Science.gov

Sample records for feeding spodoptera littoralis

  1. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies. PMID:23825475

  2. Effect of the Extracts of the Spiderflower, Cleome arabica, on Feeding and Survival of Larvae of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ladhari, Afef; Laarif, Asma; Omezzine, Faten; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) extracts of siliquae, stems and leaves, and seeds of Cleome arabica L. (Brassicales: Capparidaceae) were evaluated in the laboratory for their antifeeding and insecticidal effect on larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), using a leaf dipping bioassay with castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), leaf discs. The polar extracts caused significant mortality. At the highest dose, C. arabica extracts exhibited significant antifeeding and phagostimulating activities against S. littoralis larvae. Under no-choice conditions, the methanol extract of siliquae was the most active, and the antifeedant index calculated over 24 hr for 3rd instar larvae varied significantly from 16 to 37%. Using nutritional indices, it was established that there was a significant decrease in growth rate concomitant with a reduction in consumption. These results suggest the presence of anti-feeding and/or toxic substances in the extracts that may be useful in developing bio-insecticides based on C. arabica extracts for use in integrated pest management of leafworm and other agricultural pests. PMID:23906290

  3. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura. PMID:25195458

  4. Determination and analysis of the genome sequence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV), a pathogen of the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis, was subjected to sequencing of its entire DNA genome and bioassay analysis comparing its virulence to that of other baculoviruses. The annotated SpliMNPV genome of...

  5. Quantitative and ultrastructural changes in the haemocytes of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) treated individually or in combination with Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Shaurub, El-Sayed H; Abd El-Meguid, Afaf; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

    2014-10-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC) and the possible ultrastructural alterations induced in the haemocytes of the fourth larval instars of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 96 h post-feeding on a semi-synthetic diet, treated with the LC50 of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and the LC50 of azadirachtin alone, and the LC25 of SpliMNPV combined with the LC25 of azadirachtin were studied and compared to the control. Single treatment with the virus and azadirachtin or combined treatment significantly decreased the THC compared to the control. There are five types of haemocytes in S. littoralis: prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. The most common symptoms in granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the main affected cell types, due to viral infection were the presence of virogenic stroma, peripheral dispersion of the chromatin and disappearance of the nucleoli. However, the most common symptoms in these two types of haemocytes due to treatment with azadirachtin were the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with fibrous materials, due to probably apoptosis, in their cisternae and disorganization of mitochondria (looped, vacuolated and swollen). In addition, the cytoplasm of granulocytes was vacuolated with the appearance of autophagic lysosomes, while plasmatocytes showed ruptured cell membrane and folded nuclear envelope. Combined treatment with the NPV and azadirachtin induced the same pathological changes which were recorded from individual treatment with the virus or azadirachtin to the same haemocytes. It can be concluded that the change in the THC and ultrastructure of granulocytes and plasmatocytes may affect the cellular-mediated immune response in S. littoralis. Moreover, it seems likely that mitochondria were the target site of azadirachtin, as they were affected in both granulocytes and plasmatocytes treated with azadirachtin alone or in

  6. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity. PMID:22677323

  7. Laboratory evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea against Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Zemek, R; Hussein, H M; Prenerová, E

    2012-01-01

    Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is potentially useful for the biological control of economically important agricultural and forest insect pests. We evaluated efficacy of two strains of this entomopathogenic fungus against last instar larvae and pupae of Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The first strain was Apopka 97 which is an active ingredient of commercial biopesticide PreFeRal WG (Biobest, Belgium). The second strain was isolated from Cameraria ohridella and is currently deposited under number CCM 8367 as a patent culture in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms in Brno. Blastospores of both strains were obtained after 120 hours submerged cultivation in grow media using orbital shaker. The concentration of blastospores was adjusted to 5 x 10(7) spores/ml of suspension. Soaking agent Tween 80 was added to the suspension at concentration 0.02%. Lethal effects of both fungal strains on S. littoralis were evaluated using standard dip test. Treated insects were individually placed into plastic Petri dishes (diam. 9 cm) and kept at constant laboratory conditions (temperature 23 degrees C, R.H. approx. 100%, 16L:8D photoperiod). Virulence of the strains was expressed as percentages of cumulative daily mortality corrected for mortality in the control variant. Obtained results revealed higher virulence of CCM 8367 blastospores to the last instar larvae of S. littoralis (93.1% mortality) on the 7th day after the treatment compared to Apopka 97 (65.5% mortality). Even more obvious difference was found in pupae, where corrected mortality of CCM 8367-treated pupae was 80.0% while mortality in Apopka 97-treated pupae reached only 3.3% on the 8th day after the treatment. We can conclude that the strain I. fumosorosea CCM 8367 has strong insecticidal effects on S. littoralis and has a potential to be implemented as a novel biocontrol agent. PMID:23885438

  8. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  9. Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a wide array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) have been predicted to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after insect herbivory. However, until now this prediction was not testable. Results To investigate the roles CPKs play in a herbivore response-signaling pathway, we screened the characteristics of Arabidopsis CPK mutants damaged by a feeding generalist herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Following insect attack, the cpk3 and cpk13 mutants showed lower transcript levels of plant defensin gene PDF1.2 compared to wild-type plants. The CPK cascade was not directly linked to the herbivory-induced signaling pathways that were mediated by defense-related phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. CPK3 was also suggested to be involved in a negative feedback regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels after herbivory and wounding damage. In vitro kinase assays of CPK3 protein with a suite of substrates demonstrated that the protein phosphorylates transcription factors (including ERF1, HsfB2a and CZF1/ZFAR1) in the presence of Ca2+. CPK13 strongly phosphorylated only HsfB2a, irrespective of the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in vivo agroinfiltration assays showed that CPK3-or CPK13-derived phosphorylation of a heat shock factor (HsfB2a) promotes PDF1.2 transcriptional activation in the defense response. Conclusions These results reveal the involvement of two Arabidopsis CPKs (CPK3 and CPK13) in the herbivory-induced signaling network via HsfB2a-mediated regulation of the defense-related transcriptional machinery. This cascade is not involved in the phytohormone-related signaling pathways, but rather directly impacts transcription factors for defense responses. PMID:20504319

  10. Identification of plant semiochemicals and characterization of new olfactory sensory neuron types in a polyphagous pest moth, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Anderson, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Birgersson, Göran; Razaq, Muhammad; Shad, Sarfraz A; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    Phytophagous insects use blends of volatiles released from plants to select hosts for feeding and oviposition. To behaviorally analyze complex blends, we need efficient and selective methods for elucidating neuron types, their ligands, and specificity. Gas chromatography-combined single sensillum recordings (GC-SSRs) from antennal olfactory sensilla of female moth, Spodoptera littoralis revealed 38 physiologically active peaks in the headspace volatile blends from both larvae-damaged cotton plants and lilac flowers. Using GC-combined mass spectrometry, 9 new physiologically active compounds were identified from damaged cotton and 11 from lilac compared with earlier electrophysiological studies using antennae of female S. littoralis. We characterized 14 novel classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Among these, we found the first 2 ligands for a frequent type of short trichoid sensillum, for which no ligands were identified earlier. By using GC-SSR, a substantial increase in functional classes of OSNs and active compounds, 40% and 34% more, respectively, compared with recent studies using GC-electroantennogram or SSR using single compounds was detected. Compared with the estimated number of corresponding antennal olfactory receptors, the OSN classes now correspond to 83% of a likely maximum. The many specialist OSNs observed may facilitate behavioral confirmation of key plant volatiles in blends. PMID:25194141

  11. Microbial control of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) by Egyptian Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Alfazairy, Ahlam A; El-Ahwany, Amani M D; Mohamed, Eman A; Zaghloul, Heba A H; El-Helow, Ehab R

    2013-03-01

    Four local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates that had been serologically identified as Bt var. kurstaki (Btk2, Btk3, and Btk66) and Bt var. mexicanensis (Btm27), in addition to two reference strains (4D20 and 4AC1), were laboratory assayed as microbial control agents against the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis revealed that each of the six experimental strains carries, at least, a cry1 type gene which expresses a protein toxin active against lepidopterous insects. Additionally, PCR amplification results demonstrated that 4D20 and Btk66 contain the Lepidoptera- and Diptera-active cry2 type gene and that Btk66 contains Coleoptera-active cry7 and cry8 genes. Among the six strains, Btk66 and Btm27 were the most promising microbial control agents against S. littoralis. The present findings were the first to report that Btm27 (classified as B. thuringiensis var. mexicanensis) is a very potent microbial control agent against S. littoralis-tested larvae. For more characterization of these two isolates, the sspO gene was investigated as a molecular chronometer. The DNA sequencing results proved that Btk66 and Btm27 carry sspO open reading frames with identical nucleotide sequences, suggesting a strong phylogenetic relationship between the two strains. PMID:22983675

  12. Targeting the diuretic hormone receptor to control the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Apone, Fabio; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Tortora, Assunta; Tito, Annalisa; Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria; Arciello, Stefania; Andrenacci, Davide; Di Lelio, Ilaria; Colucci, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most devastating pests of crops worldwide. Several types of treatments have been used against this pest, but many of them failed because of the rapid development of genetic resistance in the different insect populations. G protein coupled receptors have vital functions in most organisms, including insects; thus, they are appealing targets for species-specific pest control strategies. Among the insect G protein coupled receptors, the diuretic hormone receptors have several key roles in development and metabolism, but their importance in vivo and their potential role as targets of novel pest control strategies are largely unexplored. With the goal of using DHR genes as targets to control S. littoralis, we cloned a corticotropin-releasing factor-like binding receptor in this species and expressed the corresponding dsRNA in tobacco plants to knock down the receptor activity in vivo through RNA interference. We also expressed the receptor in mammalian cells to study its signaling pathways. The results indicate that this diuretic hormone receptor gene has vital roles in S. littoralis and represents an excellent molecular target to protect agriculturally-important plants from this pest. PMID:25368043

  13. Spodoptera littoralis detoxifies neurotoxic 3-nitropropanoic acid by conjugation with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, Alexey; Becker, Tobias; Pauls, Gerhard; von Reuß, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis is a phytophagous generalist. Its host range includes more than 40 plant species, some of which produce 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA), an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Growth in larvae fed an artificial diet with a sublethal admixture of 3-NPA (4.2 μmol per g) was slowed significantly, but larvae experienced no increase in mortality. In contrast, larvae injected with 25.2 μmol/g (bodyweight) 3-NPA experienced acute toxicity and death. To study the detoxification mechanism of 3-NPA in S. littoralis, the insect frass was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Comparative analysis of 3-NPA-treated and -untreated control samples using HR-MS(2) revealed a group of differential signals that were identified as amino acid amides of 3-NPA with glycine, alanine, serine, and threonine. When sublethal amounts of stable isotope-labeled 3-NPA were injected into a larva's hemolymph, 3-NPA amino acid conjugates were identified as putative detoxification products. Bioassays with synthetic standards confirmed that the toxicity of the amides was negligible in comparison to the toxicity of free 3-NPA, demonstrating that amino acid conjugation in S. littoralis represents an efficient way to detoxify 3-NPA. Furthermore, biosynthetic studies using crude fractions of the gut tissue indicated that conjugation of 3-NPA with amino acids occurs in epithelial cells of the insect's gut. Taken together, these results suggest that the detoxification of 3-NPA in S. littoralis proceeds via conjugation to specific amino acids within the epithelial cells followed by export of the nontoxic amino acid conjugates to the hemolymph via as yet uncharacterized mechanisms, most likely involving the Malpighian tubules. PMID:26092560

  14. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.5), ATP (20 mM), MgCl2 (13.0 mM) and K2SO4 (3 mM). 4. The specific activity of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesizing activity in gut cytosol increased during development of the sixth instar larva, reaching a peak at day 4. A sudden fall in specific activity was observed in the prepupal stage. 5. 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate formation is the rate limiting process in the overall sulphation of p-nitrophenol in the gut cytosol preparations from S. littoralis. 6. It is concluded that the properties of the sulphate-activating system in this insect are similar to those reported for vertebrates. PMID:6956335

  15. Global and local modulatory supply to the mushroom bodies of the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2008-07-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies, like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  16. Global and Local Modulatory Supply to the Mushroom Bodies of the Moth Spodoptera Littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S.; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  17. Isolation of an Apoptosis Suppressor Gene of the Spodoptera littoralis Nucleopolyhedrovirus†

    PubMed Central

    Du, Quansheng; Lehavi, Dana; Faktor, Ouriel; Qi, Yipeng; Chejanovsky, Nor

    1999-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda SF9 cells infected with mutants of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) which lack a functional p35 gene undergo apoptosis, aborting the viral infection. The Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SlNPV) was able to suppress apoptosis triggered by vΔP35K/pol+, an AcMNPV p35 null mutant. To identify the putative apoptotic suppressor gene of SlNPV, overlapping cosmid clones representing the entire SlNPV genome were individually cotransfected along with genomic DNA of vΔP35K/pol+. Using this complementation assay, we isolated a SlNPV DNA fragment that was able to rescue the vΔP35K/pol+ infection in SF9 cells. By further subcloning and rescue, we identified a novel SlNPV gene, Slp49. The Slp49 sequence predicted a 49-kDa polypeptide with about 48.8% identity to the AcMNPV apoptotic suppressor P35. SLP49 displays a potential recognition site, TVTDG, for cleavage by death caspases. Recombinant AcMNPVs deficient in p35 bearing the Slp49 gene did not induce apoptosis and showed successful productive infections in SF9 cells, indicating that Slp49 is a functional homologue of p35. A 1.5-kbp Slp49-specific transcript was identified in SF9 cells infected with SlNPV or with vAc496, a vΔP35K/pol+-recombinant bearing Slp49. The discovery of Slp49 contributes to the identification of important functional motifs conserved in p35-like apoptotic suppressors and to the future isolation of p35-like genes from other baculoviruses. PMID:9882332

  18. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  19. An antennal circadian clock and circadian rhythms in peripheral pheromone reception in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Christine; Lucas, Philippe; Rochat, Didier; François, Marie-Christine; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we found that their corresponding transcripts cycled circadianly in the antenna as well as in the brain. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings over 24 h demonstrated for the first time a circadian rhythm in antennal responses of a moth to sex pheromone. qPCR showed that out of one pheromone-binding protein (PBP), one olfactory receptor (OR), and one odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE), all putatively involved in the pheromone reception, only the ODE transcript presented a circadian rhythm that may be related to rhythms in olfactory signal resolution. Peripheral or central circadian clock control of olfaction is then discussed in light of recent data. PMID:18057325

  20. In Vivo Pyro-SIP Assessing Active Gut Microbiota of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With 13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision. PMID:24475063

  1. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. PMID:23220238

  2. Modulation of the temporal pattern of calling behavior of female Spodoptera littoralis by exposure to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Medhat M; von Wowern, Germund; Löfstedt, Christer; Rosén, Wen-Qi; Anderson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the timing of calling behavior in the female Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and its modification by exposure to sex pheromone. The calling rhythm of the female moth was found to be circadian, persistent for at least 4 days once it has been entrained, and could be phase shifted by altering the light:dark regime. We also found that female exposure to pheromone affected the rate and duration of calling. A brief exposure to pheromone gland extract increased the proportion of females calling in a constant dim light and this effect persisted for at least 2 days. In response to pheromone exposure, significantly more females also called late into scotophase when most unexposed control females had ceased calling. The adaptive significance of responding to conspecific sex pheromone is discussed. PMID:22001286

  3. The impact of the Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on the midgut histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and determination of its putative receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Elleuch, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Tounsi, Slim

    2012-02-01

    SPB1 is a Bacillus subtilis strain producing a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The insecticidal activity of this biosurfactant was evaluated against the Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis). It displayed toxicity with an LC(50) of 251 ng/cm(2). The histopathological changes occurred in the larval midgut of S. littoralis treated with B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant were vesicle formation in the apical region, cellular vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells and their boundaries. Ligand-blotting experiments with S. littoralis brush border membrane vesicles showed binding of SPB1 biosurfactant to a protein of 45 kDa corresponding to its putative receptor. The latter differs in molecular size from those recognized by Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1C toxins, commonly known by their activity against S. littoralis. This result wires the application of B. subtilis biosurfactant for effective control of S. littoralis larvae, particularly in the cases where S. littoralis will develop resistance against B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:22079884

  4. Deep-tissue confocal imaging of the central projections of ovipositor sensory afferents in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Seada, Mervat A; Ghaninia, Majid

    2016-03-01

    The pre-ovipositon behavior of moths is largely dependent upon the cues that a gravid female perceives while assessing potential oviposition sites. Assessment of such sites is accomplished, at least in part, by mechanosensory and gustatory sensilla located on the ovipositor whose sensory neurons project into the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Using anterograde backfill staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three dimensional reconstruction, we traced and analyzed the central projections of the sensory neurons housed in the sensilla located on the ovipositor papillae and explored the neuropilar composition of the TAG in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The TAG consists of three fused neuromeres (6-8th Ner) associated with the 6-8th abdominal segments. Within the TAG, and specifically in the 8th neuromere, four unstructured neuropilar compartments are present; the dorso-ipsilateral motor neuropil (MN), the medio-ipsilateral mechanosensory neuropil (MchN), the medio-ipsilateral small gustatory neuropil (GN), and the medio-contralateral posterior ovipositor glomerulus (Og). The Og appears quite compact, with a hollow core free of terminal arborizations. The MchN is further subdivided into 4 unstructured glomeruli in the 8th neuromere, whose afferents are subsequently extended into 3 glomeruli in the 7th and 6th neuromeres. Few neurites of the Og are populated with large dense varicosities reminiscent of neurosecretory vesicles. Given that all ovipositor nerves converge into a common ganglionic center, the TAG, we assume that this ganglion may be a center for coordination of oviposition behaviors, including movements of the ovipositor during assessment of oviposition substrates and egg laying in S. littoralis. PMID:26774745

  5. Modulation of reproductive behaviors by non-host volatiles in the polyphagous Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Hussain, Altaf; Yousefi, Fatemeh; Birgersson, Göran; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    In order to locate mates, food, and oviposition sites, insects mainly rely on volatile cues released by their sexual partners, food sources, and host and non-host plants. Calling, mating, and oviposition behaviors, as well as fecundity and longevity, of newly emerged Spodoptera littoralis (Bois.) moths were recorded in the presence of volatiles from leaves of a host plant, Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) and two non-host plants, Adhatoda vasica (Av) or Picea abies (spruce), either alone or in host/non-host combinations. Females exposed to cotton volatiles started calling earlier than females exposed to non-host plant volatiles (NHV), or the blank control. Likewise, moth pairs exposed to cotton volatiles started mating earlier than the other treatments. The period of calling in females alone was longer than females kept with males, having the opportunity to mate. However, the callings, as well as mating durations in the moth pairs, in different treatments were not different. Longevity was decreased either in the absence of cotton or the presence of Av, and spruce leaves. Fecundity was reduced in moths exposed to a combination of spruce and cotton. The effect of NHV on attraction of 2-3-day-old male moths towards a pheromone (Ph) source was studied in a wind tunnel. In the no-choice assay, more males arrived at close approach and landed on the Ph source when the host plant, cotton, was offered in the background as compared to the non-hosts. In the dual-choice assay, more males landed on the Ph source in front of the host plant compared to the Ph source in front of non-hosts. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection on female S. littoralis revealed five antennally active compounds in headspace collections of spruce and three compounds in Av. PMID:24105603

  6. Chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin, a new insecticide mixture to control Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Mancino, O; Fanti, P; Crescenzi, A

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed in the period May-July 2011 by Bioagritest test facility according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the land of Eboli (SA), southern Italy, with the purpose to test a new insecticide mixture in the defense strategies of processing tomato against Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis. The insecticide mixture Chlorantraniliprole 100 g/lambda-Cyhalothrin 50 g/l 0,4 It/ha was applied in a tomato field in four (A-B-C-D) application timings (a.t.) alone (treatment 2) and in two a.t. (A-B) combined with emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 3). Its effect in containing insect populations was compared with that exerted by emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B-C-D) (treatment 4) and the combination of chlorantraniliprole 35%, 0.115 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B) and indoxacarb 30% 0.125 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 5). Application of treatments (trt.) and mode of assessment (2 assessments), recording and measurements followed the guidelines foreseen by EPPO Standards PP1/150 and PP1/275. The lepidoptera infestation in the tomato crop was very high on both the leaves and fruits, and this enabled us to evaluate the efficacy of the tested products in conditions of severe pests infestation. If we consider the leaf damage, either as number of mines by T. absoluta or as % of leaf erosion by S. litteralis, all the treatments values were statistically lower than control, but with no difference among them. But when using as an infestation threshold the percentage of damaged fruits (much more relevant in economic terms), we observed statistically significant differences among treatments. Actually, treatment with chlorantraniliprole-lambda-cyhalothrin mixture was significantly more effective than the one with emamectin benzoate in reducing the attack of T. absoluta on tomato fruits, in both dates of assessments. As concerns damage by S. littoralis on the fruits, at the first assessment, trt. 2 and trt. 5

  7. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Rokaia, A Z M

    2006-01-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two essential oils ((Flax or "Linseed" and Sesame ), five volatile plant oils ( Camphor, Red basil, Rose, Menthol and Clove ), four pesticides (Methoxyfenozide; Permethrin; Profenofos and Spinosad) and their mixtures on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). This study was also devoted to minimize the usage of conventional insecticides, reduce the environmental pollution, and protect human-beings and domestic animals from hazards due to pesticides applications. In the meantime, the delayed effect of these tested plant oils on the developing immatures and moths of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis was determined. Most of the evaluated plant oils were found to have an insecticidal effect on the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf-worm, S. littoralis. Both the essential Sesame oil and Clove volatile oil showed rather weak toxic effect corresponding to the same concentrations and periods of the bioassay tests. Comparing the toxicity of the tested plant oils, it was affirmed that both Rose and Red basil volatile oils were the highest efficient natural phytocompounds against the treated larvae and alternatively ranked either the 1st and/or the 2nd rank, throughout the different periods of the bioassay tests, followed by the other three tested oils which were more or less efficient phytocompounds. According to the toxicity index, all the tested oils were less toxic than the superior Red basil volatile oil after 48 h. post treatment followed by the gradual decrease in toxicity of Rose, Flax and Menthol, respectively. The development of the treated 4th larval instar was blocked due to treatment with the tested plant oils. With no exception, all the efficiently tested essential and/or volatile oils acted principally as Insect Growth Inhibitors (IGIs) rather than antifeedants causing disruption of the insect development, abnormal larvae, pupae and adults that were lead finally to death. The

  8. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  9. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural “metamorphosis” in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  10. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  11. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural "metamorphosis" in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  12. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Gamal H.; Assem, Shireen K.; Alreedy, Rasha M.; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K.; Basry, Mahmoud A.; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  13. Opposite Effects on Spodoptera littoralis Larvae of High Expression Level of a Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Plants1

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Francesca; Bonadé-Bottino, Michel A.; Ceci, Luigi R.; Gallerani, Raffaele; Jouanin, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This work illustrates potential adverse effects linked with the expression of proteinase inhibitor (PI) in plants used as a strategy to enhance pest resistance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) and Arabidopsis [Heynh.] ecotype Wassilewskija) transgenic plants expressing the mustard trypsin PI 2 (MTI-2) at different levels were obtained. First-instar larvae of the Egyptian cotton worm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisd.) were fed on detached leaves of these plants. The high level of MTI-2 expression in leaves had deleterious effects on larvae, causing mortality and decreasing mean larval weight, and was correlated with a decrease in the leaf surface eaten. However, larvae fed leaves from plants expressing MTI-2 at the low expression level did not show increased mortality, but a net gain in weight and a faster development compared with control larvae. The low MTI-2 expression level also resulted in increased leaf damage. These observations are correlated with the differential expression of digestive proteinases in the larval gut; overexpression of existing proteinases on low-MTI-2-expression level plants and induction of new proteinases on high-MTI-2-expression level plants. These results emphasize the critical need for the development of a PI-based defense strategy for plants obtaining the appropriate PI-expression level relative to the pest's sensitivity threshold to that PI. PMID:9808744

  14. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  15. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  16. Characterization of Multisugar-Binding C-Type Lectin (SpliLec) from a Bacterial-Challenged Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M.; Galal, Fatma H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Various proteins that display carbohydrate-binding activity in a Ca2+-dependent manner are classified into the C-type lectin family. They have one or two C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) composed of 110–130 amino acid residues in common. C-type lectins mediate cell adhesion, non-self recognition, and immuno-protection processes in immune responses and thus play significant roles in clearance of invaders, either as cell surface receptors for microbial carbohydrates or as soluble proteins existing in tissue fluids. The lectin of Spodoptera littoralis is still uncharacterized. Methodology A single orf encoding a deduced polypeptide consisting of an 18-residue signal peptide and a 291-residue mature peptide, termed SpliLec, was isolated from the haemolymph of the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis, after bacterial challenge using RACE-PCR. Sequence analyses of the data revealed that SpliLec consists of two CRDs. Short-form CRD1 and long-form CRD2 are stabilized by two and three highly conserved disulfide bonds, respectively. SpliLec shares homology with some dipteran lectins suggesting possible common ancestor. The purified SpliLec exhibited a 140-kDa molecular mass with a subunit molecular mass of 35 kDa. The hemagglutination assays of the SpliLec confirmed a thermally stable, multisugar-binding C-type lectin that binds different erythrocytes. The purified SpliLec agglutinated microorganisms and exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria too. Conclusions Our results suggested an important role of the SpliLec gene in cell adhesion and non-self recognition. It may cooperate with other AMPs in clearance of invaders of Spodoptera littoralis. PMID:22916161

  17. Effects of some botanical extracts on the midgut, integument and fat body of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A

    2010-08-01

    Botanical extracts (8%) of four plants (Artemisia monosperma, Zygophyllum cocccineum, Lupinus termis and Brassica tournifortii) fed to the 4th larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis induced histopathological changes in the structure of the midgut, integument and fat body of the 5th instars. Zygophyllum cocci-neum and Lupinus termis induced severe damages in the midgut. The integument of treated larvae showed degeneration in the cuticle and epidermal cells which were also detached from each other. Water extracts of A. monosperma, Z. coccinieum and L. termis were the most promising in inducing shrinkage in the fat body cells and detachment of midgut muscle layers. Also, the degeneration of the midgut membrane and epithelial layer occurs in different degrees with the tested plants. This study supports the use of botanical extracts in pest control programs of lepidopterous insects. PMID:21246948

  18. Very high-density lipoprotein and vitellin as carriers of novel biliverdins IXα with a farnesyl side-chain presumably derived from heme A in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Hartmut; Nimtz, Manfred; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A

    2016-01-01

    Bilins in complex with specific proteins play key roles in many forms of life. Biliproteins have also been isolated from insects; however, structural details are rare and possible functions largely unknown. Recently, we identified a high-molecular weight biliprotein from a moth, Cerura vinula, as an arylphorin-type hexameric storage protein linked to a novel farnesyl biliverdin IXα; its unusual structure suggests formation by cleavage of mitochondrial heme A. In the present study of another moth, Spodoptera littoralis, we isolated two different biliproteins. These proteins were identified as a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) and as vitellin, respectively, by mass spectrometric sequencing. Both proteins are associated with three different farnesyl biliverdins IXα: the one bilin isolated from C. vinula and two new structurally closely related bilins, supposed to be intermediates of heme A degradation. The different bilin composition of the two biliproteins suggests that the presumed oxidations at the farnesyl side-chain take place mainly during egg development. The egg bilins are supposedly transferred from hemolymph VHDL to vitellin in the female. Both biliproteins show strong induced circular dichroism activity compatible with a predominance of the M-conformation of the bilins. This conformation is opposite to that of the arylphorin-type biliprotein from C. vinula. Electron microscopy of the VHDL-type biliprotein from S. littoralis provided a preliminary view of its structure as a homodimer and confirmed the biochemically determined molecular mass of ∼350 kDa. Further, images of S. littoralis hexamerins revealed a 2 × 3 construction identical to that known from the hexamerin from C. vinula. PMID:26546815

  19. Colonization of the Intestinal Tract of the Polyphagous Pest Spodoptera littoralis with the GFP-Tagged Indigenous Gut Bacterium Enterococcus mundtii

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Beng-Soon; Apel, Johanna; Shao, Yongqi; Boland, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline gut of Lepidopterans plays a crucial role in shaping communities of bacteria. Enterococcus mundtii has emerged as one of the predominant gut microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the major agricultural pest, Spodoptera littoralis. Therefore, it was selected as a model bacterium to study its adaptation to harsh alkaline gut conditions in its host insect throughout different stages of development (larvae, pupae, adults, and eggs). To date, the mechanism of bacterial survival in insects' intestinal tract has been unknown. Therefore, we have engineered a GFP-tagged species of bacteria, E. mundtii, to track how it colonizes the intestine of S. littoralis. Three promoters of different strengths were used to control the expression of GFP in E. mundtii. The promoter ermB was the most effective, exhibiting the highest GFP fluorescence intensity, and hence was chosen as our main construct. Our data show that the engineered fluorescent bacteria survived and proliferated in the intestinal tract of the insect at all life stages for up to the second generation following ingestion. PMID:27379058

  20. A promising HD133-like strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual efficiency to the two Lepidopteran pests: Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Driss, Fatma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-08-01

    Isolation and identification of new strains with wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, a screening of 260 strains from Tunisian soil samples was conducted by dot-blot and PCR-sequencing analysis. The screening was done on the basis of the possession of cry1D-type genes and was followed by the evaluation of the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis. BLB250 strain showed an LC50 value (56.2 μg g(-1)) against S. littoralis lower than those of the two Bacillus thuringiensis reference strains HD1 and HD133. An interesting LC50 (167.6 μg g(-1)) was also recorded against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. The strain was, thus, selected because of its qualification to be highly toxic, at once, for both Lepidopteran insects. In vitro time course of proteolytic processing of BLB250 and HD133 protoxins by the gut juices from the two insect larvae revealed that the differences in toxicity against E. kuehniella are most likely attributed to differences in the efficiency of the activation of the corresponding protoxins into toxins. An activation comparative study using commercial proteases suggested that the intestinal proteases of E. kuehniella contain trypsin-like activities. With its high efficiency and toxicity against, at once, two Lepidopteran insects having different susceptibilities towards kurstaki and aizawai subspecies, BLB250 could be useful when developing more efficient and economical B. thuringiensis-based pesticides. PMID:27130040

  1. Interaction of the Koinobiont Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with Two Entomopathogenic Rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, Atwa A.; Hegazi, Esmat M.; Khafagi, Wedad E.; El-Aziz, Gehan M. Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  2. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  3. A mode of action of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates: Detoxification depletes glutathione and cysteine levels with ramifications on protein metabolism in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Verena; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Vassão, Daniel Giddings

    2016-04-01

    Glucosinolates are activated plant defenses common in the order Brassicales that release isothiocyanates (ITCs) and other hydrolysis products upon tissue damage. The reactive ITCs are toxic to insects resulting in reduced growth, delayed development and occasionally mortality. Generalist lepidopteran larvae often detoxify ingested ITCs via conjugation to glutathione (GSH) and survive on low glucosinolate diets, but it is not known how this process influences other aspects of metabolism. We investigated the impact of the aliphatic 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-ITC (4msob-ITC, sulforaphane) on the metabolism of Spodoptera littoralis larvae, which suffer a significant growth decline on 4msob-ITC-containing diets while excreting ITC-glutathione conjugates and their derivatives in the frass. The most striking effects were a decrease of GSH in midgut tissue and hemolymph due to losses by conjugation to ITC during detoxification, and a decline of the GSH biosynthetic precursor cysteine. Protein content was likewise reduced by ITC treatment suggesting that protein is actively catabolized in an attempt to supply cysteine for GSH biosynthesis. The negative growth and protein effects were relieved by dietary supplementation with cystine. Other consequences of protein breakdown included deamination of amino acids with increased excretion of uric acid and elevated lipid content. Thus metabolic detoxification of ITCs provokes a cascade of negative effects on insects that result in reduced fitness. PMID:26855197

  4. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel JA signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants compared to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing MPK4 highly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. In contrast, silencing MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was due to the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. PMID:23672856

  5. Rearing optimization of two races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda feeding natural host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two ecological races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda were raised under laboratory conditions feeding on natural host plants (corn and bermuda grass). Three rearing containers were used: a plastic container and a vertical cylinder to test fitness when feeding gregariously, and individual ...

  6. Identification of Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Gut of the Generalist Spodoptera littoralis via DNA Stable Isotope Probing Using 13C-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Guts of most insects are inhabited by complex communities of symbiotic nonpathogenic bacteria. Within such microbial communities it is possible to identify commensal or mutualistic bacteria species. The latter ones, have been observed to serve multiple functions to the insect, i.e. helping in insect reproduction1, boosting the immune response2, pheromone production3, as well as nutrition, including the synthesis of essential amino acids4, among others.     Due to the importance of these associations, many efforts have been made to characterize the communities down to the individual members. However, most of these efforts were either based on cultivation methods or relied on the generation of 16S rRNA gene fragments which were sequenced for final identification. Unfortunately, these approaches only identified the bacterial species present in the gut and provided no information on the metabolic activity of the microorganisms. To characterize the metabolically active bacterial species in the gut of an insect, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) in vivo employing 13C-glucose as a universal substrate. This is a promising culture-free technique that allows the linkage of microbial phylogenies to their particular metabolic activity. This is possible by tracking stable, isotope labeled atoms from substrates into microbial biomarkers, such as DNA and RNA5. The incorporation of 13C isotopes into DNA increases the density of the labeled DNA compared to the unlabeled (12C) one. In the end, the 13C-labeled DNA or RNA is separated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation from the 12C-unlabeled similar one6. Subsequent molecular analysis of the separated nucleic acid isotopomers provides the connection between metabolic activity and identity of the species. Here, we present the protocol used to characterize the metabolically active bacteria in the gut of a generalist insect (our model system), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The phylogenetic analysis of the DNA

  7. Identification of a delta-Endotoxin Gene Product Specifically Active against Spodoptera littoralis Bdv. among Proteolysed Fractions of the Insecticidal Crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29.

    PubMed

    Lecadet, M M; Sanchis, V; Menou, G; Rabot, P; Lereclus, D; Chaufaux, J; Martouret, D

    1988-11-01

    At least three different insecticidal crystal protein genes were shown to be expressed in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29, a strain that is potentially active against the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Bdv. Among crude K-60 fractions (60- to 70-kilodalton [kDa] molecules) that were products of proteolysed crystals containing the active domains of the protoxin molecules, we were able to distinguish several distinct components on the basis of their antigenic relationship and their larvicidal properties. A purified fraction designated SF2 was a 61-kDa component specifically active against Pieris brassicae L. and homologous to the B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 plasmid-encoded crystal protein. A second fraction designated SF1 was composed of 63- and 65-kDa polypeptides and was specifically active against S. littoralis. The SF1 fraction and particularly the 65-kDa component were not antigenically related to the 61-kDa component. The purified fractions were compared with the products of three different crystal protein genes we previously cloned from total DNA of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, among them a new type of crystal protein gene encoding a protein that is specifically active against S. littoralis and other insects of the Noctuidae family. This approach led us to consider the 65-kDa component as a minimum active part of a delta-endotoxin that is encoded by this new gene. Products of the two other cloned genes can be correlated with the 61- and 63-kDa components, respectively. Thus, in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29, multiple delta-endotoxin genes of different structural types direct the synthesis of several delta-endotoxins with different host specificities which were identified as components of the insecticidal crystals. PMID:16347771

  8. Joint action of quercetin with four insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm larvae, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep. : Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Saad, A S A; Mourad, A K; Taman, F A; Mohamed, I B

    2007-01-01

    The naturally occurring phytoncidal chemical component of some plant- species are responsible for controlling and/or repelling insects from host plants. The use of natural products, readily available in the environment, to control the cotton leafworm, could be of help in reducing the need for applying the synthetic conventional insecticides . Moreover, crude vegetable oils application is quite safer to the non targets and the environment. The use of sex attractant pheromones as predicative tools to forecast pest population and their potential damage levels in specific crops, has significantly been limited because sex attractants are usually directed to one sex only. Thus, identification of plant constituents that attract S. littoralis Boisd. adults, especially females, and that directly affect their feeding or reproductive behaviour, would greatly expand opportunities for manipulation of the biological and environmental events that prevent the establishment, development, and dispersal of the insect-pest under study. Extracted Volatiles from certain parts of cotton plants, attracted both sexes of the cotton leafworm moths instead of attracting one sex only as the pheromones do. Plant flavonoids have been shown by many investigators to have an effect on insect behaviour, growth, and development. Quercetin is one of many bioflavonoids that exists in several fruits and vegetables. The Aim of the present work is to study in vivo the biochemical mode of action of quercetin as a synergist in combination with insecticides. The present results proved the synergistic effect of quercetin when combined with four insecticides, namely, profenofos (organophosphates), deltamethrin (pyrethroid), and tebufenozide et hexaflumuron as insect growth regulators against the studied insect-pest. Quercetin role as a synergist might be attributed to its ability to inhibit certain active oxidases, which may be responsible for in vivo detoxification of the intact insecticides when applied to

  9. SEARCHING FOR EXOTIC SPODOPTERA SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used sex pheromone-baited traps to collect native and exotic Spodoptera spp. moths at an orchid nursery in Lake County, FL. Lures for S. eridania, exempta, exigua, frugiperda, littoralis, litura, praefica, and Pseudaletia unipuncta were placed in bucket traps that surrounded the greenhouses of t...

  10. Diet dependent metabolic responses in three generalist insect herbivores Spodoptera spp.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-04-01

    Adaption to dietary changes is critical in the evolution of host plant ranges in polyphagous insects. We compared three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores from the predominantly generalist genus Spodoptera showing different degrees of polyphagy: Spodoptera littoralis, with a broad host range including both mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and two Spodoptera frugiperda strains [Corn (i.e. maize) (C) and Rice (R)] adapted primarily to different grass species. When feeding on maize we show a lower performance in the broad generalist taxon compared to the grass adapted taxa. Among these taxa, the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain generally performed better than the R-strain on maize leaves. On artificial pinto diet, all taxa performed well. Our RNA-Seq analysis of midgut transcriptomes from 3rd instar larvae feeding on maize showed broader transcriptional readjustments in the generalist S. littoralis compared to grass adapted S. frugiperda strains. Substantial alteration in the expression levels of midgut physiological function related transcripts, such as digestive and detoxifying enzymes, transporters, immunity, and peritrophic membrane associated transcripts, existed in all taxa. We found high background expression of UDP-glucosyl transferases, which are known to neutralize maize leaf toxins, in the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain, contributing to its fitness on maize compared to the R-strain. Our findings provide evidence for divergent diet specific response of digestive physiology within these Spodoptera taxa. Unexpectedly, the C- and R-strains of S. frugiperda fed on the same diet showed large differences in expression patterns between these two closely related taxa. PMID:26908076

  11. Host plant resistance in romaine lettuce affects feeding behavior and biology of Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; McAuslane, Heather J; Nagata, Russell T; Nuessly, Gregg S

    2006-12-01

    Lettuce quality and yield can be reduced by feeding of several lepidopterous pests, particularly cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Host plant resistance to these insects is an environmentally sound adjunct to conventional chemical control. In this study we compared the survival, development, and feeding behavior of cabbage looper and beet armyworm on two romaine lettuce cultivars, resistant 'Valmaine' and susceptible 'Tall Guzmaine'. Larval mortality of both species was significantly higher on resistant Valmaine than on susceptible Tall Guzmaine. The average weight per larva after feeding for 1 wk on Tall Guzmaine plants was 6 times (beet armyworm) and 2 times (cabbage looper) greater than that of larvae feeding on Valmaine plants. Significant reduction in larval growth on Valmaine compared with that on Tall Guzmaine resulted in a 5.9- (beet armyworm) and 2.6-d (cabbage looper) increase in larval duration and almost a 1-d increase in pupal duration. Average pupal and adult weights and successful pupation of cabbage looper and beet armyworm were reduced on Valmaine compared with Tall Guzmaine. The sex ratio of progeny did not deviate from 1:1 when larvae were reared on either Valmaine or Tall Guzmaine. The fecundity of cabbage looper and beet armyworm adults that developed from larvae reared on Valmaine was about one-third that of adults from Tall Guzmaine, but adult longevity did not significantly differ on the two lettuce cultivars. The two insect species showed different feeding preferences for leaves of different age groups on Valmaine and Tall Guzmaine. Cabbage loopers cut narrow trenches on the leaf before actual feeding to block the flow of latex to the intended site of feeding. In contrast, beet armyworms did not trench. The different feeding behavior of the two species on Valmaine may explain the superior performance of cabbage looper compared with beet armyworm. PMID:17195688

  12. A push-button: Spodoptera exigua oviposition on Nicotiana attenuata dose-independently primes the feeding-induced plant defense.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Insect oviposition on a plant often precedes the attack by herbivorous larvae. We recently discovered that oviposition by Spodoptera exigua moths on the desert tobacco Nicotiana attenuata primes the induction of 2 defense traits, a phenylpropanoid and activity of protease inhibitors, in response to larval feeding. Oviposition-experienced plants suffer a reduced feeding damage by less and smaller larvae than unexperienced control plants. The increased resistance of oviposition-experienced plants requires the plant's ability to activate its biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids via a Myb transcription factor. Oviposition by S. exigua on N. attenuata is highly variable with respect to the amount, distribution and localization of the eggs on the plant. This raises the question, whether the plant's priming of herbivore defense depends on the egg number and localization. S. exigua moths prefer the oldest leaves for oviposition and yet prime defense-induction in the larval attacked young systemic leaves. Neither the levels of the primed defense traits, nor the affected larval mortality correlate with the number of eggs a plant previously received. This suggests that upon S. exigua oviposition, N. attenuata is shifted - independently of the egg-dose - into a primed state that is responding stronger to the feeding larvae than unprimed plants. PMID:26555313

  13. A push-button: Spodoptera exigua oviposition on Nicotiana attenuata dose-independently primes the feeding-induced plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Bandoly, Michele; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    abstract Insect oviposition on a plant often precedes the attack by herbivorous larvae. We recently discovered that oviposition by Spodoptera exigua moths on the desert tobacco Nicotiana attenuata primes the induction of 2 defense traits, a phenylpropanoid and activity of protease inhibitors, in response to larval feeding. Oviposition-experienced plants suffer a reduced feeding damage by less and smaller larvae than unexperienced control plants. The increased resistance of oviposition-experienced plants requires the plant's ability to activate its biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids via a Myb transcription factor. Oviposition by S. exigua on N. attenuata is highly variable with respect to the amount, distribution and localization of the eggs on the plant. This raises the question, whether the plant's priming of herbivore defense depends on the egg number and localization. S. exigua moths prefer the oldest leaves for oviposition and yet prime defense-induction in the larval attacked young systemic leaves. Neither the levels of the primed defense traits, nor the affected larval mortality correlate with the number of eggs a plant previously received. This suggests that upon S. exigua oviposition, N. attenuata is shifted – independently of the egg-dose – into a primed state that is responding stronger to the feeding larvae than unprimed plants. PMID:26555313

  14. Glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura may be associated with feeding adaptation of host plants.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaopeng; Xu, Zhibin; Zou, Haiwang; Liu, Jisheng; Chen, Shuna; Feng, Qili; Zheng, Sichun

    2016-03-01

    Spodoptera litura is polyphagous pest insect and feeds on plants of more than 90 families. In this study the role of glutathione S-transferase epilson 1 (slgste1) in S. litura in detoxification was examined. This gene was up-regulated in the midgut of S. litura at the transcriptional and protein levels when the insect fed on Brassica juncea or diet containing phytochemicals such as indole-3-carbinol and allyl-isothiocyanate that are metabolic products of sinigrin and glucobrassicin in B. juncea. The SlGSTE1 could catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione and indole-3-carbinol and allyl-isothiocyanate, as well as xanthotoxin, which is a furanocoumarin, under in vitro condition. When the expression of Slgste1 in the larvae was suppressed with RNAi, the larval growth and feeding rate were decreased. Furthermore, the up-regulated expression of the SlGSTE1 protein in the midgut of larvae that fed on different host plants was detected by 2-DE and ESI/MS analysis. The feeding adaptation from the most to the least of the larvae for the various host plants was Brassica alboglabra, Brassica linn. Pekinensis, Cucumis sativus, Ipomoea batatas, Arachis hypogaea and Capsicum frutescens. All the results together suggest that Slgste1 is a critical detoxifying enzyme that is induced by phytochmicals in the host plants and, inter alia, may be related to host plant adaptation of S. litura. PMID:26631599

  15. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trapping studies were conducted in two Florida locations to determine if three Old World Spodoptera Guenée species were present. Commercially-produced lures for S. exempta (Walker), S. littoralis (Boisduval), and S. litura (F.), plus a S. litura lure made by the USDA-APHIS-CPHST laboratory at Otis ...

  16. Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves: IV. Diurnal and Nocturnal Damage Differentially Initiate Plant Volatile Emission1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Gen-ichiro; Köpke, Sabrina; Kunert, Maritta; Volpe, Veronica; David, Anja; Brand, Peter; Dabrowska, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Continuous mechanical damage initiates the rhythmic emission of volatiles in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves; the emission resembles that induced by herbivore damage. The effect of diurnal versus nocturnal damage on the initiation of plant defense responses was investigated using MecWorm, a robotic device designed to reproduce tissue damage caused by herbivore attack. Lima bean leaves that were damaged by MecWorm during the photophase emitted maximal levels of β-ocimene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate in the late photophase. Leaves damaged during the dark phase responded with the nocturnal emission of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, but with only low amounts of β-ocimene; this emission was followed by an emission burst directly after the onset of light. In the presence of 13CO2, this light-dependent synthesis of β-ocimene resulted in incorporation of 75% to 85% of 13C, demonstrating that biosynthesis of β-ocimene is almost exclusively fueled by the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 along the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. Jasmonic acid (JA) accumulated locally in direct response to the damage and led to immediate up-regulation of the P. lunatus β-ocimene synthase gene (PlOS) independent of the phase, that is, light or dark. Nocturnal damage caused significantly higher concentrations of JA (approximately 2–3 times) along with enhanced expression levels of PlOS. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with PlOS promoter∷β-glucuronidase fusion constructs confirmed expression of the enzyme at the wounded sites. In summary, damage-dependent JA levels directly control the expression level of PlOS, regardless of light or dark conditions, and photosynthesis is the major source for the early precursors of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. PMID:18165324

  17. Nitrogen fertilization rate affects feeding, larval performance, and oviposition preference of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, on cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most critical chemical elements for plant and animal growth. Development and oviposition of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was studied in relation to varying nitrogen levels in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The development of S. exig...

  18. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  19. Use of DNA Barcodes to Identify Invasive Armyworm Spodoptera Species in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Brambila, Julieta; Meagher, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification using diagnostic morphological “keys” that can be both subtle and labor-intensive. This is the case for the Lepidopteran group of insects represented by Spodoptera, a genus of Noctuidae “armyworm” moths that includes several important agricultural pests. Two of the most destructive species, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and S. litura (F.) are not yet established in North America. To facilitate the monitoring for these pests, the feasibility of using DNA barcoding methodology for distinguishing between domestic and foreign Spodoptera species was tested. A DNA barcoding database was derived for a subset of Spodoptera species native to Florida, with an emphasis on those attracted to pheromone blends developed for S. litura or S. littoralis. These were then compared to the barcode sequences of S. litura collected from Taiwan and S. littoralis from Portugal. Consistent discrimination of the different species was obtained with phenetic relationships produced that were generally in agreement with phylogenetic studies using morphological characteristics. The data presented here indicate that DNA barcoding has the potential to be an efficient and accurate supplement to morphological methods for the identification of invasive Spodoptera pests in North America. PMID:22239735

  20. Regulation of hemolymph trehalose level by an insulin-like peptide through diel feeding rhythm of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonggyun; Hong, Youkyeong

    2015-06-01

    Like vertebrate insulins, some insect insulin-like peptides (ILPs) play crucial roles in controlling immature growth, adult lifespan, and hemolymph sugar level. An ILP gene (SeILP1) was predicted from a transcriptome database of Spodoptera exigua. SeILP1 encodes 95 amino acid sequence and shares sequence homologies (33-83%) with other insect ILPs, in which six conserved cysteine residues are found in the predicted B-A chains. SeILP1 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. exigua. However, SeILP1 expression was tissue-specific because the transcript was detected in fat body and epidermis, but not in hemocytes and gut. Its expression increased with feeding activity. Hemolymph trehalose levels of the fifth instar larvae maintained a relatively constant level at 2.31±0.62mM. However, starvation induced a significant increase of the hemolymph trehalose level by more than twofold in 48h, at which few SeILP1 was transcribed. RNA interference of SeILP1 using its specific double-stranded RNA induced a significant increase of hemolymph trehalose level. Interestingly, a bovine insulin decreased hemolymph trehalose level in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that SeILP1 plays a role in suppressing hemolymph trehalose level in S. exigua. PMID:25703302

  1. Lycorine alkaloids from Hymenocallis littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lin, L Z; Hu, S F; Chai, H B; Pengsuparp, T; Pezzuto, J M; Cordell, G A; Ruangrungsi, N

    1995-11-01

    From Hymenocallis littoralis, one new alkaloid, named littoraline, together with 13 known lycorine alkaloids and one lignan, were isolated. The structure and NMR assignments of this new alkaloid were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Littoraline showed inhibitory activity of HIV reverse transcriptase, and lycorine and haemanthamine showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:7492374

  2. EFFECTS OF DROUGHT STRESSED COTTON, GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L., ON BEET ARMYWORM, SPODOPTERA EXIGUA (HUBNER), OVIPOSITION, AND LARVAL FEEDING PREFERENCES AND GROWTH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), has been reported to oviposit more on drought stressed than on non-stressed cotton plants. Using potted cotton plants in cages, this study demonstrated that beet armyworms deposited 3.3, 4.6, and 2.3 times more (P less than or equal to 0.05) eggs on co...

  3. Identification and comparative expression analysis of odorant binding protein genes in the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shao-Hua; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gao, Shang; Wang, Da-Hai; Li, Xian-Chun; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to involve in insects' olfaction perception. In the present study, we identified 38 OBP genes from the antennal transcriptomes of Spodoptera litura. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that 17 of the 38 SlitOBP transcripts were uniquely or primarily expressed in the antennae of both sexes, suggesting their putative role in chemoreception. The RPKM value analysis revealed that seven OBPs (SlitPBP1-3, SlitGOBP1-2, SlitOBP3 and SlitOBP5) are highly abundant in male and female antennae. Most S. litura antennal unigenes had high homology with Lepidoptera insects, especially genes of the genus Spodoptera. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera OBPs demonstrated that the OBP genes from the genus Spodoptera (S. litura, Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera exigua) had a relatively close evolutionary relationship. Some regular patterns and key conserved motifs of OBPs in genus Spodoptera are identified by MEME, and their putative roles in detecting odorants are discussed here. The motif-patterns between Lepidoptera OBPs and CSPs are also compared. The SlitOBPs identified here provide a starting point to facilitate functional studies of insect OBPs at the molecular level both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26346731

  4. Identification and comparative expression analysis of odorant binding protein genes in the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shao-Hua; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gao, Shang; Wang, Da-Hai; Li, Xian-Chun; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to involve in insects’ olfaction perception. In the present study, we identified 38 OBP genes from the antennal transcriptomes of Spodoptera litura. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that 17 of the 38 SlitOBP transcripts were uniquely or primarily expressed in the antennae of both sexes, suggesting their putative role in chemoreception. The RPKM value analysis revealed that seven OBPs (SlitPBP1-3, SlitGOBP1-2, SlitOBP3 and SlitOBP5) are highly abundant in male and female antennae. Most S. litura antennal unigenes had high homology with Lepidoptera insects, especially genes of the genus Spodoptera. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera OBPs demonstrated that the OBP genes from the genus Spodoptera (S. litura, Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera exigua) had a relatively close evolutionary relationship. Some regular patterns and key conserved motifs of OBPs in genus Spodoptera are identified by MEME, and their putative roles in detecting odorants are discussed here. The motif-patterns between Lepidoptera OBPs and CSPs are also compared. The SlitOBPs identified here provide a starting point to facilitate functional studies of insect OBPs at the molecular level both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26346731

  5. Metabolism, excretion and avoidance of cyanogenic glucosides in insects with different feeding specialisations.

    PubMed

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Kroymann, Juergen; Vogel, Heiko; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2015-11-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds releasing toxic hydrogen cyanide when hydrolysed by specific β-glucosidases after plant tissue damage. In contrast to specialist herbivores that have mechanisms to avoid toxicity from CNglcs, it is generally assumed that non-adapted herbivores are negatively affected by CNglcs. Recent evidence, however, implies that the defence potential of CNglcs towards herbivores may not be as effective as previously anticipated. Here, performance, metabolism and excretion products of insects not adapted to CNglcs were analysed, including species with different degrees of dietary specialisation (generalists, specialists) and different feeding modes (leaf-snipping lepidopterans, piercing-sucking aphids). Insects were reared either on cyanogenic or acyanogenic plants or on an artificial cyanogenic diet. Lepidopteran generalists (Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua, Mamestra brassicae) were compared to lepidopteran glucosinolate-specialists (Pieris rapae, Pieris brassicae, Plutella xylostella), and a generalist aphid (Myzus persicae) was compared to an aphid glucosinolate-specialist (Lipaphis erysimi). All insects were tolerant to cyanogenic plants; in lepidopterans tolerance was mainly due to excretion of intact CNglcs. The two Pieris species furthermore metabolized aromatic CNglcs to amino acid conjugates (Cys, Gly, Ser) and derivatives of these, which is similar to the metabolism of benzylglucosinolates in these species. Aphid species avoided uptake of CNglcs during feeding. Our results imply that non-adapted insects tolerate plant CNglcs either by keeping them intact for excretion, metabolizing them, or avoiding uptake. PMID:26483288

  6. Data set for diet specific differential gene expression analysis in three Spodoptera moths.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Kushwaha, S K; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-09-01

    Examination of closely related species pairs is suggested for evolutionary comparisons of different degrees of polyphagy, which we did here with three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores, Spodoptera spp (S. littoralis, S. frugiperda maize (C) and rice (R) strains) for a RNAseq analysis of the midguts from the 3rd instar insect larvae for differential metabolic responses after feeding on pinto bean based artificial diet vs maize leaves. Paired-end (2×100 bp) Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing resulted in a total of 24, 23, 24, and 21 million reads for the SF-C-Maize, SF-C-Pinto, SF-R-Maize, SF-R Pinto, and a total of 35 and 36 million reads for the SL-Maize and SL-Pinto samples, respectively. After quality control measures, a total of 62.2 million reads from SL and 71.7 million reads from SF were used for transcriptome assembly (TA). The resulting final de novo reference TA (backbone) for the SF taxa contained 37,985 contigs with a N50 contig size of 1030 bp and a maximum contig length of 17,093 bp, while for SL, 28,329 contigs were generated with a N50 contig size of 1980 bp and a maximum contig length of 18,267 bp. The data presented herein contains supporting information related to our research article Roy et al. (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.02.006[1]. PMID:27366783

  7. Arabidopsis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 Regulate Glucosinolate Biosynthesis, Insect Performance, and Feeding Behavior[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Fabian; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Zander, Mark; Diez-Diaz, Monica; Fonseca, Sandra; Glauser, Gaétan; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Solano, Roberto; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants fend off insect attack by constitutive and inducible production of toxic metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSs). A triple mutant lacking MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are known to additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, was shown to have a highly reduced expression of GS biosynthesis genes. The myc2 myc3 myc4 (myc234) triple mutant was almost completely devoid of GS and was extremely susceptible to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. On the contrary, the specialist Pieris brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and preferred to feed on wild-type plants. In addition, lack of GS in myc234 drastically modified S. littoralis feeding behavior. Surprisingly, the expression of MYB factors known to regulate GS biosynthesis genes was not altered in myc234, suggesting that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 are necessary for direct transcriptional activation of GS biosynthesis genes. To support this, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MYC2 binds directly to the promoter of several GS biosynthesis genes in vivo. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments indicated that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 interact directly with GS-related MYBs. This specific MYC–MYB interaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of defense secondary metabolite production and underlines the importance of GS in shaping plant interactions with adapted and nonadapted herbivores. PMID:23943862

  8. 'Do you remember the first time?' Host plant preference in a moth is modulated by experiences during larval feeding and adult mating.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Carrasco, David; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In insects, like in other animals, experience-based modulation of preference, a form of phenotypic plasticity, is common in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of multiple fitness-relevant experiences on insect preference remains largely unexplored. For the multivoltine polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis we investigated effects of larval and adult experiences on subsequent reproductive behaviours. We demonstrate, for the first time in male and female insects, that mating experience on a plant modulates plant preference in subsequent reproductive behaviours, whereas exposure to the plant alone or plant together with sex pheromone does not affect this preference. When including larval feeding experiences, we found that both larval rearing and adult mating experiences modulate host plant preference. These findings represent the first evidence that host plant preferences in polyphagous insects are determined by a combination of innate preferences modulated by sensory feedback triggered by multiple rewarding experiences throughout their lifetime. PMID:25735877

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae).

    PubMed

    del Cerro, Carlos; Peñalver, Ana; Cuevas, Carmen; de la Calle, Fernando; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae) is reported here for the first time. The P. littoralis mitogenome is 21,719 bp base pairs in total length and includes 14 protein-coding gene sequences, small and large rRNA sequences, and 25 tRNA sequences. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand. There are two overlapping genes trnE and nad6. PMID:24617477

  10. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    PubMed

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton. PMID:20878002

  11. RNAi Screening in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhanita; Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Kumar, Ajit; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference is a potent and precise reverse genetic approach to carryout large-scale functional genomic studies in a given organism. During the past decade, RNAi has also emerged as an important investigative tool to understand the process of viral pathogenesis. Our laboratory has successfully generated transgenic reporter and RNAi sensor line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells and developed a reversal of silencing assay via siRNA or shRNA guided screening to investigate RNAi factors or viral pathogenic factors with extraordinary fidelity. Here we describe empirical approaches and conceptual understanding to execute successful RNAi screening in Spodoptera frugiperda 21-cell line. PMID:27581295

  12. Phytochemical and biological investigation of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Amina H; Toaima, Soad M; Hammoda, Hala M; Shawky, Eman; Kinoshita, Eri; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2008-02-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the bulbs and flowers of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB., cultivated in Egypt, was carried out, which resulted in the isolation of four alkaloids, lycorine (1), hippeastrine (2), 11-hydroxyvittatine (3), and (+)-8-O-demethylmaritidine (4), and of two flavonoids, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside (5), and rutin (6). The volatile constituents of the plant flowers were analyzed for the first time by GC/MS, which led to the identification of 26 known compounds (Table 1). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether extract of the flowers of H. littoralis was investigated. PMID:18293433

  13. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Strizhov, Nicolai; Keller, Menachem; Mathur, Jaideep; Koncz-Kálmán, Zsuzsanna; Bosch, Dirk; Prudovsky, Evgenia; Schell, Jeff; Sneh, Baruch; Koncz, Csaba; Zilberstein, Aviah

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and economical method to construct large synthetic genes can be used when routine resynthesis of genes is required. Chemically phosphorylated adjacent oligonucleotides of the gene to be synthesized are assembled and ligated on a single-stranded, partially homologous template derived from a wild-type gene (cryIC in our case) by a thermostable Pfu DNA ligase using repeated cycles of melting, annealing, and ligation. The resulting synthetic DNA strands are selectively amplified by PCR with short specific flanking primers that are complementary only to the new synthetic DNA. Optimized expression of the synthetic cryIC gene in alfalfa and tobacco results in the production of 0.01–0.2% of total soluble proteins as CryIC toxin and provides protection against the Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). To facilitate selection and breeding of Spodoptera-resistant plants, the cryIC gene was linked to a pat gene, conferring resistance to the herbicide BASTA. PMID:8986755

  14. Antineoplastic agents, 294. Variations in the formation of pancratistatin and related isocarbostyrils in Hymenocallis littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A; Boettner, F E

    1995-01-01

    By cloning Hymenocallis littoralis, a practical biosynthetic procedure was developed for producing pancratistatin [1]. The plant tissue culture-->greenhouse-->field production sequence was successively utilized for increasing an original 1.5 kg of wild H. littoralis bulbs to some 60,000 bulbs at present. In the central Arizona Sonoran Desert, the tropical H. littoralis was found to reach a maximum pancratistatin content in October and a minimum in May. Generally pancratistatin [1] was accompanied by lesser yields of narciclasine [2], 7-deoxynarciclasine [3], and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarcicasine [4]. Improved laboratory and pilot-plant scale techniques were also developed for the isolation of pancratistatin [1] from difficult-to-separate mixtures of narciclasine [2] and 7-deoxynarciclasine [3]occurring in H. littoralis. PMID:7760076

  15. A new chromone from Hymenocallis littoralis Salisb. (Amaryllidaceae).

    PubMed

    Anh, Dinh Thi Phuong; Duong, Tran Bach; Hoang, Vu Dinh

    2014-01-01

    A new chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (1), together with seven known compounds, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (pisonin B) (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (noreugenin) (3), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (eugenin) (4), (2S)-7,4'-dihydroxyflavan (5), 3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavan (6), 3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavan (7) and 6,8-dimethyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (( - )-farrerol) (8), were isolated from Hymenocallis littoralis Salisb. (Amaryllidaceae) growing in Vietnam. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. PMID:25142217

  16. CML42-Mediated Calcium Signaling Coordinates Responses to Spodoptera Herbivory and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Hause, Bettina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis, little is known about early events in defense signaling and their link to downstream phytohormone pathways. S. littoralis oral secretions induced both Ca2+ and phytohormone elevation in Arabidopsis. Plant gene expression induced by oral secretions revealed up-regulation of a gene encoding a calmodulin-like protein, CML42. Functional analysis of cml42 plants revealed more resistance to herbivory than in the wild type, because caterpillars gain less weight on the mutant, indicating that CML42 negatively regulates plant defense; cml42 also showed increased aliphatic glucosinolate content and hyperactivated transcript accumulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes VSP2 and Thi2.1 upon herbivory, which might contribute to increased resistance. CML42 up-regulation is negatively regulated by the jasmonate receptor Coronatine Insensitive1 (COI1), as loss of functional COI1 resulted in prolonged CML42 activation. CML42 thus acts as a negative regulator of plant defense by decreasing COI1-mediated JA sensitivity and the expression of JA-responsive genes and is independent of herbivory-induced JA biosynthesis. JA-induced Ca2+ elevation and root growth inhibition were more sensitive in cml42, also indicating higher JA perception. Our results indicate that CML42 acts as a crucial signaling component connecting Ca2+ and JA signaling. CML42 is localized to cytosol and nucleus. CML42 is also involved in abiotic stress responses, as kaempferol glycosides were down-regulated in cml42, and impaired in ultraviolet B resistance. Under drought stress, the level of abscisic acid accumulation was higher in cml42 plants. Thus, CML42 might serve as a Ca2+ sensor having multiple functions in insect herbivory defense and abiotic stress responses. PMID:22570470

  17. The attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda neonates to cowpea seedlings is mediated by volatiles induced by conspecific herbivory and the elicitor inceptin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [FAW; Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith)] often encounters herbivore damage as it disperses as a neonate from an egg mass to an individual feeding site. We investigated orientation responses of dispersing neonates to herbivore damage in cowpea seedings, specifically examining whether ...

  18. [Approach to Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) phylogeny based on the sequence of the cytocrhome oxydase I (COI) mitochondrial gene].

    PubMed

    Saldamando, Clara Inés; Marquez, Edna Judith

    2012-09-01

    The genus Spodoptera includes 30 species of moths considered important pests worldwide, with a great representation in the Western Hemisphere. In general, Noctuidae species have morphological similarities that have caused some difficulties for assertive species identification by conventional methods. The purpose of this work was to generate an approach to the genus phylogeny from several species of the genus Spodoptera and the species Bombyx mori as an out group, with the use of molecular tools. For this, a total of 102 S. frugiperda larvae were obtained at random in corn, cotton, rice, grass and sorghum, during late 2006 and early 2009, from Colombia. We took ADN samples from the larval posterior part and we analyzed a fragment of 451 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxydase I (COI), to produce a maximum likelihood (ML) tree by using 62 sequences (29 Colombian haplotypes were used). Our results showed a great genetic differentiation (K2 distances) amongst S. frugiperda haplotypes from Colombia and the United States, condition supported by the estimators obtained for haplotype diversity and polymorphism. The obtained ML tree clustered most of the species with bootstrapping values from 73-99% in the interior branches; with low values also observed in some of the branches. In addition, this tree clustered two species of the Eastern hemisphere (S littoralis and S. litura) and eight species of the Western hemisphere (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli and S. pulchella). In Colombia, S. frugiperda, S. ornithogalli and S. albula represent a group of species referred as "the Spodoptera complex" of cotton crops, and our work demonstrated that sequencing a fragment of the COI gene, allows researchers to differentiate the first two species, and thus it can be used as an alternative method to taxonomic keys based on morphology. Finally, the ML tree did not cluster S. frugiperda with S. ornithogalli

  19. THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND NUTRIENTS ON AN INVASIVE BUDDLEJA DAVIDII AND A NATIVE GRISELINIA LITTORALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii (Family: Buddlejaceae), an aggressive, highly invasive, ornamental

    shrub of Asian origin, may be suppressing slower-growing native species (e.g., Griselinia

    littoralis; Family: Griseliniaceae) on New Zealand floodplains, thus altering successional

  20. The biology and ecology of Necrodes littoralis, a species of forensic interest in Europe.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Vincent, Benoît; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), also known as the "shore sexton beetle," is a common silphid beetle that visits and breeds on large vertebrate cadavers. This study describes, for the first time, the involvement of N. littoralis on human corpses based on a large dataset of 154 French forensic cases. Various parameters regarding corpse location, decomposition stages, and entomofauna were extracted from each file. Compared to all of the forensic entomology cases analyzed between 1990 and 2013 (1028), N. littoralis was observed, on average, in one case out of eight; most of these cases occurred during spring and summer (73.5%). More than 90% of the cases were located outdoors, especially in woodlands, bushes, and fields. The decomposition stage of the corpse varied among cases, with more than 50% in the advanced decomposition stage, 36% in the early decomposition stage, and less than 10% in the fresh, mummified, or skeletonized stages. Regarding other necrophagous species sampled with N. littoralis, Calliphorid flies were found in 94% of the cases and Fanniidae/Muscidae in 65% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps, a heliophilic species mostly located in the Mediterranean area, was present in 34% of the cases (only 20% in the whole dataset). The most common coleopteran species were Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); these beetles were observed in 27% of the cases. The over-representation of these species is likely due to similar requirements regarding the climate and decomposition stage. As N. littoralis is frequently observed and tends to become more common, we conclude that the developmental data for this species would be a precious tool for forensic entomologists in Europe. PMID:26762393

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis F.Schmidt ex Miq. (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Oh Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Soonok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq is an oriental medicinal herb belonging to Apiaceae family, and its dried roots and rhizomes are known to show various pharmacological effects. The complete chlorplast genome of G. littoralis was generated by de novo assembly using whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of G. littoralis was 147 467 bp in length and divided into four distinct regions: large single copy region (93 493 bp), small single copy region (17 546 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (18 214 bp). A total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes were predicted and accounted for 57.1% of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that G. littoralis is an herbal species closely related to Ledebouriella seseloides, an herbal medicinal plant. PMID:26367483

  2. Bioefficacy of Aristolochia tagala Cham. against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, K.; Sasikumar, S.; Muthu, C.; Kingsley, S.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bioefficacy of leaf and root extracts of Aristolochia tagala Cham. at different concentrations was evaluated at room temperature against Spodoptera litura Fab. Effects on feeding, larvicidal and pupicidal activities and larval–pupal duration were studied. Higher antifeedant activity (56.06%), lethal concentration for feeding inhibition (3.69%), larvicidal (40.66%), pupicidal (28%), total mortality (68.66%) and prolonged larval–pupal duration (12.04–13.08 days) were observed in ethyl acetate leaf extract at 5.0% concentration. Dose dependant effect of test extracts was observed. This plant could be used to isolate active principles and to develop a new botanical formulation in pest management programmes. PMID:23961100

  3. [Effects of P and K fertilizer on content of coumarin and yield of Glehnia littoralis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuang-shu; Zheng, Kan; Li, Wei; Chen, Gui-lin; Yu, Rong; Yu, Jian-guo

    2015-09-01

    By a orthogonal experiment, the influence of different ratio of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen contents and yield of Glehnia littoralis were studied. The results showed that root dry weight and the yield of G. littoralis increased when reasonably applied phosphorus fertilizer combined with potassium fertilizer within a certain range. And the influence of phosphorus fertilizer was greater than that of potassium fertilizer. The optimal value of root dry weight and yield achieved at both P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2) and P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2). The effects of different phosphorus and potassium treatments on the content of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen in G. littoralis were determined, which shows that the content increased with the moderate increase of phosphorus and potassium. And the effects of phosphorus fertilizer were more significantly. The isoimperatorin content achieved the largest value at P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2), also a larger content of imperatorin and psoralen. The imperatorin content is the largest when applied P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2), and the isoimperatorin content was higher as well. So that the treatment of P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2) are suitable for promote to the agricultural production, which could improve the quality and yield of G. littoralis. PMID:26983197

  4. Laboratory evaluation of Artemisia annua L. extract and artemisinin activity against Epilachna paenulata and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Maggi, María E; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Carpinella, María C; Ferrayoli, Carlos G; Valladares, Graciela R; Palacios, Sara M

    2005-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Artemisia annua L. and artemisinin were evaluated as anti-insect products. In a feeding deterrence assay on Epilachna paenulata Germ (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae, complete feeding rejection was observed at an extract concentration of 1.5 mg/cm2 on pumpkin leaf tissue. The same concentration produced a feeding inhibition of 87% in Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a no-choice assay, both species ate less and gained less weight when fed on leaves treated with the extract. Complete mortality in E. paenulata and 50% mortality in S. eridania were observed with extract at 1.5 mg/cm2. Artemisinin exhibited a moderate antifeedant effect on E. paenulata and S. eridania at 0.03-0.375 mg/cm2. However, a strong effect on survival and body weight was observed when E. paenulata larvae were forced to feed on leaves treated at 0.03 and 0.075 mg/cm2. Artemisia annua ethanolic extract of aerial parts at 1.5 mg/cm2 showed no phytotoxic effect on pumpkin seedlings. PMID:16222790

  5. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. PMID:17581705

  6. Growth profile and SEM analyses of Candida albicans and Escherichia coli with Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Rosli, N; Sumathy, V; Vikneswaran, M; Sreeramanan, S

    2014-12-01

    Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb (Melong kecil) commonly known as 'Spider Lily' is an herbaceous plant from the family Amaryllidaceae. Study was carried out to determine the effect of H. littoralis leaf extract on the growth and morphogenesis of two pathogenic microbes, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The leaf extract displayed favourable anticandidal and antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6.25 mg/mL. Time kill study showed both microbes were completely killed after treated with leaf extract at 20 h. Both microbes' cell walls were heavily ruptured based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The significant anticandidal and antibacterial activities showed by H. littoralis leaf extract suggested the potential antimicrobial agent against C. albicans and E. coli. PMID:25776614

  7. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) migration pathways in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial ec...

  8. Parasitoids of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, attacks a wide variety of host plants and is a serious pest of several crops in Florida. Although no one species is a major biological control agent, FAW does have a suite of parasitoids that may affect populations. These species include the braconids Chelonu...

  9. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract- Spodoptera frugiperda consists of two genetically and behaviorally different strains, the corn- and the rice-strain, which seem to be in the process of sympatric speciation. We investigated the role of strain-specific sexual communication as a prezygotic mating barrier between both strains...

  10. Spatial patterns of aflatoxin levels in relation to ear-feeding insect damage in pre-harvest corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key impediments to increased corn yield and quality in the southeastern US coastal plain region are damage by ear-feeding insects and aflatoxin contamination caused by infection of Aspergillus flavus. Key ear-feeding insects are corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, m...

  11. Quantitative gene expression analysis of some sodium ion transporters under salinity stress in Aeluropus littoralis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Moshaei, Masoumeh; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Askari, Hossein; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Pakdin, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Plant sodium transporters activity is one of the most important salt tolerance mechanisms to keep normal status of cytosolic sodium content. In the present study, expression pattern of genes encoding Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the plasma membrane (SOS1 gene), vacuolar membrane (NHX1 gene) and H(+)-ATPase pump (VHA gene) in Aeluropus littoralis under different treatments of NaCl was measured by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Our results indicated that root and shoot sodium contents were increased along with increasing salinity pressure. In response to 200 and 400 mM NaCl, mRNA level of SOS1 and NHX1 was increased in the shoot and root tissues, while VHA transcripts were increased only under 400 mM of NaCl. Transcripts of VHA-c and NHX1 in root were higher than shoot in all treatments. In general, our results indicated that transcriptional level of SOS1, and NHX1 genes induced in parallel with VHA expression may be involved in controlling cytosolic Na(+) concentration in A. littoralis. PMID:25313273

  12. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82–93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen. PMID

  13. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Lasa, Rodrigo; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa; Williams, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82-93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen. PMID

  14. Genomic Sequence Analysis of Granulovirus Isolated from the Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Tao, Xue Ying; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho

    2011-01-01

    Background Spodoptera litura is a noctuid moth that is considered an agricultural pest. The larvae feed on a wide range of plants and have been recorded on plants from 40 plant families (mostly dicotyledons). It is a major pest of many crops. To better understand Spodoptera litura granulovirus (SpliGV), the nucleotide sequence of the SpliGV DNA genome was determined and analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of the SpliGV was completely sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the SpliGV genome was 124,121 bp long with 61.2% A+T content and contained 133 putative open reading frames (ORFs) of 150 or more nucleotides. The 133 putative ORFs covered 86.3% of the genome. Among these, 31 ORFs were conserved in most completely sequenced baculovirus genomes, 38 were granulovirus (GV)-specific, and 64 were present in some nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and/or GVs. We proved that 9 of the ORFs were SpliGV specific. Conclusions/Significance The genome of SpliGV is 124,121 bp in size. One hundred thirty-three ORFs that putatively encode proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues with minimal overlap were determined. No chitinase or cathepsin genes, which are involved in the liquefaction of the infected host, were found in the SpliGV genome, explaining why SpliGV-infected insects do not degrade in a typical manner. The DNA photolyase gene was first found in the genus Granulovirus. When phylogenic relationships were analyzed, the SpliGV was most closely related to Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV) and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), which belong to the Type I-granuloviruses (Type I-GV). PMID:22132235

  15. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

  16. Development and feeding of fall armyworm, on Miscanthus x giganteus and switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] larvae infesting plots of Miscanthus x giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize prompted laboratory-based tests of survival, development and feeding preferences on leaf tissue from M. x giganteus and switchgrass (Panicum ...

  17. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  18. Instar determination in forensically useful beetles Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2014-08-01

    In order to estimate postmortem interval from immature insects, it is necessary to accurately determine which instars are present in a corpse sample. Unfortunately, most forensically useful beetles lack morphological features specific for particular instars, and the only way to distinguish larval instars of particular species is to measure their size. The aim of this study was to test which measurements are useful for instar determination of Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae) and how to combine them to get accurate and easy to use instar classifier. Six morphological features were measured: distance between dorsal stemmata, width of the pronotum, length of the body, width of the mesonotum, width of the eighth abdominal tergite and length of the first segment of urogomphus. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to create and validate classifiers. Validation was made with fully sclerotized larvae and larvae just after ecdysis (not fully sclerotized and coloured). All the features were found to be useful for instar determination. The most useful features were the width of the mesonotum and the distance between dorsal stemmata. Complete classifiers (the ones incorporating all features) assigned larvae to instars with no misclassifications, unless larval specimens were just after ecdysis. Even in the case of larvae just after ecdysis complete classifiers were highly effective, although some third instars of C. maxillosus were misclassified as second instars. Simple classifiers (the ones incorporating only two, the best features) performed similarly well with fully sclerotized larvae, but in the case of larvae just after ecdysis they revealed higher misclassification rate than complete classifiers. These results indicate that measurement of any highly sclerotized larval structure of N. littoralis and C. maxillosus may be useful for instar determination. They also show that fully sclerotized larvae may be accurately classified

  19. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species. PMID:24354326

  20. Oviposition by Spodoptera exigua on Nicotiana attenuata primes induced plant defence against larval herbivory.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Hilker, Monika; Steppuhn, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit multifarious defence traits against herbivory that are constitutively expressed or induced upon attack. Insect egg deposition often precedes impending larval attack, and several plants can increase their resistance against larvae after experiencing the oviposition by an herbivore. The nature of such oviposition-mediated resistance remains unknown, and here we aim to determine plant traits that explain it. We test whether oviposition on a host plant can induce plant defence responses or enhance (prime) the induction of defence traits in response to larval herbivory. We exposed Nicotiana attenuata plants to oviposition by moths of a generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua. Its larvae suffered higher mortality, retarded development and inflicted less feeding damage on oviposition-experienced than on oviposition-unexperienced plants. While oviposition alone did not induce any of the examined defence traits, oviposited plants exhibited a stronger inducibility of known defence traits, i.e. caffeoylputrescine (CP) and trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs). We found no effects of oviposition on phytohormone levels, but on the feeding-inducible accumulation of the transcription factor NaMyb8 that is governing biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid-polyamine conjugates, including CP. Comparison of larval performance on wild-type plants, CP-deficient plants (silenced NaMyb8 gene), and TPI-deficient plants (silenced NaPI gene) revealed that priming of plant resistance to larvae by prior oviposition required NaMyb8-mediated defence traits. Our results show that plants can use insect egg deposition as a warning signal to prime their feeding-induced defence. PMID:26096574

  1. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    PubMed Central

    Nègre, Vincent; Hôtelier, Thierry; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Gimenez, Sylvie; Cousserans, François; Mita, Kazuei; Sabau, Xavier; Rocher, Janick; López-Ferber, Miguel; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Audant, Pascaline; Sabourault, Cécile; Bidegainberry, Vincent; Hilliou, Frédérique; Fournier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body) and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons). The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST) from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: PMID:16796757

  2. A cardioactive peptide from the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K; Hackett, M; Cirelli, M A; Schegg, K M; Wang, H; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Schooley, D A

    1999-01-01

    A cardioactive peptide was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. This peptide has the sequence ENFAVGCTPGYQRTADGRCKPTF (Mr = 2516.8), determined from both Edman sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry in combination with off-line micropreparative capillary liquid chromatography. This peptide, termed Spoer-CAP23, has excitatory effects on a semi-isolated heart from larval Manduca sexta, causing an inotropic effect at low concentrations of peptide and chronotropic and inotropic effects at high doses. The threshold concentration for stimulatory effects of the synthetic peptide on the semi-isolated heart was about 1 nM, suggesting a physiological role as a neuropeptide. PMID:10098624

  3. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  4. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds. PMID:2161387

  5. Immature stages of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): developmental parameters and host plants.

    PubMed

    Montezano, Débora Goulart; Specht, Alexandre; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Roque-Specht, Vânia Ferreira; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to detail the temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania (Stoll, 1782) with larvae feed on artificial diet, under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity and 14-h photophase) and gather information about their larval host plants. The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.82, 93.62, 96.42, and 97.03%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and pre-pupal stages was 4.00, 16.18, 1.58, and 9.17 d, respectively. During the larval stage, 43.44% of females passed through seven instars, observing that the female's development was significant slower than males. The female larvae that developed through six and seven instars exhibited a mean growth rate of 1.52 and 1.44, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting faster development than males. The rearing method proved to be adequate, providing more detailed observations of the biological cycle, especially at the larval stage, and resulting in an overall survival of almost 85%. Two hundred two plant species belonging to 58 families are listed as natural hosts for S. eridania, mainly including Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Malvaceae. PMID:25525103

  6. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5th instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  7. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5(th) instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  8. Endophyte-mediated interactions between cauliflower, the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tamanreet; Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Amarjeet; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endosymbionts in plants may influence interactions among plants, herbivores and their parasitoids through the production of secondary metabolites. We used a lepidopteran pest and its generalist parasitoid to test the effect of endophyte-infected plants on a third trophic level. Endophytic fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from Acacia arabica, were used to infect cauliflower plants. We found that the presence of the endophyte in the plants significantly extended the development period of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae. Feeding of the host on endophyte-infected plants further adversely affected the development and performance of its parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). A negative impact was also recorded for longevity and fecundity of endophyte-naive parasitoid females due to the parasitization of host larvae fed on endophyte-infected plants. The presence of endophytes in the diet of the host larvae significantly prolonged the development of the parasitoid. A strong detrimental effect was also recorded for larval survival and emergence of parasitoid adults. The longevity and parasitism rate of female wasps were reduced significantly due to the ingestion of endophyte-infected cauliflower plants by S. litura larvae. Overall, we found that both endophytic fungi had a negative impact on the parasitoid. PMID:26041060

  9. Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gahloth, Deepankar; Shukla, Umesh; Birah, Ajanta; Gupta, Gorakh P; Kumar, P Ananda; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2011-11-01

    Miraculin-like proteins, belonging to the Kunitz superfamily, are natural plant defense agents against pests and predators, and therefore are potential biopesticides for incorporation into pest-resistant crops. Here, a miraculin-like protein from Murraya koenigii was assessed for its in vitro and in vivo effects against two polyphagous lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. M. koenigii miraculin-like protein (MKMLP) inhibited the trypsin-like activity and total protease activity of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGP) by 78.5 and 40%, respectively, and S.litura gut proteinases (SGP) by 81 and 48%, respectively. The inhibitor was stable and actively inhibited the proteolysis of both HGP and SGP enzymes for up to 72 h. Incorporation of MKMLP into artificial diet adversely affected the growth and development of pests in a dose-dependent manner. After 10 days of feeding on diets containing 200 µM MKMLP, larval weight was reduced to 69 and 44.8% and larval mortality was increased to 40 and 43.3% for H. armigera and S litura, respectively. The LC(50) of MKMLP was 0.34 and 0.22% of the diet for H.armigera and S. litura, respectively. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MKMLP as a potential plant defense agent against H. armigera and S. litura. PMID:21948662

  10. Cryopreservation of the late stage embryos of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Pang, Yi; Chen, Qijin; Li, Guanghong

    2006-01-01

    Genetic devolution, genetic drift and contamination are all threats to maintain germplasm stability during mass rearing of many insects. Cryopreservation of beet armworm (Spodoptera exigua) embryos was studied to provide information to improve mass rearing. A series of experiments was conducted on late-stage embryos (45-48 h at 27 degree C) of the beet armyworm, which included evaluation of cryoprotectants (CPAs), their toxicity and glass-forming tendency and optimization of experimental procedures. The results showed that ethylene glycol (EG) was the best CPA with comparatively low toxicity compared to the other six CPAs tested (methanol, 1,3-propanediol, glycerol, 2-amino-1-ethanol, 3-amino-1-propanol 3-methoxy-1 and 2-propanediol). The highest hatching rate of 8.8 degree was attained after freezing with a 3-step loading procedure and a 1-step unloading procedure, but the hatched larvae from frozen-thawed embryos did not actively feed and could not develop to a later stage. This was attributed to injuries from freezing in late stage embryos of S. exigua which had formed midguts. PMID:17256068

  11. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  12. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching. PMID:23828345

  13. Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Stokes, N A; Carnegie, R B

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we described the pathology and ultrastructure of an apparently asporous haplosporidian-like parasite infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas from the European shoreline. In the current study, extraction of genomic DNA from the haemolymph, gill or hepatopancreas of infected C. maenas was carried out and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the pathogen was amplified by PCR before cloning and sequencing. All 4 crabs yielded an identical 1736 bp parasite sequence. BLAST analysis against the NCBI GenBank database identified the sequence as most similar to the protistan pathogen group comprising the order Haplosporida within the class Ascetosporea of the phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Parsimony analysis placed the crab pathogen within the genus Haplosporidium, sister to the molluscan parasites H. montforti, H. pickfordi and H. lusitanicum. The parasite infecting C. maenas is hereby named as Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov. The presence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting decapod crustaceans from the European shoreline with close phylogenetic affinity to previously described haplosporidians infecting molluscs is intriguing. The study provides important phylogenetic data for this relatively understudied, but commercially significant, pathogen group. PMID:23999708

  14. Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, P M; Witte, C; Clifford, D L; Imai, D M; O'Brien, T D; Trejo, M; Liberta, F; Annamalai, K; Fändrich, M; Masliah, E; Munson, L; Sigurdson, C J

    2016-05-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n= 78 of 80] vs 56% [n= 45], respectively;P< .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n= 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n= 7];P= .01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P= .05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9;P= .05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8;P< .0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3;P= .0003), captivity (OR = 5.1;P= .0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3;P= .01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis. PMID:26419399

  15. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  16. Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California’s Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200–7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  17. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J.; Collins, Paul W.; Guthrie, Daniel A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    The island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of a few fox bones from late Pleistocene paleontological localities. Direct AMS 14C dating of these "fossil" fox bones produced dates ranging from ˜ 6400 to 200 cal yr BP, however, postdating human colonization of the islands by several millennia. Although one of these specimens is the earliest securely dated fox from the islands, these new data support the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced foxes to all the Channel Islands in the early to middle Holocene. However, a natural dispersal for the original island colonization cannot be ruled out until further paleontological, archaeological, and genetic studies (especially aDNA [ancient DNA]) are conducted.

  18. Phenolic Compounds from Atriplex littoralis and Their Radiation-Mitigating Activity.

    PubMed

    Gođevac, Dejan; Stanković, Jovana; Novaković, Miroslav; Anđelković, Boban; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Petrović, Milica; Stanković, Miroslava

    2015-09-25

    From the aerial parts of Atriplex littoralis, three new flavonoid glycosides named atriplexins I-III (1-3), a known flavonoid glycoside, spinacetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), arbutin (5), and 4-hydroxybenzyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and HRESITOF MS data. The compounds were tested for in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using a cytochalasin-B-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in a concentration range of 0.8-7.4 μM of final culture solution. Chromosomal damage was induced by 2 Gy of γ-radiation on binucleated human lymphocytes, and the effects of the compounds were tested 2 to 19 h after irradiation. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in binucleated cells, and the nuclear proliferation index was calculated. The highest prevention of in vitro biochemical and cytogenetic damage of human lymphocytes induced by γ-radiation was exhibited by 3 (reduction of MN frequency by 31%), followed by 4 and 6. PMID:26290401

  19. A noda-like virus isolated from the sweetpotato pest spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lep.; noctuidae)

    PubMed

    Zeddam; Rodriguez; Ravallec; Lagnaoui

    1999-11-01

    A small isometric virus has been isolated from larvae of the sweetpotato pest Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) collected near Pariacoto, Ancash province, Peru. It is designated the Pariacoto virus (PaV). In addition to its high pathogenicity on its natural host Spodoptera eridania, PaV was found to replicate in Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson) larvae but not in Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) larvae. The size of the viral particle was estimated to be about 30 nm in diameter. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a protein of approximately 40.5 kDa. After agarose gel electrophoresis, the viral genome appeared to be bipartite RNA. Gel immunodiffusion tests showed no serological relationship between PaV and Nodamura virus, the type species for insect nodaviruses. Electron microscopy confirmed that viral replication occurs in the cytoplasm. These properties are similar to those of other members of family Nodaviridae, to which the virus is currently assigned. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10534414

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS GENOME BY RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restriction endonuclease analysis was used to differentiate between four strains of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus from different geographical areas. In addition, partial denaturation was performed, and a partial denaturation map was constructed for the Ohio str...

  1. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  2. First microsatellites developed from Spodoptera frugiperda and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 colonies ...

  3. Antifeedant activity of Momordica dioica fruit pulp extracts on Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, S; Kannan, S; Ilango, K; Maharajan, G

    2005-12-01

    The hexane extract and ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Momordica dioica exhibited moderate and concentration dependent antifeedant activity against Spodoptera litura. PMID:16246499

  4. Susceptibility, mechanisms of response and resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Spodoptera spp.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Ferré, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have long been used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides to control insect pests. In this review, we focus on insects of the genus Spodoptera, including relevant polyphagous species that are primary and secondary pests of many crops, and how B. thuringiensis toxins can be used for Spodoptera spp. pest management. We summarize the main findings related to susceptibility, midgut binding specificity, mechanisms of response and resistance of this insect genus to B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:27436737

  5. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  6. Comparative analysis of lycorine in wild plant and callus culture samples of Hymenocallis littoralis by HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran; Sahgal, Geethaa; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-01-01

    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis. PMID:24895650

  7. Comparative Analysis of Lycorine in Wild Plant and Callus Culture Samples of Hymenocallis littoralis by HPLC-UV Method

    PubMed Central

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-01-01

    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis. PMID:24895650

  8. Immature Development of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Montezano, D G; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Paula-Moraes, S V; Roque-Specht, V F; Fronza, E; Barros, N M; Specht, A

    2016-02-01

    We provide detailed temporal and morphological parameters of the immature stages of Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius) larvae fed on artificial diet under controlled conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14 h photophase). The viability of the egg, larval, pupal, and prepupal stages was 97.5%, 97.0%, 93.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larval, prepupal, and pupal stages was 5.0, 23.4, 3.2, and 21.5 days, respectively. Females took longer at the larval stage than males, with 10.5% of them having seven instars. The growth rate of female larvae that developed through six and seven instars was 1.72 and 1.54, respectively. Female pupae were significantly larger, exhibiting slower development than males. PMID:26429580

  9. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  10. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  11. [The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2006-08-01

    The leaves of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were scanned with a scanning electron microscope, it showed that the upper-epidermis had almost the same number of salt glands as the lower-epidermis (Plate I-1, 2), and the salt gland is the typical bicelluar gland, which consists of a large basal cell inlaid into the epidermis and a small cap cell (Plate I-6). These salt glands were distributed mainly on the leaf veins, which favors the rapid collection of salts from the roots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the salt glands could effectively absorb Na(+) from the epidermal cells and mesophyllous cells (Table 1), then secreted Na(+) from the cap cells (Plate I-4), which would decrease the salinity of plant. After the plants were treated with various salts for 17 d, the ion contents of the leaves and the secretion were measured, and the results implied that salt glands had different selection in absorbing and secreting Na(+) , K(+) and Ca(2+), that is, the plants first selected K(+) when absorbing ions, while first selected Na(+) when sending ions out, but Ca(2+) was fewer in both absorbed and secreted, and the order of secretion of the three ions was found to be Na(+)>K(+)>Ca(2+) (Figs. 1-6). The secretion of Na(+) or three ions were respectively higher than that of leaves within 24 h (Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), while K(+) situation was completely opposite with them (Figs. 3, 4). At the same time, the total ion content and composition inside the leaves remained more or less constant (Fig. 8). PMID:16957392

  12. The Influence of an Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii on a Native Shrub, Griselinia Littoralis Transplanted into a New Zealand Floodplain Chronosequence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Griselinia littoralis, a native New Zealand shrub, was planted into a chronosequence (0 to 8 yrs since flooding) dominated by the non-indigenous shrub, Buddleja davidii in three New Zealand floodplains to determine to what extent facilitation and competitive inhibition may influe...

  13. Identification, structural characterisation and expression analysis of a defensin gene from the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; García-Reina, Andrés; Machado, Vilmar; Galián, José

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a defensin gene (Clit-Def) has been characterised in the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the gene has an open reading frame of 246bp that contains a 46 amino acid mature peptide. The phylogenetic analysis showed a high variability in the coleopteran defensins analysed. The Clit-Def mature peptide has the features to be involved in the antimicrobial function: a predicted cationic isoelectric point of 8.94, six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds, and the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix β-sheet (CSαβ) structural fold. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Clit-Def was upregulated in the different body parts analysed after infection with lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli, and also indicated that has an expression peak at 12h post infection. The expression patterns of Clit-Def suggest that this gene plays important roles in the humoral system in the adephagan beetle Calomera littoralis. PMID:27210512

  14. Growth Performance and Biometric Characteristics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Different Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), an important polyphagous insect pest, attacks ca. 300 economic crops in dozens of countries. Investigations into its growth and development performance on different host plants can provide an understanding of the potential for increase of S. litura population in the field. We measured the development time, body weight, and head capsule width of S. litura larvae reared on cabbage, taro, peanut, and sesbania, a green manure. Larvae reared on cabbage ingested a significantly higher amount of protein and completed the immature stages in a shorter period than those reared on the other three plants. The relationship between head capsule width and larval instars on these four crops fitted well with Dyar's rule, and the Dyar's ratios ranged from 1.4554 to 1.6786, although a few supernumerary instar individuals on sesbania, peanut, and taro showed lower ratios (1.0103 to 1.1330). The head capsule width among cohorts fed on different host plants varied significantly and overlapped between late instars, which could lead to a misjudgment of instar stage in the field. The growth index of S. litura on cabbage was significantly higher than on the other host plants. Larvae fed on sesbania showed the highest feeding index and a better growth index than on taro and peanut. We therefore suggest that the area-wide pest management against S. litura should take into consideration its occurrence on sesbania in intercropping seasons. Additionally, the effective management of this pest during cropping windows between all these four plants should not be ignored. PMID:26453712

  15. Using DNA barcoding and genitalia to place “Leucochlaena” hipparis (Druce) in Spodoptera Guenee (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the 658 bp ‘barcode’ region of cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene, the species “Leucochlaena” hipparis (Druce) was placed in the genus Spodoptera. A neighbor-joining tree placing “Leucochlaena” hipparis within Spodoptera is illustrated. Adult and male and female genitalia are illustrated....

  16. Interactions between density, home range behaviors, and contact rates in the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jessica N; Hudgens, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Many of the mechanisms underlying density-dependent regulation of populations, including contest competition and disease spread, depend on contact among neighboring animals. Understanding how variation in population density influences the frequency of contact among neighboring animals is therefore an important aspect to understanding the mechanisms underlying, and ecological consequences of, density-dependent regulation. However, contact rates are difficult to measure in the field and may be influenced by density through multiple pathways. This study explored how local density affects contact rates among Channel Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) through two pathways: changes in home range size and changes in home range overlap. We tracked 40 radio-collared foxes at four sites on San Clemente Island, California. Fox densities at the four sites ranged from 2.8 ± 1.28 to 42.8 ± 9.43 foxes/km2. Higher fox densities were correlated with smaller home ranges (R2 = 0.526, F1,38 = 42.19, P < 0.001). Thirty foxes wore collars that also contained proximity loggers, which recorded the time and duration of occasions when collared foxes were within 5 m of one another. Contact rates between neighboring fox dyads were positively correlated with home range overlap (R2 = 0.341, P = 0.008), but not fox density (R2 = 0.012, P = 0.976). Individuals at high densities had more collared neighbors with overlapping home ranges (R2 = 0.123, P = 0.026) but not an increase in the amount of contact between individual neighbors. This study was the first time contact rates were directly measured and compared to density and home range overlap. Results suggest that foxes exhibit a threshold in their degree of tolerance for neighbors, overlap is a reliable index of the amount of direct contact between island foxes, and disease transmission rates will likely scale with fox density. PMID:26120435

  17. Interactions between density, home range behaviors, and contact rates in the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jessica N; Hudgens, Brian R

    2015-06-01

    Many of the mechanisms underlying density-dependent regulation of populations, including contest competition and disease spread, depend on contact among neighboring animals. Understanding how variation in population density influences the frequency of contact among neighboring animals is therefore an important aspect to understanding the mechanisms underlying, and ecological consequences of, density-dependent regulation. However, contact rates are difficult to measure in the field and may be influenced by density through multiple pathways. This study explored how local density affects contact rates among Channel Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) through two pathways: changes in home range size and changes in home range overlap. We tracked 40 radio-collared foxes at four sites on San Clemente Island, California. Fox densities at the four sites ranged from 2.8 ± 1.28 to 42.8 ± 9.43 foxes/km(2). Higher fox densities were correlated with smaller home ranges (R (2) = 0.526, F 1,38 = 42.19, P < 0.001). Thirty foxes wore collars that also contained proximity loggers, which recorded the time and duration of occasions when collared foxes were within 5 m of one another. Contact rates between neighboring fox dyads were positively correlated with home range overlap (R (2)  = 0.341, P = 0.008), but not fox density (R (2)  = 0.012, P = 0.976). Individuals at high densities had more collared neighbors with overlapping home ranges (R (2)  = 0.123, P = 0.026) but not an increase in the amount of contact between individual neighbors. This study was the first time contact rates were directly measured and compared to density and home range overlap. Results suggest that foxes exhibit a threshold in their degree of tolerance for neighbors, overlap is a reliable index of the amount of direct contact between island foxes, and disease transmission rates will likely scale with fox density. PMID:26120435

  18. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies. PMID:23575013

  19. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6 hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  20. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6 hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  1. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  2. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  3. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships. PMID:27158872

  4. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  5. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  6. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects interactions between Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and two host plant species outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, F.; Bunce, J.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner), larvae were placed on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) plants in outdoor chambers in which the plants were growing at either the ambient ([approximately] 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) or ambient plus 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] ([approximately] 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) carbon dioxide concentration. A series of experiments was performed to determine if larvae reduced plant growth differently at the two carbon dioxide concentrations in either species and if the insect growth or survival differed with carbon dioxide concentration. Leaf nitrogen, water, starch, and soluble carbohydrate contents were measured to assess carbon dioxide concentration effects on leaf quality. Insect feeding significantly reduced plant growth in sugarbeet plants at 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] but not at 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] nor in pigweed at either carbon dioxide concentration. Larval survival was greater on sugarbeet plants at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Increased survival occurred only if the insects were at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration and consumed leaf material grown at the elevated concentration. Leaf quality was only marginally affected by growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in these experiments. The results indicate that in designing experiments to predict effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant-insect interactions, both plants and insects should be exposed to the experimental carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as to as realistic environmental conditions as possible.

  7. Rhizobacteria activates (+)-δ-cadinene synthase genes and induces systemic resistance in cotton against beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua).

    PubMed

    Zebelo, Simon; Song, Yuanyuan; Kloepper, Joseph W; Fadamiro, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Gossypol is an important allelochemical produced by the subepidermal glands of some cotton varieties and important for their ability to respond to changing biotic stress by exhibiting antibiosis against some cotton pests. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are root-colonizing bacteria that increase plant growth and often elicit defence against plant pathogens and insect pests. Little is known about the effect of PGPR on cotton plant-insect interactions and the potential biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which PGPR enhance cotton plant defence. Here, we report that PGPR (Bacillus spp.) treated cotton plants showed significantly higher levels of gossypol compared with untreated plants. Similarly, the transcript levels of the genes (i.e. (+)-δ-cadinene synthase gene family) involved in the biosynthesis of gossypol were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Furthermore, the levels of jasmonic acid, an octadecanoid-derived defence-related phytohormone and the transcript level of jasmonic acid responsive genes were higher in PGPR-treated plants than in untreated plants. Most intriguingly, Spodoptera exigua showed reduced larval feeding and development on PGPR-treated plants. These findings demonstrate that treatment of plants with rhizobacteria may induce significant biochemical and molecular changes with potential ramifications for plant-insect interactions. PMID:26715260

  8. Identification of microRNAs by small RNA deep sequencing for synthetic microRNA mimics to control Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu Liang; Huang, Qi Xing; Yin, Guo Hua; Lee, Samantha; Jia, Rui Zong; Liu, Zhi Xin; Yu, Nai Tong; Pennerman, Kayla K; Chen, Xin; Guo, An Ping

    2015-02-25

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a major pest of cotton around the world. With the increase of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin in transgenic cotton plants, there is a need to develop an alternative control approach that can be used in combination with Bt transgenic crops as part of resistance management strategies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a non-coding small RNA family (18-25 nt), play crucial roles in various biological processes and over-expression of miRNAs has been shown to interfere with the normal development of insects. In this study, we identified 127 conserved miRNAs in S. exigua by using small RNA deep sequencing technology. From this, we tested the effects of 11 miRNAs on larval development. We found three miRNAs, Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9, to be differentially expressed during larval stages of S. exigua. Oral feeding experiments using synthetic miRNA mimics of Sex-miR-10-1a, Sex-miR-4924, and Sex-miR-9 resulted in suppressed growth of S. exigua and mortality. Over-expression of Sex-miR-4924 caused a significant reduction in the expression level of chitinase 1 and caused abortive molting in the insects. Therefore, we demonstrated a novel approach of using miRNA mimics to control S. exigua development. PMID:25528266

  9. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    PubMed

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products. PMID:24665722

  10. Dynamics and regulation of glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid metabolism in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, D; Luo, W; Fan, L F; Liu, F L; Gu, J; Deng, H M; Zhang, C; Huang, L H; Feng, Q L

    2016-04-01

    Significant changes usually take place in the internal metabolism of insects during metamorphosis. The glycolysis-tricarboxylic acid (glycolysis-TCA) pathway is important for energy metabolism. To elucidate its dynamics, the mRNA levels of genes involved in this pathway were examined in the midgut of Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis, and the pyruvate content was quantified. The expression patterns of these genes in response to starvation were examined, and the interaction between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) was studied. The results revealed that the expression or activities of most glycolytic enzymes was down-regulated in prepupae and then recovered in some degree in pupae, and all TCA-related genes were remarkably suppressed in both the prepupae and pupae. Pyruvate was enriched in the pupal midgut. Taken together, these results suggest that insects decrease both glycolysis and TCA in prepupae to save energy and then up-regulate glycolysis but down-regulate TCA in pupae to increase the supply of intermediates for construction of new organs. The expression of all these genes were down-regulated by starvation, indicating that non-feeding during metamorphosis may be a regulator of glycolysis-TCA pathway in the midgut. Importantly, interaction between PP1 and PFK was identified and is suggested to be involved in the regulation of glycolysis. PMID:26683413

  11. Genetic variability of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. We investigated the genetic diversity of FAW by collecting 31 representative samples from the United States, Argentina, Panama...

  12. Active role of fatty acid amino acid conjugates in nitrogen metabolidm by Spodoptera litura larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the first fatty acid amino acid conjugate (FAC) was isolated from regurgitant of Spodoptera exigua larvae in 1997 [volicitin: N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)- L-glutamine], their role as elicitors of induced responses in plants has been well documented. However, studies of the biosyntheses as well as...

  13. FLAVONOIDS OF ZOYSIAGRASS (ZOYSIA SPP) CULTIVARS VARYING IN FALL ARMYWORM (SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA)RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous cultivars of zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp) have been developed for the turf industry in the United States. These cultivars have varying degrees of biotic and abiotic stress tolerances. One pest of importance to zoysiagrass is the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Cultivars suc...

  14. Monitoring two native Spodoptera species using an exotic pheromone lure developed for an exotic species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....

  15. Genomic sequence analysis of a fast-killing isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six clones of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) were plaque-purified from field isolates collected in Missouri, USA. In bioassays, four of the plaque-purified isolates killed neonate S. frugiperda larvae more rapidly than the field isolates from which they were derived, w...

  16. 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS GENOME: PHYSICAL MAPS FOR RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASES BAMHI AND HINDIII

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical map for the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus was constructed for restriction endonucleases BamHI and HindIII. The ordering of the restriction fragments was accomplished by cross-blot hybridization of BamHI, HindIII, and EcoRI fragments. The ...

  17. Laboratory and field evaluations for efficacy of a fast-killing baculovirus isolate from Spodoptera frugiperda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three biopesticide parameters were evaluated for a fast-killing isolate (3AP2) Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) and a wild-type isolate (Sf3) of the same baculovirus. Both isolates were evaluated for virus production using in vivo methods, for speed of kill based on bioas...

  18. Genetic and biological variation among nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from spodoptera frugiperda (lepidotpera: noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A PCR-based method was used to identify and distinguish among 40 uncharacterized nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolates from the moth Spodoptera frugiperda that were part of an insect virus collection. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out with sequences amplified from two strongly conserved loci (pol...

  19. Population variation of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda rese...

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, John W.; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  1. Telenomus remus Nixon egg parasitization of three species of Spodoptera under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pomari, A F; Bueno, A F; Bueno, R C O F; Menezes, A O

    2013-08-01

    Telenomus remus Nixon is a promising biocontrol agent as an egg parasitoid of Spodoptera spp., but the lack of information on the host-parasitoid interactions in this system precludes its applied use in agriculture. Therefore, we studied the parasitism capacity of T. remus on eggs of Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker), Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), and Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) in a range of temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 ± 1°C) under controlled conditions (70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase). Egg masses of Spodoptera spp. were offered to a single-mated T. remus female on a daily basis. More than 80% lifetime parasitism on eggs of S. cosmioides, S. frugiperda, and S. eridania was reached from 1 to 5, 1 to 7, and 1 to 9 days, respectively, at temperatures from 19 to 34°C. More than 80% parasitization was obtained at extreme temperatures for all hosts studied. Lifetime parasitization of S. frugiperda, S. cosmioides, and S. eridania was affected by temperature, with the lowest values for S. frugiperda (34°C) and S. cosmioides (19 and 34°C). Parasitization of S. eridania eggs was reduced around 18% at 28 and 31°C, but dropped more severely at 34°C. Parasitoid longevity was reduced as temperature increased. Thus, our data indicated that T. remus might be suitable as a biocontrol agent against S. eridania, S. cosmioides, and S. frugiperda in geographical areas that fit the temperature range studied here, even though T. remus parasitism was reduced at 34°C. PMID:23949860

  2. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  3. Insights into the physiological responses of the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to the combined effects of salinity and phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Talbi Zribi, Ons; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Kouas, Saber; Ghandour, Mohamed; Slama, Ines; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we investigate the physiological responses to P deficiency (5μM KH2PO4=D), salt stress (400mM NaCl=C+S), and their combination (D+S) on the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to understand how plants adapt to these combined stresses. When individually applied, both P deficiency and salinity significantly restricted whole plant growth, with a more marked effect of the latter stress. However, the effects of the two stresses were not additive in plant biomass production since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under salt stress alone. In addition the observed features under salinity alone are kept when plants are simultaneously subjected to the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency such as biomass partitioning; the synthesis of proline and the K(+)/Na(+) selectivity ratio. Thus, increasing P availability under saline conditions has no significant effect on salt tolerance in this species. Plants cultivated under the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency exhibited the lowest leaf water potential. This trend was associated with a high accumulation of Na(+), Cl(-) and proline in shoots of salt treated plants suggesting the involvement of these solutes in osmotic adjustment. Proline could be involved in other physiological processes such as free radical scavenging. Furthermore, salinity has no significant effect on phosphorus acquisition when combined with a low P supply and it significantly decreased this parameter when combined with a sufficient P supply. This fact was probably due to salt's effect on P transporters. In addition, shoot soluble sugars accumulation under both P deficiency treatments with and without salt likely play an important role in the adaptation of A. littoralis plants to P shortage applied alone or combined with salinity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between shoot and root intracellular acid phosphatase activity and phosphorus use

  4. Bioactive Terpenoids and Flavonoids from Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f, an Endemic Species of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. (Apiaceae) is an endemic species in northern parts of Iran where it is commonly named Caspian carrot. The fruits have been used as condiment. Methods In a series of in vitro assays, antioxidant (DPPH and FRAP assays), cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of roots and fruits were evaluated for the first time. The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out on the most potent extracts using various chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR). Results The results showed that among the extracts only fruit methanol extract (FME) has significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 145.93 μg.ml-1 in DPPH assay and 358 ± 0.02 mmol FeII/g dry extract in FRAP assay). The radical scavenging activity of FME at 400 μg.ml-1 was comparable with α-tocopherol (40 μg.ml-1) and with BHA (100 μg.ml-1) (p > 0.05). FME did not show any toxicity against cancerous and normal cell lines. Fruit ethyl acetate extract (FEE) had cytotoxic activity against breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (IC50 168.4 and 185 μg.ml-1, respectively), while it did not possess antioxidant activity in comparison with α-tocopherol and BHA as standard compounds. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of fruits showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 3.75 mg.ml-1) and Candida albicans (MIC: 15.6 and 7.8 mg.ml-1, respectively). Four terpenoids were isolated form FEE including: β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), β-amyrin (4). Also, three flavonoids namely quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside (5), quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (6) and luteolin (7) were isolated from FME. Conclusion This study showed that FEE and FME of D. littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. had the highest biological activities which may be correlated with in vitro cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of terpenoids and

  5. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  6. Molecular evidence for the coexistence of two sibling species in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) along the Brittany coast.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Mauger, Stéphane; De Jode, Aurélien; Le Gall, Line; Destombe, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The great phenotypic variability and the lack of diagnostic characters in the genus Pylaiella render the systematic study of this genus problematic. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Pylaiella littoralis along the Brittany (France) coast using a DNA barcoding multilocus approach with mitochondrial (cox1, nad1, and atp9) and chloroplastic (rbcL and atpB) markers associated with a population genetics approach using 10 microsatellite markers. In addition, spatio-temporal sampling was conducted along the Brittany coast. We sampled 140 individuals from four sites located between Saint-Malo and Concarneau (380 km) from April to October. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed the occurrence of two sibling species, with a minimum of 2.4% divergence between them. Microsatellite genotypic data congruently revealed two well-supported clusters matching the two mitochondrial clades of Pylaiella. Although gene flow is limited between species, occurrence of genetic admixtures in some populations suggested that reproductive isolation is not complete. Our study highlighted the complementarity of barcoding and population genetics approaches to shed light on the evolutionary processes that lead to speciation. PMID:26986664

  7. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  8. Relation ofSpodoptera eridania choice to tannins and protein oflotus corniculatus.

    PubMed

    Briggs, M A

    1990-05-01

    Plant secondary compounds such as tannins may influence herbivore choice. To determine if herbivory was influenced by tannin concentration,Spodoptera eridania larvae were given a choice ofLotus corniculatus plants whose chemical profiles were altered by fertilization. Herbivores chose plants that had been grown with symbiotic nitrogen fixation as their only nitrogen source more often than fertilized plants. Choice was related to protein concentration, but not to tannin concentration. PMID:24263826

  9. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  10. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    PubMed

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm. PMID:25693181

  11. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  12. Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of

  13. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  14. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  15. RNA interference of a heat shock protein, Hsp70, loses its protection role in indirect chilling injury to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong-Gee; Hepat, Rahul; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-02-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is freeze-susceptible, in which glycerol plays a crucial role in depressing supercooling point (SCP) to avoid the freezing injury. This study focused on a non-freezing injury classified into indirect chilling injury of S. exigua after a prolonged exposure to low temperatures much above SCPs. Exposure to 0 and 5°C for longer than 2weeks was lethal to all the immature stages. Among immature stages, eggs were the most susceptible to the low temperature treatments and pupae were the next susceptible. Among larvae, the third instar (L3) appeared to be more tolerant than the fifth instar (L5). The temperature treatment at 15°C allowed both L3 and L5 to exhibit a feeding behavior and induced little non-freezing injury, suggesting a minimal temperature threshold for optimal overwintering conditions of S. exigua. Three heat shock protein genes (Hsp70, Hsp74, Hsp83) were expressed in the larvae at the low temperature treatments. Only Hsp70 was inducible to the low temperatures in both L3 and L5 stages. RNA interference of Hsp70 expression led to significantly lose the survival rates of the treated larvae in the conditions inducing the non-freezing injury. These results suggest that Hsp70 plays a role in protecting S. exigua from the indirect chilling injury. PMID:24309290

  16. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  17. COMPARISON OF BIOASSAY AND ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR QUANTIFICATION OF 'SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA' NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard curves with known amounts of Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) in soil were established with a bioassay and with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The bioassay detected as few as 4 x 10 to the 4th power polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB)/g...

  18. Relationship of Flight and Reproduction in Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a Migrant Lacking the Oogenesis-flight Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, undertakes long-distance migration. We used flight mills to investigate the interaction between flight and reproduction in this species given the apparent absence of the oogenesis-flight syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by a suite of traits common in man...

  19. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  20. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  1. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this cou...

  2. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  8. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  9. Phosphorylation of the insect immunophilin FKBP46 by the Spodoptera frugiperda homolog of casein kinase II.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, A; Ebel, W; Planey, S L; Alnemri, E S; Robertson, N M; Litwack, G

    2000-04-01

    Immunophilins are a family of conserved proteins found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, that exhibit peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Members of this family bind to immunosuppressive drugs and on this basis are divided into two classes: FKBPs bind to FK506 and rapamycin, while cyclophilins bind to cyclosporin A. In this paper, we report on insect immunophilin FKBP46 and its associated kinase. The insect FKBP46 belongs to the high-molecular-weight immunophilins and shares many characteristic features with its mammalian counterparts, but its functional role remains unclear. Here, we show that FKBP46 is phosphorylated by a protein kinase present in the nucleus of both insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and human Jurkat cells. This protein kinase is immunoreactive with polyclonal antiserum raised against Drosophila melanogaster casein kinase II (CKII). We have cloned, overexpressed and characterized a new member of the CKII family derived from Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Recombinant Sf9 CKII alpha subunit shares 75% identity to human, chicken and Drosophila melanogaster homologs, whereas the Sf9 CKII beta subunit is 77% identical to rat, chicken and human. Moreover, we demonstrate that the insect immunophilin FKBP46 can be phosphorylated by human and Sf9 casein kinase II. Finally, we show that FKBP46 interacts with DNA, and this interaction is not prevented by phosphorylation. PMID:10767538

  10. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  11. Temperature- and CO2-dependent life table parameters of Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on sunflower and prediction of pest scenarios.

    PubMed

    Manimanjari, D; Srinivasa Rao, M; Swathi, P; Rama Rao, C A; Vanaja, M; Maheswari, M

    2014-01-01

    Predicted increase in temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration will influence the growth of crop plants and phytophagous insects. The present study, conducted at the Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, aimed at (1) construction of life tables at six constant temperatures viz., 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35 ± 0.5 °C for Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) reared on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2 (eCO2) (550 ppm) concentration in open top chambers and (2) prediction of the pest status in near future (NF) and distant future (DF) climate change scenarios at major sunflower growing locations of India. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon and higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen (C:N) were observed in sunflower foliage grown under eCO2 over ambient. Feeding trials conducted on sunflower foliage obtained from two CO2 conditions showed that the developmental time of S. litura (Egg to adult) declined with increase in temperature and was more evident at eCO2. Finite (λ) and intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)), net reproductive rate (Ro), mean generation time, (T) and doubling time (DT) of S. litura increased significantly with temperature up to 27-30 °C and declined with further increase in temperature. Reduction of 'T' was observed from maximum value of 58 d at 20 °C to minimum of 24.9 d at 35 °C. The DT of population was higher (5.88 d) at 20 °C and lower (3.05 d) at 30 °C temperature of eCO2. The data on these life table parameters were plotted against temperature and two nonlinear models were developed separately for each of the CO2 conditions for predicting the pest scenarios. The NF and DF scenarios temperature data of four sunflower growing locations in India is based on PRECIS A1B emission scenario. It was predicted that increased 'rm', 'λ', and 'Ro' and reduced 'T' would occur during NF and DF scenario over present period at all

  12. Integration of Insecticidal Protein Vip3Aa1 into Beauveria bassiana Enhances Fungal Virulence to Spodoptera litura Larvae by Cuticle and Per Os Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Chen, Ying; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2010-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana acts slowly on insect pests through cuticle infection. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) of Bacillus thuringiensis kill lepidopteran pests rapidly, via per os infection, but their use for pest control is restricted to integration into transgenic plants. A transgenic B. bassiana strain (BbV28) expressing Vip3Aa1 (a Vip3A toxin) was thus created to infect the larvae of the oriental leafworm moth Spodoptera litura through conidial ingestion and cuticle adhesion. Vip3Aa1 (∼88 kDa) was highly expressed in the conidial cytoplasm of BbV28 and was detected as a digested form (∼62 kDa) in the larval midgut 18 and 36 h after conidial ingestion. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of BbV28 against the second-instar larvae feeding on cabbage leaves sprayed with conidial suspensions was 26.2-fold lower than that of the wild-type strain on day 3 and 1.1-fold lower on day 7. The same sprays applied to both larvae and leaves for their feeding reduced the LC50 of the transformant 17.2- and 1.3-fold on days 3 and 7, respectively. Median lethal times (LT50s) of BbV28 were shortened by 23 to 35%, declining with conidial concentrations. The larvae infected by ingestion of BbV28 conidia showed typical symptoms of Vip3A action, i.e., shrinkage and palsy. However, neither LC50 nor LT50 trends differed between BbV28 and its parental strain if the infection occurred through the cuticle only. Our findings indicate that fungal conidia can be used as vectors for spreading the highly insecticidal Vip3A protein for control of foliage feeders such as S. litura. PMID:20495052

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana. PMID:23220241

  14. Biliatresone, a Reactive Natural Toxin from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis: Discovery of the Toxic Moiety 1,2-Diaryl-2-Propenone.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyung A; Lorent, Kristin; Gong, Weilong; Windsor, Peter; Whittaker, Stephen J; Pack, Michael; Wells, Rebecca G; Porter, John R

    2015-08-17

    We identified a reactive natural toxin, biliatresone, from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis collected in Australia that produces extrahepatic biliary atresia in a zebrafish model. Three additional isoflavonoids, including the known isoflavone betavulgarin, were also isolated. Biliatresone is in the very rare 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone class of isoflavonoids. The α-methylene of the 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone of biliatresone spontaneously reacts via Michael addition in the formation of water and methanol adducts. The lethal dose of biliatresone in a zebrafish assay was 1 μg/mL, while the lethal dose of synthetic 1,2-diaryl-2-propen-1-one was 5 μg/mL, suggesting 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone as the toxic Michael acceptor. PMID:26175131

  15. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  16. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  17. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  18. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  19. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components. PMID:25115104

  20. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  1. Isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K; Liao, S; Reynolds, S E; Ota, R B; Hackett, M; Schooley, D A

    1993-12-01

    We isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of Manduca sexta for bioassay. We have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. The peptides were identified using micro Edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. This cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: Pro-Phe-Cys-Asn-Ala-Phe-Thr-Gly-Cys-NH2, a cyclic nonapeptide which is identical to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and subsequently isolated from Locusta migratoria and Manduca sexta. This is additional evidence that CCAP has widespread occurrence in arthropoda. PMID:8129851

  2. Mitomycin C induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme levels in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Batcabe, J P; MacGill, R S; Zaman, K; Ahmad, S; Pardini, R S

    1994-05-01

    1. An insect species, the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania, was used as an in vivo model to examine mitomycin C's (MMC) pro-oxidant effect reflected in alterations of antioxidant enzymes. 2. Following a 2-day exposure to 0.01 and 0.05% w/w dietary concentrations, MMC only induced superoxide dismutase activity. All other enzyme activities were not affected, indicating oxidative stress was mild. 3. Following a 5-day exposure to 0.05% w/w dietary MMC, the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and its peroxidase activity and DT-diaphorase were induced. GR activity was not altered. The high constitutive catalase activity was also not affected. These responses of S. eridania's antioxidant enzymes are analogous to those of mammalian systems in alleviating MMC-induced oxidative stress. 4. S. eridania emerges as an appropriate non-mammalian model for initial and cost-effective screening of drug-induced oxidative stress. PMID:7926607

  3. Complete sequence and gene organization of the Nosema spodopterae rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shu-Jen; Huang, Wei-Fone; Wang, Chung-Hsiung

    2005-01-01

    By sequencing the entire ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of Nosema spodopterae, we show here that its gene organization follows a pattern similar to the Nosema type species, Nosema bombycis, i.e. 5'-large subunit rRNA (2,497 bp)-internal transcribed spacer (185 bp)-small subunit rRNA (1,232 bp)-intergenic spacer (277 bp)-5S rRNA (114 bp)-3'. Gene sequences and the secondary structures of large subunit rRNA, small subunit rRNA, and 5S rRNA are compared with the known corresponding sequences and structures of closely related microsporidia. The results suggest that the Nosema genus may be heterogeneous and that the rRNA gene organization may be a useful characteristic for determining which species are closely related to the type species. PMID:15702980

  4. Growth inhibitory effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda of some limonoids isolated from Cedrela spp. (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, C L; Calderón, J S; Lina, L; Aranda, E

    2000-05-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Cedrela dugessi afforded a photogedunin epimeric mixture, gedunin and cedrelanolide. These compounds and the photogedunin epimeric acetates 3 and 4 at the 23-OH position were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Toosendanin, isolated from Melia azedarach, was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice bioassays, gedunin, photogedunin epimeric mixture, and photogedunin acetates mixture caused significant larval mortality with LC(50) of 39.0, 10.0, and 8.0 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. All the compounds tested inhibited larval growth, compared to the control, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it was possible to observe significant reduced pupal weights and adult emergence. All the tested compounds except cedrelanolide showed comparable activity to that of toosendanin. PMID:10820113

  5. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. PMID:27476462

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Shen, Wei-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-E; He, Li-Hua; Meng, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of the most destructive polyphagous insect pests worldwide. The genome is 15,383 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KF701043) with an A+T content of 81.08%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All the protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with ATN start codon except for cox1, which begins with CGA. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA or TAG), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. The A+T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 326 bp and an A+T content of 93.87%, and harbors three tandem repeat elements. PMID:24409845

  7. Toxicity of selected tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds to Spodoptera frugiperda and Heliothis zea.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F; Cole, R J; Vesonder, R F

    1988-12-01

    A series of tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds were tested for oral toxicity to the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea) by incorporation of materials into artificial diets and examining mortality and weights after 7 days. Significant mortality to both insect species was caused with dihydroxyaflavinine and roseotoxin B, while significant mortality to H. zea was also caused by penitrem A at 25 ppm. After 7 days, weighs of larvae treated with 25 ppm penitrem A, roseotoxin B, and verruculogen were less than 50% of controls for both insect species. Weights of H. zea larvae treated with 25 ppb of penitrem A were less than 50% those of control larvae. Relative toxicities of the tremorgens and related compounds to insects compared to vertebrates are discussed. PMID:3209479

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of the SL221 Cells at the Early Stage during Spodoptera litura Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wen, Dongling; Wu, Xiaohui; Yin, Hanqi

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide. There is urgent need for a nuclear polyhedrosis virus that is specific to S. litura. To date, there have been no reports regarding the responses of S. litura cells to early Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infection due to the lack of a reference genome and transcriptome for S. litura. In this study, a cell transcriptome from the host S. litura was assembled and used for Illumina strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate 99180 unigenes, representing the 18 hour infection cycle. More than 2000 S. litura genes were significant differentially regulated throughout the infection. The levels of viral mRNAs began to increase dramatically at 6 hpi, and this increase continued throughout the remainder of the infection. We focused on the expression of genes related to stress responses, apoptosis, metabolic enzymes and host cell innate immune system. A small subset of genes related to host stress response, especially for 62 ones being able to annotated as enzyme, ligand and receptor genes, were observed to be specifically differentially expressed at 6 hpi. At 18 hpi, 104 unigenes were continuously significantly changing from 0 hpi to 18 hpi, considered to be viral multiplication related genes, including 3 annotated SL221 unigenes and 81 viral genes, such as tetraspanin and iap gene. This information and further studies on the regulation of host gene expression by baculovirus infection at early stage will provide the tools needed to enhance the utility of this virus as an effective insecticide. PMID:26840182

  9. Behavior of larval Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in response to an invertebrate predator, Hydra Littoralis (Anthomedusae: Hydridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of Culicoides sonorensis a blood feeding ceratopogonid are aquatic. In their natural habitat they are exposed to numerous predators. Predator avoidance behavior has not been studied in most Culicoides spp. Based on laboratory data the larvae of Culicoides sonorensis behave differently when cn...

  10. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  11. Comprehensive Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of the Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Bel, Yolanda; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Costa, Juliana; Herrero, Salvador; Escriche, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition) at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control. PMID:24312604

  12. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt Corn Expressing Cry1F in Brazil That Is Still Sensitive to Modified Bt Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda. PMID:25830928

  13. Expression analysis of two P450 monooxygenase genes of the tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) at different developmental stages and in response to plant allelochemicals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Long; Li, Jun; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects are known to be involved in the metabolism or detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is a polyphagous moth responsible for severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, two full-length P450 genes, CYP6B48 and CYP6B58, were cloned from S. litura. The cDNA sequences encode proteins with 503 and 504 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CYP6B48 and CYP6B58 belong to the CYP6B subfamily of P450s. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that CYP6B48 and CYP6B58 were expressed only at larval stage, but not at pupal and adult stages. The highest levels of transcripts were found in the midguts and fat bodies of the larvae. No expression was detected in the ovary or hemolymph. Feeding with diets containing cinnamic acid, quercetin, or coumarin did not affect expression of CYP6B48. In contrast, diet supplemented with xanthotoxin dramatically increased the levels of CYP6B48 transcript in the midgut and fat bodies. Larvae fed with flavone had high levels of transcript of CYP6B48 in the midgut, whereas only slightly elevated levels were found in the fat bodies. Effects of the tested allelochemicals on CYP6B58 expression were minor. Hence, our findings show that S. litura responds to specific allelochemicals such as xanthotoxin with the accumulation of CYP6B48 transcripts, suggesting that specific signals in the food control the insect's ability to convert toxic allelochemicals to less harmful forms at the transcriptional level. PMID:25547988

  14. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  15. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    PubMed

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda. PMID:25830928

  16. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  17. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  18. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells. PMID:25422219

  19. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the growth and development of Hymenocallis littoralis (Amaryllidaceae) and the concentrations of several antineoplastic and antiviral constituents of its bulbs.

    PubMed

    Idso, S B; Kimball, B A; Pettit Iii, G R; Garner, L C; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A

    2000-06-01

    Two 2-yr crops of tropical spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) plants were grown in field soil in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures in the Sonoran Desert environment of central Arizona. Half of the plants were exposed to ambient air of 400 ppm atmospheric CO(2) concentration and half of them were exposed to air of 700 ppm CO(2). This 75% increase in the air's CO(2) content resulted in a 48% increase in aboveground plant biomass and a 56% increase in belowground (bulb) biomass. It also increased the concentrations of five bulb constituents that have been demonstrated to possess anticancer and antiviral activities. Mean percentage increases in these concentrations were 6% for a two-constituent (1:1) mixture of 7-deoxynarciclasine and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, 8% for pancratistatin, 8% for trans-dihydronarciclasine, and 28% for narciclasine, for a mean active ingredient percentage concentration increase of 12%. Combined with the 56% increase in bulb biomass, these percentage concentration increases resulted in a mean active ingredient increase of 75% for the 75% increase in the air's CO(2) concentration used in our experiments. PMID:10860907

  20. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  1. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  3. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding. PMID:27172709

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    PubMed

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds. PMID:25828604

  5. Insecticidal potential of an endophytic Cladosporium velox against Spodoptera litura mediated through inhibition of alpha glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Tamanreet; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Manhas, Rajesh K; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2016-07-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity was exhibited by partially purified fractions obtained from an endophytic Cladosporium velox, isolated from Tinospora cordifolia. Taking into account the increasing importance of digestive enzyme inhibitors as insecticidal agents, the entomopathogenic potential of the fractions obtained was evaluated against Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Considerable mortality was obtained when the larvae were fed on diet supplemented with the partially purified extract. All the concentrations of the extract significantly prolonged the overall developmental period of S. litura. At higher concentrations, the extract influenced the longevity of females as well as their reproductive potential. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds in the active fraction. The phenolic compound responsible for the bioactivities was purified and identified to be chlorogenic acid using HPLC and MS analysis. The content of chlorogenic acid in the extract was quantified to be 250μg/ml. The purified compound also demonstrated inhibition of alpha glycosidases in vivo. The present study indicates that the endophyte imparted resistance to the insects in the plants could be mediated through chlorogenic acid targeting the alpha glycosidases present in the gut of the insect. The isolate obtained can be exploited for the production of chlorogenic acid, which has the potential to be exploited as a biocontrol agent against S. litura. PMID:27265826

  6. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  7. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species. PMID:24310218

  8. Dichlone-induced oxidative stress in a model insect species, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S; Zaman, K; MacGill, R S; Batcabe, J P; Pardini, R S

    1995-11-01

    Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, larvae were provided ad libitum 0.002-0.25% w/w dichlone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (CNQ). Larval mortality occurred in a time-and-dose dependent manner, with an LC17 of 0.01% and an LC50 of 0.26% CNQ at day-5. Extracts of larvae fed control, 0.01, and 0.25% CNQ diets for 5 days were assayed for antioxidant enzymes. While 0.01% CNQ had a mild effect, 0.25% CNQ profoundly increased levels of all antioxidant enzymes that were examined. The increases as compared to control were: 5.3-, 1.9-, 3.2-, 2.6-, 2.8-, and 3.5-fold higher for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione transferase and its peroxidase activity, glutathione reductase and DT-diaphorase, respectively. At 0.01% CNQ, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were similar to the control group. However, despite the induction from 0.25% CNQ of all enzymes examined, the lipid peroxidation was not attenuated; the TBARS were 29.7% over the control value. High mortalities and CNQ-induced pathologies reflected in retarded growth, wasting syndrome, and diuresis clearly indicated that the insect sustained severe oxidant-induced injuries before appropriate defenses were fully mobilized. Thus, this quinone causes an oxidative stress in a model insect species analogous to that observed in mammalian species. PMID:7574883

  9. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations. PMID:27194067

  10. Population Variation of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Pete L.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R.; Isenhour, David J.; Lee, Donald J.; Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  11. Roles of Peroxinectin in PGE2-Mediated Cellular Immunity in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyeong; Stanley, David; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostaglandins (PGs) mediate insect immune responses to infections and invasions. Although the presence of PGs has been confirmed in several insect species, their biosynthesis in insects remains a conundrum because orthologs of the mammalian cyclooxygenases (COXs) have not been found in the known insect genomes. PG-mediated immune reactions have been documented in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. The purpose of this research is to identify the source of PGs in S. exigua. Principal Findings Peroxidases (POXs) are a sister group of COX genes. Ten putative POXs (SePOX-A ∼ SePOX-J) were expressed in S. exigua. Expressions of SePOX-F and -H were induced by bacterial challenge and expressed in the hemocytes and the fat body. RNAi of each POX was performed by hemocoelic injection of their specific double-stranded RNAs. dsPOX-F or, separately, dsPOX-H, but not the other eight dsRNA constructs, specifically suppressed hemocyte-spreading behavior and nodule formation; these two reactions were also inhibited by aspirin, a COX inhibitor. PGE2, but not arachidonic acid, treatment rescued the immunosuppression. Sequence analysis indicated that both POX genes were clustered with peroxinectin (Pxt) and their cognate proteins shared some conserved domains corresponding to the Pxt of Drosophila melanogaster. Conclusions SePOX-F and -H are Pxt-like genes associated with PG biosynthesis in S. exigua. PMID:25191834

  12. Effects of perchlorate bioaccumulation on Spodoptera litura growth and sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Qin, Junhao; Shu, Yinghua; Li, Yongjun; He, Hongzhi; Li, Huashou

    2016-05-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) pollution is widespread in the natural environment, but the effects of ClO4 (-) on the terrestrial insects are rarely studied. Here, when phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different ClO4 (-) concentrations, changes in their life-history traits were recorded; ClO4 (-) accumulations in feces and insect body were detected. The results demonstrated that ClO4 (-) bioaccumulation in insect at the different developmental stages was ranked in the order: adults > pupae > the 4th > 5th > 6th instar larvae. Besides, ClO4 (-) accumulations in the feces were ranked in the order: the 6th > 5th > 4th instar larvae. The ClO4 (-) accumulations in female pupae and adults were significantly higher than that in males. ClO4 (-) bioaccumulation in insect prolonged larval development time and caused a skewed sex ratio (the percentage of males at metamorphosis significantly decreased) under 100 to 200 mg ClO4 (-)/kg treatment. Therefore, ClO4 (-) accumulations in S. litura body presented developmental stage-, sex-specific pattern, and the sex-specific ClO4 (-) accumulations resulted in difference of sex ratio. These effects were observed at concentrations reported in natural environments contaminated with ClO4 (-), suggesting that this contaminant may pose a threat to the normal development and growth of this insect species. PMID:26810791

  13. TTAGG-repeat telomeres and characterization of telomerase in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gong, H; Zhu, W; Zhang, J; Li, X; Meng, Q; Zhou, G; Wang, M; Wang, H; Miao, L; Qin, Q; Zhang, H

    2015-06-01

    Telomeres are maintained usually by telomerase, a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds this sequence to chromosome ends. In this study, telomerase activity was detected in the in different somatic tissues, such as midgut and fat bodies, by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) in Spodoptera exigua. The structure of the telomeres of S. exigua was evaluated by sequence analysis of the TRAP products, revealing that the telomerase synthesized a (TTAGG)n repeat. The presence of a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) subunit coding gene has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in vitro successively. Notably, the S. exigua telomerase (SpexTERT) gene structure lacks the N-terminal GQ motif. Telomerase contains a large RNA subunit, TER, and a protein catalytic subunit, TERT. Here we report an in vitro system that was reconstructed by all components of the telomerase complex, a purified recombinant SpexTERT without a N-terminal GQ motif and a mutant human telomerase RNA (TER), showed telomerase activity. Together, these results suggest the GQ motif is not essential for telomerase catalysis. PMID:25689229

  14. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  15. Ovicidal activity of Atalantia monophylla (L) Correa against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Muthu, Chellaiah; Raj, Gnanaprakasam Antony; Kingsley, Selvadurai; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Atalantia monophylla (A. monophylla) leaf in different solvent crude extracts and fractions against eggs of Spodoptera litura (S. litura). Methods Hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform solvent extracts of A. monophylla leaf and 12 fractions from hexane extract were screened at 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.0% and 0.5% for crude extracts and 1 000, 500, 250 and 125 mg/kg for fractions against the eggs of S. litura for the ovicidal activity. LC50 and LC90 were calculated using probit analysis. Results Hexane crude extract showed maximum ovicidal activity of 61.94% at 5.0% concentration with a correlation value of r2=0.81, and least LC50 value of 3.06%. Hexane extract was fractionated using silica gel column chromatography and 12 fractions were obtained. Fraction 9 was active which showed maximum ovicidal activity of 75.61% at 1 000 mg/kg with the LC50 value of 318.65 mg/kg and LC90 value of 1 473.31 mg/kg. In linear regression analysis, significant and high correlation (r2=0.81%) was seen between concentration and ovicidal activity of hexane crude extracts and its active fraction. Conclusions As per our knowledge, this is the first report for ovicidal activity of A. monophylla against S. litura, A. monophylla could be used for the management of S. litura and other insect pests. PMID:23593580

  16. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  17. Population variation of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pete L; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R; Isenhour, David J; Lee, Donald J; Krumm, Jeffrey T; Foster, John E

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  18. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cuartas, Paola E.; Barrera, Gloria P.; Belaich, Mariano N.; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Villamizar, Laura F.

    2015-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness. PMID:25609309

  19. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene mutagenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hong-Lun; Xu, Jun; Tan, An-Jiang; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Custom-designed nuclease technologies such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system provide attractive genome editing tools for insect functional genetics. The targeted gene mutagenesis mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been achieved in several insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. However, little success has been reported in agricultural pests due to the lack of genomic information and embryonic microinjection techniques in these insect species. Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 system induced efficient gene mutagenesis in an important Lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. We targeted the S. litura Abdominal-A (Slabd-A) gene which is an important embryonic development gene and plays a significant role in determining the identities of the abdominal segments of insects. Direct injection of Cas9 messenger RNA and Slabd-A-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) into S. litura embryos successfully induced the typical abd-A deficient phenotype, which shows anomalous segmentation and ectopic pigmentation during the larval stage. A polymerase chain reaction-based analysis revealed that the Cas9/sgRNA complex effectively induced a targeted mutagenesis in S. litura. These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome manipulation in Lepidopteran pests such as S. litura. PMID:27061764

  20. Ultraviolet-B light induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidant response of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Karthi, Sengodan; Sankari, R; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV-B), which emits radiation in the range of 280-315 nm, has been used worldwide in light trapping of insect pests. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the duration of UV-B exposure has a differential impact on oxidative stress marker enzymes in Spodoptera litura. Effect of UV-B exposure on total protein and antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were investigated in S. litura. The adults were exposed to UV-B light for various time periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). We found that exposure to UV-B light for 30 and 60 min resulted in increased activities of POX. When the exposure time lasted for 60 and 90 min, the activities of SOD remained significantly higher than the control. However, the POX, CAT and GST activity decreased to control levels at 90 and 120 min. whereas relatively long duration exposure activates the xenobiotics detoxifying enzymes like GST and POX and CAT enzymes. Longer UV-B exposure may interfere with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides. PMID:24792567

  1. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  2. Resistance to selected organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid, in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mushtaq A; Ahmad, Munir; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Aslam, Muhammad; Sayyed, Ali H

    2008-10-01

    The toxicity of the most commonly used insecticides of organochlorine, organophosphate, pyrethroid, and carbamate groups were investigated against Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations collected for three consecutive years (2004-2006). For a chlorocyclodiene and pyrethroids tested, the resistance ratios compared with Lab-PK were in the range of 10- to 92-fold for endosulfan, 5- to 111-fold for cypermethrin, 2- to 98-fold for deltamethrin, and 7- to 86-fold for beta-cyfluthrin. For organophosphates and carbamates, resistance ratios were in the range of 3- to 169-fold for profenofos, 18- to 421-fold for chlorpyrifos, 3- to 160-fold for quinalphos, 6- to 126-fold for phoxim, 7- to 463-fold for triazophos, and 10- to 389-fold for methomyl and 16- to 200-fold for thiodicarb. Resistance ratios were generally low to medium for deltamethrin and beta-cyfluthrin and high to very high for endosulfan, cypermethrin, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, phoxim, triazophos, methomyl, or thiodicarb. Pairwise comparisons of the log LC50 values of insecticides tested for all the populations showed correlations among several insecticides, suggesting a cross-resistance mechanism. Integration of timely judgment of pest problem, delimiting growing of alternate crops such as arum, rotation of insecticides with new chemicals, and insect growth regulators in relation to integrated pest management could help in manageable control of this important pest. PMID:18950050

  3. Resistance selection, mechanism and stability of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to methoxyfenozide.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Adeel; Freed, Shoaib

    2014-03-01

    Methoxyfenozide belongs to a group of biorational insecticides known as insect growth regulators which is used in the control lepidopteran insect pests. Here we report a field collected population of Spodoptera litura selected with methoxyfenozide for thirteen consecutive generations resulted in the development of 83.24 and 2358.6-fold resistance to methoxyfenozide as compared to parental field population and susceptible laboratory population, respectively. The outcomes of synergism studies revealed methoxyfenozide resistance in S. litura to be monooxygenases (MO) mediated with high synergistic ratio (4.83) with piperonyl butoxide (PBO), while S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) showed no synergism with methoxyfenozide (SR=1). This methoxyfenozide resistant strain showed a high cross resistance to deltamethrin (28.82), abamectin (12.87) and little to emamectin benzoate (2.36), however no cross resistance of methoxyfenozide and other tested insecticides was recorded. The results depicted the methoxyfenozide resistance in S. litura to be unstable with high reversion rate which decreased from 2358.6 to 163.9-fold (as compared to susceptible strain) when reared for five generations without any insecticidal exposure. The present research supports the significance of MO-mediated metabolism in resistance to methoxyfenozide, which demands some tactics to tackle this problem. The resistance against methoxyfenozide in S. litura can be overcome by switching off its use for few generations or insecticides rotation having different mode of action. PMID:24759045

  4. Inhibition of the responses to sex pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 μg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  5. Identification, Expression and Target Gene Analyses of MicroRNAs in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Zhongchen; He, Wenyin; Liu, Lin; Zheng, Sichun; Huang, Lihua; Feng, Qili

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs widely present in animals and plants and involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene transcripts. In this study we identified and validated 58 miRNAs from an EST dataset of Spodoptera litura based on the computational and experimental analysis of sequence conservation and secondary structure of miRNA by comparing the miRNA sequences in the miRbase. RT-PCR was conducted to examine the expression of these miRNAs and stem-loop RT-PCR assay was performed to examine expression of 11 mature miRNAs (out of the 58 putative miRNA) that showed significant changes in different tissues and stages of the insect development. One hundred twenty eight possible target genes against the 11 miRNAs were predicted by using computational methods. Binding of one miRNA (sli-miR-928b) with the three possible target mRNAs was confirmed by Southern blotting, implying its possible function in regulation of the target genes. PMID:22662202

  6. Cytochrome P450s from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda): responses to plant allelochemicals and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, M; Hilliou, F; Fricaux, T; Audant, P; Feyereisen, R; Le Goff, G

    2015-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest that encounters a wide range of toxic plant metabolites in its diet. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYP). Forty-two sequences coding for P450s were identified and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of S. frugiperda larvae. Relatively few P450s were expressed in the established cell line Sf9. In order to gain information on how these genes respond to different chemical compounds, larvae and Sf9 cells were exposed to plant secondary metabolites (indole, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, 2-tridecanone and xanthotoxin), insecticides (deltamethrin, fipronil, methoprene, methoxyfenozide) or model inducers (clofibrate and phenobarbital). Several genes were induced by plant chemicals such as P450s from the 6B, 321A and 9A subfamilies. Only a few genes responded to insecticides, belonging principally to the CYP9A family. There was little overlap between the response in vivo measured in the midgut and the response in vitro in Sf9 cells. In addition, regulatory elements were detected in the promoter region of these genes. In conclusion, several P450s were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment. PMID:25315858

  7. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm. PMID:25606011

  8. Life history of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2006-12-01

    The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate. PMID:17201979

  9. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. PMID:24757100

  10. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454