stages. Consumption and egestion rates increased throughout decomposition, were highest for two-month-old leaves, and decreased again in the third month. The assimilation rate was highest for green leaves. The mode time of passage through the gut was two hours for all treatments. Ingestion of leaves occurred after two or three days for green leaves, and on the same day for one-, two- and three-month-old leaves. The speed of passage of leaves with different decomposition stages through the gut does not differ significantly when animals are fed continuously. However, it is possible that the amount retained in the gut during starvation differs depending on food quality. The digestibility value was corrected using a second food source to empty the gut of previously ingested food, so that all of the food from the experiment was egested. The digestibility value was highest for green leaves, whereas it was approximately 20% for all other stages. This was expected given that digestibility declines during decomposition as the metabolite content of the leaves decreases. The phenolic content was highest in the green leaves and lowest in three-month-old leaves. The flavonoid content was highest in green leaves and lowest after two months of decomposition. Animals ingested more phenolics when consumption was highest. The estimated amount of ingested flavonoids followed the

  8. [Optimal feeding strategy for juvenile Hucho taimen].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Xue; Yin, Jia-Sheng; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Bai, Qing-Li

    2013-11-01

    Three experiments including starvation and re-feeding, starvation and re-feeding recovery, and feeding frequency per day were conducted to approach the optimal feeding strategy for the growth and survival of juvenile Hucho taimen. In the experiment of starvation and re-feeding, all groups of restricted feeding showed non-compensatory growth. However, in the experiment of starvation and re-feeding recovery, different degrees of compensatory growth appeared in different starving groups, among which, the half a day starvation and half a day feeding group (S1/2) had a weight increment approximately the same as the control, and showed completely compensatory growth, indicating that the S1/2 could be a useful feeding strategy for the juvenile H. taimen at its early growth stage with the body mass from 0 to 2 g and at the water temperature from 9 to 15.3 degrees C. In feeding frequency experiment, the group T3 (three meals per day) had the highest body length, body mass, specific growth rate, and relatively high food conversion ratio, indicating that three meals a day could be more effective for improving the growth performance of juvenile H. taimen at its late stage with the body mass from 2 to 21 g and at the water temperature from 8.8 to 15.5 degrees C. PMID:24564159

  9. Prophylactic surgery prior to extended-duration space flight: Is the benefit worth the risk?

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Williams, David R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, J.D.; Vanderploeg, James M.; Talamini, Mark A.; Campbell, Mark R.; Broderick, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits and defined risks associated with prophylactic surgical procedures for astronauts before extended-duration space flight. This includes, but is not limited to, appendectomy and cholecystesctomy. Furthermore, discussion of treatment during space flight, potential impact of an acute illness on a defined mission and the ethical issues surrounding this concept are debated in detail. PMID:22564516

  10. Effect of Prophylactic Knee Bracing on Balance and Joint Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Perrin, David H.

    1996-01-01

    Prophylactic knee braces are designed to prevent and reduce the severity of ligamentous injuries to the knee. Conflicting evidence is reported concerning their efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of prophylactic knee bracing on the proprioceptive parameters of balance and joint position sense. Active and passive joint position sense were assessed using the Cybex II + Isokinetic Dynamometer (Cybex Division of Lumex, Inc, Ronkonkoma, NY). Sway index and center of balance were assessed using the Chattecx Dynamic Balance System (Chattanooga Group, Hixson, TN). Thirty-six male subjects were measured with and without prophylactic knee braces. Joint position sense was measured in degrees of error from four preselected target angles. Sway index and center of balance measures were recorded in centimeters under the following platform conditions: stable, plantar flexion/dorsiflexion, and inversion/eversion. Separate repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to determine if there were differences between the braced and unbraced conditions for center of balance, sway index, and joint position sense. Center of balance with the platform moving in a dorsi/plantar flexion direction was improved while wearing the knee braces. In addition, differences in both center of balance and sway were recorded across the three platform conditions with and without knee bracing. Bracing did not affect joint position sense. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic knee braces have very little impact on proprioceptive feedback mechanisms. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 4. PMID:16558386

  11. Prophylactic use of polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) in baboons exposed to quartz dust

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, B.; Rendall, R.E.G.

    1987-04-01

    Twelve baboons were exposed to a quartz dust cloud. Four of these were also given polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide (PVNO) by aerosol and four received PVNO by aerosol and injection. A prophylactic effect was demonstrated during the course of treatment, but when treatment stopped the silicosis progressed to the same degree of severity as in the untreated animals.

  12. Prophylactic Azithromycin Therapy After Lung Transplantation: Post hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ruttens, D; Verleden, S E; Vandermeulen, E; Bellon, H; Vanaudenaerde, B M; Somers, J; Schoonis, A; Schaevers, V; Van Raemdonck, D E; Neyrinck, A; Dupont, L J; Yserbyt, J; Verleden, G M; Vos, R

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic azithromycin treatment has been demonstrated to improve freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) 2 years after lung transplantation (LTx). In the current study, we re-evaluated the long-term effects of this prophylactic approach in view of the updated classification system for chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). A retrospective, intention-to-treat analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing prophylactic treatment with placebo (n = 43) versus azithromycin (n = 40) after LTx was performed. Graft dysfunction (CLAD), graft loss (retransplantation, mortality), evolution of pulmonary function and functional exercise capacity were analyzed 7 years after inclusion of the last study subject. Following LTx, 22/43 (51%) patients of the placebo group and 11/40 (28%) patients of the azithromycin group ever developed CLAD (p = 0.043). CLAD-free survival was significantly longer in the azithromycin group (p = 0.024). No difference was present in proportion of obstructive versus restrictive CLAD between both groups. Graft loss was similar in both groups: 23/43 (53%) versus 16/40 (40%) patients (p = 0.27). Long-term pulmonary function and functional exercise capacity were significantly better in the azithromycin group (p < 0.05). Prophylactic azithromycin therapy reduces long-term CLAD prevalence and improves CLAD-free survival, pulmonary function, and functional exercise capacity after LTx. PMID:26372728

  13. Prophylactic use of gentamicin/flucloxacillin versus cefuroxime in surgery: a meta analysis of clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shaoning; Lai, Yu; Liu, Chunxin; Chen, Yi; Qiao, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct meta-analyses of all available studies comparing efficacies of prophylactic cefuroxime and prophylactic gentamicin/flucloxacillin (Gen/Flu) in preventing post-operative wound infections and their association with risks of Clostridium difficile infections and post-operative renal impairment. Methods: Published studies including both prophylactic cefuroxime and prophylactic Gen/Flu used in surgery were included for meta analysis. Outcomes were analyzed using a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model depending on the heterogeneity across the included studies. Results: Gen/Flu prophylaxis showed similar efficacy as cefuroxime prophylaxis in preventing post-operative wound infections and was associated with a significantly lower risk of Clostridium difficile infection, but it was associated with a higher risk of post-operative renal impairment, especially in orthopedic surgery. Conclusions: Our findings that Gen/Flu prophylaxis was associated with significantly higher risk of post-operative renal impairment dictate that benefits and risks of Gen/Flu prophylaxis should be carefully assessed and balanced, and each patient should be evaluated individually so that a proper antibiotic prophylaxis regimen could be chosen. PMID:26770380

  14. Is prophylactic psychiatry around the corner? combating adolescent oxidative stress for adult psychosis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Akira; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and intervention are key principles in clinical medicine and psychiatry. In this issue of Neuron, Cabungcal et al. (2014) demonstrate that prophylactic treatment with antioxidants in adolescence prevents adult deficits in a rat model relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25189204

  15. Multicentric ductal and lobular atypia and occult carcinoma in prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomies: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Goin, J M; Kern, W H

    1979-02-01

    A report is made on 2 patients undergoing prophylactic subcutaneous mastectomy and reconstruction following treatment for carcinoma of the opposite breast. The dangers of augmenting, reducing, or correcting the shape of the remaining breast to match the reconstructed one are also examined. PMID:426453

  16. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. PMID:22748607

  17. Reduced incidence of the somnolence syndrome after prophylactic cranial irradiation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Uzal, D; Ozyar, E; Hayran, M; Zorlu, F; Atahan, L; Yetkin, S

    1998-07-01

    A prospective double blind randomized trial comparing two different dose schedules of continuous steroid coverage during prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (CRT) in leukemic children was conducted to find out the optimum dose to be prescribed to reduce the incidence of Somnolence Syndrome (SS). Between April 1994 and February 1996, 32 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia received CRT of 18 Gy in 10 fractions. Patients were randomized to receive oral dexamethasone of 2 or 4 mg/m2 during radiotherapy. The diagnosis of SS was made clinically based on symptoms of somnolence. All patients were followed for a minimum of 8 months. The overall incidence of SS was 40%. The development of SS was steroid dose dependent. In low dose steroid arm the incidence of SS was 64.3% (9/14), compared to 17.6% (3/17) in high dose arm with statistically significant difference (P = 0.008). The median time to development of SS was 4 weeks. The most common symptom of SS was drowsiness followed by anorexia, headache, nausea, vomiting, decreased activity, irritability, fever and ataxia, respectively. The duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 14 days. The development of SS was not related to the presence of acute reactions, age at the time of CRT and sex. In all cases the symptoms subsided completely and spontaneously. Our results suggest that steroid coverage at a dose of 4 mg/m2 during CRT reduces the incidence of SS. However, a multicentric prospective randomized trial is needed to determine the role and the optimal dose of steroid. PMID:9756169

  18. Low doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation effective in limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenstein, J.H.; Dosoretz, D.E.; Katin, M.J. |

    1995-09-30

    Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for the prevention of brain metastasis in small cell lung cancer remains controversial, both in terms of efficacy and the optimal dose-fractionation scheme. We performed this study to evaluate the efficacy of PCI at low doses. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were referred to our institution for treatment of limited stage small cell carcinoma of the lung between June 1986 and December 1992. Follow-up ranged from 1.1 to 89.8 months, with a mean of 19 months. Eighty-five patients received PCI. Patients receiving PCI exhibited brain failure in 15%, while 38 of untreated patients developed metastases. This degree of prophylaxis was achieved with a median total dose of 25.20 Gy and a median fraction size of 1.80 Gy. At these doses, acute and late complications were minimal. Patients receiving PCI had significantly better 1-year and 2-year overall survivals (68% and 46% vs. 33% and 13%). However, patients with a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy and better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) were overrepresented in the PCI group. In an attempt to compare similar patients in both groups (PCI vs. no PCI), only patients with KPS {ge} 80, CR or near-CR to chemotherapy, and treatment with attempt to cure, were compared. In this good prognostic group, survival was still better in the PCI group (p = 0.0018). In this patient population, relatively low doses of PCI have accomplished a significant reduction in the incidence of brain metastasis with little toxicity. Whether such treatment truly improves survival awaits the results of additional prospective randomized trials. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of feeding habit on weight in infancy.

    PubMed

    Swiet, M D; Fayers, P

    1977-04-23

    A population study of 758 infants born at the same hospital showed that weight at the ages of six week and six months was not significantly related to breast or bottle feeding, the early introduction of solids, or the sodium content of bottle feeds. Weight at six weeks was related to the volume and energy content of the feeds which were examined in those bobies that were bottle-fed alone. Although analysis of a single feed showed that mothers mixed feeds incorrectly, there was no evidence that mixing of overstrength feeds leads to obesity. PMID:67296

  20. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    .... In the Federal Register of December 8, 2000 (65 FR 76924), FDA issued a final rule amending the new... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on...

  1. Turning Mealtimes into Learning Opportunities: Integrating Feeding Goals into IEPs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use scenarios to describe three students with different individual needs related to feeding, as well as other developmental domains. Feeding difficulties affect students in multiple ways and addressing feeding-related skills on IEPs can include grocery shopping, food preparation, and placing food orders in various…

  2. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  3. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  5. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, B E; Nwozo, S O; Amah, G H; Awoyinka, A O; Ojo, O A; Ajiboye, B O; Tijani, H A

    2014-02-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic

  6. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally occurring canine leishmaniosis. Part II: topically applied insecticide treatments and prophylactic medications.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search yielded 937 articles, from which 84 full text articles were selected for second stage screening. Eleven eligible studies were included; four on collars (two RCTs), three on spot-ons (two RCTs - one looking at two different dosing regimens), three on prophylactic medications (all RCTs) and one on both collars and spot-ons summarised in this paper. All of the studies were considered to be at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, with the exception of one spot-on study which was considered to be at an unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Deltamethrin collars, 65% permethrin, 10% imidacloprid with 50% permethrin spot-ons and domperidone prophylactic medication tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. PMID:25062787

  7. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  8. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  9. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  10. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  11. The Curative and Prophylactic Effects of Xylopic Acid on Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Boampong, J. N.; Ameyaw, E. O.; Aboagye, B.; Asare, K.; Kyei, S.; Donfack, J. H.; Woode, E.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been intensified to search for more effective antimalarial agents because of the observed failure of some artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) treatments of malaria in Ghana. Xylopic acid, a pure compound isolated from the fruits of the Xylopia aethiopica, was investigated to establish its attributable prophylactic, curative antimalarial, and antipyretic properties. The antimalarial properties were determined by employing xylopic acid (10–100 mg/kg) in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Xylopic acid exerted significant (P < 0.05) effects on P. berghei infection similar to artemether/lumefantrine, the standard drug. Furthermore, it significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced fever in Sprague-Dawley rats similar to prednisolone. Xylopic acid therefore possesses prophylactic and curative antimalarial as well as antipyretic properties which makes it an ideal antimalarial agent. PMID:23970953

  12. Enhancement of the white matter following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalen, P.R.; Ostrow; P.T.; Glass, P.J.

    1981-08-01

    A case of fatal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following prophylactic therapy of the central nervous system for acute lymphoblastic leukemia is reported. The clinical, CT, and neuropathological findings are described. The CT scan demonstrated symmetrical white-matter enhancement. Histological analysis was consistent with the effects of irradiation and methotrexate. The differential diagnosis of the clinical and CT findings is discussed. Brain biopsy is the diagnostic procedure of choice.

  13. [Use of insoles made of antimicrobial materials as prophylactic means in foot mycoses].

    PubMed

    Sedov, A V; Vazhbin, L B; Odtarzhevskaia, N D; Astaf'eva, I P; Poliakova, L A; Karpov, V V; Ashurova, E I; Lazareva, N M; Mikhaĭlov, O R

    1994-01-01

    Stationary dermatologic examination covered 32 sufferers from epidermophytosis of soles, who used 3 types of antimicrobial insoles chosen through laboratory investigations. Clinical trials proved that antimicrobial insoles, if applied during 2 weeks, result in considerably decreased occurrence of causal fungus in the patients' surface skin scarring. The results proved fungicidal and bactericidal activity of insoles including furagin, nitrofurilacroleine, polyhexamethylene guanidine, so such insoles could be recommended as prophylactic measure for mycoses of soles. PMID:7881859

  14. Congenital heart block: successful prophylactic treatment with intravenous gamma globulin and corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaaja, R; Julkunen, H; Ammälä, P; Teppo, A M; Kurki, P

    1991-11-01

    In mothers with anti-Ro-positive antibodies whose previous pregnancies have ended in deliveries of infants with congenital heart block, prophylactic therapeutic strategies are used to try to diminish the production and passage into fetal circulation of autoantibodies. Intravenous gamma globulin was given at 14 and 18 weeks' gestation and prednisone was given from 14 weeks' gestation to a woman with Sjögren's syndrome. The pregnancy ended with delivery of an infant without congenital heart block. PMID:1720280

  15. Estimating resource use and cost of prophylactic management of neutropenia with filgrastim.

    PubMed

    Annemans, L; Van Overbeke, N; Standaert, B; Van Belle, S

    2005-05-01

    The study objective is to develop a methodology for the measurement of time, resource use and cost of the prophylactic management of neutropenia with filgrastim in different settings where the drug is routinely used: in-hospital care, outpatient care and home care. The activity-based costing method is used to analyse the cost of managing prophylactically neutropenia and comprises four steps. First, department heads in each of the chosen settings were selected and interviewed to obtain key elements in the workflow that involves the management of neutropenia, followed by the second step involving in-depth, structured interviews of key personnel. The third step was the measurement of the time required for frequently occurring activities in monitoring neutropenia and the administration of filgrastim by a study nurse. Finally, information on resource unit costs and personnel salaries were collected from the administration units to calculate an average cost. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken on estimated variables in the study. A list of eight to 14 consecutive activities linked to the prophylactic management of neutropenia was observed. The number and type of activities do not differ between an in-hospital oncology ward and an outpatient setting except for blood samplings. The difference is more pronounced between hospital and home care settings, as in the latter the patient performs many of the activities him/herself. The cost estimate per setting for prophylactic drug use is 6.30 Euros for in-hospital care, 3.67 Euros for outpatient care and 5.49 Euros for home care. Taking the two most frequently occurring scenarios per chemotherapy cycle (i.e. with or without febrile neutropenia), the following cost estimates are obtained: 60.41 Euros for a patient with febrile neutropenia and 56.77 Euros for a patient without febrile neutropenia, excluding drug costs. With the activity-based costing method it is possible to accurately demonstrate cost savings in the management

  16. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  17. Prophylactic and therapeutic use of antibiotics in pelvic surgery.

    PubMed

    Price, S A; Polk, H C

    1999-08-01

    The abiding principles of antibiotic use in the surgical patient vary in the complicated pelvic surgery setting only in that some microbes likely to be encountered warrant minor variation in drug choice. Very early antibiotic administration, relatively large doses, and prompt association when the reason for therapy has been accomplished, are the keystones for treatment. Tissue levels of antimicrobial activity are the uniform therapeutic goal. We also prefer consistent selection of drugs known to be safe and believe that continuous infusion may enhance the overall protective effect. Preservation of normal host defenses enhances the action of all antibiotics. PMID:10440768

  18. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  19. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  20. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  1. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  2. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...

  3. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...

  4. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...

  5. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General...

  6. Influence of prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy on high-dose busulphan kinetics.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M; Oberg, G; Björkholm, M; Wallin, I; Lindgren, M

    1993-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of high-dose busulphan was studied in 17 patients during conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation using deuterium-labeled busulphan (d8-BU). About 50% of busulphan doses 1 and 16 was replaced with d8-BU. Patients were treated with phenytoin or diazepam as prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. Patients who received phenytoin demonstrated significantly higher clearance (mean +/- SD, 3.32 +/- 0.99 ml min-1 kg-1), a lower area under the concentration-time curve (AUC, 5,412 +/- 1,534 ng h ml-1; corrected for dose/kilogram) and a shorter elimination half-life (3.03 +/- 0.57 h) for the last dose of d8-BU (dose 16) as compared with the first dose (2.80 +/- 0.78 ml min-1 kg-1, 6,475 +/- 2,223 ng h ml-1 and 3.94 +/- 1.10 h, respectively). No difference in the above mentioned pharmacokinetic parameters was seen in patients treated with diazepam. Moreover, a continuous decrease in the steady-state level of busulphan was observed in four of seven patients in the phenytoin-treated group, whereas in the diazepam group, such a decrease was seen in only one of eight patients. We conclude that phenytoin used as prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy alters busulphan pharmacokinetics and, most probably, its pharmacodynamics. For adequate prophylactic therapy, anticonvulsants with fewer enzyme-inductive properties than phenytoin should be used. PMID:8269597

  7. Prophylactic administration of chicken cathelicidin-2 boosts zebrafish embryonic innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Viktoria A F; van Dijk, Albert; van der Sar, Astrid M; Kraaij, Marina D; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-07-01

    Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a host defense peptide that exhibits immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties. Here we examined effects of CATH-2 in zebrafish embryos in the absence and presence of infection. Yolk-injection of 0.2-1.5 h post-fertilized (hpf) zebrafish embryos with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2 increased proliferation of phagocytic cells at 48 hpf by 30%. A lethal infection model was developed to test the prophylactic protective effect of CATH-2 peptide. Embryos (0.2-1.5 hpf) were injected with 2.6 ng/kg CATH-2, challenged with a lethal dose of fluorescently labeled Salmonella enteritidis pGMDs3 at 28 hpf and monitored for survival. Prophylactic treatment with CATH-2 was found to delay infection starting at 22 h post-infection (hpi). At 18-20 hpi, significantly lower (2-fold) fluorescence intensity and decreased bacterial loads were detected in peptide-treated embryos. Thus prophylactic administration of low CATH-2 concentrations confer partial protection in zebrafish embryos by boosting the innate immune system. PMID:26920462

  8. The Evidence Base for Prophylactic Antibiotics in Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    O'Horo, John C; Cawcutt, Kelly A; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Sampathkumar, Priya; Schears, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate evidence for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy. We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and other major databases and included any study that reported rates of infection and whether antibiotic prophylaxis was a part of therapy for patients receiving ECMO. We abstracted rates of infection, microbiology of isolates, prophylactic practices, and individual study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among 11 studies identified, rates of infection were fairly uniform regardless of prophylaxis use, and the only two studies that directly compared outcomes with and without prophylaxis found no benefit. The causative infectious organisms were heterogeneous, which gives no clear rationale for any particular prophylactic strategy. Although infections during ECMO are serious complications that must be prevented, there is no good evidence to support routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in most patients. Certain subpopulations, such as those with open chests, may have an indication for prophylaxis, but evidence is poor. Future studies should investigate the role of other approaches to infection prevention, such as chlorhexidine bathing and preferential elective cannulation. PMID:26461238

  9. Comparison of nasal steroid with antihistamine in prophylactic treatment against pollinosis using an environmental challenge chamber.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Heizaburo; Yonekura, Syuji; Sakurai, Daiju; Katada, Koji; Inamine, Ayako; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Horiguchi, Shigetoshi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Environmental challenge chambers (ECC) have been used to expose people to pollen allergens within a stable atmosphere and to examine the efficacy of treatment. Although pollinosis is one of the typical IgE-mediated type I allergic diseases, allergic inflammation is thought to contribute to the fundamental pathogenesis and prophylactic treatment may reduce exacerbations of pollinosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of prophylactic treatment with nasal steroid (mometasone furoate nasal spray) or an antihistamine (fexofenadine) in the control of cedar pollinosis using the ECC. In a randomized, double-blind two-way crossover study, 48 patients received nasal steroid or antihistamine for 7 consecutive days (days 1-7). On day 8, patients were exposed to cedar pollen (8000 grains/m(3)) in the ECC for 3 hours. Nasal symptoms induced by pollen exposure were assessed. Total nasal symptom scores (TNSSs) during the exposure in the ECC were not significantly different between the antihistamine and the nasal steroid groups. Nasal symptoms induced by pollen exposure using the ECC persisted for up to 3 days. TNSSs after pollen exposure on days 8-11 were significantly lower in the nasal steroid group compared with the antihistamine group. Prophylactic treatment with nasal steroid is more effective than antihistamine against pollinosis, particularly in the late phase. Clinical trial registration JAPIC CTI 101182 (www.clinicaltrials.jp/user/ctiMain_e.jsp). PMID:23026181

  10. Prophylactic Use of Ganoderma lucidum Extract May Inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis Replication in a New Mouse Model of Spontaneous Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lingjun; Tang, Jun; Lin, Shuzhu; Xu, Yanfeng; Xu, Yuhuan; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) that mimics LTBI in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; < 4log10 CFU in the spleen). Histopathological changes in the lung and spleen were mild during the first 20 weeks post-inoculation. The model was used to demonstrate the comparative effects of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid) in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen and lung as early as post-inoculation week 3 and week 5 respectively. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic group. Our results suggest that this new LTBI mouse model is an efficient tool of testing anti-tuberculosis drug, the use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent. PMID:26779146

  11. Prophylactic Use of Ganoderma lucidum Extract May Inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis Replication in a New Mouse Model of Spontaneous Latent Tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lingjun; Tang, Jun; Lin, Shuzhu; Xu, Yanfeng; Xu, Yuhuan; Qin, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) that mimics LTBI in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; < 4log10 CFU in the spleen). Histopathological changes in the lung and spleen were mild during the first 20 weeks post-inoculation. The model was used to demonstrate the comparative effects of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid) in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen and lung as early as post-inoculation week 3 and week 5 respectively. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic group. Our results suggest that this new LTBI mouse model is an efficient tool of testing anti-tuberculosis drug, the use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent. PMID:26779146

  12. Allergen-specific immunotherapy: from therapeutic vaccines to prophylactic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, R.; Campana, R.; Marth, K.; van Hage, M.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies affect more than 25% of the population. Allergen exposure induces a variety of symptoms in allergic patients, which include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, dermatitis, food allergy and life-threatening systemic anaphylaxis. At present, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), which is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergens, is the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. Current therapeutic allergy vaccines are still prepared from relatively poorly defined allergen extracts. However, with the availability of the structures of the most common allergen molecules, it has become possible to produce well-defined recombinant and synthetic allergy vaccines that allow specific targeting of the mechanisms of allergic disease. Here we provide a summary of the development and mechanisms of SIT, and then review new forms of therapeutic vaccines that are based on recombinant and synthetic molecules. Finally, we discuss possible allergen-specific strategies for prevention of allergic disease. PMID:22640224

  13. Therapeutic and Prophylactic Applications of Bacteriophage Components in Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Adhya, Sankar; Merril, Carl R.; Biswas, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    As the interactions of phage with mammalian innate and adaptive immune systems are better delineated and with our ability to recognize and eliminate toxins and other potentially harmful phage gene products, the potential of phage therapies is now being realized. Early efforts to use phage therapeutically were hampered by inadequate phage purification and limited knowledge of phage–bacterial and phage–human relations. However, although use of phage as an antibacterial therapy in countries that require controlled clinical studies has been hampered by the high costs of patient trials, their use as vaccines and the use of phage components such as lysolytic enzymes or lysozymes has progressed to the point of commercial applications. Recent studies concerning the intimate associations between mammalian hosts and bacterial and phage microbiomes should hasten this progress. PMID:24384811

  14. Prophylactic irradiation of the lungs to prevent development of pulmonary metastases in patients with osteosarcoma of the limbs

    SciTech Connect

    Breur, K.; Schweisguth, O.; Cohen, P.; Voute, P.A.

    1981-04-01

    A controlled clinical trial conducted by the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Radiotherapy Cooperative Group has shown that prophylactic lung irradiation is effective in preventing lung metastases in patients under 17 years of age. Recently, a new three-armed trial has started in which prophylactic chemotherapy and lung irradiation and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to the lungs will be compared for their ability to prevent the development of lung metastases.

  15. Frontiers of occupational health. New vaccines, new prophylactic regimens, and management of the HIV-infected worker.

    PubMed

    Beekmann, S E; Doebbeling, B N

    1997-06-01

    New prophylactic or treatment options are available for a number of infectious diseases that may be transmitted in the health care setting. Infectious diseases that can now be prevented by vaccination of the employee include hepatitis A, pertussis, hepatitis B, and primary varicella. New prophylactic or treatment regimens are available for Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bordetella pertussis; treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is also discussed. Finally, management of the HIV-infected health care worker is reviewed. PMID:9187949

  16. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND...

  17. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND...

  18. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  19. Prophylactic plasma and platelet transfusion in the critically Ill patient: just useless and expensive or even harmful?

    PubMed

    Görlinger, Klaus; Saner, Fuat H

    2015-01-01

    It is still common practice to correct abnormal standard laboratory test results, such as increased INR or low platelet count, prior to invasive interventions, such as tracheostomy, central venous catheter insertion or liver biopsy, in critically ill patients. Data suggest that 30-90 % of plasma transfused for these indications is unnecessary and puts the patient at risk. Plasma transfusion is associated with a high risk of transfusion-associated adverse events such as transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI), transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), and anaphylaxis/allergic reactions. Therefore, the avoidance of inappropriate plasma transfusion bears a high potential of improving patient outcomes. The prospective study by Durila et al., published recently in BMC Anesthesiology, provides evidence that tracheostomies can be performed without prophylactic plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in critically ill patients despite increased INR in case of normal thromboelastometry (ROTEM) results. Thromboelastometry-based restrictive transfusion management helped avoid unnecessary plasma and platelet transfusion, and should reduce the incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and transfusion-associated hospital costs. Therefore, the authors believe that thromboelastometry-based strategies should be implemented to optimize patient blood management in perioperative medicine. PMID:26054337

  20. Prophylactic Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines Efficiently Inhibit Metastases in Murine Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Zenkova, Marina A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data on the application of dendritic cells (DCs) as anti-tumor vaccines has shown their great potential in therapy and prophylaxis of cancer. Here we report on a comparison of two treatment schemes with DCs that display the models of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using three different experimental tumor models: namely, Krebs-2 adenocarcinoma (primary tumor), melanoma (B16, metastatic tumor without a primary node) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, metastatic tumor with a primary node). Dendritic cells generated from bone marrow-derived DC precursors and loaded with lysate of tumor cells or transfected with the complexes of total tumor RNA with cationic liposomes were used for vaccination. Lipofectamine 2000 and liposomes consisting of helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and cationic lipid 2D3 (1,26-Bis(1,2-de-O-tetradecyl-rac-glycerol)-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrocloride) were used for RNA transfection. It was shown that DCs loaded with tumor lysate were ineffective in contrast to tumor-derived RNA. Therapeutic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/Lipofectamine 2000 was the most efficient for treatment of non-metastatic Krebs-2, where a 1.9-fold tumor growth retardation was observed. Single prophylactic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/2D3 was the most efficient to treat highly aggressive metastatic tumors LLC and B16, where 4.7- and 10-fold suppression of the number of lung metastases was observed, respectively. Antimetastatic effect of single prophylactic DC vaccination in metastatic melanoma model was accompanied by the reductions in the levels of Th2-specific cytokines however the change of the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 master regulators was not found. Failure of double prophylactic vaccination is explained by Th17-response polarization associated with autoimmune and pro-inflammatory reactions. In the case of therapeutic DC vaccine the polarization of Th1-response was found nevertheless

  1. Prophylactic Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccines Efficiently Inhibit Metastases in Murine Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Markov, Oleg V; Mironova, Nadezhda L; Sennikov, Sergey V; Vlassov, Valentin V; Zenkova, Marina A

    2015-01-01

    Recent data on the application of dendritic cells (DCs) as anti-tumor vaccines has shown their great potential in therapy and prophylaxis of cancer. Here we report on a comparison of two treatment schemes with DCs that display the models of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using three different experimental tumor models: namely, Krebs-2 adenocarcinoma (primary tumor), melanoma (B16, metastatic tumor without a primary node) and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, metastatic tumor with a primary node). Dendritic cells generated from bone marrow-derived DC precursors and loaded with lysate of tumor cells or transfected with the complexes of total tumor RNA with cationic liposomes were used for vaccination. Lipofectamine 2000 and liposomes consisting of helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and cationic lipid 2D3 (1,26-Bis(1,2-de-O-tetradecyl-rac-glycerol)-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrocloride) were used for RNA transfection. It was shown that DCs loaded with tumor lysate were ineffective in contrast to tumor-derived RNA. Therapeutic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/Lipofectamine 2000 was the most efficient for treatment of non-metastatic Krebs-2, where a 1.9-fold tumor growth retardation was observed. Single prophylactic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/2D3 was the most efficient to treat highly aggressive metastatic tumors LLC and B16, where 4.7- and 10-fold suppression of the number of lung metastases was observed, respectively. Antimetastatic effect of single prophylactic DC vaccination in metastatic melanoma model was accompanied by the reductions in the levels of Th2-specific cytokines however the change of the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 master regulators was not found. Failure of double prophylactic vaccination is explained by Th17-response polarization associated with autoimmune and pro-inflammatory reactions. In the case of therapeutic DC vaccine the polarization of Th1-response was found nevertheless

  2. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23737845

  3. [Dentistry oral hygiene and endocarditis. Pathophysiology and prophylactic therapy].

    PubMed

    Santacroce, Luigi; Cagiano, Raffaele; Carlaio, Roberto G; Del Prete, Raffaele; Bottalico, Lucrezia

    2008-10-01

    Infectious endocarditis is a cardiac pathology of bacterial, viral or more rarely mycotic origin developing on the surfaces of the endocardium or heart valves. Predisposing conditions are congenital malformations of the heart or valvular acquired alterations, as well as the presence of a valvular prosthesis. The microorganisms involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of the damage of such infection (bacterias, viruses or yeasts) determine the formation of the endocardic vegetations typical of this condition. Such lesions can be located on the valvular or the parietal endocardium and sometimes on the endothelium of a great artery. In despite of the elevated standards of instrumental investigations and therapeutic protocols, the bacterial endocarditis represents a pathology of wide interest, scientific and social, due to its high rate of incidence, morbility and mortality. Still now infectious endocarditis causes death in 20-30% of the patients. Although the significant progress on prevention of the infectious diseases and of the cross infections in dentistry practice, from the tartar ablation up to the oncologic oral surgery, still now the skills of oral hygiene and dentistry represent a potential threat for the development of an infectious endocarditis in predisposed patients. The authors, on the base of the revision of the literature and of their own clinical experience, show the etiology, pathophysiology and the clinical pictures related to such complex disease. PMID:19040131

  4. Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: prophylactic role of taurine.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of taurine against cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology. Cadmium (in the form of Cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) administration at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days significantly decreased testicular Delta(5)-3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD activities along with the reduction in the plasma testosterone level. In addition, reductions in testicular sperm count as well as loss in sperm motility were also observed in Cd-intoxication. Cd increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and testicular Cd accumulation. Besides, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, glutathione disulfide and DNA fragmentation as well as decreased levels of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, total thiols and reduced glutathione were also found to be associated with this toxicity. Taurine pretreatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, on the other hand, could prevent all the Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology and oxidative insult related studied parameters. Taurine treatment, in addition also increased the in vivo ferric reducing antioxidant power linearly up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Histological examination of testicular sections from experimental animals supported these results. The effect of a well established antioxidant, vitamin C has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, data suggest that being an antioxidant, taurine plays a beneficial role against Cd-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system. PMID:18926901

  5. Prophylactic Management of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Feyer, Petra; Jahn, Franziska; Jordan, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of nausea and vomiting after radiotherapy is often underestimated by physicians, though some 50–80% of patients may experience these symptoms. The occurrence of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) will depend on radiotherapy-related factors, such as the site of irradiation, the dosing, fractionation, irradiated volume, and radiotherapy techniques. Patients should receive antiemetic prophylaxis as suggested by the international antiemetic guidelines based upon a risk assessment, taking especially into account the affected anatomic region and the planned radiotherapy regimen. In this field the international guidelines from the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines as well as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) are widely endorsed. The emetogenicity of radiotherapy regimens and recommendations for the appropriate use of antiemetics including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, steroids, and other antiemetics will be reviewed in regard to the applied radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy regimen. PMID:26425557

  6. Child feeding and human rights

    PubMed Central

    Kent, George

    2006-01-01

    Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together. PMID:17176464

  7. Lessons from the past: Long-term safety and survival outcomes of a prematurely terminated randomized controlled trial on prophylactic vs. hemoglobin-based administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia

    PubMed Central

    MOUNTZIOS, GIANNIS; ARAVANTINOS, GERASIMOS; ALEXOPOULOU, ZOI; TIMOTHEADOU, ELENI; MATSIAKOU, FOTINI; CHRISTODOULOU, CHRISTOS; LASCHOS, KONSTANTINOS; GALANI, ELENI; KOUTRAS, ANGELOS; BAFALOUKOS, DIMITRIOS; LINARDOU, HELENA; PECTASIDES, DIMITRIOS; VARTHALITIS, IOANNIS; PAPAKOSTAS, PAVLOS; KALOFONOS, HARALAMBOS P.; FOUNTZILAS, GEORGE

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is not supported by current guidelines. Long-term follow-up of patients WHO had been treated with ESA for CIA in the past may provide useful information. In 2002, we undertook a prospective, randomized phase III trial of prophylactic vs. hemoglobin (Hb)-based (threshold: 11 mg/dl) ESA administration in patients with solid tumors and CIA. ESA administration FOR CIA was permanently suspended in 2007 in view of published data at that time, while patient surveillance continued. Among 630 evaluable patients, 38.6% were male, 50.9% had advanced cancer at diagnosis, 40.6% had Hb levels <12 mg/dl at baseline and 47.9% received ESA prophylactically (1:1 randomization). The major tumor types included colorectal (36.0%), breast (20.6%), non-prostate genitourinary (11.0%) and lung CANCER (8.4%). After a median follow-up of 85.4 months, 358 patients had relapsed and 380 had succumbed to the disease. Patients in the prophylactic ESA group (GROUP A; experimental arm), as compared with those in the Hb-based group (GROUP B; iron supplementation alone), exhibited A significantly more prominent increase in median Hb levels, particularly in the subset of patients with non-metastatic disease (two-sided P<0.01) among patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer, those who received ESAs prophylactically exhibited a lower incidence of CIA (all grades: P=0.014, grades 3–4: P=0.034) and fatigue (all grades: P<0.001, grades 3–4: P=0.055), but a higher rate of a composite outcome encompassing all thrombosis-related events (all grades: P=0.043, grades 3–4: P=0.099). These differences were less prominent in the group of patients who received adjuvant treatment. There were no significant differences in overall mortality and relapse/progression rates between the two groups. therefore, prophylactic, compared with Hb-based, administration of ESAs for CIA in patients with solid

  8. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  9. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  10. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  11. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  12. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  13. Infant feeding practices among nursing personnel in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, D; Chon, F M; Arokiasamy, J

    1980-07-01

    Concerned by the alarming decline in breast feeding in the urban and rural areas of Malaysia, we conducted a critical review of infant feeding practices among nursing personnel from representative centres using questionnaires. It was found that although 75% of mothers breast-fed their babies at birth only 19% did so at 2 months and 5% at 6 months respectively. Chinese mothers initiated breast feeding less frequently compared with Indian or Malay mothers. The prevalence of breast feeding was higher among lower category nurses, lower income groups and those from health centres. Decision for breast feeding was based in most instances on conviction derived from reading, lectures or advice from relatives. The vast majority of mothers listed "work' as the main reason for termination of breast feeding followed by "insufficient breast milk' and satisfactory past experience with bottle feeding. The ramifications of these findings and measures to improve the prevalence and duration of breast feeding are discussed. PMID:7446101

  14. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  16. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  17. Feeding and swimming of flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a dominant role for small planktonic flagellates and shapes their survival strategies. The high diversity of beat patterns and arrangements of appendages indicates different strategies balancing the trade-offs between the general goals, i.e., energy-efficient swimming, feeding, and predator avoidance. One type of flagellated algae that we observe, are haptophytes, which possess two flagella for flow creation and one so-called haptonema, a long, rigid structure fixed on the cell body, which is used for prey capture. We present videos and flow fields obtained using velocimetry methods around freely swimming haptophytes and other flagellates, which we compare to analytical results obtained from point force models. The observed and modelled flows are used to analyse how different morphologies and beat patterns relate to different feeding or swimming strategies, such as the capture mechanism in haptophytes. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR center of excellence supported by the Villum foundation.

  18. Age-related and light-induced plasticity in opsin gene expression and in primary and secondary visual centers of the nectar-feeding ant Camponotus rufipes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ayse; Lindenberg, Annekathrin; Albert, Stefan; Grübel, Kornelia; Spaethe, Johannes; Rössler, Wolfgang; Groh, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Camponotus rufipes workers are characterized by an age-related polyethism. In the initial weeks of adult life, young workers perform tasks inside the nest before they switch to multimodal foraging tasks outside. We tested the hypothesis that this transition is accompanied by profound adaptations in the peripheral and central visual systems. Our results show that C. rufipes workers of all tested ages (between 1 and 42 days) express three genes encoding for ultraviolet (UV), blue (BL), and long-wavelength (LW1) sensitive opsins in their retina, which are likely to provide the substrate for trichromatic color vision. Expression levels of all three opsin genes increased significantly within the first two weeks of adulthood and following light exposure. Interestingly, the volumes of all three optic neuropils (lamina, medulla, and lobula) showed corresponding volume increases. Tracing of connections to higher visual centers in the mushroom bodies (MBs) revealed only one optic pathway, the anterior superior optic tract, emerging from the medulla and sending segregated input to the MB-calyx collar. The MB collar volumes and densities of synaptic complexes (microglomeruli, MGs) increased with age. Exposure to light for 4 days induced a decrease in MG densities followed by an increase after extended light exposure. This shows that plasticity in retinal opsin gene expression and structural neuroplasticity in primary and secondary visual centers comprise both "experience-independent" and "experience-dependent" elements. We conclude that both sources of plasticity in the visual system represent important components promoting optimal timing of the interior-forager transition and flexibility of age-related division of labor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1041-1057, 2016. PMID:26724470

  19. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-08-25

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software.

  20. Evaluating the Role of Prophylactic Gastrostomy Tube Placement Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Lau, Derick H.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Stuart, Kerri; Newman, Kathleen; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan M.D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prophylactic gastrostomy tube (GT) placement on acute and long-term outcome for patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty consecutive patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV head and neck cancer to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 64-74 Gy). The most common primary site was the oropharynx (66 patients). Sixty-seven patients (56%) were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Seventy patients (58%) received prophylactic GT placement at the discretion of the physician before initiation of chemoradiotherapy. Results: Prophylactic GT placement significantly reduced weight loss during radiation therapy from 43 pounds (range, 0 to 76 pounds) to 19 pounds (range, 0 to 51 pounds), which corresponded to a net change of -14% (range, 0% to -30%) and -8% (range, +1% to -22%) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). However, the proportion of patients who were GT-dependent at 6- and 12-months after treatment was 41% and 21%, respectively, compared with 8% and 0%, respectively, for those with and without prophylactic GT (p < 0.001). Additionally, prophylactic GT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late esophageal stricture compared with those who did not have prophylactic GT (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although prophylactic GT placement was effective at preventing acute weight loss and the need for intravenous hydration, it was also associated with significantly higher rates of late esophageal toxicity. The benefits of this strategy must be balanced with the risks.

  1. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy. Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding. Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding. We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  2. Prophylactic administration of a combined prebiotic and probiotic, or therapeutic administration of enrofloxacin, to reduce the incidence of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Al-Rubaye, A; Kwon, Y M; Blankenship, J; Lester, H; Mitchell, K N; Pevzner, I Y; Lohrmann, T; Schleifer, J

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria entering the bloodstream via translocation from the gastrointestinal tract spread hematogenously and can trigger bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) by infecting osteochondrotic microfractures in the epiphyseal-physeal cartilage of the proximal femora and tibiae. In experiment 1, broilers were fed control feed or the same feed containing BacPack 2X, which includes the prebiotic IMW50 (a mannan oligosaccharide beta-glucan yeast cell wall product) plus the probiotic Calsporin (Bacillus subtilis C-3102). Broilers reared on wire flooring consistently developed higher incidences of BCO than hatchmates reared on wood shavings litter (≥24 vs. ≤4%, respectively; P=0.001). Adding BacPack 2X to the feed on d 1 through 56 delayed the age of onset and reduced the cumulative incidence of BCO on wire flooring when compared with broilers fed the control feed (24.0 vs. 40.7%, respectively; P=0.003). In experiment 2, broilers reared on wire flooring received tap water on d 1 through 62 (control group) or therapeutic levels of the potent fluoroquinolone antimicrobial enrofloxacin in the water on d 35 through 54 (enrofloxacin group). During enrofloxacin administration, half as many birds developed BCO in the enrofloxacin group when compared with the control group (8.1 vs. 19.5%, respectively, on d 35 through 54; P=0.001), whereas both groups had similar BCO incidences subsequent to withdrawing enrofloxacin on d 55 through 62 (14.8 vs. 18.2% for the enrofloxacin vs. control groups; P=0.386). Cumulative lameness incidences for d 1 through 62 were higher for the control group than for the enrofloxacin group (39.0 vs. 25.8%, respectively; P=0.003). These results demonstrate that wire flooring imposes a rigorous challenge that leads to high incidences of BCO that can be difficult to suppress, even with therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin. Prophylactically adding BacPack 2X to the feed reduced the incidence of BCO lameness by a proportion similar to that achieved

  3. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  4. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  5. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  6. Indications and Outcomes of Prophylactic and Therapeutic Extracranial-to-intracranial Arterial Bypass for Cerebral Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Gazyakan, Emre; Lee, Ching-Yi; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Craft, Randall; Henry, Steven L.; Lee, Shih-Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass is a technically demanding procedure used to treat complex cerebral artery diseases. The indications, proper surgical techniques, and outcomes of this procedure have been under debate over the recent decades. Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2012, 28 patients, including patients with cerebral artery occlusion, intracranial aneurysm, cranial base tumor, and Moyamoya disease, underwent EC-IC bypass. Patients’ records were retrospectively reviewed for demography, indications, complications, high-flow versus low-flow bypass, patency rate of bypass, and neurological outcome. The patients were sorted into prophylactic (n = 16) and therapeutic (n = 12) groups based on the preoperative presentation of their neurological symptoms. Follow-up evaluation was performed at a mean of 32.7 ± 24.3 months. Results: The overall patency rate of bypass was 100%, the postoperative stroke rate was zero, and the surgical complication rate was 14.3%. There was no significant difference in the bypass patency rate between the 2 groups or between the high-flow and low-flow bypass patients. Patients who underwent prophylactic bypass had minimal surgical and total complications (P = 0.03 and P < 0.01, respectively) and a better neurological outcome. Surgical complications were more common in patients who underwent therapeutic bypass (25%). Conclusions: The collaboration of neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons in performing EC-IC bypass can result in excellent outcomes with a high bypass patency rate and few complications, particularly for prophylactic EC-IC bypass. PMID:25973350

  7. Tenofovir diphosphate concentrations and prophylactic effect in a macaque model of rectal simian HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter L.; Glidden, David V.; Bushman, Lane R.; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J. Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between intracellular tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and prophylactic efficacy in a macaque model for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods Macaques were challenged with simian HIV (SHIV) via rectal inoculation once weekly for up to 14 weeks. A control group (n = 34) received no drug, a second group (n = 6) received oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine 3 days before each virus challenge and a third group (n = 6) received the same dosing plus another dose 2 h after virus challenge. PBMCs were collected just before each weekly virus challenge. The relationship between tenofovir diphosphate in PBMCs and prophylactic efficacy was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model. Results The percentages of animals infected in the control, one-dose and two-dose groups were 97, 83 and 17, respectively. The mean (SD) steady-state tenofovir diphosphate concentration (fmol/106 cells) was 15.8 (7.6) in the one-dose group and 30.7 (10.1) in the two-dose group. Each 5 fmol tenofovir diphosphate/106 cells was associated with a 40% (95% CI 17%–56%) reduction in risk of SHIV acquisition, P = 0.002. The tenofovir diphosphate concentration associated with a 90% reduction in risk (EC90) was 22.6 fmol/106 cells (95% CI 13.8–60.8). Conclusions The prophylactic EC90 for tenofovir diphosphate identified in macaques exposed rectally compares well with the EC90 previously identified in men who have sex with men (MSM; 16 fmol/106 cells, 95% CI 3–28). These results highlight the relevance of this model to inform human PrEP studies of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine for MSM. PMID:24862094

  8. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effects of Oleuropein on Reperfusion-Induced Arrhythmia in Anesthetized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand, Babak; Esmailidehaj, Mansour; Alihosaini, Jamileh; Bajoovand, Shirin; Esmailidehaj, Saeedeh; Hafizibarjin, Zeynab

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to reveal that whether i.v. injection of oleuropein, the most potent polyphenolic antioxidant in olive leaf, has any effect on the magnitude of reperfusion arrhythmia in anesthetized rats or not. Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of 10 each: groups 1 and 5 were assigned as the prophylactic and treatment control groups, groups 2 and 6 as the prophylactic and treatment groups with lidocaine (10 mg/kg), groups 3 and 4 as the prophylactic groups with 10 and 50 mg/kg oleuropein (i.v.), and groups 7 and 8 as the treatment groups with 10 and 50 mg/kg oleuropein (i.v.), respectively. Reperfusion injury was induced by 5-min regional ischemia and 15-min reperfusion of left anterior descending coronary artery. Heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram were monitored throughout the procedure. Results: blood pressure was significantly decreased by infusion of 50 mg/kg oleuropein in groups 4 and 8, but unlike the lidocaine as a standard anti-arrhythmic drug in groups 2 and 5 had not significant effect on heart rate. The onset of arrhythmia in groups received oleuropein (groups 3, 4, 7, and 8) was significantly delayed. The mortality rate due to irreversible ventricular fibrillation was also significantly reduced in groups 3, 4, 7, and 8. The effect of lidocaine in groups 2 and 5 was more potent than that in oleuropein group. Conclusion: These findings indicate that i.v. injection of oleuropein possibly through its antioxidant activity reduces the magnitude of reperfusion-induced arrhythmia. PMID:26411972

  9. Optimal Extent of Prophylactic Irradiation of Paraaortic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinhyun; Yoon, Hong In; Lee, Jeongshim; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine optimal extent of prophylactic irradiation of paraaortic lymph nodes (PALN) in patients with uterine cervical cancer who had metastatic pelvic LNs. Methods and Materials We retrospectively evaluated 103 patients with cervical cancer and pelvic lymph node metastasis who were treated with prophylactic semi-extended field radiotherapy (SEFRT) between 1990 and 2012. The semi-extended field included PALN below the second lumbar spine with prescribed doses of 45 to 50 Gy. Survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results The median follow-up after SEFRT was 61 (range 5–296) months. Overall, 28 patients (27.2%) experienced treatment failures, which were classified as local in 8 patients (7.8%), regional in 8 patients (7.8%), and distant in 13 patients (12.6%). Of the regional failures, only two involved PALN failure around the renal artery or the renal hilum area at the upper margin of the semi-extended field. At 5 years, the overall survival was 82%. Grade 3 or higher acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities occurred in one and two patients, respectively. As a late toxicity, one patient developed grade 3 small bowel obstruction. Conclusion Prophylactic SEFRT provided favorable outcomes with little acute or late gastrointestinal toxicity. For prophylaxis of PALN recurrences, upper part of PALN might not need to be included in patients with uterine cervical cancer and metastatic pelvic LNs. PMID:26659867

  10. Prophylactic topically applied ice to prevent cutaneous complications of nontarget chemoembolization and radioembolization.

    PubMed

    Wang, David S; Louie, John D; Kothary, Nishita; Shah, Rajesh P; Sze, Daniel Y

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous complications can result from nontarget deposition during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or radioembolization. Liver tumors may receive blood supply from parasitized extrahepatic arteries (EHAs) that also perfuse skin or from hepatic arteries located near the origin of the falciform artery (FA), which perfuses the anterior abdominal wall. To vasoconstrict cutaneous vasculature and prevent nontarget deposition, ice packs were topically applied to at-risk skin in nine chemoembolization treatments performed via 14 parasitized EHAs, seven chemoembolization treatments near the FA origin, and five radioembolization treatments in cases in which the FA could not be prophylactically coil-embolized. No postprocedural cutaneous complications were encountered. PMID:23522163

  11. Radiographic Contrast-Media-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Pathophysiology and Prophylactic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most widely discussed and debated topics in cardiovascular medicine. With increasing number of contrast-media- (CM-) enhanced imaging studies being performed and growing octogenarian population with significant comorbidities, incidence of CI-AKI remains high. In this review, pathophysiology of CI-AKI, its relationship with different types of CM, role of serum and urinary biomarkers for diagnosing CI-AKI, and various prophylactic strategies used for nephroprotection against CI-AKI are discussed in detail. PMID:24967281

  12. [Integrated prophylactic care of employees--is it a future model?].

    PubMed

    Szozda, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    The author presents his own experience in the area of prophylaxis and cooperation with safety and health services as well as with occupational hygienists. The attention is turned to an essential difference between two terms "employees" and "workers". The proposed model of integrated prophylactic care is described and the need for cooperation between Trade Unions, National Insurance Company (ZUS) and Agricultural Insurance Company (KRUS) is highlighted. In the author's opinion the integrated occupational health services, safety and health services and occupational hygiene should be a future model of workers' health protection in Poland. Integrated units should cover with their activities all employees throughout the country. PMID:15156774

  13. Prophylactic Antibiotic Management of Surgical Patients Noted as "Allergic" to Penicillin at Two Academic Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Jacques, Paul St; Wanderer, Jonathan P; Bombulie, Mark R; Agarwalla, Niraj

    2016-05-01

    We studied prophylactic antibiotics administered at 2 academic medical centers during a 6-year period where a cephalosporin was indicated but an "allergy" to penicillin was noted. Another drug (typically vancomycin or clindamycin) was substituted approximately 80% of the time; this occurred frequently even when symptoms unrelated to acute hypersensitivity were listed. In >50% of cases, the reaction was either omitted or vague (e.g., simply "rash"). Given the estimated 1% cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins with similar R1 side chains, many of these patients could have received either the prescribed cephalosporin or another cephalosporin with a different R1 side chain. PMID:26556109

  14. [Prophylactic effects of zhuling and BCG on postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, D A; Li, S Q; Li, X T

    1994-07-01

    The prophylactic effects of Chinese herbal medicine Zhuling (Grifola umbellata pilat) and BCG on bladder cancer after TURBT and partial cystectomy were evaluated. 146 patients with bladder cancer were divided into 3 groups, Zhuling, BCG, and control group. Follow-up for 48-124 months (average 70.8 months) showed that the tumor recurrence rate was 33.3%, 34.3% and 65.1%, respectively. Compared to the control group, the recurrence rate of Zhuling group and BCG group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). The effect of Zhuling was similar to that intravesical BCG. Zhuling was cheaper and convenient in usage, and no side effects. PMID:7842985

  15. Short communication: Measuring feed volume and weight by machine vision.

    PubMed

    Shelley, A N; Lau, D L; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2016-01-01

    Individual dairy cow feed intake is closely related to the health and productive output of each cow, with healthy cows generally eating more feed than unhealthy cows. Incorporating the use of an automated system to monitor feed consumption for each cow may be beneficial for dairy farm management. This study examined the use of an inexpensive 3-dimensional video camera to measure feed volume, from which we derived feed weight. Proof-of-concept testing was conducted to determine the effectiveness and capability of the machine vision feed-scanning system and its possible use in feed intake monitoring. Such systems are ideal because they do not impede the workflow of the farm or interrupt feeding behavior. This is an improvement over existing systems that are labor and cost intensive. Our conducted experiments involve measuring feed volume at known weights, up to 22.68 kg, with the resulting volume and weight values analyzed by means of linear and quadratic least squares t-test regression analysis. The effects of feed positioning in the bin and near-range sensor limitations were also examined. The results showed that an estimation of feed weight from 3-dimensional scan of volume measurements could be made to within 0.5 kg of the physically measured feed weight using a digital scale. Future efforts will focus on extending this work to active bunks with multiple cows eating throughout the day and testing total mixed rations of varied composition. PMID:26547642

  16. Long-Term Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment: Effects on Survival, Immunocompetence and Reproduction Success of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although there are effective prophylactic treatments, the side effects of applied antibiotics are not well understood. We examined the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the overwintering success of wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, and the postdiapause effect on their life-history traits. Four weeks before hibernation larvae were treated with a widely used antibiotic (fumagillin). We monitored moths’ survival and life-history traits during the following 10 mo, and compared them to those of untreated control larvae. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment had no effect on survival but we show effects on some life-history traits by decreasing the developmental time of treated larvae. However, we also revealed relevant negative effects, as antibiotic treated individuals show a decreased number of laid eggs and also furthermore a suppressed immunocompetence. These results implicate, that a prophylactic medication can also lead to negative effects on life-history traits and reproductive success, which should be seriously taken in consideration when applying a prophylactic treatment to laboratory reared insect populations. PMID:27271967

  17. Long-Term Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment: Effects on Survival, Immunocompetence and Reproduction Success of Parasemia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Dickel, Franziska; Freitak, Dalial; Mappes, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of insect species are nowadays reared under laboratory conditions. Rearing of insects always implicates the risk of diseases, among which microbial infections are the most frequent and difficult problems. Although there are effective prophylactic treatments, the side effects of applied antibiotics are not well understood. We examined the effect of prophylactic antibiotic treatment on the overwintering success of wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) larvae, and the postdiapause effect on their life-history traits. Four weeks before hibernation larvae were treated with a widely used antibiotic (fumagillin). We monitored moths' survival and life-history traits during the following 10 mo, and compared them to those of untreated control larvae. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment had no effect on survival but we show effects on some life-history traits by decreasing the developmental time of treated larvae. However, we also revealed relevant negative effects, as antibiotic treated individuals show a decreased number of laid eggs and also furthermore a suppressed immunocompetence. These results implicate, that a prophylactic medication can also lead to negative effects on life-history traits and reproductive success, which should be seriously taken in consideration when applying a prophylactic treatment to laboratory reared insect populations. PMID:27271967

  18. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  19. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  20. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  1. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  2. 21 CFR 515.21 - Refusal to approve a medicated feed mill license application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... animal feed are not adequate to preserve the identity, strength, quality, and purity of the new animal drug therein; or (3) The facility manufactures animal feeds bearing or containing new animal drugs in a... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE...

  3. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium...

  5. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic...

  6. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic...

  7. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic...

  8. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic...

  9. 21 CFR 558.15 - Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions § 558.15 Antibiotic, nitrofuran, and sulfonamide drugs in the feed... subtherapeutic (increased rate of gain, disease prevention. etc.) uses in animal feed of antibiotic...

  10. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative... grounds that the facility no longer manufactures any animal feed covered under § 558.4(b) of this chapter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed...

  11. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative... grounds that the facility no longer manufactures any animal feed covered under § 558.4(b) of this chapter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed...

  12. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill...

  13. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill...

  14. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications... mill license application to manufacture animal feed, a supplemental application shall be submitted for... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill...

  15. 21 CFR 515.11 - Supplemental medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications... mill license application to manufacture animal feed, a supplemental application shall be submitted for... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental medicated feed mill...

  16. 21 CFR 515.24 - Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.24 Notice of revocation of a medicated feed mill license. When a...

  17. Effect of prophylactic antibiotics in acute nonperforated appendicitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Busuttil, R W; Davidson, R K; Fine, M; Tompkins, R K

    1981-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study was performed to determined the efficacy of short-term (24 hr) perioperative antibiotics in preventing septic complications after emergency appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. The patients were stratified into three clinical arms: Group I (placebo, n = 45), Group II (cefamandole, n = 46) and Group III (cefamandole plus carbenicillin, n = 45). The three groups of patients were similar in regard to age, sex, duration of operation and pathologic classification of the appendix. The overall incidence of infection in the study was 5.1%. The infection rates in Groups II (2.2%) and III (0%) were significantly lower than Group I (placebo) (13.3%), (p less than 0.05). No difference was observed between cefamandole alone and cefamandole plus carbenicillin. Average postoperative hospital days per patient for each group was: Group I - 3.8 days; Group II - 2.9 days; Group III - 3.1 days. Cost analysis of hospitalization including cost of prophylactic antibiotics revealed a $247.99 per patient saving for Group II versus Group I and $95.53 for Group III versus Group I. Systemic prophylactic antibiotics can successfully reduce septic complications after appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis, and a single drug (cefamandole) directed at the facultative pathogens is as effective as double drug therapy, which includes specific anaerobic coverage. PMID:7025769

  18. Efficacy of prophylactic anti-diarrhoeal treatment in patients receiving Campto for advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Duffour, J; Gourgou, S; Seitz, J F; Senesse, P; Boutet, O; Castera, D; Kramar, A; Ychou, M

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of combined prophylactic and curative anti-diarrhoeal medication in advanced colorectal patients treated by irinotecan. Thirty-four pre-treated eligible patients were evaluated. There were 44% women, the median age was 65 and 38% of the patients had a 0 performance status. The patients received sucralfate(4g/d) and nifuroxazide(600 mg/d) prophylactic treatment on days 0-7. In the case of severe diarrhoea, preventive treatment was replaced by loperamide(12 mg/d) and diosmectite (9 g/d). Grade 3 delayed diarrhoea occurred in 18% of patients (90% CI: [9.5-28.9]) and 4.6% of cycles. No grade 4 delayed diarrhoea was observed. Twenty-nine patients (85%) received the preventive treatment at cycle 1, while 14% (90% CI: [6.2-25.7]) experienced grade 3 delayed diarrhoea in 3.7% of cycles for a median 4.5 days. The objective response rate was 8% (90% CI [1.4-23.1]) among the 25 assessable patients. Preventive combined treatment is effective in reducing the incidence of severe delayed diarrhoea, and it should be proposed to patients treated with mono-therapy Campto(r) and evaluated in poly-chemotherapy protocols. PMID:12552984

  19. Current Evidence regarding Prophylactic Antibiotics in Head and Neck and Maxillofacial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used to decrease the rate of infections in head and neck surgery. The aim of this paper is to present the available evidence regarding the application of antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical procedures of the head and neck region in healthy patients. A systemic literature review based on Medline and Embase databases was performed. All reviews and meta-analyses based on RCTs in English from 2000 to 2013 were included. Eight out of 532 studies fulfilled all requirements. Within those, only seven different operative procedures were analyzed. Evidence exists for the beneficial use of prophylactic antibiotics for tympanostomy, orthognathic surgery, and operative tooth extractions. Unfortunately, little high-level evidence exists regarding the use of prophylactic antibiotics in head and neck surgery. In numerous cases, no clear benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis has been shown, particularly considering their potential adverse side effects. Antibiotics are often given unnecessarily and are administered too late and for too long. Furthermore, little research has been performed on the large number of routine cases in the above-mentioned areas of specialization within the last few years, although questions arising with respect to the treatment of high-risk patients or of specific infections are discussed on a broad base. PMID:25110703

  20. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Theresa; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections. However, these trials were designed before the etiologic relationship between HPV and OPC was established. There are differences in the epidemiology of oral and genital HPV infection, such as differences in age and sex distributions, which suggest that the vaccine efficacy observed in genital cancers may not be directly translatable to the cancers of the oropharynx. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy is challenging in the oropharynx because no premalignant lesion analogous to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cervical cancer has yet been identified. To truly investigate the efficacy of these vaccines in the oropharynx, additional clinical trials with feasible endpoints are needed. Cancer 2016;122:2313-2323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27152637

  1. Prophylactic inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Weiner, P; Zeidan, F; Zamir, D; Pelled, B; Waizman, J; Beckerman, M; Weiner, M

    1998-05-01

    Pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery are a leading cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Respiratory muscle weakness may contribute to the postoperative pulmonary abnormalities. We hypothesized that: (1) there is a decrease in inspiratory muscle strength (PImax at residual volume) and endurance (Pmpeak/PImax) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG); (2) this weakness is associated with reduced pulmonary function tests (PFTs), impaired gas exchange, and a higher rate of pulmonary complications; and (3) prophylactic inspiratory muscle training (IMT) can prevent those changes. Eighty-four candidates for CABG, with ages ranging from 33 to 82 years, were evaluated prior to operation and randomized into two groups: 42 patients underwent IMT using a threshold trainer for 30 min/day for 2 weeks, 1 month before operation (group A); 42 patients served as a control group and underwent sham training (group B). There was a significant decrease in respiratory muscle function, PFTs, and gas exchange in the control group following CABG, whereas these parameters remained similar to those before entering the study in the training group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. In addition 11 (26%) patients in the control group but only 2 (5%) in the training group needed postsurgical mechanical ventilation longer than 24 hours, CABGs have a significant deteriorating effect on inspiratory muscle function, PFTs, and arterial blood gases. The decrease in these parameters can be prevented by prophylactic inspiratory muscle training, which may also prevent postsurgical pulmonary complications. PMID:9564282

  2. Prophylactic and postexposure efficacy of a potent human monoclonal antibody against MERS coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Davide; Zhao, Jincun; Pedotti, Mattia; Simonelli, Luca; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Fett, Craig; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca; Foglierini, Mathilde; Agatic, Gloria; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Gopal, Robin; Langrish, Christopher J.; Barrett, Nicholas A; Sallusto, Federica; Baric, Ralph S.; Varani, Luca; Zambon, Maria; Perlman, Stanley; Lanzavecchia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal pulmonary infection caused by a previously unidentified coronavirus (CoV), likely transmitted to humans by infected camels. There is no licensed vaccine or antiviral for MERS, therefore new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are needed. In this study, we describe, for the first time, to our knowledge, the isolation of a potent MERS-CoV–neutralizing antibody from memory B cells of an infected individual. The antibody, named LCA60, binds to a novel site on the spike protein and potently neutralizes infection of multiple MERS-CoV isolates by interfering with the binding to the cellular receptor CD26. Importantly, using mice transduced with adenovirus expressing human CD26 and infected with MERS-CoV, we show that LCA60 can effectively protect in both prophylactic and postexposure settings. This antibody can be used for prophylaxis, for postexposure prophylaxis of individuals at risk, or for the treatment of human cases of MERS-CoV infection. The fact that it took only 4 mo from the initial screening of B cells derived from a convalescent patient for the development of a stable chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing neutralizing antibodies at more than 5 g/L provides an example of a rapid pathway toward the generation of effective antiviral therapies against emerging viruses. PMID:26216974

  3. Primary peritoneal cancer in BRCA carriers after prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Vrachnis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The presence of deleterious mutations in breast cancer (BRCA)-1 or BRCA-2 gene has a decisive influence on the development of various types of neoplasms, such as breast, ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers. Primary peritoneal cancer is an aggressive malignancy which, due to the absence of a specific screening test, cannot be diagnosed in its early stages. As a risk-reducing option, prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and mastectomy are often proposed in BRCA gene carriers. The effectiveness of a preventive surgical treatment is, however, unclear in the development of peritoneal cancer. Material and Methods An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases. Results The total number of patients who underwent prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was 1,830, of whom 28 presented with peritoneal cancer (1.53%). The age of the included patients ranged from 48 to 61 years. BRCA-1 was present in 9 out of 28 patients and BRCA-2 in 2 patients, while the type of BRCA was unclear in 17 patients. Salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in 23 out of 28 patients, while oophorectomy was carried out in 5 patients. The interval from initial risk-reducing surgical treatment to the presentation of peritoneal cancer ranged from 12 to 84 months. Conclusion Modification of the follow-up guidelines and increase in healthcare providers’ awareness may reduce the risk of peritoneal cancer.

  4. Prophylactic mesh placement of permanent stomas at index operation for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ventham, NT; Brady, RR; Stewart, RG; Ward, BM; Graham, C; Yalamarthi, S; Jones, M; Daniel, T

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Parastomal herniation occurs in 30–50% of colostomy formations. The aim of this study was to radiologically evaluate the mechanical defects at stoma sites in patients who had previously undergone a permanent colostomy with or without mesh at the index operation for colorectal cancer. METHODS A study was performed of all colorectal cancer patients (n=41) having an end colostomy between 2002 and 2010, with or without Prolene® mesh plication, with blinded evaluation of the annual follow-up staging computed tomography (CT) for stomal characteristics. The presence of parastomal hernias, volume, dimensions, grade of the parastomal hernia and abdominal wall defect size were measured by two independent radiologists, and compared with demographic and operative variables. RESULTS In those patients with radiological evidence of a parastomal hernia, Prolene® mesh plication significantly reduced the incidence of bowel containing parastomal hernias at one year following the procedure (p<0.05) and also reduced the diameter of the abdominal wall defect (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic mesh placement at the time of the index procedure reduces the diameter of abdominal wall aperture and the incidence of parastomal hernias containing bowel. Future studies should use both objective radiological as well as clinical endpoints when assessing parastomal hernia development with and without prophylactic mesh. PMID:23131227

  5. Genistein-Supplemented Diet Decreases Malaria Liver Infection in Mice and Constitutes a Potential Prophylactic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Prudêncio, Miguel; Gonçalves, Lígia A.; Casalou, Cristina; Buger, Dominik; Sauerwein, Robert; Haas, Werner; Mota, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    In tropical regions millions of people still live at risk of malaria infection. Indeed the emergence of resistance to chloroquine and other drugs in use in these areas reinforces the need to implement alternative prophylactic strategies. Genistein is a naturally occurring compound that is widely used as a food supplment and is thought to be effective in countering several pathologies. Results presented here show that genistein inhibits liver infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria. In vitro, genistein decreased the infection rates of both mouse and human hepatoma cells by inhibiting the early stages of the parasite's intracellular development. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of genistein decreased the liver parasite load of P. berghei-infected mice. Moreover, mice fed on a genistein-supplemented diet showed a significant reduction in Plasmodium liver infection as well as a reduced blood parasitemia and partial protection from severe disease. Since genistein is a safe, low-cost, natural compound that can be used permanently in a diet, we propose its use as a prophylactic agent against malaria for endemic populations and long-time travelers. PMID:18628947

  6. Observations on an Epidemic of Cerebrospinal Meningitis in Cyprus and the Record of a Prophylactic Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, I. H.; Bevan, C. E.

    1939-01-01

    After a lapse of twenty-five years cerebrospinal meningitis appeared again in epidemic from during 1936-37. A prophylactic inoculation experiment was undertaken during the autumn of 1937, a few months before the second epidemic season was due to begin. Season 1936-37—836 cases—284 deaths. Season 1937-38 (after inoculation)—298 cases—81 deaths. Season 1938-39—122 cases—51 deaths (to end of May, 1939). During the second season conditions were suitable for the continuance of the epidemic. We do not think that we obtained a false result by inoculating on a waning epidemic. Our results are inconclusive because owing to the sharp decline in the morbidity neither control nor inoculated groups were fully at risk. But our results are good enough to recommend a further trial of prophylaxis in future epidemics. The percentage of the population inoculated is an important factor. The aim should be 100%. The experiment should aim at controlling not only the meningococcal carrier rate but also the general catarrh rate. We suggest that the rapid passage of the meningoccocus in association with an epidemic of nasopharyngeal catarrh raises the virulence of the meningococcus. As the opportunity of a second experience in the prevention of cerebrospinal meningitis by prophylactic inoculation seldom occurs to an individual, we take this chance of making recommendations for guiding future experiments. PMID:19992142

  7. Prophylactic Efficacy of Quercetin 3-β-O-d-Glucoside against Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangguo; Kroeker, Andrea; He, Shihua; Kozak, Robert; Audet, Jonathan; Mbikay, Majambu; Chrétien, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Ebola outbreaks occur on a frequent basis, with the 2014-2015 outbreak in West Africa being the largest one ever recorded. This outbreak has resulted in over 11,000 deaths in four African countries and has received international attention and intervention. Although there are currently no approved therapies or vaccines, many promising candidates are undergoing clinical trials, and several have had success in promoting recovery from Ebola. However, these prophylactics and therapeutics have been designed and tested only against the same species of Ebola virus as the one causing the current outbreak. Future outbreaks involving other species would require reformulation and possibly redevelopment. Therefore, a broad-spectrum alternative is highly desirable. We have found that a flavonoid derivative called quercetin 3-β-O-d-glucoside (Q3G) has the ability to protect mice from Ebola even when given as little as 30 min prior to infection. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that this compound targets the early steps of viral entry. Most promisingly, antiviral activity against two distinct species of Ebola virus was seen. This study serves as a proof of principle that Q3G has potential as a prophylactic against Ebola virus infection. PMID:27297486

  8. Can we omit prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation in anal cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hakyoung; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Hee Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the appropriateness of prophylactic inguinal nodal irradiation (PINI), we analyzed patterns of failure in anal cancer patients who were inguinal node-negative at presentation and did not receive PINI. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 anal cancer patients treated by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) between 1994 and 2013. Radiotherapy consisted of a total dose of 44-45 Gy (22-25 fractions in 5 weeks) on the whole pelvis, anus, and perineum. Except inguinal lymphadenopathy was present at initial diagnosis, the entire inguinal chain was not included in the radiation field. In other words, there was no PINI. Results The median follow-up duration was 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months). Median survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57 months (range, 10 to 218 months) and 50 months (range, 4 to 218 months), respectively. Among the survival, the median follow-up duration was 51 months (range, 12 to 218 months). The 5-year overall survival and PFS rates were 93.4% and 88.8%, respectively. Although none of the patients received inguinal node irradiation for prophylactic purposes, there was no inguinal recurrence. Conclusion Treatment of anal cancer by omitting PINI might be considered in selected patients with clinically uninvolved inguinal nodes. PMID:26157677

  9. Relationship between feeding behavior and residual feed intake in growing Brangus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G M; Friend, T H; Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E

    2009-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake required for maintenance and production. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between RFI, feeding behavior, and other performance traits in growing heifers. Individual DMI was measured in Brangus heifers (n = 115) fed a roughage-based diet (ME = 2.0 Mcal/kg) for 70 d using Calan-gate feeders. Residual feed intake was computed as the residuals from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. Heifers with the greatest (least efficient, n = 18) and least (most efficient, n = 18) RFI were identified for quantification of feeding behavior traits. Continuous video recordings were obtained for all heifers during d 28 through d 56 of the 70-d feeding trial. Video data of 2 replications of four 24-h periods, 2 wk apart, were analyzed for the focal heifers. A head-down feeding event was defined as a heifer positioned in the feeder with her head lowered. A meal included all head-down feeding events that were separated by less than 300 s. The mean RFI for the high- and low-RFI heifers were 1.00 and -1.03 +/- 0.03 kg/d, respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 21.9% more (P < 0.0001) DM but had similar BW and ADG compared with low-RFI heifers. The high-RFI heifers spent less time in head-down feeding events per day (P < 0.0001; 124 vs. 152 +/- 4.3 min/d), consumed DM at a faster rate (99.6 vs. 62.8 +/- 3.3 g/min), and ate more often per day (119.1 vs. 90.5 +/- 3.9 head-down feeding events/d) compared with the low-RFI heifers; however, meal duration and frequency were not related to RFI. We conclude that feeding behavior related to head-down feeding events may be more useful as an indicator of RFI than the number of meal events. PMID:19395511

  10. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  11. In patients with a tumour invading the phrenic nerve does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve postoperative lung function?

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn W; Dunn, William G; Asif, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'In patients with tumours involving the phrenic nerve, does prophylactic diaphragm plication improve lung function following tumour resection?' Using the reported search, 258 papers were found of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Three case reports and one case series represent 37 patients in the literature along with two relevant animal studies. Patients treated with prophylactic plication at the time of injury or sacrifice of the phrenic nerve had reduced radiological evidence of diaphragm paralysis, lower reported shortness of breath and reduced requirement for ventilatory support. In patients with prophylactic diaphragm plication and a concurrent pulmonary resection, the predicted postoperative lung function correlated closely with the postoperative measured FEV1, FVC and gas transfer. The postoperative measured FEV1 was reported as 86-98%, the FVC 82-89% and gas transfer 97% of the predicted values. Two animal models investigate the mechanics of respiration, spirometry and gas exchange following diaphragmatic plication. A randomized control study in four dogs measured a 50% reduction in tidal volume and respiratory rate, a 40% decrease in arterial PO2 and a 43% increase in arterial CO2 when the phrenic nerve was crushed in animals with a pneumonectomy but without prophylactic diaphragm plication. A further randomized control animal study with 28 dogs found that plicating the diaphragm after unilateral phrenic nerve transection resulted in a significant increase in tidal volume and lung compliance and a significant decrease in respiratory frequency and the work of breathing. Prophylactic diaphragm plication may preserve lung function, reduce the risk of

  12. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  13. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  14. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  15. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  16. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  17. Feeding DDGS to Finfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, aquaculture has been growing at a rapid pace (currently 8.5% per year) over the past two decades, and is recognized as the fastest growing food production sector of agriculture in the U.S. Growth of aquaculture and other industries (e.g., other monogastric and ruminant livestock feed appl...

  18. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  19. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  20. American Geriatrics Society feeding tubes in advanced dementia position statement.

    PubMed

    2014-08-01

    When eating difficulties arise, feeding tubes are not recommended for older adults with advanced dementia. Careful hand feeding should be offered because hand feeding has been shown to be as good as tube feeding for the outcomes of death, aspiration pneumonia, functional status, and comfort. Moreover, tube feeding is associated with agitation, greater use of physical and chemical restraints, healthcare use due to tube-related complications, and development of new pressure ulcers. Efforts to enhance oral feeding by altering the environment and creating patient-centered approaches to feeding should be part of usual care for older adults with advanced dementia. Tube feeding is a medical therapy that an individual's surrogate decision-maker can decline or accept in accordance with advance directives, previously stated wishes, or what it is thought the individual would want. It is the responsibility of all members of the healthcare team caring for residents in long-term care settings to understand any previously expressed wishes of the individuals (through review of advance directives and with surrogate caregivers) regarding tube feeding and to incorporate these wishes into the care plan. Institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, and other care settings should promote choice, endorse shared and informed decision-making, and honor preferences regarding tube feeding. They should not impose obligations or exert pressure on individuals or providers to institute tube feeding. PMID:25039796

  1. Prophylactic protective effects and its potential mechanisms of IcarisideII on streptozotocin induced spermatogenic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongde; Lei, Hongen; Guan, Ruili; Gao, Zhezhu; Li, Huixi; Wang, Lin; Hui, Yu; Zhou, Feng; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IcarisideII(ICAII) on the prevention of streptozotocin (STZ) induced spermatogenic dysfunction. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg) and were equally randomized to gavage feeding of vehicle (the vehicle group) or ICAII (0.5, 1.5 or 4.5 mg/kg/day, respectively). Ten normal rats received vehicle and served as control. Four weeks later, sperm parameters, histopathological changes, testicular lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, and apoptosis index (AI) were evaluated. Results showed that ICAII treatment resulted in a significant recovery of sperm parameters and histopathological changes relative to the vehicle group (p<0.05). In the vehicle group, antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of Sertoli cell Vimentin filaments obviously decreased, while lipid peroxidation and AI significantly increased as compared with the control group (p<0.05). Following ICAII treatment, corrective effects on these items towards normal levels were observed. The results suggested that ICAII has beneficial effect on the preservation of spermatogenic function in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The mechanisms might be related to its improvement of antioxidant enzyme activities, preservation of the protein expression and apical extensions of Vimentin filaments, and anti-apoptosis capability. PMID:25216341

  2. Responsive feeding: implications for policy and program implementation.

    PubMed

    Engle, Patrice L; Pelto, Gretel H

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  3. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722651

  4. Impact of prophylactic central neck dissection on oncologic outcomes of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Mamelle, Elisabeth; Borget, Isabelle; Leboulleux, Sophie; Mirghani, Haïtham; Suárez, Carlos; Pellitteri, Phillip K.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Khafif, Avi; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Hartl, Dana M.

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic neck dissection (PND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. Our aim was to assess current levels of evidence (LE) according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine (http://www.cebm.net/?O=1025) regarding the oncologic benefits of PND. Data were analyzed via MEDLINE key-words: PTC, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, PND, central lymph node metastases, central compartment, recurrence-free survival. There was conflicting evidence regarding the rate of reoperation for recurrence, with some studies showing a lower rate after PND with increased recurrence-free survival and a higher rate of undetectable pre- and post-ablation thyroglobulin levels (LE 4), whereas other studies did not show a difference (LE 4). Only one study (LE 4) showed improved disease-specific survival with PND. PND may improve recurrence-free survival, although this is supported by only a low LE. Current recommendations can only be based on low-level evidence. PMID:25022716

  5. Prophylactic effects of humic acid-glucan combination against experimental liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Garcia-Mina, Jose Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite intensive research, liver diseases represent a significant health problem and current medicine does not offer a substance able to significantly inhibit the hepatotoxicity leading to various stages of liver disease. Based on our previously published studies showing the protective effects of a glucan-humic acid (HA) combination, we focused on the hypothesis that the combination of these two natural molecules can offer prophylactic protection against experimentally induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Lipopolysaccharide, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used to experimentally damage the liver. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde, known to correspond to the liver damage, were assayed. Results: Using three different hepatotoxins, we found that in all cases, some samples of HA and most of all the glucan-HA combination, offer strong protection against liver damage. Conclusion: Glucan-HA combination is a promising agent for use in liver protection. PMID:26401416

  6. New antibacterial microporous CaP materials loaded with phages for prophylactic treatment in bone surgery.

    PubMed

    Meurice, Edwige; Rguiti, Emmanuelle; Brutel, Annie; Hornez, Jean-Christophe; Leriche, Anne; Descamps, Michel; Bouchart, Franck

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are materials commonly used in bone repair. The most important problem occurring in bone repair surgery is bacterial infection which is usually overcome by treatment with antibiotics. Currently, emergence of multidrug resistant strains has led to development of alternative treatments such as phage therapy. Phages are bacterial viruses with several advantages over chemotherapy such as specificity of bacterial strain, no side effects and fast response. This study evaluates the possibility of loading hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate ceramics used as bone substitutes with phages and their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli K12. The majority of phages were retained in dense and microporous HA and β-TCP samples during at least 6 days suggesting the occurrence of strong interaction between phages and ceramics, which did not prevent bacterial attachment and lysis. This study has shown for the first time that phage loaded ceramics could be used in prophylactic treatments. PMID:22802104

  7. Prophylactic Drug Treatment of Migraine in Children and Adolescents: An Update.

    PubMed

    Tajti, János; Szok, Délia; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László

    2016-01-01

    Migraine as a highly disabling pain condition influences the daily activities of those affected, including children and adolescents. The pathomechanism of migraine is not fully understood, and the different types of prophylactic antimigraine drugs that are applied are not specific for migraine. There is a need for preventive treatment in the event of frequent migraine attacks, an impairment of the quality of life, severe accompanying or aura symptoms, and the failure of acute drug treatment. The following pharmacological classes are recommended: antidepressants, antiepileptics, antihistamines, beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, and calcium ion channel antagonists, besides onabotulinum toxin A and nutraceuticals (butterbur). The most urgent goal as concerns pharmaceutical innovation is the development of pathomechanism-based antimigraine drugs and personalized therapy tailored to the children and adolescents. PMID:26695061

  8. Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors

    PubMed Central

    Arbyn, Marc; Bryant, Andrew; Beutels, Philippe; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Van Hoof, Elke; Steben, Marc; Qiao, Youlin; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Schneider, Achim; Kaufmann, Andreas; Dillner, Joakim; Markowitz, Lauri; Hildesheim, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the immunogenicity, clinical efficacy, and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccines in females. The assessment of clinical efficacy will address protection against HPV infection (for homologous and heterologous HPV types), against re-infection, against cervical cancer and its precursors (high-grade CIN (grade 2 or grade 3), adenocarcinoma in situ) in women previously not exposed to HPV infection (negative at enrolment for both HPV DNA and antibodies against the vaccine HPV types). We will assess clinical effectiveness by evaluating outcomes in all women, irrespective of the HPV DNA or serology status at enrolment. Evaluation by fine age and time since sexual debut categories is also planned. PMID:25267916

  9. Prophylactic UV Radiation and CIE Standard on Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychev, Genrih; Gavrilkina, Galina

    Two aspects of UV photobiology have come up almost simultaneously for discussion. On the one hand, the CIE has, for all practical purposes, completed discussions of a new standard “CIE S 009/E: 2002 Photobiological Safety of Lamps and Lamp Systems”1), and it was adopted without any amendments. On the other hand, some national standards (for example, in Russia) have for decades insisted on UVA+UVB radiation being used for prophylactic purposes at actinic erythemal doses (around 140 J m-2 per 8 hours of irradiation), which are significantly higher than prohibitive doses of actinic UV hazard (30 J m-2) suggested in the CIE standard. It seems that this arisen situation is to be thought about more carefully.

  10. Prophylactic use of dressings for pressure ulcer prevention in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Elaine

    2016-06-23

    Multiple comorbidities and intensive therapy increase the risk of pressure ulcer (PU) development in critical care unit (CCU) patients. Given the high number of risk factors that CCU patients present with, it is important to acknowledge that not all PUs are entirely preventable, and incidence is thought to be between 14% and 42%. The consequences of acquiring a PU in critical care include increased mortality, morbidity and longer length of stay. Implementing prevention strategies as soon as the patient enters the unit can significantly reduce incidence. By adopting a proactive versus reactive mind-set, one CCU abandoned traditional PU risk assessment and implemented a number of intensive interventions, including the use of a prophylactic sacral dressing as an adjunct. As a result, PU incidence fell from 19.9 per 1000 patient population to 0.84 per 1000 patient population in 2014. In addition, 310 PU-free days were achieved. PMID:27345087

  11. Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Eliana G; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for the development of a safe DENV vaccine. Here we summarize current structural and mechanistic knowledge underlying these phenomena. We also review recent results demonstrating that the humoral immune response triggered during natural DENV infection is able to generate neutralizing antibodies binding complex quaternary epitopes only present on the surface of intact virions. PMID:26577689

  12. Concept of computer-aided thermodiagnostics in solving the problem of mass prophylactic examination of population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, N. D.; Antsyferov, S. S.

    1993-11-01

    The article describes the actuality of conducting mass prophylactic examination of the population. It is noted that the thermography method is absolutely harmless for patients and service staff. Besides, it is pointed out that the recognition of various types of pathology of medical-biological objects is complicated. With the aim of reaching high certainty of the results of thermographic analysis it is suggested we use the concept of computer-aided thermodiagnostics which is practically based on complete automation and on combination of principles of probability multiparametry and artificial intellect. It is noted that the suggested concept is carried out on the basis of practical utilization of the automated system of dynamic thermography oriented on revealing tumor disease of the mammary gland. The examples are given to show this system functioning.

  13. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  14. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  15. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

  16. The effects on claw health of supplement feeding grazing dairy cows on feed pads.

    PubMed

    Coombe, Joanne E; Pyman, Michael F; Mansell, Peter D; Auldist, Martin J; Anderson, Garry A; Wales, William J; Malmo, Jakob; Conley, Melanie J; Fisher, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The effects of feeding and management systems on the health and welfare of grazing dairy cows were investigated by comparing the claw health of cows fed grain during milking and pasture silage in the paddock (Control), with cows fed a grain-based partial mixed ration (PMR) on a concrete feed pad. Cows were assessed on three occasions during lactation: (1) early lactation (20-81 days in milk [DIM]) before allocation to feeding treatments; (2) mid-lactation (97-158 DIM) immediately following an intensive feeding experiment, and (3) late lactation (173-243 DIM) several months after return to initial management groups. At the final examination, claw puncture resistance was measured. The results showed that for the most prevalent lesions (white line disease, paintbrush haemorrhage and traumatic bruising), there was no effect of feeding system or amount of supplement on the presence of the moderate to severe forms in early lactation, but cows were more likely to have a particular lesion at the second assessment if it was present in early lactation. Puncture resistance of the claw was not related to presence of a lesion for any of the most prevalent lesion types. It was concluded for this herd that for most indicators of claw health, there was no overall effect of different feeding systems (supplement fed during milking or on a feed pad) or amount of supplement. PMID:24206633

  17. Zika Virus Infectious Cell Culture System and the In Vitro Prophylactic Effect of Interferons.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Deisy; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2016-01-01

    Zika Virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen that is linked to fetal developmental abnormalities such as microcephaly, eye defects, and impaired growth. ZIKV is an RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes, but can also be spread by maternal to fetal vertical transmission as well as sexual contact. To date, there are no reliable treatment or vaccine options available to protect those infected by the virus. The development of a reproducible, effective Zika virus infectious cell culture system is critical for studying the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV replication as well as drug and vaccine development. In this regard, a protocol describing a mammalian cell-based in vitro Zika virus culture system for viral production and growth analysis is reported here. Details on the formation of plaques by Zika virus on a cell monolayer and plaque assay for measuring viral titer are presented. Viral genome replication kinetics and double-stranded RNA genome replicatory intermediates are determined. This culture platform was utilized to screen against a library of a small set of cytokines resulting in the identification of interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β and IFN-γ as potent inhibitors of Zika viral growth. In summary, an in vitro infectious Zika viral culture system and various virological assays are demonstrated in this study, which has the potential to greatly benefit the research community in elucidating further the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and the evolution of viral virulence. Antiviral IFN-alpha can further be evaluated as a prophylactic, post-exposure prophylactic, and treatment option for Zika virus infections in high-risk populations, including infected pregnant women. PMID:27584546

  18. Predictors and Outcomes of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Kristi D.; Peshkin, Beth N.; Halbert, Chanita H.; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Isaacs, Claudine; Schwartz, Marc D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Women affected with breast cancer who carry a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation are at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. To reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer, some patients opt for prophylactic surgery of the unaffected breast (contralateral prophylactic mastectomy; CPM) in addition to mastectomy of the affected breast. Methods We conducted the present study to determine the predictors and outcomes of CPM in the year following BRCA1/2 genetic counseling and testing. 435 women affected with unilateral breast cancer who received positive or uninformative BRCA1/2 genetic test results completed assessments prior to genetic counseling and testing and 1, 6, and 12 months after receipt of results. Results Prior to testing, 16% had undergone CPM (in conjunction with mastectomy of the affected breast). In the year following testing, 18% with positive test results and 3% with uninformative test results opted for CPM. CPM following testing was associated with a positive genetic test result, younger age at cancer diagnosis (OR = .94), and higher cancer-specific distress at baseline (OR = 3.28). CPM was not associated with distress outcomes at 12-months. Conclusions Following a positive test result, 18% of women previously affected with unilateral breast cancer had a CPM. Women affected with breast cancer at a younger age, particularly those with positive genetic test results and higher cancer-specific distress, are more likely to choose CPM than women who receive uninformative test results and who are less distressed and older at diagnosis. CPM does not appear to impact distress outcomes. PMID:17066320

  19. Prophylactic Ketoconazole Shampoo for Tinea Capitis in a High-Risk Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Watson, Holly J.; Winters, Shauna D.; Carlson, Adrian L.; Schulz, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. RESULTS Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Improved hygiene, adherence to prescribed treatment regimens, and prevention of recurrent environmental exposure to surviving fomites should be stressed in high-risk patients and supersede the need for an antifungal (ketoconazole shampoo) prophylaxis protocol. PMID:22479162

  20. Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation in Advanced Breast Cancer: A Case for Caution

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Fleur; Alrefae, Munir; Langleben, Adrian; Roberge, David

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has a well-recognized role in the treatment of leukemia and small-cell lung cancer. Clinical utility has yet to be determined for breast cancer, where an emerging group at high risk of brain metastasis has fuelled consideration of PCI. Methods and Materials: In reviewing our experience with PCI as part of a complex protocol for advanced breast cancer, we present descriptive data on late central nervous system outcomes in those receiving PCI. After high-dose anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy, Stage IIIB/IV breast cancer responders underwent tandem autologous marrow transplantation. Those in continued remission were referred for PCI. Whole-brain radiotherapy was delivered by usual means, at 36 Gy in 20 fractions. Results: Twenty-four women, with median age 45 (28-61), were enrolled between 1995 and 1998. Disease was largely metastatic (79%), and 75% were previously exposed to chemotherapy or hormonotherapy. Ten patients received PCI, at a median of 13.4 (11.8-16.5) months from study entry. Six patients developed brain metastases, 2 despite PCI. Striking functional decline was documented in 3 patients (at 9 months, 4 years, and 5 years post-PCI), including one previously high-functioning woman requiring full care for posttreatment dementia. Conclusions: We present a series of advanced breast cancer patients treated prophylactically with whole-brain radiotherapy following an aggressive chemotherapy regimen. Although the therapeutic benefit of PCI is not ascertainable here, we describe brain metastases occurring despite PCI and serious long-term neurobehavioral sequelae in PCI-treated patients. Any further investigation of PCI in high-risk breast cancer will need to be approached with caution.

  1. Is 3T-MR Spectroscopy a Predictable Selection Tool in Prophylactic Vertebroplasty?

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, S. Massari, F.; Assako, Ondo P. Meschini, A.; Mammucari, M.; Ludovici, A.; Fanucci, E.; Simonetti, G.

    2010-12-15

    This study was designed to confirm relationships between decrease of bone mineral density and increase of marrow fat and to delineate, through MR spectroscopy, vertebral body at high risk for compression fracture onset to justify prophylactic vertebroplasty. We enrolled 127 women: 48 osteoporotic, 36 osteopenic, and 43 normal subjects, who underwent DXA and MR examination of spine. Then, we selected 48 patients with at least two acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures with interposed normal 'sandwich' vertebrae; all patients underwent MR examination of spine. Significant statistical differences were found among 'Fat Fraction' (FF) values in normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic subjects: 59.8 {+-} 5.1%; 64.8 {+-} 4.4%; and 67.1 {+-} 3.3%. A mild, significant, negative correlation was observed between T-score and vertebral fat content (r = - 0.585; P = 0.0000). In the second part of the study, 9 new vertebral fractures were observed in 48 patients (19%): 6 were 'sandwich' vertebrae (12.5%), and 3 were located in distant vertebral body. The mean FF in sandwich fractured vertebrae was 72.75 {+-} 1.95 compared with the FF of the nonfractured sandwich, and distant control vertebrae were 61.83 {+-} 3.42 and 61.42 {+-} 3.64. We found a significant statistical difference between fractured and nonfractured vertebrae (P < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that MR spectroscopy could be a reliable index to predict the risk of new compression vertebral fracture and could be used for vertebroplasty planning contributing to clarify the possibility to add prophylactic PVP to standard treatment.

  2. Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate in the prophylactic therapy of vestibular migraine: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Teggi, R; Colombo, B; Gatti, O; Comi, G; Bussi, M

    2015-10-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most frequent causes of episodic vertigo, with a lifetime prevalence of 0.98%. Prophylactic therapy includes calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants. We studied the association of cinnarizine 20 mg and dimenhydrinate 40 mg (Arlevertan) in a group of 22 patients affected by definite VM. Proposed therapy included one tablet twice a day for 1 month, which was repeated three times with 1 month of interval between drug intake; results were compared with those of a control group of 11 VM patients who asked to observe only lifestyle measures for migraine. The main outcome was the number of vertigo and headache crises in the 6 months before therapy and in the 6 months of follow-up. Subjects performing Arlevertan presented during the 6 months of therapy a decrease of vertigo attacks from 5.3 to 2.1 and of headaches from 4.3 to 1.7 (p < 0.0001); 68% of these subjects reported a decrease of at least 50% of vertigo attacks, while 63% of headaches. Conversely, vertigo attacks decreased from 3.5 to 2.2 and headaches from 2.6 to 2 in patients observing only lifestyle; 18% of these subjects reported a decrease of at least 50% of vertigo crises and 27% of headaches. Our data do not differ from those of previous works assessing efficacy of different prophylactic therapies for VM and reporting consistent reduction of vertigo spells in a rate of patients ranging from 60 and 80%. PMID:26037548

  3. Prophylactic efficacy of BeneFIX vs Alprolix in hemophilia B mice.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Brian; Funkhouser, William; Monroe, Dougald; Ezzell, Ashley; Mann, David M; Lin, Feng-Chang; Monahan, Paul E; Stafford, Darrel W

    2016-07-14

    FIX binds tightly to collagen IV. Furthermore, a FIX mutant, FIXK5R, which binds better than wild-type FIX to collagen IV, provides better hemostasis than wild-type FIX, long after both are undetectable in the plasma. There is also credible evidence of extravascular FIX. Here, we use the saphenous vein bleeding model to compare the efficacy of recombinant FIXFc (Alprolix) and wild-type FIX (BeneFIX) in hemophilia B mice 7 days postinfusion. Although the terminal half-life of Alprolix is significantly longer than that of BeneFIX, at equal doses Alprolix is not better at controlling bleeding 7 days postinfusion, presumably because of the extravascular FIX. Both BeneFIX and Alprolix exhibit a linear response in clotting efficacy up to 150 IU/kg, where they appear to saturate an extravascular compartment, because there is no additional prophylactic benefit from higher doses. A robust pool of extravascular FIX is clearly observed surrounding blood vessels, localized to the same region as collagen IV, in 2 representative human tissues: liver and skeletal muscle. We see no increased risk for thrombosis at 250 IU/kg FIX at 6 hours postinfusion. In summary, 7 days postinfusion into hemophilia B mice, BeneFIX and Alprolix are hemostatically indistinguishable despite the latter's increased half-life. We predict that doses of FIX ∼3 times higher than the currently recommended 40 to 50 IU/kg will, because of FIX's large extravascular compartment, efficiently prolong prophylactic hemostasis without thrombotic risk. PMID:27106122

  4. The prophylactic effect of dexamethasone on postoperative sore throat in prone position surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Yoon Chan; Choi, So Ron; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Chung, Chan Jong

    2016-01-01

    Background Sore throat and hoarseness are common complications after general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The position for patients can affect the incidence of postoperative sore throat (POST) by causing displacement of the endotracheal tube. This study investigated the prophylactic effect of dexamethasone in prone position surgeries. Methods One hundred-fifty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery (18-75 yr) were randomly allocated into the normal saline group (group P, n = 50), dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg group (group D1, n = 50) or dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg group (group D2, n = 50). The incidence and severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were measured using direct interview at 1, 6, and 24 h after tracheal extubation. The severity of POST, hoarseness, and cough were graded using a 4-point scale. Results At 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation, the incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in group D1 (1 h; P = 0.015, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.038) and group D2 (1 h; P < 0.001, 6 h; P < 0.001, 24 h; P = 0.017) compared to group P. There were less number of patients in the groups D1 and D2 than group P suffering from moderate grade of POST at 1, 24 h after extubation. The incidence of hoarseness at 1, 6, and 24 h after extubation was significantly lower in groups D2 than group P (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of cough among the three groups. Conclusions The prophylactic use of dexamethasone 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg in prone surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative sore throat and dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg decreases the incidence of hoarseness. PMID:27274371

  5. Prophylactic Aminophylline for Prevention of Apnea at Higher-Risk Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Armanian, Amir Mohammad; Badiee, Zohreh; Afghari, Raha; Salehimehr, Nima; Hassanzade, Akbar; Sheikhzadeh, Soghra; Sharif Tehrani, Maryam; Rezvan, Gohar

    2014-01-01

    Background: A few studies have been carried on preventive drugs for apnea of preterm neonates. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the safety and prophylactic effects of aminophylline on the incidence of apnea in premature neonates. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial (RCT) research. The prophylactic effect of aminophylline on apnea was investigated in premature babies in our NICU (IRAN-Isfahan). In the study group (A), 5 mg/kg aminophylline was initially administered as a loading dose. Then, every 8 hours, 1.5 mg/kg was given as maintenance dose for the next 10 days. In the control group (C), no aminophylline was used during the first ten days of life. Results: Fifty-two neonates were randomized for the study and all of them completed it. Primary outcomes were clearly different between the two groups. Only 2 infants (7.7%) who had been placed in aminophylline group developed apnea, as compared to 16 infants (61.5%) in the control group (P < 0.001). Three and four neonates (11.5%, 15.4%) in the aminophylline group developed bradycardia and cyanosis respectively, as compared to 16 infants (61.5%) who did not receive aminophylline (P < 0.001). Median time of need to NCPAP (Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) was 1 (0 - 4) days and 2.5 (0.5 - 6.5) days in group A and C, respectively (P = 0.03). No side effects were reported in neonates (P > 0.999). Median time of hospitalization was shorter in aminophylline group (P = 0.04). Conclusions: This study supports the preventative effects of aminophylline on apnea in extreme premature infants. In other words, the more premature an infant, the greater the preventative effect of aminophylline on the incidence of apnea and bradycardia. PMID:25389472

  6. A zanamivir dimer with prophylactic and enhanced therapeutic activity against influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tarbet, E. Bart; Hamilton, Stephanie; Vollmer, Almut H.; Luttick, Angela; Ng, Wy Ching; Pryor, Melinda; Hurst, Brett L.; Crawford, Simon; Smee, Donald F.; Tucker, Simon P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emerging drug resistance to antiviral therapies is an increasing challenge for the treatment of influenza virus infections. One new antiviral compound, BTA938, a dimeric derivative of the viral neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir, contains a 14-carbon linker bridging two zanamivir moieties. In these studies, we evaluated antiviral efficacy in cell cultures infected with influenza virus and in mouse models of lethal influenza using H1N1pdm09, H3N2 and oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y) viruses. Methods In vitro activity was evaluated against 22 strains of influenza virus. Additionally, in vivo studies compared the efficacy of BTA938 or zanamivir after intranasal treatment. We also tested the hypothesis of a dual mode of action for BTA938 using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results BTA938 inhibited the viruses at nanomolar concentrations in vitro with a median 50% effective concentration value of 0.5 nM. In mouse models, the dimer provided ∼10-fold greater protection than zanamivir. The data also showed that a single low dose (3 mg/kg) protected 100% of mice from an otherwise lethal oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y) influenza virus infection. Remarkably, a single prophylactic treatment (10 mg/kg) administered 7 days before the challenge protected 70% of mice and when administered 1 or 3 days before the challenge it protected 90% of mice. Additionally, SEM provides evidence that the increased antiviral potency may be mediated by an enhanced aggregation of virus on the cell surface. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo experiments showed the high antiviral activity of BTA938 for the treatment of influenza virus infections. Moreover, we demonstrated that a single dose of BTA938 is sufficient for prophylactic and therapeutic protection in mouse models. PMID:24777908

  7. Effect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sapna; Zamperlini–Netto, Gabriele; Beyene, Joseph; Treister, Nathaniel S.; Sung, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All analyses used random effects models. Results Eighteen RCTs (1144 patients) were included. Prophylactic LLLT reduced the overall risk of severe mucositis (risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001). LLLT also reduced the following outcomes when compared to placebo/no therapy: severe mucositis at the time of anticipated maximal mucositis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59), overall mean grade of mucositis (standardized mean difference −1.49, 95% CI −2.02 to −0.95), duration of severe mucositis (weighted mean difference −5.32, 95% CI −9.45 to −1.19) and incidence of severe pain (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37). Conclusion Prophylactic LLLT reduced severe mucositis and pain in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future research should identify the optimal characteristics of LLLT and determine feasibility in the clinical setting. PMID:25198431

  8. Transfundal Uterine Incision Performed with Prophylactic Common Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion for Patient with Placenta Previa Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Hirakawa, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Yufuko; Tsusue, Hatsumi; Narahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    A 37-year-old primigravida at 35 weeks of gestation presented with known anterior wall dominant placenta previa totalis and suspected placenta accreta was successfully treated with transfundal uterine (transverse) incision performed with prophylactic common iliac artery balloon occlusion. This new surgical approach could be an alternative procedure for avoiding excessive blood loss during caesarean delivery. PMID:22844198

  9. Surgical treatment of poor grade middle cerebral artery aneurysms associated with large sylvian hematomas following prophylactic hinged craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Ye, You-Fan; Shen, Yin; Zhu, Rui; Yao, Dong-Xiao; Zhao, Hong-Yang

    2014-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients who presented in poor clinical grade due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCAAs) associated with large sylvian hematomas (SylH) were analyzed and an ingenious designed prophylactic hinged craniectomy was introduced. Twenty-eight patients were graded into Hunt-Hess grades IV-V and emergency standard micro-neurosurgeries (aneurysm clipping, hematoma evacuation and prophylactic hinged craniectomy) were performed, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. 46.43% of the patients reached encouraged favorable outcomes on discharge. The favorable outcome group and the poor outcome group significantly differed in terms of patients' anisocoria, Hunt-Hess grade before surgery, extent of the midline shift and time to the surgery after bleeding (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in age, sex, volume and location of the hematoma, size of aneurysm between the favorable and poor groups (P>0.05). However, ingenious designed prophylactic hinged craniectomy efficiently reduced the patients' intracranial pressure (ICP) after surgery. It was suggested that preoperative conditions such as Hunt-Hess grading, extent of the midline shift and the occurrence of cerebral hernia affect the prognosis of patients, but time to the surgery after bleeding and prophylactic hinged craniectomy are of significant importance for optimizing the prognosis of MCAA patients presenting with large SylH. PMID:25318882

  10. Prophylactic sternal plating with pectoralis advancement flaps after sternotomy in patients with a history of chest irradiation.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Keith C; Blount, Andrew L; Kim, John A; Renucci, John D; Hooker, Robert L

    2011-03-01

    Deep sternal infections secondary to bony instability and malunion, can result in mediastinitis. Previous authors have described the use of prophylactic rigid plate fixation in high-risk patients. The purpose of our study is to review the use of prophylactic sternal platting with pectoralis advancement flaps in high-risk patients with a history of chest irradiation. Fourteen patients (July 2003-September 2008) with a history of chest irradiation who underwent a median sternotomy followed by prophylactic rigid plate fixation of the sternum were reviewed. Breast cancer was the most common etiology of chest irradiation (n=11, 78%). The average EuroSCORE was 24.06% with 72% of patients having a preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) class≥III. There were no episodes of sternal non-union, mediastinitis or death. Follow-up was 100% with a 0% 30-day and a 7.1% one-year mortality rate (non-cardiac). A comparison between mean preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (49.6%) and postoperative LVEF (59.7%) was statistically significant (P<0.0001). All living patients currently maintain a NYHA class I/II. Prophylactic rigid plate fixation and pectoralis flap coverage decreases the risk of developing sternal dehiscence and postoperative wound complications and should therefore be considered in high-risk patients with a history of chest irradiation. PMID:21138917

  11. Gastric malpositioning and chronic, intermittent vomiting following prophylactic gastropexy in a 20-month-old great Dane dog

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jessie S.; Steffey, Michele A.; Bonadio, Cecily M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    A 20-month-old castrated male great Dane dog was presented for evaluation of chronic intermittent vomiting of 2 months’ duration. A prophylactic incisional gastropexy performed at 6 mo of age resulted in gastric malpositioning and subsequent partial gastric outflow tract obstruction. PMID:26483580

  12. Different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F; Tinmouth, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine whether different doses of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect their efficacy and safety in preventing bleeding in patients with haematological disorders after chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation. PMID:25722652

  13. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  14. Benefits and risks of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in women undergoing treatment for sporadic unilateral breast cancer: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Lester-Coll, Nataniel H; Lee, Janie M; Gogineni, Keerthi; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Schwartz, J Sanford; Prosnitz, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    The rate of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) is rising rapidly, despite limited evidence about the procedure's relative benefits and harms. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of CPM on life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in women with sporadic unilateral breast cancer. A Markov model was developed to compare 18 hypothetical cohorts of 45-year-old women with newly diagnosed unilateral, sporadic breast cancer treated with or without CPM. The probability of developing distant metastases by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and molecular subtype was derived from British Columbia Cancer Agency data. Additional model parameters were identified from the medical literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the impact of plausible variations in key model parameters on results. CPM improved LE in all cohorts (range 0.06-0.54 years). Stage had more effect on LE than subtype (stage I mean, 0.44 years, stage III mean, 0.11 years). However, after adjusting for quality-of-life, No CPM was favored in all cohorts. Univariate sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the most influential model parameter was the post-CPM health state utility. The preferred strategy shifted from No CPM to CPM when the post-CPM utility exceeded 0.83 (base case value 0.81). PSA indicated that LE gains and QALE decreases were stable in all cohorts. The primary determinant of survival after unilateral breast cancer is stage at diagnosis. Our results suggest that routine CPM would not improve quality-adjusted survival for the majority of women with unilateral sporadic breast cancer. PMID:26062750

  15. Perceptions, knowledge, and satisfaction with contralateral prophylactic mastectomy among young women with breast cancer: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Tracy, Michaela S.; Meyer, Meghan E.; Sepucha, Karen; Gelber, Shari; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judi; Troyan, Susan; Morrow, Monica; Schapira, Lidia; Come, Steven E.; Winer, Eric P.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic increase in rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), particularly among younger women with breast cancer, however little is known about how women approach the decision to undergo CPM. Objective To examine preferences, knowledge, decision-making, and experiences of young women with breast cancer who chose CPM. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Eight academic and community medical centers that enrolled 550 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 and younger, between November 2006 and November 2010. Patients 123 women without known bilateral breast cancer who reported having a bilateral mastectomy. Measurements A one-time, 23 item survey that included items related to decision-making, knowledge, risk perception, and breast cancer worry. Results Most women (98%) indicated that the desire to lower the chance of developing a contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and to improve survival (94%) were extremely or very important factors in their decision to undergo CPM. However, only 18% indicated that women with breast cancer who undergo CPM live longer than women who do not. BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutation carriers more accurately perceived their risk of a CBC while women without a known mutation substantially overestimated this risk. Limitations The survey, administered a median of two years post-surgery, was not validated and some questions might have been misinterpreted by respondents or subject to recall bias. Generalizability of our findings might be limited. Conclusions Despite knowing that CPM does not clearly improve survival, women who have undergone the procedure do so, in part, to extend their lives. Many women overestimate their actual risk of developing breast cancer in the unaffected breast. Interventions aimed at improving risk communication in an effort to promote evidence-based decision-making are warranted. PMID:24042365

  16. Salutary and prophylactic effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on acute pancreatitis and concomitant gastroduodenal lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Ljubanović, D; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Bratulić, M; Artuković, B; Jelovac, N; Buljat, G

    1996-07-01

    The superior effectiveness of a new pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on gastrointestinal and liver lesions, in conjunction with an antiinflammatory and analgetic activity was recently noted. In the present study, BPC 157 was tested as either a protective or healing agent in bile duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. In addition, the positive influence of BPC 157 on concomitantly developed gastric and duodenal lesions was simultaneously investigated. BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng/kg body wt, intraperitoneally or intragastrically) was given prophylactically 1 hr before ligation, whereas the therapy was given once daily beginning with the 24 hr following ligation (last application 24 hr before killing). The effect was investigated at daily intervals until the end of the fifth day after ligation. In the pretreatment regimen, a strong pancreas protection was obtained. When applied in the condition of already established severe acute pancreatitis, an obvious salutory effect was consistently noted. Assessing the appearance of the necrosis, edema, neutrophils, and mononuclears, consistently less necrosis, edema, and neutrophils, but more mononuclears, were found in BPC-treated rats. Likewise, in studies of the serum amylase values, relative to control data, a markedly lower rise (BPC pretreatment regimen) as well as a worsening of the already raised values (BPC therapy regimen) was noted. Along with its beneficial effect on pancreatitis, a positive influence of BPC 157 on the gastric and duodenal lesion course in bile duct-ligated rats was noted in both the pre- and posttreatment regimen. Taken together, in further studies of acute pancreatitis therapy, BPC could be an interesting and useful agent with an additional positive impact on concomitant gastroduodenal pathology. PMID:8689934

  17. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  18. Comparison of different platelet count thresholds to guide administration of prophylactic platelet transfusion for preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders after myelosuppressive chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet transfusions are used in modern clinical practice to prevent and treat bleeding in people who are thrombocytopenic due to bone marrow failure. Although considerable advances have been made in platelet transfusion therapy in the last 40 years, some areas continue to provoke debate, especially concerning the use of prophylactic platelet transfusions for the prevention of thrombocytopenic bleeding. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004, and previously updated in 2012 that addressed four separate questions: prophylactic versus therapeutic-only platelet transfusion policy; prophylactic platelet transfusion threshold; prophylactic platelet transfusion dose; and platelet transfusions compared to alternative treatments. This review has now been split into four smaller reviews looking at these questions individually; this review compares prophylactic platelet transfusion thresholds. Objectives To determine whether different platelet transfusion thresholds for administration of prophylactic platelet transfusions (platelet transfusions given to prevent bleeding) affect the efficacy and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions in preventing bleeding in people with haematological disorders undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 6, 23 July 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1950), and ongoing trial databases to 23 July 2015. Selection criteria We included RCTs involving transfusions of platelet concentrates, prepared either from individual units of whole blood or by apheresis, and given to prevent bleeding in people with haematological disorders (receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT) that compared different thresholds for

  19. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. )

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  20. Overall Profile of a Pediatric Multidisciplinary Feeding Clinic

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall profile of children with feeding disorders and their relationships to medical conditions in an outpatient feeding clinic of a tertiary hospital. Methods The medical records of 143 children who had visited the feeding clinic between January 2010 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The presence of a feeding disorder (feeding behavior disorder, dysphagia, and/or failure to thrive [FTT]) and the children's medical conditions were examined by a physiatrist. Results Half of the patients (n=74, 51.7%) were under 15 months of age, and 68 (47.6%) were born preterm. Ninety-three patients (65.0%) met the criteria for any combination of feeding behavior disorder, dysphagia, or FTT. Cardiorespiratory disease was the most common medical condition; children with this condition were more likely to show sensory food aversion and FTT. Feeding behavior disorders were significantly associated with gastrointestinal problems, and dysphagia was significantly related to almost all medical conditions. Conclusion A multidisciplinary approach to children with feeding difficulties is proposed for comprehensive evaluation and treatment because combinations of feeding problems are very common among children. This overall profile could provide clinicians with a clear understanding of the complexity of feeding disorders and their relationships with various medical conditions in children. PMID:27606276

  1. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    PubMed

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health. PMID:27288148

  2. Infants' first feeds in Hangzhou, PR China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liqian; Xie, Xing; Lee, Andy; Binns, Colin W

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the foundation of good nutrition and provides the basis for health throughout the life span. The WHO and the Chinese Ministry of Public Health recommend exclusive breastfeeding to six months of age. The practice of giving prelacteal feeds may interfere with the establishment of good breastfeeding practices and is contrary to the principles of Baby Friendly Hospital accreditation. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of prelacteal feeds in a hospital in Hangzhou and the influence of this practice on breastfeeding at discharge. A longitudinal study of infant feeding was conducted in Hangzhou, China and a total of 638 mothers were recruited and interviewed while in hospital. The questionnaire included full details of infant feeding methods and factors likely to influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse factors influencing breastfeeding on discharge. In Hangzhou almost all babies are born in hospital, the median length of stay was 5.6 days and 77% of births were by caesarian section. In 26% of births the infants were given formula, water or milk as their first feed. At the time of discharge from hospital 91% of infants were receiving some breastmilk, but only 36% of mothers were exclusively breastfeeding. Breastfeeding on discharge from hospital was inversely related to giving prelacteal feeds (OR 0.115, 95% CI 0.055-0.238). While in hospital just over one quarter of infants received prelacteal feeds and these infants had a lower rate of breastfeeding on discharge. PMID:17392150

  3. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Sang Gyune; Lee, Yun Nah; Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Hwan; Jeong, Soung Won; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study. Methods Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group) and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group). This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model. Results The follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD). During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8%) and 21 (41.2%) GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8%) in the GVO group and 16 (31.4%) in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774), whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036). Conclusions Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV. PMID:24133666

  4. Compensation of relector antenna surface distortion using an array feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherrette, A. R.; Acosta, R. J.; Lam, P. T.; Lee, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    The dimensional stability of the surface of a large reflector antenna is important when high gain or low sidelobe performance is desired. If the surface is distorted due to thermal or structural reasons, antenna performance can be improved through the use of an array feed. The design of the array feed and its relation to the surface distortion are examined. The sensitivity of antenna performance to changing surface parameters for fixed feed array geometries is also studied. This allows determination of the limits of usefulness for feed array compensation.

  5. Compensation of reflector antenna surface distortion using an array feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherrette, Alan R.; Acosta, Roberto J.; Lam, Peter T.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1989-01-01

    The dimensional stability of the surface of a large reflector antenna is important when high gain or low sidelobe performance is desired. If the surface is distorted due to thermal or structural reasons, antenna performance can be improved through the use of an array feed. The design of the array feed and its relation to the surface distortion are examined. The sensitivity of antenna performance to changing surface parameters for fixed feed array geometries is also studied. This allows determination of the limits of usefulness for feed array compensation.

  6. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  7. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J

    1993-08-01

    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  8. Indulgent Feeding Style and Children's Weight Status in Preschool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether parent affect and child temperament characteristics differ across feeding styles in low-income families, given suggestive evidence. The secondary aim was to examine whether feeding styles were still related to children's body mass index independen...

  9. The Proposed DESDynI Array-Fed Reflector Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Hodges, R.; Vacchione, J.; Zawadzki, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the feed antenna for a proposed NASA Earth orbiting radar sensor currently in formulation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The proposed array-fed reflector antenna architecture would enable large physical aperture imaging from space at relatively low cost and high technology readiness. Design, construction, and modeling of the feed antenna are described.

  10. Breast-feeding and benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Londero, A P; Bertozzi, S; Driul, L; Marchesoni, D; Petri, R

    2012-01-01

    Benign breast disease (BBD) is very common among women in their fertile age, but its correlation with breast reproductive function remains unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the relation between BBD and breast-feeding. We collected data on 105 women with BBD and 98 controls, focusing on their reproductive history and breast-feeding. We analysed data by R (version 2.12.1) considering p < 0.05 as significant. The results showed that fibroadenoma represented the most frequent BBD (55%), followed by fibrocystic changes (19%), intraductal papilloma (6%) and inflammatory breast disorders (5%). The mean age was 31.5 years (± 6.1), BMI 21.2 kg/m² (± 3.4) and age at menarche 13.0 years (± 1.5). Duration of breast-feeding was not significantly different between controls and BBD types (p = NS). Selecting women with fibroadenoma breast-feeding duration directly correlated with the number of benign lesions (p < 0.05), which remains significant also by multivariate analysis. It was concluded that there seemed to be no difference in breast-feeding among BBDs types, but lactation may influence the number of fibroadenomas. Moreover, prospective studies would better define the correlation between lactation and BBDs. PMID:22185539

  11. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  12. The Mother-Infant Feeding Relationship across the First Year and the Development of Feeding Difficulties in Low-Risk Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Dalia; Feldman, Ruth; Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Kuint, Jacob; Geva, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Although feeding problems are common during infancy and are typically accompanied by relational difficulties, little research observed the mother-infant feeding relationship across the first year as an antecedent to the development of feeding difficulties. We followed 76 low-risk premature infants and their mothers from the transition to oral…

  13. Hydrocracker feeds olefin unit

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, A.G.

    1986-11-01

    An ethylene plant integrated with a selective hydrocracker in a complex refinery can give an attractive payout, bearing in mind that results depend on the refinery's configuration and business environment. Feedstock and operating conditions are more flexible from only a moderate investment, particularly that to modify the steam cracker. Total product upgrading is high. Low grade vacuum-flashed distillates passed through a selective hydrocracker produce hydrogenated residue (hydrowax) having a value close to a naphtha as a feed to a steam cracker. The technology and economics of the concept are confirmed in a large industrial installations.

  14. Comparison of two formulations of oxytetracycline given prophylactically to reduce the incidence of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot calves

    PubMed Central

    Guichon, P. Timothy; Booker, Calvin W.; Jim, G. Kee

    1993-01-01

    A trial involving 1,803 feedlot calves was conducted under commercial feedlot conditions in western Canada to compare the relative effectiveness of a new oxytetracycline formulation, administered either intramuscularly (BMI) or subcutaneously (BMS), to a currently available oxytetracycline formulation, administered intramuscularly (LAB), for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot calves. All experimental treatments were administered upon arrival at the feedlot and again on the third day after arrival. Over the entire feeding period, there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the BRD treatment rates or the BRD relapse rates between either the BMI or BMS groups compared to the LAB group. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the BRD treatment rates in the BMI or BMS groups from days 8-14, days 15-90, or days 1-90 of the feeding period compared to the LAB group. However, during the first seven days of the feeding period the BRD treatment rate in the BMI group was 1.55 times (p<0.05) higher than in the LAB group. From days 1-90 and day 1 to the end of the feeding period, the overall mortality rates, BRD mortality rates, and BRD case fatality rates were two to six times lower in the BMS and BMI groups as compared to the LAB group; however, these differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.05). These data indicate that both the intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a new oxytetracycline formulation are comparable to the intramuscular administration of a currently available oxytetracycline formulation when given to calves upon arrival at the feedlot. PMID:17424339

  15. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. PMID:25845956

  16. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females. PMID:26141747

  17. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  18. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  19. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...

  20. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510.305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS Records and Reports § 510.305 Maintenance...