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Sample records for fefe hydrogenase model

  1. Models for the active site in [FeFe] hydrogenase with iron-bound ligands derived from bis-, tris-, and tetrakis(mercaptomethyl)silanes.

    PubMed

    Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Troegel, Dennis; Halpin, Yvonne; Tschierlei, Stefanie; Uhlemann, Ute; Görls, Helmar; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Dunne, Peter; Venkatesan, Munuswamy; Coey, Michael; Rudolph, Manfred; Vos, Johannes G; Tacke, Reinhold; Weigand, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    A series of multifunctional (mercaptomethyl)silanes of the general formula type R(n)Si(CH(2)SH)(4-n) (n = 0-2; R = organyl) was synthesized, starting from the corresponding (chloromethyl)silanes. They were used as multidentate ligands for the conversion of dodecacarbonyltriiron, Fe(3)(CO)(12), into iron carbonyl complexes in which the deprotonated (mercaptomethyl)silanes act as μ-bridging ligands. These complexes can be regarded as models for the [FeFe] hydrogenase. They were characterized by elemental analyses (C, H, S), NMR spectroscopic studies ((1)H, (13)C, (29)Si), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their electrochemical properties were investigated by cyclic voltammetry to disclose a new mechanism for the formation of dihydrogen catalyzed by these compounds, whereby one sulfur atom was protonated in the catalytic cycle. The reaction of the tridentate ligand MeSi(CH(2)SH)(3) with Fe(3)(CO)(12) yielded a tetranuclear cluster compound. A detailed investigation by X-ray diffraction, electrochemical, Raman, Mössbauer, and susceptibility techniques indicates that for this compound initially [Fe(2){μ-MeSi(CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)SH}(CO)(6)] is formed. This dinuclear complex, however, is slowly transformed into the tetranuclear species [Fe(4){μ-MeSi(CH(2)S)(3)}(2)(CO)(8)]. PMID:20873759

  2. The [FeFe] hydrogenase of Nyctotherus ovalis has a chimeric origin

    PubMed Central

    Boxma, Brigitte; Ricard, Guenola; van Hoek, Angela HAM; Severing, Edouard; Moon-van der Staay, Seung-Yeo; van der Staay, Georg WM; van Alen, Theo A; de Graaf, Rob M; Cremers, Geert; Kwantes, Michiel; McEwan, Neil R; Newbold, C Jamie; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Pristas, Peter; Huynen, Martijn A; Hackstein, Johannes HP

    2007-01-01

    Background The hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis show how mitochondria can evolve into hydrogenosomes because they possess a mitochondrial genome and parts of an electron-transport chain on the one hand, and a hydrogenase on the other hand. The hydrogenase permits direct reoxidation of NADH because it consists of a [FeFe] hydrogenase module that is fused to two modules, which are homologous to the 24 kDa and the 51 kDa subunits of a mitochondrial complex I. Results The [FeFe] hydrogenase belongs to a clade of hydrogenases that are different from well-known eukaryotic hydrogenases. The 24 kDa and the 51 kDa modules are most closely related to homologous modules that function in bacterial [NiFe] hydrogenases. Paralogous, mitochondrial 24 kDa and 51 kDa modules function in the mitochondrial complex I in N. ovalis. The different hydrogenase modules have been fused to form a polyprotein that is targeted into the hydrogenosome. Conclusion The hydrogenase and their associated modules have most likely been acquired by independent lateral gene transfer from different sources. This scenario for a concerted lateral gene transfer is in agreement with the evolution of the hydrogenosome from a genuine ciliate mitochondrion by evolutionary tinkering. PMID:18021395

  3. Process and genes for expression and overexpression of active [FeFe] hydrogenases

    DOEpatents

    Seibert, Michael; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Posewitz, Matthew C; Smolinski, Sharon L

    2014-09-16

    A process for expression of active [FeFe]-hydrogenase in a host organism that does not contain either the structural gene(s) for [FeFe]-hydrogenases and/or homologues for the maturation genes HydE, HydF and HyG, comprising: cloning the structural hydrogenase gene(s) and/or the maturation genes HydE, HydF and HydG from an organisms that contains these genes into expression plasmids; transferring the plasmids into an organism that lacks a native [FeFe]-hydrogenase or that has a disrupted [FeFe]-hydrogenase and culturing it aerobically; and inducing anaerobiosis to provide [FeFe] hydrogenase biosynthesis and H?2#191 production.

  4. A Cell-Free Microtiter Plate Screen for Improved [FeFe] Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, James A.; Swartz, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background [FeFe] hydrogenase enzymes catalyze the production and dissociation of H2, a potential renewable fuel. Attempts to exploit these catalysts in engineered systems have been hindered by the biotechnologically inconvenient properties of the natural enzymes, including their extreme oxygen sensitivity. Directed evolution has been used to improve the characteristics of a range of natural catalysts, but has been largely unsuccessful for [FeFe] hydrogenases because of a lack of convenient screening platforms. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe an in vitro screening technology for oxygen-tolerant and highly active [FeFe] hydrogenases. Despite the complexity of the protocol, we demonstrate a level of reproducibility that allows moderately improved mutants to be isolated. We have used the platform to identify a mutant of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [FeFe] hydrogenase HydA1 with a specific activity ∼4 times that of the wild-type enzyme. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using the screen presented here for large-scale efforts to identify improved biocatalysts for energy applications. The system is based on our ability to activate these complex enzymes in E. coli cell extracts, which allows unhindered access to the protein maturation and assay environment. PMID:20479937

  5. Structural Insight into the Complex of Ferredoxin and [FeFe] Hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, Sigrun; Siebel, Judith F; Diallo, Mamou; Farès, Christophe; Reijerse, Edward J; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-07-27

    The transfer of photosynthetic electrons by the ferredoxin PetF to the [FeFe] hydrogenase HydA1 in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a key step in hydrogen production. Electron delivery requires a specific interaction between PetF and HydA1. However, because of the transient nature of the electron-transfer complex, a crystal structure remains elusive. Therefore, we performed protein-protein docking based on new experimental data from a solution NMR spectroscopy investigation of native and gallium-substituted PetF. This provides valuable information about residues crucial for complex formation and electron transfer. The derived complex model might help to pinpoint residue substitution targets for improved hydrogen production. PMID:26010059

  6. [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenase diversity, mechanism, and maturation.

    PubMed

    Peters, John W; Schut, Gerrit J; Boyd, Eric S; Mulder, David W; Shepard, Eric M; Broderick, Joan B; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-06-01

    The [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the formal interconversion between hydrogen and protons and electrons, possess characteristic non-protein ligands at their catalytic sites and thus share common mechanistic features. Despite the similarities between these two types of hydrogenases, they clearly have distinct evolutionary origins and likely emerged from different selective pressures. [FeFe]-hydrogenases are widely distributed in fermentative anaerobic microorganisms and likely evolved under selective pressure to couple hydrogen production to the recycling of electron carriers that accumulate during anaerobic metabolism. In contrast, many [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze hydrogen oxidation as part of energy metabolism and were likely key enzymes in early life and arguably represent the predecessors of modern respiratory metabolism. Although the reversible combination of protons and electrons to generate hydrogen gas is the simplest of chemical reactions, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases have distinct mechanisms and differ in the fundamental chemistry associated with proton transfer and control of electron flow that also help to define catalytic bias. A unifying feature of these enzymes is that hydrogen activation itself has been restricted to one solution involving diatomic ligands (carbon monoxide and cyanide) bound to an Fe ion. On the other hand, and quite remarkably, the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce these ligands are exclusive to each type of enzyme. Furthermore, these mechanisms represent two independent solutions to the formation of complex bioinorganic active sites for catalyzing the simplest of chemical reactions, reversible hydrogen oxidation. As such, the [FeFe]- and [NiFe]-hydrogenases are arguably the most profound case of convergent evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fe/S proteins: Analysis, structure, function, biogenesis and diseases. PMID:25461840

  7. High-Yield Expression of Heterologous [FeFe] Hydrogenases in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenreuther, Jon M.; Grady-Smith, Celestine S.; Bingham, Alyssa S.; George, Simon J.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Swartz, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The realization of hydrogenase-based technologies for renewable H2 production is presently limited by the need for scalable and high-yielding methods to supply active hydrogenases and their required maturases. Principal Findings In this report, we describe an improved Escherichia coli-based expression system capable of producing 8–30 mg of purified, active [FeFe] hydrogenase per liter of culture, volumetric yields at least 10-fold greater than previously reported. Specifically, we overcame two problems associated with other in vivo production methods: low protein yields and ineffective hydrogenase maturation. The addition of glucose to the growth medium enhances anaerobic metabolism and growth during hydrogenase expression, which substantially increases total yields. Also, we combine iron and cysteine supplementation with the use of an E. coli strain upregulated for iron-sulfur cluster protein accumulation. These measures dramatically improve in vivo hydrogenase activation. Two hydrogenases, HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and HydA (CpI) from Clostridium pasteurianum, were produced with this improved system and subsequently purified. Biophysical characterization and FTIR spectroscopic analysis of these enzymes indicate that they harbor the H-cluster and catalyze H2 evolution with rates comparable to those of enzymes isolated from their respective native organisms. Significance The production system we describe will facilitate basic hydrogenase investigations as well as the development of new technologies that utilize these prolific H2-producing enzymes. These methods can also be extended for producing and studying a variety of oxygen-sensitive iron-sulfur proteins as well as other proteins requiring anoxic environments. PMID:21124800

  8. Covalent attachment of FeFe hydrogenases to carbon electrodes for direct electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Baffert, Carole; Sybirna, Kateryna; Ezanno, Pierre; Lautier, Thomas; Hajj, Viviane; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Soucaille, Philippe; Bottin, Hervé; Léger, Christophe

    2012-09-18

    Direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrodes is now commonly achieved, but obtaining protein films that are very stable may be challenging. This is particularly crucial in the case of hydrogenases, the enzymes that catalyze the biological conversion between dihydrogen and protons, because the instability of the hydrogenase films may prevent the use of these enzymes as electrocatalysts of H(2) oxidation and production in biofuel cells and photoelectrochemical cells. Here we show that two different FeFe hydrogenases (from Chamydomonas reinhardtii and Clostridium acetobutylicum) can be covalently attached to functionalized pyrolytic graphite electrodes using peptidic coupling. In both cases, a surface patch of lysine residues makes it possible to favor an orientation that is efficient for fast, direct electron transfer. High hydrogen-oxidation current densities are maintained for up to one week, the only limitation being the intrinsic stability of the enzyme. We also show that covalent attachment has no effect on the catalytic properties of the enzyme, which means that this strategy can also used be for electrochemical studies of the catalytic mechanism. PMID:22891965

  9. Following [FeFe] Hydrogenase Active Site Intermediates by Time-Resolved Mid-IR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mirmohades, Mohammad; Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Sommer, Constanze; Reijerse, Edward; Lomoth, Reiner; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Hammarström, Leif

    2016-08-18

    Time-resolved nanosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy is for the first time employed to study the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and to investigate relevant intermediates of the enzyme active site. An actinic 355 nm, 10 ns laser flash triggered photodissociation of a carbonyl group from the CO-inhibited state Hox-CO to form the state Hox, which is an intermediate of the catalytic proton reduction cycle. Time-resolved infrared spectroscopy allowed us to directly follow the subsequent rebinding of the carbonyl, re-forming Hox-CO, and determine the reaction half-life to be t1/2 ≈ 13 ± 5 ms at room temperature. This gives direct information on the dynamics of CO inhibition of the enzyme. PMID:27494400

  10. Cysteine as a ligand platform in the biosynthesis of the FeFe hydrogenase H cluster

    PubMed Central

    Suess, Daniel L. M.; Bürstel, Ingmar; De La Paz, Liliana; Kuchenreuther, Jon M.; Pham, Cindy C.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Swartz, James R.; Britt, R. David

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the redox interconversion of protons and H2, an important reaction for a number of metabolic processes and for solar fuel production. In FeFe hydrogenases, catalysis occurs at the H cluster, a metallocofactor comprising a [4Fe–4S]H subcluster coupled to a [2Fe]H subcluster bound by CO, CN–, and azadithiolate ligands. The [2Fe]H subcluster is assembled by the maturases HydE, HydF, and HydG. HydG is a member of the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine family of enzymes that transforms Fe and l-tyrosine into an [Fe(CO)2(CN)] synthon that is incorporated into the H cluster. Although it is thought that the site of synthon formation in HydG is the “dangler” Fe of a [5Fe] cluster, many mechanistic aspects of this chemistry remain unresolved including the full ligand set of the synthon, how the dangler Fe initially binds to HydG, and how the synthon is released at the end of the reaction. To address these questions, we herein show that l-cysteine (Cys) binds the auxiliary [4Fe–4S] cluster of HydG and further chelates the dangler Fe. We also demonstrate that a [4Fe–4S]aux[CN] species is generated during HydG catalysis, a process that entails the loss of Cys and the [Fe(CO)2(CN)] fragment; on this basis, we suggest that Cys likely completes the coordination sphere of the synthon. Thus, through spectroscopic analysis of HydG before and after the synthon is formed, we conclude that Cys serves as the ligand platform on which the synthon is built and plays a role in both Fe2+ binding and synthon release. PMID:26324916

  11. Patterns of [FeFe] Hydrogenase Diversity in the Gut Microbial Communities of Lignocellulose-Feeding Higher Termites

    PubMed Central

    Ballor, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is the central free intermediate in the degradation of wood by termite gut microbes and can reach concentrations exceeding those measured for any other biological system. Degenerate primers targeting the largest family of [FeFe] hydrogenases observed in a termite gut metagenome have been used to explore the evolution and representation of these enzymes in termites. Sequences were cloned from the guts of the higher termites Amitermes sp. strain Cost010, Amitermes sp. strain JT2, Gnathamitermes sp. strain JT5, Microcerotermes sp. strain Cost008, Nasutitermes sp. strain Cost003, and Rhyncotermes sp. strain Cost004. Each gut sample harbored a more rich and evenly distributed population of hydrogenase sequences than observed previously in the guts of lower termites and Cryptocercus punctulatus. This accentuates the physiological importance of hydrogen for higher termite gut ecosystems and may reflect an increased metabolic burden, or metabolic opportunity, created by a lack of gut protozoa. The sequences were phylogenetically distinct from previously sequenced [FeFe] hydrogenases. Phylogenetic and UniFrac comparisons revealed congruence between host phylogeny and hydrogenase sequence library clustering patterns. This may reflect the combined influences of the stable intimate relationship of gut microbes with their host and environmental alterations in the gut that have occurred over the course of termite evolution. These results accentuate the physiological importance of hydrogen to termite gut ecosystems. PMID:22636002

  12. Analysis of extensive [FeFe] hydrogenase gene diversity within the gut microbiota of insects representing five families of Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Ballor, Nicholas R; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2012-04-01

    We have designed and utilized degenerate primers in the phylogenetic analysis of [FeFe] hydrogenase gene diversity in the gut ecosystems of roaches and lower termites. H(2) is an important free intermediate in the breakdown of wood by termite gut microbial communities, reaching concentrations in some species exceeding those measured for any other biological system. The primers designed target with specificity the largest group of enzymatic H domain proteins previously identified in a termite gut metagenome. "Family 3" hydrogenase sequences were amplified from the guts of lower termites, Incisitermes minor, Zootermopsis nevadensis, and Reticulitermes hesperus, and two roaches, Cryptocercus punctulatus and Periplaneta americana. Subsequent analyses revealed that all termite and Cryptocercus sequences were phylogenetically distinct from non-termite-associated hydrogenases available from public databases. The abundance of unique sequence operational taxonomic units (as many as 21 from each species) underscores the previously demonstrated physiological importance of H(2) to the gut ecosystems of these wood-feeding insects. The diversity of sequences observed might be reflective of multiple niches that the enzymes have been evolved to accommodate. Sequences cloned from Cryptocercus and the lower termite samples, all of which are wood feeding insects, clustered closely with one another in phylogenetic analyses to the exclusion of alleles from P. americana, an omnivorous cockroach, also cloned during this study. We present primers targeting a family of termite gut [FeFe] hydrogenases and provide results that are consistent with a pivotal role for hydrogen in the termite gut ecosystem and point toward unique evolutionary adaptations to the gut ecosystem. PMID:21935609

  13. New redox states observed in [FeFe] hydrogenases reveal redox coupling within the H-cluster.

    PubMed

    Adamska-Venkatesh, Agnieszka; Krawietz, Danuta; Siebel, Judith; Weber, Katharina; Happe, Thomas; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2014-08-13

    Active [FeFe] hydrogenases can be obtained by expressing the unmaturated enzyme in Escherichia coli followed by incubation with a synthetic precursor of the binuclear [2Fe] subcluster, namely: [NEt4]2[Fe2(adt)(CO)4(CN)2] (adt = [S-CH2-NH-CH2-S](2-)). The binuclear subsite Fe2(adt)(CO)3(CN)2 is attached through a bridging cysteine side chain to a [4Fe-4S] subcluster already present in the unmaturated enzyme thus yielding the intact native "H-cluster". We present FTIR electrochemical studies of the [FeFe] hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrHydA1, maturated with the precursor of the native cofactor [Fe2(adt)(CO)4(CN)2](2-) as well as a non-natural variant [Fe2(pdt)(CO)4(CN)2](2-) in which the bridging amine functionality is replaced by CH2. The obtained active enzyme CrHydA1(adt) shows the same redox states in the respective potential range as observed for the native system (E(ox/red) = -400 mV, E(red/sred) = -470 mV). For the Hox → Hred transition the reducing equivalent is stored on the binuclear part, ([4Fe-4S](2+)Fe(II)Fe(I) → [4Fe-4S](2+)Fe(I)Fe(I)), while the Hred → Hsred transition is characterized by a reduction of the [4Fe-4S] part of the H-cluster ([4Fe-4S](2+)Fe(I)Fe(I) → [4Fe-4S](+)Fe(I)Fe(I)). A similar transition is reported here for the CO inhibited state of the H-cluster: ([4Fe-4S](2+)Fe(I)Fe(II)CO → [4Fe-4S](+)Fe(I)Fe(II)CO). An FTIR electrochemical study of the inactive variant with the pdt ligand, CrHydA1(pdt), identified two redox states H(pdt)-ox and H(pdt)-"red". Both EPR and FTIR spectra of H(pdt)-ox are virtually identical to those of the H(adt)-ox and the native Hox state. The H(pdt)-"red" state is also characterized by a reduced [4Fe-4S] subcluster. In contrast to CrHydA1(adt), the H(pdt)-ox state of CrHydA1(pdt) is stable up to rather high potentials (+200 mV). This study demonstrates the distinct redox coupling between the two parts of the H-cluster and confirms that the [4Fe-4S]H subsite is also redox active and as

  14. Hydrogenase Enzymes and Their Synthetic Models: The Role of Metal Hydrides.

    PubMed

    Schilter, David; Camara, James M; Huynh, Mioy T; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2016-08-10

    Hydrogenase enzymes efficiently process H2 and protons at organometallic FeFe, NiFe, or Fe active sites. Synthetic modeling of the many H2ase states has provided insight into H2ase structure and mechanism, as well as afforded catalysts for the H2 energy vector. Particularly important are hydride-bearing states, with synthetic hydride analogues now known for each hydrogenase class. These hydrides are typically prepared by protonation of low-valent cores. Examples of FeFe and NiFe hydrides derived from H2 have also been prepared. Such chemistry is more developed than mimicry of the redox-inactive monoFe enzyme, although functional models of the latter are now emerging. Advances in physical and theoretical characterization of H2ase enzymes and synthetic models have proven key to the study of hydrides in particular, and will guide modeling efforts toward more robust and active species optimized for practical applications. PMID:27353631

  15. N-Substituted Derivatives of the Azadithiolate Cofactor from the [FeFe] Hydrogenases: Stability and Complexation.

    PubMed

    Angamuthu, Raja; Chen, Chi-Shian; Cochrane, Tyler R; Gray, Danielle L; Schilter, David; Ulloa, Olbelina A; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2015-06-15

    Experiments are described that probe the stability of N-substituted derivatives of the azadithiolate cofactor recently confirmed in the [FeFe] hydrogenases (Berggren, G., et al. Nature 2013, 499, 66). Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of bis(thioester) BnN(CH2SAc)2 gives [BnNCH2SCH2]2 rather than azadithiol BnN(CH2SH)2. Treatment of BnN(CH2SAc)2 with NaO(t)Bu generates BnN(CH2SNa)2, which was trapped with NiCl2(diphos) (diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PR2)2; R = Ph (dppe) and Cy (dcpe)) to give fully characterized complexes Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](diphos). The related N-aryl derivative Ni[(SCH2)2NC6H4Cl](diphos) was prepared analogously from 4-ClC6H4N(CH2SAc)2, NaO(t)Bu, and NiCl2(dppe). Crystallographic analysis confirmed that these rare nonbridging [adt(R)](2-) complexes feature distorted square planar Ni centers. The analogue Pd[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) was also prepared. (31)P NMR analysis indicates that Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) has basicity comparable to typical amines. As shown by cyclic voltammetry, the couple [M[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe)](+/0) is reversible near -2.0 V versus Fc(+/0). The wave shifts to -1.78 V upon N-protonation. In the presence of CF3CO2H, Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) catalyzes hydrogen evolution at rate of 22 s(-1) in the acid-independent regime, at room temperature in CH2Cl2 solution. In contrast to the instability of RN(CH2SH)2 (R = alkyl, aryl), the dithiol of tosylamide TsN(CH2SH)2 proved sufficiently stable to allow full characterization. This dithiol reacts with Fe3(CO)12 and, in the presence of base, NiCl2(dppe) to give Fe2[(SCH2)2NTs](CO)6 and Ni[(SCH2)2NTs](dppe), respectively. PMID:26000618

  16. N-Substituted Derivatives of the Azadithiolate Cofactor from the [FeFe] Hydrogenases: Stability and Complexation

    PubMed Central

    Angamuthu, Raja; Chen, Chi-Shian; Cochrane, Tyler R.; Gray, Danielle L.; Schilter, David; Ulloa, Olbelina A.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments are described that probe the stability of N-substituted derivatives of the azadithiolate cofactor recently confirmed in the [FeFe] hydrogenases (Berggren, G., et al. Nature 2013, 499, 66). Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of bis(thioester) BnN(CH2SAc)2 gives [BnNCH2SCH2]2 rather than azadithiol BnN(CH2SH)2. Treatment of BnN(CH2SAc)2 with NaOtBu generates BnN(CH2SNa)2, which was trapped with NiCl2(diphos) (diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PR2)2; R = Ph (dppe) and Cy (dcpe)) to give fully characterized complexes Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](diphos). The related N-aryl derivative Ni[(SCH2)2NC6H4Cl](diphos) was prepared analogously from 4-ClC6H4N(CH2SAc)2, NaOtBu, and NiCl2(dppe). Crystallographic analysis confirmed that these rare nonbridging [adtR]2− complexes feature distorted square planar Ni centers. The analogue Pd[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) was also prepared. 31P NMR analysis indicates that Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) has basicity comparable to typical amines. As shown by cyclic voltammetry, the couple [M[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe)]+/0 is reversible near −2.0 V versus Fc+/0. The wave shifts to −1.78 V upon N-protonation. In the presence of CF3CO2H, Ni[(SCH2)2NBn](dppe) catalyzes hydrogen evolution at rate of 22 s−1 in the acid-independent regime, at room temperature in CH2Cl2 solution. In contrast to the instability of RN(CH2SH)2 (R = alkyl, aryl), the dithiol of tosylamide TsN(CH2SH)2 proved sufficiently stable to allow full characterization. This dithiol reacts with Fe3(CO)12 and, in the presence of base, NiCl2(dppe) to give Fe2[(SCH2)2NTs](CO)6 and Ni[(SCH2)2NTs](dppe), respectively. PMID:26000618

  17. A Functional Model of [Fe]-Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Yin, Chih-Juo Madeline; Wodrich, Matthew D; Mazza, Simona; Schultz, Katherine M; Scopelliti, Rosario; Hu, Xile

    2016-03-16

    [Fe]-Hydrogenase catalyzes the hydrogenation of a biological substrate via the heterolytic splitting of molecular hydrogen. While many synthetic models of [Fe]-hydrogenase have been prepared, none yet are capable of activating H2 on their own. Here, we report the first Fe-based functional mimic of the active site of [Fe]-hydrogenase, which was developed based on a mechanistic understanding. The activity of this iron model complex is enabled by its unique ligand environment, consisting of biomimetic pyridinylacyl and carbonyl ligands, as well as a bioinspired diphosphine ligand with a pendant amine moiety. The model complex activates H2 and mediates hydrogenation of an aldehyde. PMID:26926708

  18. Solution-phase photochemistry of a [FeFe]hydrogenase model compound: Evidence of photoinduced isomerisation

    SciTech Connect

    Kania, Rafal; Hunt, Neil T.; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Wright, Joseph A.; Pickett, Christopher J.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2012-01-28

    The solution-phase photochemistry of the [FeFe] hydrogenase subsite model ({mu}-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}S)Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2} has been studied using ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy supported by density functional theory calculations. In three different solvents, n-heptane, methanol, and acetonitrile, relaxation of the tricarbonyl intermediate formed by UV photolysis of a carbonyl ligand leads to geminate recombination with a bias towards a thermodynamically less stable isomeric form, suggesting that facile interconversion of the ligand groups at the Fe center is possible in the unsaturated species. In a polar or hydrogen bonding solvent, this process competes with solvent substitution leading to the formation of stable solvent adduct species. The data provide further insight into the effect of incorporating non-carbonyl ligands on the dynamics and photochemistry of hydrogenase-derived biomimetic compounds.

  19. Atomic Resolution Modeling of the Ferredoxin:[FeFe] Hydrogenase Complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christopher H.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Kim, Kwiseon

    2007-01-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenases HydA1 and HydA2 in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii catalyze the final reaction in a remarkable metabolic pathway allowing this photosynthetic organism to produce H2 from water in the chloroplast. A [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin is a critical branch point in electron flow from Photosystem I toward a variety of metabolic fates, including proton reduction by hydrogenases. To better understand the binding determinants involved in ferredoxin:hydrogenase interactions, we have modeled Chlamydomonas PetF1 and HydA2 based on amino-acid sequence homology, and produced two promising electron-transfer model complexes by computational docking. To characterize these models, quantitative free energy calculations at atomic resolution were carried out, and detailed analysis of the interprotein interactions undertaken. The protein complex model we propose for ferredoxin:HydA2 interaction is energetically favored over the alternative candidate by 20 kcal/mol. This proposed model of the electron-transfer complex between PetF1 and HydA2 permits a more detailed view of the molecular events leading up to H2 evolution, and suggests potential mutagenic strategies to modulate electron flow to HydA2. PMID:17660315

  20. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of the [Fe]-hydrogenase Hmd active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone-Stagni, Marco; Vogt, Sonja; Shima, Seigo; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen. Although their structure and catalytic mechanism are of considerable applied interest as models for the development of efficient catalysts for hydrogen fueled processes, the understanding of how hydrogenases react with H2 is only in its infancy. Two of the three known types of hydrogenases are iron-sulfur proteins that contain a dinuclear metal center, either [NiFe] or [FeFe]. In contrast, [Fe]-hydrogenase is the only mononuclear hydrogenase and thus a perfect system for studying the structural and electronic determinants of these enzymes. Here we summarize recent improvements in modeling based on the EXAFS signal and the geometric structure of this metalloenzyme in its as isolated or reconstituted form. The individual contributions to the EXAFS resulting in two different structural models are presented and discussed. Inspired by the new crystal structure, we show an advanced EXAFS model for the enzyme from Methanothermobacter marburgensis.

  1. Artificial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Bryan E.; Olsen, Matthew T.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Decades of biophysical study on the hydrogenase (H2ase) enzymes have yielded sufficient information to guide the synthesis of analogues of their active sites. Three families of enzymes serve as inspiration for this work: the [FeFe]-, [NiFe]-, and [Fe]-H2ases, all of which feature iron centers bound to both CO and thiolate. Artificial H2ases effect the oxidation of H2 of H2 and the reverse reaction, the reduction of protons. These reactions occur via the intermediacy of metal hydrides. The inclusion of amine bases within the catalysts is an important design feature that is emulated in related bioinspired catalysts. Continuing challenges are the low reactivity of H2 towards biomimetic H2ases. PMID:20356731

  2. A [NiFe]hydrogenase model that catalyses the release of hydrogen from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nga T; Mori, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Yatabe, Takeshi; Kabe, Ryota; Nakai, Hidetaka; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-11-11

    We report the decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, catalysed by a NiRu complex originally developed as a [NiFe]hydrogenase model. This is the first example of H2 evolution, catalysed by a [NiFe]hydrogenase model, which does not require additional energy. PMID:25234420

  3. Modeling three-dimensional structure of two closely related Ni-Fe hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Abdullatypov, A V; Tsygankov, A A

    2015-08-01

    The results of homology modeling of HydSL, a NiFe-hydrogenase from purple sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina BBS, and deep-water bacterium Alteromonas macleodii deep ecotype are presented in this work. It is shown that the models have larger confidence level than earlier published ones; full-size models of these enzymes are presented for the first time. The C-end fragment of small subunit of T. roseopersicina hydrogenase is shown to have random orientation in relation to the main protein globule. The obtained models of this enzyme have a large number of ion pairs, as well as thermostable HydSL hydrogenase from Allochromatium vinosum, in contrast to thermostable HydSL hydrogenase from Alt. macleodii and thermolabile HydAB hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. The possible determinant of oxygen stability of studied hydrogenases could be the lack of several intramolecular tunnels. Hydrophobic and electrostatic surfaces were mapped in order to find out possible pathways of coupling hydrogenase to electron-transferring chains, as well as methods for construction of artificial photobiohydrogen-producing systems. PMID:25572109

  4. Model study of CO inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kabe, Ryota; Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Ando, Tatsuya; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Nakai, Hidetaka; Ogo, Seiji

    2011-09-19

    We propose a modified mechanism for the inhibition of [NiFe]hydrogenase ([NiFe]H(2)ase) by CO. We present a model study, using a NiRu H(2)ase mimic, that demonstrates that (i) CO completely inhibits the catalytic cycle of the model compound, (ii) CO prefers to coordinate to the Ru(II) center rather than taking an axial position on the Ni(II) center, and (iii) CO is unable to displace a hydrido ligand from the NiRu center. We combine these studies with a reevaluation of previous studies to propose that, under normal circumstances, CO inhibits [NiFe]H(2)ase by complexing to the Fe(II) center. PMID:21853978

  5. Microbial communities responsible for fixation of CO2 revealed by using mcrA, cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, fefe-hydrogenase genes as molecular biomarkers in petroleum reservoirs of different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-F.; Mbadinga, S. M.; Sun, X.-B.; Yang, G.-C.; Yang, S.-Z.; Gu, J.-D.; Mu, B.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoir is one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up. The in situ bioconversion of sequestrated CO2 to methane by microorganisms inhabiting oil reservoirs is feasible. To evaluate the potential of in situ microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into CH4 in oil reservoirs, a comprehensive molecular survey was performed to reveal microbial communities inhabiting four oil reservoirs with different temperatures by analysis of functional genes involved in the biochemical pathways of CO2 fixation and CH4 synthesis (cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase encoding gene, and mcrA). A rich diversity of these functional genes was found in all the samples with both high and low temperatures and they were affiliated to members of the Proteobacteria (cbbL and cbbM, fthfs), Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (fthfs), uncultured bacteria ([FeFe]-hydrogenase), and Methanomirobiales, Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (mcrA). The predominant methanogens were all identified to be hydrogenotrophic CO2-reducing physiological types. These results showed that functional microbial communities capable of microbial fixation and bioconversion of CO2 into methane inhabit widely in oil reservoirs, which is helpful to microbial recycling of sequestrated CO2 to further new energy in oil reservoirs.

  6. Reconstitution of [Fe]-hydrogenase using model complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Seigo; Chen, Dafa; Xu, Tao; Wodrich, Matthew D.; Fujishiro, Takashi; Schultz, Katherine M.; Kahnt, Jörg; Ataka, Kenichi; Hu, Xile

    2015-12-01

    [Fe]-Hydrogenase catalyses the reversible hydrogenation of a methenyltetrahydromethanopterin substrate, which is an intermediate step during the methanogenesis from CO2 and H2. The active site contains an iron-guanylylpyridinol cofactor, in which Fe2+ is coordinated by two CO ligands, as well as an acyl carbon atom and a pyridinyl nitrogen atom from a 3,4,5,6-substituted 2-pyridinol ligand. However, the mechanism of H2 activation by [Fe]-hydrogenase is unclear. Here we report the reconstitution of [Fe]-hydrogenase from an apoenzyme using two FeGP cofactor mimics to create semisynthetic enzymes. The small-molecule mimics reproduce the ligand environment of the active site, but are inactive towards H2 binding and activation on their own. We show that reconstituting the enzyme using a mimic that contains a 2-hydroxypyridine group restores activity, whereas an analogous enzyme with a 2-methoxypyridine complex was essentially inactive. These findings, together with density functional theory computations, support a mechanism in which the 2-hydroxy group is deprotonated before it serves as an internal base for heterolytic H2 cleavage.

  7. The Model [NiFe]-Hydrogenases of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sargent, F

    2016-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, hydrogen metabolism plays a prominent role in anaerobic physiology. The genome contains the capability to produce and assemble up to four [NiFe]-hydrogenases, each of which are known, or predicted, to contribute to different aspects of cellular metabolism. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and roles of the E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenases. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, respiratory Hyd-1 isoenzyme has become one of the most important paradigm systems for understanding an important class of oxygen-tolerant enzymes, as well as providing key information on the mechanism of hydrogen activation per se. The membrane-bound, periplasmically oriented, Hyd-2 isoenzyme has emerged as an unusual, bidirectional redox valve able to link hydrogen oxidation to quinone reduction during anaerobic respiration, or to allow disposal of excess reducing equivalents as hydrogen gas. The membrane-bound, cytoplasmically oriented, Hyd-3 isoenzyme is part of the formate hydrogenlyase complex, which acts to detoxify excess formic acid under anaerobic fermentative conditions and is geared towards hydrogen production under those conditions. Sequence identity between some Hyd-3 subunits and those of the respiratory NADH dehydrogenases has led to hypotheses that the activity of this isoenzyme may be tightly coupled to the formation of transmembrane ion gradients. Finally, the E. coli genome encodes a homologue of Hyd-3, termed Hyd-4, however strong evidence for a physiological role for E. coli Hyd-4 remains elusive. In this review, the versatile hydrogen metabolism of E. coli will be discussed and the roles and potential applications of the spectrum of different types of [NiFe]-hydrogenases available will be explored. PMID:27134027

  8. Nickel-Substituted Rubredoxin as a Minimal Enzyme Model for Hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jeffrey W; Shafaat, Hannah S

    2015-09-17

    A simple, functional mimic of [NiFe] hydrogenases based on a nickel-substituted rubredoxin (NiRd) protein is reported. NiRd is capable of light-initiated and solution-phase hydrogen production and demonstrates high electrocatalytic activity using protein film voltammetry. The catalytic voltammograms are modeled using analytical expressions developed for hydrogenase enzymes, revealing maximum turnover frequencies of approximately 20-100 s(-1) at 4 °C with an overpotential of 540 mV. These rates are directly comparable to those observed for [NiFe] hydrogenases under similar conditions. Like the native enzymes, the proton reduction activity of NiRd is strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide. This engineered rubredoxin-based enzyme is chemically and thermally robust, easily accessible, and highly tunable. These results have implications for understanding the enzymatic mechanisms of native hydrogenases, and, using NiRd as a scaffold, it will be possible to optimize this catalyst for application in sustainable fuel generation. PMID:26722748

  9. Electrochemistry of Simple Organometallic Models of Iron-Iron Hydrogenases in Organic Solvent and Water.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, Frederic

    2016-01-19

    Synthetic models of the active site of iron-iron hydrogenases are currently the subjects of numerous studies aimed at developing H2-production catalysts based on cheap and abundant materials. In this context, the present report offers an electrochemist's view of the catalysis of proton reduction by simple binuclear iron(I) thiolate complexes. Although these complexes probably do not follow a biocatalytic pathway, we analyze and discuss the interplay between the reduction potential and basicity and how these antagonist properties impact the mechanisms of proton-coupled electron transfer to the metal centers. This question is central to any consideration of the activity at the molecular level of hydrogenases and related enzymes. In a second part, special attention is paid to iron thiolate complexes holding rigid and unsaturated bridging ligands. The complexes that enjoy mild reduction potentials and stabilized reduced forms are promising iron-based catalysts for the photodriven evolution of H2 in organic solvents and, more importantly, in water. PMID:26641526

  10. Modeling the sublattice magnetizations for the layered bcc nanojunction … Fe[Fe1-cCoc ] ℓ Fe … systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokan, V.; Abou Ghantous, M.; Khater, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ferromagnetic nanojunctions … Fe[Fe1-cCoc ] ℓ Fe …, with ℓ is the number of layers which constitute the nanojunction, based on Fe/Co alloy are considered for the first time in this work. We model the salient magnetic properties of the layered ferromagnetic nanostructures between magnetically ordered iron leads. The effective field theory (EFT) Ising spin method is used to compute reliable Jav exchange values for the VCA Fe/Co alloy materials in comparison with experimental data and compared to existing DFT calculated exchange interactions. The new set of exchange interaction values between pairs of nearest neighbors atom in the alloy are deduced and agree with previous known measurement of lattice constant for this alloy. Using the combined EFT and mean field theory (MFT) spin methods, the sublattice magnetizations of the Fe and Co sites on the individual bcc basal planes of the layered nanostructures, are calculated and analyzed. The sublattice magnetizations, effective magnetic moments per site, and the possible ferromagnetic order of the layers [Fe1-cCoc ] ℓ on the individual bcc atomic planes of the embedded nanostructures for all temperatures and in particular for TcFe ≤ T ≤Tα→γ are presented as a function of temperature and thicknesses of the layered ferromagnetic nanostructures, for different stable concentrations c=0.25, 0.5 and 0.75. In the absence of first principles calculations for these basic physical variables for the layered nanostructures between iron leads, the combined EFT and MFT approach yields the only available information for them at present in the absence of a possible Curie temperature for these alloys. These variables are necessary for certain spin dynamic computations, as for the ballistic magnon transport across embedded nanojunctions in magnonics. The model is general, and may applied directly to other composite magnetic elements and embedded nanostructures.

  11. Brownian dynamics and molecular dynamics study of the association between hydrogenase and ferredoxin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; Chang, Christopher H; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria L; Kim, Kwiseon

    2008-10-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenase from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can catalyze the reduction of protons to hydrogen gas using electrons supplied from photosystem I and transferred via ferredoxin. To better understand the association of the hydrogenase and the ferredoxin, we have simulated the process over multiple timescales. A Brownian dynamics simulation method gave an initial thorough sampling of the rigid-body translational and rotational phase spaces, and the resulting trajectories were used to compute the occupancy and free-energy landscapes. Several important hydrogenase-ferredoxin encounter complexes were identified from this analysis, which were then individually simulated using atomistic molecular dynamics to provide more details of the hydrogenase and ferredoxin interaction. The ferredoxin appeared to form reasonable complexes with the hydrogenase in multiple orientations, some of which were good candidates for inclusion in a transition state ensemble of configurations for electron transfer. PMID:18621810

  12. Functional model for the [Fe] hydrogenase inspired by the frustrated Lewis pair concept.

    PubMed

    Kalz, Kai F; Brinkmeier, Alexander; Dechert, Sebastian; Mata, Ricardo A; Meyer, Franc

    2014-11-26

    serve as a hydride acceptor. This unprecedented functional model for the [Fe] hydrogenase, using a Lewis acidic imidazolinium salt as a biomimetic hydride acceptor in combination with an organometallic Lewis base, may provide new inspiration for biomimetic H2 activation. PMID:25353322

  13. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael W

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  14. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wombwell, Claire; Caputo, Christine A; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-11-17

    The development of technology for the inexpensive generation of the renewable energy vector H2 through water splitting is of immediate economic, ecological, and humanitarian interest. Recent interest in hydrogenases has been fueled by their exceptionally high catalytic rates for H2 production at a marginal overpotential, which is presently only matched by the nonscalable noble metal platinum. The mechanistic understanding of hydrogenase function guides the design of synthetic catalysts, and selection of a suitable hydrogenase enables direct applications in electro- and photocatalysis. [FeFe]-hydrogenases display excellent H2 evolution activity, but they are irreversibly damaged upon exposure to O2, which currently prevents their use in full water splitting systems. O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases are known, but they are typically strongly biased toward H2 oxidation, while H2 production by [NiFe]-hydrogenases is often product (H2) inhibited. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are a subclass of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with a selenocysteine residue coordinated to the active site nickel center in place of a cysteine. They exhibit a combination of unique properties that are highly advantageous for applications in water splitting compared with other hydrogenases. They display a high H2 evolution rate with marginal inhibition by H2 and tolerance to O2. [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases are therefore one of the most active molecular H2 evolution catalysts applicable in water splitting. Herein, we summarize our recent progress in exploring the unique chemistry of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases through biomimetic model chemistry and the chemistry with [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases in semiartificial photosynthetic systems. We gain perspective from the structural, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of the [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases and compare them with the chemistry of synthetic models of this hydrogenase active site. Our synthetic models give insight into the effects on the electronic properties and reactivity of

  15. Photocatalytic hydrogen production from a simple water-soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase model system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bin; Feng, Ke; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2012-08-21

    Combined with a simple water soluble [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic 1, Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and ascorbic acid enable hydrogen production photocatalytically. More than 88 equivalents of H(2) were achieved in water, which is much better than that obtained in an organic solvent or a mixture of organic solvent and water. PMID:22772838

  16. Synthetic Active Site Model of the [NiFeSe] Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wombwell, Claire; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    A dinuclear synthetic model of the [NiFeSe] hydrogenase active site and a structural, spectroscopic and electrochemical analysis of this complex is reported. [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] (H2‘S2Se2’=1,2-bis(2-thiabutyl-3,3-dimethyl-4-selenol)benzene) has been synthesized by reacting the nickel selenolate complex [Ni(‘S2Se2’)] with [Fe(CO)3bda] (bda=benzylideneacetone). X-ray crystal structure analysis confirms that [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] mimics the key structural features of the enzyme active site, including a doubly bridged heterobimetallic nickel and iron center with a selenolate terminally coordinated to the nickel center. Comparison of [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] with the previously reported thiolate analogue [NiFe(‘S4’)(CO)3] (H2‘S4’=H2xbsms=1,2-bis(4-mercapto-3,3-dimethyl-2-thiabutyl)benzene) showed that the selenolate groups in [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] give lower carbonyl stretching frequencies in the IR spectrum. Electrochemical studies of [NiFe(‘S2Se2’)(CO)3] and [NiFe(‘S4’)(CO)3] demonstrated that both complexes do not operate as homogenous H2 evolution catalysts, but are precursors to a solid deposit on an electrode surface for H2 evolution catalysis in organic and aqueous solution. PMID:25847470

  17. Interaction of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases with Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. S.; McDonald, T. J.; Kim, Y.-H.; Blackburn, J. L.; Heben, M. J.; King, P. W.

    2007-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are promising candidates for use in energy conversion devices as an active photo-collecting elements, for dissociation of bound excitons and charge-transfer from photo-excited chromophores, or as molecular wires to transport charge. Hydrogenases are enzymes that efficiently catalyze the reduction of protons from a variety of electron donors to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenases together with SWNT suggest a novel biohybrid material for direct conversion of sunlight into H{sub 2}. Here, we report changes in SWNT optical properties upon addition of recombinant [FeFe] hydrogenases from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We find evidence that novel and stable charge-transfer complexes are formed under conditions of the hydrogenase catalytic turnover, providing spectroscopic handles for further study and application of this hybrid system.

  18. Interaction of [FeFe]-hydrogenases with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedruzic Chang, Drazenka; McDonald, Timothy J.; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Blackburn, Jeffrey L.; Heben, Michael J.; King, Paul W.

    2007-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are promising candidates for use in energy conversion devices as an active photo-collecting elements, for dissociation of bound excitons and charge-transfer from photo-excited chromophores, or as molecular wires to transport charge. Hydrogenases are enzymes that efficiently catalyze the reduction of protons from a variety of electron donors to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogenases together with SWNT suggest a novel biohybrid material for direct conversion of sunlight into H II. Here, we report changes in SWNT optical properties upon addition of recombinant [FeFe] hydrogenases from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We find evidence that novel and stable charge-transfer complexes are formed under conditions of the hydrogenase catalytic turnover, providing spectroscopic handles for further study and application of this hybrid system.

  19. Hydrogen Activation by Biomimetic [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Model Containing Protected Cyanide Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Brian C.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Described are experiments that allow incorporation of cyanide cofactors and hydride substrate into active site models [NiFe]-hydrogenases (H2ases). Complexes of the type (CO)2(CN)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe), (dxpe = dppe, 1; dxpe = dcpe, 2) bind the Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 (BArF3) to give the adducts (CO)2(CNBArF3)2Fe(pdt)Ni(dxpe), (1(BArF3)2, 2(BArF3)2). Upon decarbonylation using amine oxides, these adducts react with H2 to give hydrido derivatives Et4N[(CO)(CNBArF3)2Fe(H)(pdt)Ni(dxpe)], (dxpe = dppe, Et4N[H3(BArF3)2]; dxpe = dcpe, Et4N[H4(BArF3)2]). Crystallographic analysis shows that Et4N[H3(BArF3)2] generally resembles the active site of the enzyme in the reduced, hydride-containing states (Ni-C/R). The Fe-H…Ni center is unsymmetrical with rFe-H = 1.51(3) and rNi-H = 1.71(3) Å. Both crystallographic and 19F NMR analysis show that the CNBArF3− ligands occupy basal and apical sites. Unlike cationic Ni-Fe hydrides, [H3(BArF3)2]− and [H4(BArF3)2]− oxidize at mild potentials, near the Fc+/0 couple. Electrochemical measurements indicate that in the presence of base, [H3(BArF3)2]− catalyzes the oxidation of H2. NMR evidence indicates dihydrogen bonding between these anionic hydrides and ammonium salts, which is relevant to the mechanism of hydrogenogenesis. In the case of Et4N[H3(BArF3)2], strong acids such as HCl induce H2 release to give the chloride Et4N[(CO)(CNBArF3)2Fe(pdt)(Cl)Ni(dppe)]. PMID:23899049

  20. In search of metal hydrides: an X-ray absorption and emission study of [NiFe] hydrogenase model complexes.

    PubMed

    Hugenbruch, Stefan; Shafaat, Hannah S; Krämer, Tobias; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Weber, Katharina; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; DeBeer, Serena

    2016-04-28

    Metal hydrides are invoked as important intermediates in both chemical and biological H2 production. In the [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes, pulsed EPR and high-resolution crystallography have argued that the hydride interacts primarily at the Ni site. In contrast, in [NiFe] hydrogenase model complexes, it is observed that the bridging hydride interacts primarily with the Fe. Herein, we utilize a combination of Ni and Fe X-ray absorption (XAS) and emission (XES) spectroscopies to examine the contribution of the bridging hydride to the observed spectral features in [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H)Fe(CO)3](+). The corresponding data on (dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)Fe(CO)3 are used as a reference for the changes that occur in the absence of a hydride bridge. For further interpretation of the observed spectral features, all experimental spectra were calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) approach, with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. It is found that the iron valence-to-core (VtC) XES spectra reveal clear signatures for the presence of a Fe-H interaction in the hydride bridged model complex. In contrast, the Ni VtC XES spectrum largely reflects changes in the local Ni geometry and shows little contribution from a Ni-H interaction. A stepwise theoretical analysis of the hydride contribution and the Ni site symmetry provides insights into the factors, which govern the different metal-hydride interactions in both the model complexes and the enzyme. Furthermore, these results establish the utility of two-color XES to reveal important insights into the electronic structure of various metal-hydride species. PMID:26924248

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity of Functionalized Trinuclear Iron–Sulfur Clusters – A New Class of Bioinspired Hydrogenase Models

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Manuel; Knör, Günther

    2015-01-01

    The air- and moisture-stable iron–sulfur carbonyl clusters Fe3S2(CO)7(dppm) (1) and Fe3S2(CO)7(dppf) (2) carrying the bisphosphine ligands bis(diphenylphosphanyl)methane (dppm) and 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)ferrocene (dppf) were prepared and fully characterized. Two alternative synthetic routes based on different thionation reactions of triiron dodecacarbonyl were tested. The molecular structures of the methylene-bridged compound 1 and the ferrocene-functionalized derivative 2 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The catalytic reactivity of the trinuclear iron–sulfur cluster core for proton reduction in solution at low overpotential was demonstrated. These deeply colored bisphosphine-bridged sulfur-capped iron carbonyl systems are discussed as promising candidates for the development of new bioinspired model compounds of iron-based hydrogenases. PMID:26512211

  2. The iron-site structure of [Fe]-hydrogenase and model systems: an X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy study†‡

    PubMed Central

    Salomone-Stagni, Marco; Stellato, Francesco; Whaley, C. Matthew; Vogt, Sonja; Morante, Silvia; Shima, Seigo; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    The [Fe]-hydrogenase is an ideal system for studying the electronic properties of the low spin iron site that is common to the catalytic centres of all hydrogenases. Because they have no auxiliary iron-sulfur clusters and possess a cofactor containing a single iron centre, the [Fe]-hydrogenases are well suited for spectroscopic analysis of those factors required for the activation of molecular hydrogen. Specifically, in this study we shed light on the electronic and molecular structure of the iron centre by XAS analysis of [Fe]-hydrogenase from Methanocaldococcus jannashii and five model complexes (Fe(ethanedithiolate)-(CO)2(PMe3)2, [K(18-crown-6)]2[Fe(CN)2(CO)3], K[Fe(CN)(CO)4], K3[Fe(iii)(CN)6], K4[Fe(ii)(CN)6]). The different electron donors have a strong influence on the iron absorption K-edge energy position, which is frequently used to determine the metal oxidation state. Our results demonstrate that the K-edges of Fe(ii) complexes, achieved with low-spin ferrous thiolates, are consistent with a ferrous centre in the [Fe]-hydrogenase from Methanocaldococcus jannashii. The metal geometry also strongly influences the XANES and thus the electronic structure. Using in silico simulation, we were able to reproduce the main features of the XANES spectra and describe the effects of individual donor contributions on the spectra. Thereby, we reveal the essential role of an unusual carbon donor coming from an acyl group of the cofactor in the determination of the electronic structure required for the activity of the enzyme. PMID:20221540

  3. Hydrogen Production Catalyzed by Bidirectional, Biomimetic Models of the [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site.

    PubMed

    Lansing, James C; Camara, James M; Gray, Danielle E; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2014-10-27

    Active site mimics of [FeFe]-hydrogenase are shown to be bidirectional catalysts, producing H2 upon treatment with protons and reducing equivalents. This reactivity complements the previously reported oxidation of H2 by these same catalysts in the presence of oxidants. The complex Fe2(adt(Bn))(CO)3(dppv)(PFc*(Et2) ) ([1](0); adt(Bn) = (SCH2)2NBn, dppv = cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene, PFc*(Et2) = Et2PCH2C5Me4FeCp*) reacts with excess [H(OEt2)2]BAr(F) 4 (BAr(F) 4 (-) = B(C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2)4 (-)) to give ∼0.5 equiv of H2 and [Fe2(adt(Bn)H)(CO)3(dppv)(PFc*(Et2) )](2+) ([1H](2+)). The species [1H](2+) consists of a ferrocenium ligand, an N-protonated amine, and an Fe(I)Fe(I) core. In the presence of additional reducing equivalents in the form of decamethylferrocene (Fc*), hydrogen evolution is catalytic, albeit slow. The related catalyst Fe2(adt(Bn))(CO)3(dppv)(PMe3) (3) behaves similarly in the presence of Fc*, except that in the absence of excess reducing agent it converts to the catalytically inactive μ-hydride derivative [μ-H3](+). Replacement of the adt in [1](0) with propanedithiolate (pdt) results in a catalytically inactive complex. In the course of synthesizing [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimics, new routes to ferrocenylphosphine ligands and nonamethylferrocene were developed. PMID:25364093

  4. Hydrogen Production Catalyzed by Bidirectional, Biomimetic Models of the [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active site mimics of [FeFe]-hydrogenase are shown to be bidirectional catalysts, producing H2 upon treatment with protons and reducing equivalents. This reactivity complements the previously reported oxidation of H2 by these same catalysts in the presence of oxidants. The complex Fe2(adtBn)(CO)3(dppv)(PFc*Et2) ([1]0; adtBn = (SCH2)2NBn, dppv = cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene, PFc*Et2 = Et2PCH2C5Me4FeCp*) reacts with excess [H(OEt2)2]BArF4 (BArF4– = B(C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2)4–) to give ∼0.5 equiv of H2 and [Fe2(adtBnH)(CO)3(dppv)(PFc*Et2)]2+ ([1H]2+). The species [1H]2+ consists of a ferrocenium ligand, an N-protonated amine, and an FeIFeI core. In the presence of additional reducing equivalents in the form of decamethylferrocene (Fc*), hydrogen evolution is catalytic, albeit slow. The related catalyst Fe2(adtBn)(CO)3(dppv)(PMe3) (3) behaves similarly in the presence of Fc*, except that in the absence of excess reducing agent it converts to the catalytically inactive μ-hydride derivative [μ-H3]+. Replacement of the adt in [1]0 with propanedithiolate (pdt) results in a catalytically inactive complex. In the course of synthesizing [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimics, new routes to ferrocenylphosphine ligands and nonamethylferrocene were developed. PMID:25364093

  5. Studies of Hybrid Nano-Bio-System: Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Svedruzic-Chang, D.; Blackburn, J. L.; McDonald, T. J.; Heben, M. J.; King, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) optical signals upon addition of recombinant [FeFe] hydrogenases from Clostridium acetobutylicum or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found evidence that novel and stable charge-transfer complexes are formed only under conditions of hydrogenase catalytic turnover. Formation of the complex sensitizes the nanotubes to the proton-to-hydrogen redox half-reaction. Thus, the experimental potential can be altered by changing the pH or molecular hydrogen concentration. In the presence of molecular hydrogen, hydrogenase mediates electron injection into the conduction band of semiconducting SWNT, which was observed as a quenching of the photoluminescence signals. Here, we will present recent Raman studies, which revealed that SWNTs in a complex with hydrogenase may undergo either oxidation or reduction, depending on the electronic structure of the SWNT and the oxidation state of the enzyme. In addition, we will describe our efforts to prepare stable, solubilized SWNT/hydrogenase complexes in the absence of detergent. This work shows that SWNT/hydrogenase complexes have potential applications as a component of an energy conversion device.

  6. Studies on hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    YAGI, Tatsuhiko; HIGUCHI, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogenases are microbial enzymes which catalyze uptake and production of H2. Hydrogenases are classified into 10 classes based on the electron carrier specificity, or into 3 families, [NiFe]-family (including [NiFeSe]-subfamily), [FeFe]-family and [Fe]-family, based on the metal composition of the active site. H2 is heterolytically cleaved on the enzyme (E) to produce EHaHb, where Ha and Hb have different rate constants for exchange with the medium hydron. X-ray crystallography unveiled the three-dimensional structures of hydrogenases. The simplest [NiFe]-hydrogenase is a heterodimer, in which the large subunit bears the Ni-Fe center buried deep in the protein, and the small subunit bears iron-sulfur clusters, which mediate electron transfer between the Ni-Fe center and the protein surface. Some hydrogenases have additional subunit(s) for interaction with their electron carriers. Various redox states of the enzyme were characterized by EPR, FTIR, etc. Based on the kinetic, structural and spectroscopic studies, the catalytic mechanism of [NiFe]-hydrogenase was proposed to explain H2-uptake, H2-production and isotopic exchange reactions. PMID:23318679

  7. Hydride binding to the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chernev, Petko; Lambertz, Camilla; Brünje, Annika; Leidel, Nils; Sigfridsson, Kajsa G V; Kositzki, Ramona; Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Yao, Shenglai; Schiwon, Rafael; Driess, Matthias; Limberg, Christian; Happe, Thomas; Haumann, Michael

    2014-11-17

    [FeFe]-hydrogenase from green algae (HydA1) is the most efficient hydrogen (H2) producing enzyme in nature and of prime interest for (bio)technology. Its active site is a unique six-iron center (H-cluster) composed of a cubane cluster, [4Fe4S]H, cysteine-linked to a diiron unit, [2Fe]H, which carries unusual carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide ligands and a bridging azadithiolate group. We have probed the molecular and electronic configurations of the H-cluster in functional oxidized, reduced, and super-reduced or CO-inhibited HydA1 protein, in particular searching for intermediates with iron-hydride bonds. Site-selective X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy were used to distinguish between low- and high-spin iron sites in the two subcomplexes of the H-cluster. The experimental methods and spectral simulations were calibrated using synthetic model complexes with ligand variations and bound hydride species. Distinct X-ray spectroscopic signatures of electronic excitation or decay transitions in [4Fe4S]H and [2Fe]H were obtained, which were quantitatively reproduced by density functional theory calculations, thereby leading to specific H-cluster model structures. We show that iron-hydride bonds are absent in the reduced state, whereas only in the super-reduced state, ligand rotation facilitates hydride binding presumably to the Fe-Fe bridging position at [2Fe]H. These results are in agreement with a catalytic cycle involving three main intermediates and at least two protonation and electron transfer steps prior to the H2 formation chemistry in [FeFe]-hydrogenases. PMID:25369169

  8. Ligand Displacement Reaction Paths in a Diiron Hydrogenase Active Site Model Complex.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jan H; Moncho, Salvador; Lunsford, Allen M; Brothers, Edward N; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y; Bengali, Ashfaq A

    2016-08-26

    The mechanism and energetics of CO, 1-hexene, and 1-hexyne substitution from the complexes (SBenz)2 [Fe2 (CO)6 ] (SBenz=SCH2 Ph) (1-CO), (SBenz)2 [Fe2 (CO)5 (η(2) -1-hexene)] (1-(η(2) -1-hexene)), and (SBenz)2 [Fe2 (CO)5 (η(2) -1-hexyne)] (1-(η(2) -1-hexyne)) were studied by using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. Exchange of both CO and 1-hexyne by P(OEt)3 and pyridine, respectively, proceeds by a bimolecular mechanism. As similar activation enthalpies are obtained for both reactions, the rate-determining step in both cases is assumed to be the rotation of the Fe(CO)2 L (L=CO or 1-hexyne) unit to accommodate the incoming ligand. The kinetic profile for the displacement of 1-hexene is quite different than that for the alkyne and, in this case, both reaction channels, that is, dissociative (SN 1) and associative (SN 2), were found to be competitive. Because DFT calculations predict similar binding enthalpies of alkene and alkyne to the iron center, the results indicate that the bimolecular pathway in the case of the alkyne is lower in free energy than that of the alkene. In complexes of this type, subtle changes in the departing ligand characteristics and the nature of the mercapto bridge can influence the exchange mechanism, such that more than one reaction pathway is available for ligand substitution. The difference between this and the analogous study of (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)3 ]2 (pdt=S(CH2 )3 S) underscores the unique characteristics of a three-atom S-S linker in the active site of diiron hydrogenases. PMID:27482938

  9. H2 binding and splitting on a new-generation [FeFe]-hydrogenase model featuring a redox-active decamethylferrocenyl phosphine ligand: a theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Greco, Claudio

    2013-02-18

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are dihydrogen-evolving metalloenzymes that are able to combine substrate binding and redox functionalities, a feature that has important bearing on their efficiency. New-generation bioinspired systems such as Fe(2)[(SCH(2))(2)NBn](CO)(3)(Cp*Fe(C(5)Me(4)CH(2)PEt(2)))(dppv) were shown to mimic H(2) oxidation and splitting processes performed by the [FeFe]-hydrogenase/ferredoxin system, and key mechanistic aspects of such reaction are theoretically investigated in the present contribution. We found that H(2) binding and heterolytic cleavage take place concomitantly on DFT models of the synthetic catalyst, due to a substrate-dependent intramolecular redox process that promotes dihydrogen activation. Therefore, formation of an iron-dihydrogen complex as a reaction intermediate is excluded in the biomimetic system, at variance with the case of the enzyme. H(2) uptake at the synthetic system also requires an energetically disfavored isomerization of the amine group acting as a base during splitting. A possible strategy to stabilize the conformation competent for H(2) binding is proposed, along with an analysis of the reactivity of a triiron complex in which di(thiomethyl)amine--the chelating group naturally occurring in [FeFe]-hydrogenases--substitutes the benzyl-containing dithiolate ligand. PMID:23374093

  10. Iron Hydride Detection and Intramolecular Hydride Transfer in a Synthetic Model of Mono-Iron Hydrogenase with a CNS Chelate.

    PubMed

    Durgaprasad, Gummadi; Xie, Zhu-Lin; Rose, Michael J

    2016-01-19

    We report the identification and reactivity of an iron hydride species in a synthetic model complex of monoiron hydrogenase. The hydride complex is derived from a phosphine-free CNS chelate that includes a Fe-C(NH)(═O) bond (carbamoyl) as a mimic of the active site iron acyl. The reaction of [((O═)C(HN)N(py)S(Me))Fe(CO)2(Br)] (1) with NaHBEt3 generates the iron hydride intermediate [((O═)C(HN)N(py)S(Me))Fe(H)(CO)2] (2; δFe-H = -5.08 ppm). Above -40 °C, the hydride species extrudes CH3S(-) via intramolecular hydride transfer, which is stoichiometrically trapped in the structurally characterized dimer μ2-(CH3S)2-[((O═)C(HN)N(Ph))Fe(CO)2]2 (3). Alternately, when activated by base ((t)BuOK), 1 undergoes desulfurization to form a cyclometalated species, [((O═)C(NH)NC(Ph))Fe(CO)2] (5); derivatization of 5 with PPh3 affords the structurally characterized species [((O═)C(NH)NC)Fe(CO)(PPh3)2] (6), indicating complex 6 as the common intermediate along each pathway of desulfurization. PMID:26405810

  11. Combining acid-base, redox and substrate binding functionalities to give a complete model for the [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Camara, James M.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Some enzymes function by coupling substrate turnover with electron transfer from a redox cofactor such as ferredoxin. In the [FeFe]-hydrogenases, nature’s fastest catalysts for the production and oxidation of H2, the one-electron redox by a ferredoxin complements the one-electron redox by the diiron active site. In this Article, we replicate the function of the ferredoxins with the redox-active ligand Cp*Fe(C5Me4CH2PEt2) (FcP*). FcP* oxidizes at mild potentials, in contrast to most ferrocene-based ligands, which suggests that it might be a useful mimic of ferredoxin cofactors. The specific model is Fe2[(SCH2)2NBn](CO)3(FcP*)(dppv) (1), which contains the three functional components of the active site: a reactive diiron centre, an amine as a proton relay and, for the first time, a one-electron redox module. By virtue of the synthetic redox cofactor, [1]2+ exhibits unique reactivity towards hydrogen and CO. In the presence of excess oxidant and base, H2 oxidation by [1]2+ is catalytic. PMID:22169868

  12. Dependence of Localized Electronic Structure on Ligand Configuration in the [2Fe] Hydrogenase Catalytic Core^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Christopher H.; Kim, Kwiseon

    2007-03-01

    The [FeFe] hydrogenase enzyme is found in a variety of organisms, including Archaea, Eubacteria, and green algae^1,2, and crystallographically determined atomic position data is available for two examples. The biologically unusual catalytic H-cluster, responsible for proton reduction to H2 in vivo, is conserved in the known structures and includes two bis-thiolato bridged iron ions with extensive cyano- and carbonyl ligation. To address the configurational specificity of the diatomic ligand ligation, density functional theoretical calculations were done on [2Fe] core models of the active center, with varying CO and CN^- ligation patterns. Bonding in each complex has been characterized within the Natural Bond Orbital formalism. The effect of ligand configuration on bonding and charge distribution as well as Kohn-Sham orbital structure will be presented. [1] M. Forestier, P. King, L. Zhang, M. Posewitz, S. Schwarzer, T. Happe, M.L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, Eur. J. Biochem. 270, 2750 (2003). [2] Posewitz, M.C., P.W. King, S.L. Smolinski, R.D. Smith, II, A.R. Ginley, M.L. Ghirardi, and M. Seibert, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33, 102 (2005). ^*This work was supported by the US DOE-SC-BES Hydrogen Fuels Initiative, and done in collaboration with the NREL Chemical and Biosciences Center.

  13. Reactivity of Fe/FeS nanoparticles: electrolyte composition effects on corrosion electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Turcio-Ortega, David; Fan, Dimin; Tratnyek, Paul G; Kim, Eun-Ju; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-11-20

    Zerovalent iron nanoparticles (Fe(0) NPs or nZVI) synthesized by reductive precipitation in aqueous solution (Fe/FeO) differ in composition and reactivity from the NPs obtained by reductive precipitation in the presence of a S-source such as dithionite (Fe/FeS). To compare the redox properties of these types of NPs under a range of environmentally relevant solution conditions, stationary powder disk electrodes (PDEs) made from Fe/FeO and Fe/FeS were characterized using a series of complementary electrochemical techniques: open-circuit chronopotentiometry (CP), linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The passive films on these materials equilibrate within minutes of first immersion and do not show further breakdown until >1 day of exposure. During this period, the potentials and currents measured by LPR and LSV suggest that Fe/FeS undergoes more rapid corrosion and is more strongly influence by solution chemical conditions than Fe/FeO. Chloride containing media were strongly activating and natural organic matter (NOM) was mildly passivating for both materials. These effects were also seen in the impedance data obtained by EIS, and equivalent circuit modeling of the electrodes composed of these powders suggested that the higher reactivity of Fe/FeS is due to greater abundance of defects in its passive film. PMID:23078203

  14. Heterolytic Cleavage of Hydrogen by an Iron Hydrogenase Model: An Fe-H - - - H-N Dihydorgen Bond Characterized by Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-05-19

    Use of hydrogen as a fuel by [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes in nature requires heterolytic cleavage of the H-H bond into a proton (H+) and hydride (H-), a reaction that is also a critical step in homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation of C=O and C=N bonds. An understanding of the catalytic oxidation of H2 by hydrogenases provides insights into the design of synthetic catalysts that are sought as cost-effective alternatives to the use of the precious metal platinum in fuel cells. Crystallographic studies on the [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzyme were critical to understanding of its reactivity, but the key H-H cleavage step is not readily observed experimentally in natural hydrogenases. Synthetic biomimics have provided evidence for H2 cleavage leading to hydride transfer to the metal and proton transfer to an amine. Limitations on the precise location of hydrogen atoms by x-ray diffraction can be overcome by use of neutron diffraction, though its use is severely limited by the difficulty of obtaining suitable crystals and by the scarcity of neutron sources. Here we show that an iron complex with a pendant amine in the diphosphine ligand cleaves hydrogen heterolytically under mild conditions, leading to [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+BArF4-, [PtBu2NtBu2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-di(tert-butyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]. The Fe-H- - - H-N moiety has a strong dihydrogen bond, with a remarkably short H • • • H distance of 1.489(10) Å between the protic N-Hδ+ and hydridic Fe-Hδ-. The structural data for [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+ provide a glimpse of how the H-H bond is oxidized or generated in hydrogenase enzymes, with the pendant amine playing a key role as a proton relay. The iron complex [CpC5F4NFeH(PtBu2NtBu2H)]+BArF4- is an electrocatalyst for oxidation of H2 (1 atm) at 22 °C, so the structural data are obtained on a complex that is a functional model for catalysis by [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. This research was supported

  15. Hydrogenase from Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, S W; Ljungdahl, L G

    1984-11-01

    Hydrogenase from fructose-grown cells of Acetobacterium woodii has been purified 70-fold to a specific activity of 3,500 mumol hydrogen oxidized per min per mg of protein measured at 35 degrees C and pH 7.6 with methyl viologen as electron acceptor. At the same conditions with reduced methyl viologen as electron donor the enzyme catalyzes the evolvement of 440 mumol of H2 per min per mg of protein. The enzyme was found in the soluble portion of the cell, indicating that it is either not membrane-bound or is loosely associated with the membrane. The purified enzyme, which does not contain nickel, exhibits spectroscopic properties similar to the iron-sulfur hydrogenase of Clostridium pasteurianum. The enzyme is strongly inhibited by carbon monoxide, with 50% inhibition occurring at approximately 7 nM CO. Ferredoxin, flavodoxin, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase are reduced in hydrogen-dependent reaction by the A. woodi hydrogenase. PMID:6393895

  16. Production and Engineering of Hydrogenase as a Biocatalyst for Hydrogen Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guangyi

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogenases are fascinating redox proteins, showing tremendous promise in the utilization of hydrogen fuel as a bioelectrocatalyst. They play critical roles in both biohydrogen production and hydrogen oxidation. Specifically, the recently-established comparability of the oxidative activity of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site to that of the fuel cell catalyst platinum marks a significant milestone for the potential application of hydrogenase in hydrogen fuel cells to replace platinum. However, the ability of producing hydrogenase in heterologous expression hosts and the sensitivity of hydrogenases to oxygen and carbon monoxide, etc. have seriously limited the viable macroscale utilization and production of hydrogen from the renewable source. A new technology for the production of up-take hydrogenase is being developed for the utilization of hydrogenase as a hydrogen catalyst. The development of this new technology integrates knowledge of structural biology, molecular biology, and principles of metabolic engineering to produce and engineer a stable hydrogenase as a hydrogen bioelectrocatalyst. It contributes to the critical issues of “expensive noble metal catalysts (i.e., platinum) and their limited reserves threatening the long-term sustainability of a hydrogen economy”. It also provides a model to “design natural materials and enzyme catalyst” for “efficient and cost-effective technologies” for a clean and sustainable energy in 21st century. This new technology includes 3 major components. The first component is the synthetic operons, which carry hydrogenase maturation pathways of Ralstonia eutropha. These synthetic operons are engineered to produce RH hydrogenase in the Escherichia coli strains based on our current molecular and genetic information of hydrogenase maturation mechanisms and pathways of R. eutropha. It presents the first example of producing hydrogenase in the conventional expression host using synthetic biology principles and tool

  17. Hydrogenase/ferredoxin charge-transfer complexes: effect of hydrogenase mutations on the complex association.

    PubMed

    Long, Hai; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria L; Kim, Kwiseon

    2009-04-23

    The [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii utilize photogenerated electrons to reduce protons into hydrogen gas. The electrons are supplied from photosystem I and transferred to the [FeFe]-hydrogenase through specific hydrogenase-ferredoxin association. To understand how structural and kinetic factors control the association better, we used Brownian dynamics simulation methods to simulate the charge-transfer complex formation between both native and in silico mutants of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase HYDA2 and the [2Fe2S]-ferredoxin FDX1 from C. reinhardtii . The changes in binding free energy between different HYDA2 mutants and the native FDX1 were calculated by the free-energy perturbation method. Within the limits of our current models, we found that two HYDA2 mutations, T99K(H) and D102K(H), led to lower binding free energies and higher association rate with FDX1 and are thus promising targets for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered organisms. PMID:19317477

  18. Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires enhanced Fenton oxidation by accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingu; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-08-01

    In this study we demonstrate Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires can improve Fenton oxidation efficiency by two times with rhodamine B as a model pollutant at pH > 4. Active species trapping experiments revealed that the rhodamine B oxidation enhancement was attributed to molecular oxygen activation induced by Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires. The molecular oxygen activation process could generate superoxide radicals to assist iron core for the reduction of ferric ions to accelerate the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, which favored the H2O2 decomposition to produce more hydroxyl radicals for the rhodamine B oxidation. The combination of Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires and ferrous ions (Fe@Fe2O3/Fe(2+)) offered a superior Fenton catalyst to decompose H2O2 for producing OH. We employed benzoic acid as a probe reagent to check the generation of OH and found the OH generation rate of Fe@Fe2O3/Fe(2+) was 2-4 orders of magnitude larger than those of commonly used iron based Fenton catalysts and 38 times that of Fe(2+). The reusability and the stability of Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires were studied. Total organic carbon and ion chromatography analyses revealed the mineralization of rhodamine B and the releasing of nitrate ions. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry was used to investigate the degradation intermediates to propose the possible rhodamine B Fenton oxidation pathway in the presence of Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires. This study not only provides a new Fenton oxidation system for pollutant control, but also widen the application of molecular oxygen activation induced by nanoscale zero valent iron. PMID:24793112

  19. Cyanobacterial Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Metabolism Revisited: Recent Progress and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Namita; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have garnered interest as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms can utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical processes. Our limited understanding of the cellular hydrogen production pathway is a primary setback in the potential scale-up of this process. In this regard, the present review discusses the recent insight around ferredoxin/flavodoxin as the likely electron donor to the bidirectional Hox hydrogenase instead of the generally accepted NAD(P)H. This may have far reaching implications in powering solar driven hydrogen production. However, it is evident that a successful hydrogen-producing candidate would likely integrate enzymatic traits from different species. Engineering the [NiFe] hydrogenases for optimal catalytic efficiency or expression of a high turnover [FeFe] hydrogenase in these photo-autotrophs may facilitate the development of strains to reach target levels of biohydrogen production in cyanobacteria. The fundamental advancements achieved in these fields are also summarized in this review. PMID:26006225

  20. Relating diffusion along the substrate tunnel and oxygen sensitivity in hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Leroux, Fanny; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien; Baffert, Carole; Lautier, Thomas; Fourmond, Vincent; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Cavazza, Christine; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Soucaille, Philippe; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan Carlos; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick; Rousset, Marc; Léger, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In hydrogenases and many other redox enzymes, the buried active site is connected to the solvent by a molecular channel whose structure may determine the enzyme's selectivity with respect to substrate and inhibitors. The role of these channels has been addressed using crystallography and molecular dynamics, but kinetic data are scarce. Using protein film voltammetry, we determined and then compared the rates of inhibition by CO and O2 in ten NiFe hydrogenase mutants and two FeFe hydrogenases. We found that the rate of inhibition by CO is a good proxy of the rate of diffusion of O2 toward the active site. Modifying amino acids whose side chains point inside the tunnel can slow this rate by orders of magnitude. We quantitatively define the relations between diffusion, the Michaelis constant for H2 and rates of inhibition, and we demonstrate that certain enzymes are slowly inactivated by O2 because access to the active site is slow. PMID:19966788

  1. Cyanobacterial hydrogenases and hydrogen metabolism revisited: recent progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Namita; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have garnered interest as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms can utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical processes. Our limited understanding of the cellular hydrogen production pathway is a primary setback in the potential scale-up of this process. In this regard, the present review discusses the recent insight around ferredoxin/flavodoxin as the likely electron donor to the bidirectional Hox hydrogenase instead of the generally accepted NAD(P)H. This may have far reaching implications in powering solar driven hydrogen production. However, it is evident that a successful hydrogen-producing candidate would likely integrate enzymatic traits from different species. Engineering the [NiFe] hydrogenases for optimal catalytic efficiency or expression of a high turnover [FeFe] hydrogenase in these photo-autotrophs may facilitate the development of strains to reach target levels of biohydrogen production in cyanobacteria. The fundamental advancements achieved in these fields are also summarized in this review. PMID:26006225

  2. pH-Dependent isotope exchange and hydrogenation catalysed by water-soluble NiRu complexes as functional models for [NiFe]hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kure, Bunsho; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Koji; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Yagi, Tatsuhiko; Ogo, Seiji

    2008-09-21

    The pH-dependent hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between gaseous isotopes and medium isotopes and hydrogenation of the carbonyl compounds have been investigated with water-soluble bis(mu-thiolate)(mu-hydride)NiRu complexes, Ni(II)(mu-SR)(2)(mu-H)Ru(II) {(mu-SR)(2) = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine}, as functional models for [NiFe]hydrogenases. In acidic media (at pH 4-6), the mu-H ligand of the Ni(II)(mu-SR)(2)(mu-H)Ru(II) complexes has H(+) properties, and the complexes catalyse the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between gaseous isotopes and medium isotopes. A mechanism of the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between gaseous isotopes and medium isotopes through a low-valent Ni(I)(mu-SR)(2)Ru(I) complex is proposed. In contrast, in neutral-basic media (at pH 7-10), the mu-H ligand of the Ni(II)(mu-SR)(2)(mu-H)Ru(II) complexes acts as H(-), and the complexes catalyse the hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds. PMID:18728883

  3. Characterization of the Fe Site in Iron-Sulfur-Cluster-Free Hydrogenase (Hmd) and of a Model Compound via Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yisong; Wang, Hongxin; Xiao, Yuming; vogt, Sonja; Shima, Seigo; Volkers, Phillip I.; Pelmentschikov, Vladimir; Alp, Ercan E.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Yada, Yoshitaka

    2009-01-01

    We have used 57Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to study the iron site in the iron-sulfur-cluster-free hydrogenase Hmd from the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The spectra have been interpreted by comparison with a cis-(CO)2-ligated Fe model compound, Fe(S2C2H4)(CO)2(PMe3)2, as well as by normal mode simulations of plausible active site structures. For this model complex, normal mode analyses both from an optimized Urey-Bradley force field and from complementary density functional theory (DFT) calculations produced consistent results. Previous IR spectroscopic studies found strong CO stretching modes at 1944 and 2011 cm−1, interpreted as evidence for cis-Fe(CO)2 ligation. The NRVS data provide further insight into the dynamics of the Fe site, revealing Fe-CO stretch and Fe-CO bend modes at 494, 562, 590, and 648 cm−1, consistent with the proposed cis-Fe(CO)2 ligation. The NRVS also reveals a band assigned to Fe-S stretching motion at ~311 cm−1, and another reproducible feature at ~380 cm−1. The 57Fe partial vibrational densities of states (PVDOS) for Hmd can be reasonably well simulated by a normal mode analysis based on a Urey-Bradley force field for a 5-coordinate cis-(CO)2-ligated Fe site with additional cysteine, water, and pyridone cofactor ligands. A final interpretation of the Hmd NRVS data, including DFT analysis, awaits a 3-dimensional structure for the active site. PMID:18407624

  4. Effects of impurity states on exchange coupling in Fe/Fe3O4 junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, J.; Honda, S.; Itoh, H.; Mibu, K.; Yanagihara, H.; Kita, E.

    2012-05-01

    Exchange coupling (EC) in Fe/Fe3O4 junctions containing magnetic impurities and in-gap states at the interface is calculated using a formula obtained by a cleaved layer method. The model for EC is constructed by performing first-principles calculations of the electronic and magnetic states of Co, Mn, and Cr impurities on the Fe surface and those of in-gap states in a bulk γ-Fe2O3, which has the same lattice structure as Fe3O4 but contains Fe defects. We show that the effect of Co impurities on EC is opposite to that of Cr and Mn impurities and that in-gap states tend to cause parallel magnetization alignment of two ferromagnets. These results are attributed to the change in electronic states caused by the presence of impurities. Further, we compare calculated results with experimental ones obtained in Fe/Fe3O4 junctions and suggest that doping magnetic impurities at the interface could be a useful way to control the magnitude and sign of the EC.

  5. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  6. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe]more » hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.« less

  7. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii

    SciTech Connect

    Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

  8. Synthetic and structural studies on L-cysteinyl group-containing diiron/triiron azadithiolates as active site models of [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Cheng; Yan, Jing; Li, Yu-Long; Wang, De-Fu; Hu, Qing-Mei

    2009-12-01

    Five new L-cysteinyl group-containing diiron/triiron azadithiolate complexes (3-6, 10), which could be regarded as the active site models of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, have been successfully synthesized. Treatment of L-cysteinyl sodium mercaptide CytSNa (1, Cyt = CH(2)CH(CO(2)Et)NH(CO(2)Bu-t) with complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(2)CH(2)Br]Fe(2)(CO)(6) (2) in THF at room temperature resulted in formation of model complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(2)CH(2)SCyt]Fe(2)(CO)(6) (3). Further treatment of 3 with decarbonylating agent Me(3)NO in MeCN at room temperature afforded model complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(2)CH(2)SCyt]Fe(2)(CO)(5) (4). Similarly, treatment of 3 with an equimolar mixture of Me(3)NO and Ph(3)P gave model complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(2)CH(2)SCyt]Fe(2)(CO)(5)(Ph(3)P) (5) and further treatment of 5 with Me(3)NO produced model complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(2)CH(2)SCyt]Fe(2)(CO)(4)(Ph(3)P) (6). More interestingly, model complex [(mu-SCH(2))(2)NCH(CO(2)Et)CH(2)SFe(CO)(2)Cp]Fe(2)(CO)(5) (10) could be synthesized by a "one pot" reaction of the in situ prepared (mu-HS)(2)Fe(2)(CO)(6) (9) with 37% aqueous formaldehyde followed by treatment with the N-deprotected L-cysteinyl iron mercaptide Cp(CO)(2)FeSCH(2)CH(CO(2)Et)NH(2) (8). Complex 8 is new, which was prepared by treatment of complex Cp(CO)(2)FeSCyt (7) with CF(3)CO(2)H followed by 25% aqueous NH(3). All the new complexes 3-6, 8, and 10 were characterized by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques, whereas complexes 5 and 10 were further characterized by X-ray crystallography. PMID:19860376

  9. Modeling the Active Sites in Metalloenzymes 5. The Heterolytic Bond Cleavage of H2 in the [NiFe] Hydrogenase of DesulfoWibrio gigas by a Nucleophilic Addition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Shuqiang; Hall, Michael B.

    2001-11-19

    The H2 activation catalyzed by an Fe(II)-Ni(III) model of the [NiFe] hydrogenase of DesulfoVibrio gigas has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) calculations on the neutral and anionic active site complexes, [(CO)(CN)2Fe(Mu-SH)2Ni(SH)(SH2)]0 and [(CO)(CN)2Fe(Mu-SH)2Ni(SH)2]-. The results suggest that the reaction proceeds by a nucleophilic addition mechanism that cleaves the H-H bond heterolytically. The terminal cysteine residue Cys530 in the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site of the D. gigas enzyme plays a crucial role in the catalytic process by accepting the proton. The active site is constructed to provide access by this cysteine residue, and this role explains the change in activity observed when this cysteine is replaced by a selenocysteine. Furthermore, the optimized geometry of the transition state in the model bears a striking resemblance to the geometry of the active site as determined by X-ray crystallography.

  10. Hydrogenase polypeptide and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Michael W.W.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Jenney, JR, Francis E.; Sun, Junsong

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are polypeptides having hydrogenase activity. The polypeptide may be multimeric, and may have hydrogenase activity of at least 0.05 micromoles H.sub.2 produced min.sup.-1 mg protein.sup.-1. Also provided herein are polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, genetically modified microbes that include polynucleotides encoding one or more subunits of the multimeric polypeptide, and methods for making and using the polypeptides.

  11. Effects of metal ions on the reactivity and corrosion electrochemistry of Fe/FeS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Turcio-Ortega, David; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2014-04-01

    Nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) formed under sulfidic conditions results in a biphasic material (Fe/FeS) that reduces trichloroethene (TCE) more rapidly than nZVI associated only with iron oxides (Fe/FeO). Exposing Fe/FeS to dissolved metals (Pd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Mn(2+)) results in their sequestration by coprecipitation as dopants into FeS and FeO and/or by electroless precipitation as zerovalent metals that are hydrogenation catalysts. Using TCE reduction rates to probe the effect of metal amendments on the reactivity of Fe/FeS, it was found that Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) decreased TCE reduction rates, while Pd(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) increased them. Electrochemical characterization of metal-amended Fe/FeS showed that aging caused passivation by growth of FeO and FeS phases and poisoning of catalytic metal deposits by sulfide. Correlation of rate constants for TCE reduction (kobs) with electrochemical parameters (corrosion potentials and currents, Tafel slopes, and polarization resistance) and descriptors of hydrogen activation by metals (exchange current density for hydrogen reduction and enthalpy of solution into metals) showed the controlling process changed with aging. For fresh Fe/FeS, kobs was best described by the exchange current density for activation of hydrogen, whereas kobs for aged Fe/FeS correlated with electrochemical descriptors of electron transfer. PMID:24579799

  12. Discovery of [NiFe] hydrogenase genes in metagenomic DNA: cloning and heterologous expression in Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    PubMed

    Maróti, Gergely; Tong, Yingkai; Yooseph, Shibu; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Smith, Hamilton O; Kovács, Kornél L; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J Craig; Xu, Qing

    2009-09-01

    Using a metagenomics approach, we have cloned a piece of environmental DNA from the Sargasso Sea that encodes an [NiFe] hydrogenase showing 60% identity to the large subunit and 64% to the small subunit of a Thiocapsa roseopersicina O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase. The DNA sequence of the hydrogenase identified by the metagenomic approach was subsequently found to be 99% identical to the hyaA and hyaB genes of an Alteromonas macleodii hydrogenase, indicating that it belongs to the Alteromonas clade. We were able to express our new Alteromonas hydrogenase in T. roseopersicina. Expression was accomplished by coexpressing only two accessory genes, hyaD and hupH, without the need to express any of the hyp accessory genes (hypABCDEF). These results suggest that the native accessory proteins in T. roseopersicina could substitute for the Alteromonas counterparts that are absent in the host to facilitate the assembly of a functional Alteromonas hydrogenase. To further compare the complex assembly machineries of these two [NiFe] hydrogenases, we performed complementation experiments by introducing the new Alteromonas hyaD gene into the T. roseopersicina hynD mutant. Interestingly, Alteromonas endopeptidase HyaD could complement T. roseopersicina HynD to cleave endoproteolytically the C-terminal end of the T. roseopersicina HynL hydrogenase large subunit and activate the enzyme. This study refines our knowledge on the selectivity and pleiotropy of the elements of the [NiFe] hydrogenase assembly machineries. It also provides a model for functionally analyzing novel enzymes from environmental microbes in a culture-independent manner. PMID:19633107

  13. The phylogeny of uptake hydrogenases in Frankia.

    PubMed

    Leul, Melakeselam; Normand, Philippe; Sellstedt, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Uptake hydrogenase is an enzyme that is beneficial for nitrogen fixation in bacteria. Recent studies have shown that Frankia sp. has two sets of uptake hydrogenase genes, organized in synton 1 and synton 2. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of the structural subunits of hydrogenase syntons 1 and 2 showed a distinct clustering pattern between the proteins of Frankia strains that were isolated from different host plants and non-Frankia organisms. The structural subunits of hydrogenase synton 1 of Frankia sp. CpI1, Frankia alni ACN14a, and F. alni AvCI1 were grouped together while those of Frankia spp. CcI3, KB5, UGL140104, and UGL011102 formed another group. The structural subunits of hydrogenase synton 2 of F. alni ACN14a and Frankia spp. CcI3 and BCU110501 grouped together, but those of Frankia spp. KB5 and CpI1, F. alni ArI3, and F. alniAvCI1 comprised a separate group. The structural subunits of hydrogenase syntons 1 and 2 of Frankia sp. EAN1pec were more closely related to those of non-Frankia bacteria, i.e., Streptomyces avermitilis and Anaeromyxobacter sp., respectively, than to those of other Frankia strains, suggesting the occurrence of lateral gene transfer between these organisms. In addition, the accessory Hyp proteins of hydrogenase syntons 1 and 2 of F. alni ACN14a and Frankia sp. CcI3 were shown to be phylogenetically more related to each other than to those of Frankia EAN1pec. PMID:19440980

  14. [NiFe] hydrogenases: structural and spectroscopic studies of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2009-10-01

    [NiFe] hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen. For this simple reaction the molecule has developed a complex catalytic mechanism, during which the enzyme passes through various redox states. The [NiFe] hydrogenase contains several metal centres, including the bimetallic Ni-Fe active site, iron-sulfur clusters and a Mg(2+) ion. The Ni-Fe active site is located in the inner part of the protein molecule, therefore a number of pathways are involved in the catalytic reaction route. These consist of an electron transfer pathway, a proton transfer pathway and a gas-access channel. Over the last 10-15 years we have been investigating the crystal structures of the [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F, which is a sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacterium. So far the crystal structures of the oxidized, H(2)-reduced and carbon monoxide inhibited states have been determined at high resolution and have revealed a rather unique structure of the hetero-bimetallic Ni-Fe active site. Furthermore, intensive spectroscopic studies have been performed on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structure, a water-soluble Ni-Ru complex has been synthesized as a functional model for the [NiFe] hydrogenases. The present review gives an overview of the catalytic reaction mechanism of the [NiFe] hydrogenases. PMID:19759926

  15. CO and CN- syntheses by [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydG are catalytically differentiated events.

    PubMed

    Pagnier, Adrien; Martin, Lydie; Zeppieri, Laura; Nicolet, Yvain; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of the active site [FeFe] unit of [FeFe]-hydrogenases require at least three maturases. The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine HydG, the best characterized of these proteins, is responsible for the synthesis of the hydrogenase CO and CN(-) ligands from tyrosine-derived dehydroglycine (DHG). We speculated that CN(-) and the CO precursor (-):CO2H may be generated through an elimination reaction. We tested this hypothesis with both wild type and HydG variants defective in second iron-sulfur cluster coordination by measuring the in vitro production of CO, CN(-), and (-):CO2H-derived formate. We indeed observed formate production under these conditions. We conclude that HydG is a multifunctional enzyme that produces DHG, CN(-), and CO at three well-differentiated catalytic sites. We also speculate that homocysteine, cysteine, or a related ligand could be involved in Fe(CO)x(CN)y transfer to the HydF carrier/scaffold. PMID:26699472

  16. CO and CN− syntheses by [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturase HydG are catalytically differentiated events

    PubMed Central

    Pagnier, Adrien; Martin, Lydie; Zeppieri, Laura; Nicolet, Yvain; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of the active site [FeFe] unit of [FeFe]-hydrogenases require at least three maturases. The radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine HydG, the best characterized of these proteins, is responsible for the synthesis of the hydrogenase CO and CN− ligands from tyrosine-derived dehydroglycine (DHG). We speculated that CN− and the CO precursor −:CO2H may be generated through an elimination reaction. We tested this hypothesis with both wild type and HydG variants defective in second iron-sulfur cluster coordination by measuring the in vitro production of CO, CN−, and −:CO2H-derived formate. We indeed observed formate production under these conditions. We conclude that HydG is a multifunctional enzyme that produces DHG, CN−, and CO at three well-differentiated catalytic sites. We also speculate that homocysteine, cysteine, or a related ligand could be involved in Fe(CO)x(CN)y transfer to the HydF carrier/scaffold. PMID:26699472

  17. Electrocatalytic mechanism of reversible hydrogen cycling by enzymes and distinctions between the major classes of hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Hexter, Suzannah V.; Grey, Felix; Happe, Thomas; Climent, Victor; Armstrong, Fraser A.

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary ability of Fe- and Ni-containing enzymes to catalyze rapid and efficient H+/H2 interconversion—a property otherwise exclusive to platinum metals—has been investigated in a series of experiments combining variable-temperature protein film voltammetry with mathematical modeling. The results highlight important differences between the catalytic performance of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and [NiFe]-hydrogenases and justify a simple model for reversible catalytic electron flow in enzymes and electrocatalysts that should be widely applicable in fields as diverse as electrochemistry, catalysis, and bioenergetics. The active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, an intricate Fe-carbonyl complex known as the “H cluster,” emerges as a supreme catalyst. PMID:22802675

  18. Cobaloxime-based artificial hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Marine; Berggren, Gustav; Niklas, Jens; Veinberg, Elias; Mara, Michael W; Shelby, Megan L; Poluektov, Oleg G; Chen, Lin X; Tiede, David M; Cavazza, Christine; Field, Martin J; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Cobaloximes are popular H2 evolution molecular catalysts but have so far mainly been studied in nonaqueous conditions. We show here that they are also valuable for the design of artificial hydrogenases for application in neutral aqueous solutions and report on the preparation of two well-defined biohybrid species via the binding of two cobaloxime moieties, {Co(dmgH)2} and {Co(dmgBF2)2} (dmgH2 = dimethylglyoxime), to apo Sperm-whale myoglobin (SwMb). All spectroscopic data confirm that the cobaloxime moieties are inserted within the binding pocket of the SwMb protein and are coordinated to a histidine residue in the axial position of the cobalt complex, resulting in thermodynamically stable complexes. Quantum chemical/molecular mechanical docking calculations indicated a coordination preference for His93 over the other histidine residue (His64) present in the vicinity. Interestingly, the redox activity of the cobalt centers is retained in both biohybrids, which provides them with the catalytic activity for H2 evolution in near-neutral aqueous conditions. PMID:25029381

  19. Hydride transfer and dihydrogen elimination from osmium and ruthenium metalloporphyrin hydrides: Model processes for hydrogenase enzymes and the hydrogen electrode reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Collman, J.P.; Wagenknecht, P.S.; Lewis, N.S.

    1992-07-01

    A series of metalloporphyrin hydride complexes of the type K[M(Por)(L)(H)] (M - Ru, Os; Por - OEP, TMP; L = THF, *Im, PPh{sub 3}, pyridine) has been synthesized by stoichiometric protonation of the corresponding K{sub 2}[M(Por)], followed by addition of L. The addition of excess acids to these hydrides resulted in the elimination of dihydrogen. The kinetics showed no evidence for a bimolecular mechanism for this process and suggest simple protonation of the metal-hydride bond followed by dihydrogen loss. One-electron oxidation of the metal hydrides also resulted in dihydrogen formation. The kinetics of the oxidatively induced hydrogen evolution step from K[Ru(OEP)(THF)(H)] were examined and indicate a biomolecular mechanism in which two metal hydrides reductively eliminate one dihydrogen molecule. The rate constant was determined to be 88 {+-} 14 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. These reaction mechanisms are discussed in the context of designing bimetallic proton reduction catalysts. The metal hydride K[Ru(OEP)(THF)(H)], was also synthesized by heterolytic activation of H{sub 2}. This hydride is a good one-electron reductant (-1.15 V vs FeCp{sub 2}) and is capable of reducing, by hydride transfer, the NAD{sup +} analogue, 1-benzyl-N,N-diethyl-nicotinamide. This nicotinamide reduction by a hydride formed from heterolytic dihydrogen activation is suggested as the mechanism for hydrogenase enzymes. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A model for the CO-inhibited form of [NiFe] hydrogenase: synthesis of (CO)3Fe(μ-StBu)3Ni{SC6H3-2,6-(mesityl)2} and reversible CO addition at the Ni site

    PubMed Central

    Ohki, Yasuhiro; Yasumura, Kazunari; Ando, Masaru; Shimokata, Satoko; Tatsumi, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    A [NiFe] hydrogenase model compound having a distorted trigonal-pyramidal nickel center, (CO)3Fe(μ-StBu)3Ni(SDmp), 1 (Dmp = C6H3-2,6-(mesityl)2), was synthesized from the reaction of the tetranuclear Fe-Ni-Ni-Fe complex [(CO)3Fe(μ-StBu)3Ni]2(μ-Br)2, 2 with NaSDmp at -40 °C. The nickel site of complex 1 was found to add CO or CNtBu at -40 °C to give (CO)3Fe(StBu)(μ-StBu)2Ni(CO)(SDmp), 3, or (CO)3Fe(StBu)(μ-StBu)2Ni(CNtBu)(SDmp), 4, respectively. One of the CO bands of 3, appearing at 2055 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum, was assigned as the Ni-CO band, and this frequency is comparable to those observed for the CO-inhibited forms of [NiFe] hydrogenase. Like the CO-inhibited forms of [NiFe] hydrogenase, the coordination of CO at the nickel site of 1 is reversible, while the CNtBu adduct 4 is more robust. PMID:20147622

  1. Evolutionary Significance of an Algal Gene Encoding an [FeFe]-Hydrogenase with F-Domain Homology and Hydrogenase Activity in Chlorella Variabilis NC64A

    SciTech Connect

    Meuser, J. E.; Boyd, E. S.; Ananyev, G.; Karns, D.; Radakovits, R.; Murthy, U. M. N.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Dismukes, G. C.; Peters, J. W.; Posewitz, M. C.

    2011-10-01

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases (HYDA) link the production of molecular H{sub 2} to anaerobic metabolism in many green algae. Similar to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella variabilis NC64A (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) exhibits [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HYDA) activity during anoxia. In contrast to C. reinhardtii and other chlorophycean algae, which contain hydrogenases with only the HYDA active site (H-cluster), C. variabilis NC64A is the only known green alga containing HYDA genes encoding accessory FeS cluster-binding domains (F-cluster). cDNA sequencing confirmed the presence of F-cluster HYDA1 mRNA transcripts, and identified deviations from the in silico splicing models. We show that HYDA activity in C. variabilis NC64A is coupled to anoxic photosynthetic electron transport (PSII linked, as well as PSII-independent) and dark fermentation. We also show that the in vivo H{sub 2}-photoproduction activity observed is as O2 sensitive as in C. reinhardtii. The two C. variabilis NC64A HYDA sequences are similar to homologs found in more deeply branching bacteria (Thermotogales), diatoms, and heterotrophic flagellates, suggesting that an F-cluster HYDA is the ancestral enzyme in algae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the algal HYDA H-cluster domains are monophyletic, suggesting that they share a common origin, and evolved from a single ancestral F-cluster HYDA. Furthermore, phylogenetic reconstruction indicates that the multiple algal HYDA paralogs are the result of gene duplication events that occurred independently within each algal lineage. Collectively, comparative genomic, physiological, and phylogenetic analyses of the C. variabilis NC64A hydrogenase has provided new insights into the molecular evolution and diversity of algal [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

  2. ASSESSING SHOOT-ROOT COMMUNICATION IN THE REGULATION OF IRON HOMEOSTASIS IN THE FEFE MELON MUTANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fefe mutant of musk melon exhibits characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves, retarded growth, and finally death unless supplemental Fe is provided. The seedlings have normal green cotyledons but the first true leaves are yellow with green veins. To determine the...

  3. Merging [FeFe]-Hydrogenases with Materials and Nanomaterials as Biohybrid Catalysts for Solar H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    King, P. W.; Svedruzic, D.; Hambourger, M.; Gervaldo, M.; McDonald, T.; Blackburn, J.; Heben, M.; Gust, D.; Moore, A. L.; Moore, T. A.; Ghirardi, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    The catalysts commonly used for the H{sub 2} producing reaction in artificial solar systems are typically platinum or particulate platinum composites. Biological catalysts, the hydrogenases, exist in a wide-variety of microbes and are biosynthesized from abundant, non-precious metals. By virtue of a unique catalytic metallo-cluster that is composed of iron and sulfur, [FeFe]-hydrogenases are capable of catalyzing H{sub 2} production at turnover rates of millimoles-per-second. In addition, these biological catalysts possess some of the characteristics that are desired for cost-effective solar H{sub 2} production systems, high solubilities in aqueous solutions and low activation energies, but are sensitive to CO and O{sub 2}. We are investigating ways to merge [FeFe]-hydrogenases with a variety of organic materials and nanomaterials for the fabrication of electrodes and biohybrids as catalysts for use in artificial solar H{sub 2} production systems. These efforts include designs that allow for the integration of [FeFe]-hydrogenase in dye-solar cells as models to measure solar conversion and H{sub 2} production efficiencies. In support of a more fundamental understanding of [FeFe]-hydrogenase for these and other applications the role of protein structure in catalysis is being investigated. Currently there is little known about the mechanism of how these and other enzymes couple multi-electron transfer to proton reduction. To further the mechanistic understanding of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, structural models for substrate transfer are being used to create enzyme variants for biochemical analysis. Here results are presented on investigations of proton-transfer pathways in [FeFe]-hydrogenase and their interaction with single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  4. Mechanism of H2 production by the [FeFe]H subcluster of di-iron hydrogenases: implications for abiotic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sbraccia, Carlo; Zipoli, Federico; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H; Dismukes, G Charles; Selloni, Annabella

    2008-10-23

    To explore the possibility that the active center of the di-iron hydrogenases, the [FeFe] H subcluster, can serve by itself as an efficient hydrogen-producing catalyst, we perform comprehensive calculations of the catalytic properties of the subcluster in vacuo using first principles density functional theory. For completeness, we examine all nine possible geometrical isomers of the Fe(II)Fe(I) active-ready state and report in detail on the relevant ones that lead to the production of H 2. These calculations, carried out at the generalized gradient approximation level, indicate that the most efficient catalytic site in the isolated [FeFe] H subcluster is the Fe d center distal (d) to the [4Fe-4S] H cluster; the other iron center site, the proximal Fe p, also considered in this study, has much higher energy barriers. The pathways with the most favorable kinetics (lowest energy barrier to reaction) proceed along configurations with a CO ligand in a bridging position. The most favorable of these CO-bridging pathways start from isomers where the distal CN (-) ligand is in up position, the vacancy V in down position, and the remaining distal CO is either cis or trans with respect to the proximal CO. These isomers, not observed in the available enzyme X-ray structures, are only marginally less stable than the most stable nonbridging Fe d-CO-terminal isomer. Our calculations indicate that this CO-bridging CN-up isomer has a small barrier to production of H 2 that is compatible with the observed rate for the enzyme. These results suggest that catalysis of H 2 production could proceed on this stereochemically modified [FeFe] H subcluster alone, thus offering a promising target for functional bioinspired catalyst design. PMID:18826265

  5. A broad survey reveals substitution tolerance of residues ligating FeS clusters in [NiFe] hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to understand the effects of FeS cluster attachment in [NiFe] hydrogenase, we undertook a study to substitute all 12 amino acid positions normally ligating the three FeS clusters in the hydrogenase small subunit. Using the hydrogenase from Alteromonas macleodii “deep ecotype” as a model, we substituted one of four amino acids (Asp, His, Asn, Gln) at each of the 12 ligating positions because these amino acids are alternative coordinating residues in otherwise conserved-cysteine positions found in a broad survey of NiFe hydrogenase sequences. We also hoped to discover an enzyme with elevated hydrogen evolution activity relative to a previously reported “G1” (H230C/P285C) improved enzyme in which the medial FeS cluster Pro and the distal FeS cluster His were each substituted for Cys. Results Among all the substitutions screened, aspartic acid substitutions were generally well-tolerated, and examination suggests that the observed deficiency in enzyme activity may be largely due to misprocessing of the small subunit of the enzyme. Alignment of hydrogenase sequences from sequence databases revealed many rare substitutions; the five substitutions present in databases that we tested all exhibited measurable hydrogen evolution activity. Select substitutions were purified and tested, supporting the results of the screening assay. Analysis of these results confirms the importance of small subunit processing. Normalizing activity to quantity of mature small subunit, indicative of total enzyme maturation, weakly suggests an improvement over the “G1” enzyme. Conclusions We have comprehensively screened 48 amino acid substitutions of the hydrogenase from A. macleodii “deep ecotype”, to understand non-canonical ligations of amino acids to FeS clusters and to improve hydrogen evolution activity of this class of hydrogenase. Our studies show that non-canonical ligations can be functional and also suggests a new limiting factor in the production of

  6. In situ determination of Fe-Fe 3S phase diagram and liquid structural properties up to 65 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morard, G.; Andrault, D.; Guignot, N.; Sanloup, C.; Mezouar, M.; Petitgirard, S.; Fiquet, G.

    2008-08-01

    Lighter elements than iron such as sulphur are required in the Earth's core to account of the core density deficit. Accurate determination of the evolution of the Fe-FeS phase diagram at high pressure is essential to determine sulphur amount in the Earth's core. Ab initio calculations predict extensive solubility of S in solid Fe at core pressures of 330 GPa, whereas multi anvil quench analysis exhibits deep eutectic system at moderate pressure of 21 GPa. In this study, we investigated the Fe-rich part of Fe-FeS phase diagram up to 65 GPa and 2200 K using in situ angle dispersive X-ray diffraction. We report a uniform increase with pressure of the eutectic temperatures ( TEut), of about 15 K/GPa. Above 50 GPa, we evidence a decrease of S content in eutectic liquid with increasing pressure. Extrapolating this trend to inner core boundary pressures suggests that S cannot account for the 10 wt.% outer core density deficit and that other light elements, such as Si and O, are needed. Diffraction pattern recorded at 42 GPa and 2150 K was selected for structural investigations of the Fe-S liquid. By applying liquid structure simulation based on Gaussian distribution of atoms around crystalline positions, a good agreement has been found with hcp Fe model-structure, rather than with Fe 3S structure. It suggests that S acts as an interstitial impurity in the liquid state. Therefore, S could have a relatively minor effect on sound velocities in liquid outer core.

  7. A bacterial electron-bifurcating hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2012-09-01

    The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway of anaerobic CO(2) fixation with hydrogen as reductant is considered a candidate for the first life-sustaining pathway on earth because it combines carbon dioxide fixation with the synthesis of ATP via a chemiosmotic mechanism. The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii uses an ancient version of the pathway that has only one site to generate the electrochemical ion potential used to drive ATP synthesis, the ferredoxin-fueled, sodium-motive Rnf complex. However, hydrogen-based ferredoxin reduction is endergonic, and how the steep energy barrier is overcome has been an enigma for a long time. We have purified a multimeric [FeFe]-hydrogenase from A. woodii containing four subunits (HydABCD) which is predicted to have one [H]-cluster, three [2Fe2S]-, and six [4Fe4S]-clusters consistent with the experimental determination of 32 mol of Fe and 30 mol of acid-labile sulfur. The enzyme indeed catalyzed hydrogen-based ferredoxin reduction, but required NAD(+) for this reaction. NAD(+) was also reduced but only in the presence of ferredoxin. NAD(+) and ferredoxin reduction both required flavin. Spectroscopic analyses revealed that NAD(+) and ferredoxin reduction are strictly coupled and that they are reduced in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Apparently, the multimeric hydrogenase of A. woodii is a soluble energy-converting hydrogenase that uses electron bifurcation to drive the endergonic ferredoxin reduction by coupling it to the exergonic NAD(+) reduction. PMID:22810230

  8. Hydrogenases and Hydrogen Metabolism of Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Paula; Axelsson, Rikard; Lindberg, Pia; Oxelfelt, Fredrik; Wünschiers, Röbbe; Lindblad, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cyanobacteria may possess several enzymes that are directly involved in dihydrogen metabolism: nitrogenase(s) catalyzing the production of hydrogen concomitantly with the reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia, an uptake hydrogenase (encoded by hupSL) catalyzing the consumption of hydrogen produced by the nitrogenase, and a bidirectional hydrogenase (encoded by hoxFUYH) which has the capacity to both take up and produce hydrogen. This review summarizes our knowledge about cyanobacterial hydrogenases, focusing on recent progress since the first molecular information was published in 1995. It presents the molecular knowledge about cyanobacterial hupSL and hoxFUYH, their corresponding gene products, and their accessory genes before finishing with an applied aspect—the use of cyanobacteria in a biological, renewable production of the future energy carrier molecular hydrogen. In addition to scientific publications, information from three cyanobacterial genomes, the unicellular Synechocystis strain PCC 6803 and the filamentous heterocystous Anabaena strain PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme (PCC 73102/ATCC 29133) is included. PMID:11875125

  9. Relation between anaerobic inactivation and oxygen tolerance in a large series of NiFe hydrogenase mutants.

    PubMed

    Abou Hamdan, Abbas; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Fourmond, Vincent; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; De Lacey, Antonio L; Infossi, Pascale; Rousset, Marc; Dementin, Sébastien; Léger, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    Nickel-containing hydrogenases, the biological catalysts of oxidation and production, reversibly inactivate under anaerobic, oxidizing conditions. We aim at understanding the mechanism of (in)activation and what determines its kinetics, because there is a correlation between fast reductive reactivation and oxygen tolerance, a property of some hydrogenases that is very desirable from the point of view of biotechnology. Direct electrochemistry is potentially very useful for learning about the redox-dependent conversions between active and inactive forms of hydrogenase, but the voltammetric signals are complex and often misread. Here we describe simple analytical models that we used to characterize and compare 16 mutants, obtained by substituting the position-74 valine of the -sensitive NiFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans. We observed that this substitution can accelerate reactivation up to 1,000-fold, depending on the polarity of the position 74 amino acid side chain. In terms of kinetics of anaerobic (in)activation and oxygen tolerance, the valine-to-histidine mutation has the most spectacular effect: The V74H mutant compares favorably with the -tolerant hydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus, which we use here as a benchmark. PMID:23169623

  10. Effect of Bridgehead Steric Bulk on the Intramolecular C-H Heterolysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site Models Containing a P2N2 Pendant Amine Ligand.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dehua; Wang, Mei; Wang, Ning; Cheng, Minglun; Sun, Licheng

    2016-01-19

    A series of pendant amine-containing [FeFe]-hydrogenase models, [X(CH2S-μ)2{Fe(CO)3}{Fe(CO)(P2(Ph)N2(Bn))}] (1H, X = CH2; 2Me, C(CH3)2; 3Et, C(CH2CH3)2; and P2(Ph)N2(Bn) = 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) with different groups at the bridgehead carbon of the S-to-S linker were synthesized. The oxidations of these complexes as well as the reverse reduction reaction were studied by cyclic voltammetry and in situ IR spectroscopy. Regardless of the bridgehead steric bulk, all three complexes demonstrate intramolecular iron-mediated C(sp(3))-H bond heterolytic cleavage with the assistance of the pendant amine base within the chelating diphosphine ligand in the two-electron oxidation process. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the doubly oxidized products, [1'H](+), [2'Me](+), and [3'Et](+), all have a rigid FeSC three-membered ring at the open apical site of the rotated iron center. The most noticeable difference in structures of the oxidized complexes is that the single CO ligand of the rotated Fe(P2(Ph)N2(Bn))(CO) unit in [1'H](+) and [2'Me](+) is found below the Fe···Fe vector, while in [3'Et](+) an unusually rotated Fe(P2(Ph)N2(Bn))(CO) moiety positions one of the P donors within the bidentate ligand under the Fe···Fe vector. The starting Fe(I)Fe(I) complexes can be recovered from their corresponding doubly oxidized complexes by reduction in the presence of Brönsted acid. PMID:26230977

  11. Mechanism of electrocatalytic hydrogen production by a di-iron model of iron-iron hydrogenase: a density functional theory study of proton dissociation constants and electrode reduction potentials.

    PubMed

    Surawatanawong, Panida; Tye, Jesse W; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y; Hall, Michael B

    2010-03-28

    Simple dinuclear iron dithiolates such as (mu-SCH2CH2CH2S)[Fe(CO)3]2, (1) and (mu-SCH2CH2S)[Fe(CO)3]2 (2) are functional models for diiron-hydrogenases, [FeFe]-H2ases, that catalyze the reduction of protons to H2. The mechanism of H2 production with 2 as the catalyst and with both toluenesulfonic (HOTs) and acetic (HOAc) acids as the H+ source in CH3CN solvent has been examined by density functional theory (DFT). Proton dissociation constants (pKa) and electrode reduction potentials (E(o)) are directly computed and compared to the measured pKa of HOTs and HOAc acids and the experimental reduction potentials. Computations show that when the strong acid, HOTs, is used as a proton source the one-electron reduced species 2- can be protonated to form a bridging hydride complex as the most stable structure. Then, this species can be reduced and protonated to form dihydrogen and regenerate 2. This cycle produces H2 via an ECEC process at an applied potential of -1.8 V vs. Fc/Fc+. A second faster process opens for this system when the species produced at the ECEC step above is further reduced and H2 release returns the system to 2- rather than 2, an E[CECE] process. On the other hand, when the weak acid, HOAc, is the proton source a more negative applied reduction potential (-2.2 V vs. Fc/Fc+) is necessary. At this potential two one-electron reductions yield the dianion 2(2-) before the first protonation, which in this case occurs on the thiolate. Subsequent reduction and protonation form dihydrogen and regenerate 2- through an E[ECEC] process. PMID:20221544

  12. Induction of Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation in Anoxia Relies on Hydrogenase Activity and Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is frequently subject to periods of dark and anoxia in its natural environment. Here, by resorting to mutants defective in the maturation of the chloroplastic oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases or in Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1 (PGRL1)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI-CEF), we demonstrate the sequential contribution of these alternative electron flows (AEFs) in the reactivation of photosynthetic carbon fixation during a shift from dark anoxia to light. At light onset, hydrogenase activity sustains a linear electron flow from photosystem II, which is followed by a transient PSI-CEF in the wild type. By promoting ATP synthesis without net generation of photosynthetic reductants, the two AEF are critical for restoration of the capacity for carbon dioxide fixation in the light. Our data also suggest that the decrease in hydrogen evolution with time of illumination might be due to competition for reduced ferredoxins between ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase and hydrogenases, rather than due to the sensitivity of hydrogenase activity to oxygen. Finally, the absence of the two alternative pathways in a double mutant pgrl1 hydrogenase maturation factor G-2 is detrimental for photosynthesis and growth and cannot be compensated by any other AEF or anoxic metabolic responses. This highlights the role of hydrogenase activity and PSI-CEF in the ecological success of microalgae in low-oxygen environments. PMID:25931521

  13. Induction of Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation in Anoxia Relies on Hydrogenase Activity and Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Godaux, Damien; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Cardol, Pierre

    2015-06-01

    The model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is frequently subject to periods of dark and anoxia in its natural environment. Here, by resorting to mutants defective in the maturation of the chloroplastic oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases or in Proton-Gradient Regulation-Like1 (PGRL1)-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI-CEF), we demonstrate the sequential contribution of these alternative electron flows (AEFs) in the reactivation of photosynthetic carbon fixation during a shift from dark anoxia to light. At light onset, hydrogenase activity sustains a linear electron flow from photosystem II, which is followed by a transient PSI-CEF in the wild type. By promoting ATP synthesis without net generation of photosynthetic reductants, the two AEF are critical for restoration of the capacity for carbon dioxide fixation in the light. Our data also suggest that the decrease in hydrogen evolution with time of illumination might be due to competition for reduced ferredoxins between ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase and hydrogenases, rather than due to the sensitivity of hydrogenase activity to oxygen. Finally, the absence of the two alternative pathways in a double mutant pgrl1 hydrogenase maturation factor G-2 is detrimental for photosynthesis and growth and cannot be compensated by any other AEF or anoxic metabolic responses. This highlights the role of hydrogenase activity and PSI-CEF in the ecological success of microalgae in low-oxygen environments. PMID:25931521

  14. Simple ligand effects switch a hydrogenase mimic between H2 and O2 activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoungmok; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Robertson, Andrew; Nakai, Hidetaka; Ogo, Seiji

    2012-06-01

    Herein, we report a [NiRu] biomimetic system for O(2)-tolerant [NiFe]hydrogenases and demonstrate that electron donation to the [NiRu] center can switch the system between the activation of H(2) and O(2) through simple ligand effects by using hexamethylbenzene and pentamethylcyclopentadienyl ligands, respectively. Furthermore, we present the synthesis and direct observations of a [NiRu]-peroxo species, which was formed by the oxygenation of a Ni-SIa model [NiRu] complex, that we propose as a biomimetic analogue of O(2)-bound species (OBS) of O(2)-tolerant [NiFe]hydrogenases. The [NiRu]-peroxo complex was fully characterized by X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The OBS analogue was capable of oxidizing p-hydroquinone and sodium borohydride to turn back into the Ni-SIa model complex. PMID:22383335

  15. Activation and de novo synthesis of hydrogenase in Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Roessler, P.G.; Lien, S.

    1984-12-01

    Two distinct processes are involved in the formation of active hydrogenase during anaerobic adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. In the first 30 minutes of anaerobiosis, nearly all of the hydrogenase activity can be attributed to activation of constituitive polypeptide precursor, based on the insensitivity of the process to treatment with cycloheximide (15 micrograms per milliliter). This concentration of cycloheximide inhibits protein synthesis by greater than 98%. After the initial activation period, de novo protein synthesis plays a critical role in the adaptation process since cycloheximide inhibits the expression of hydrogenase in maximally adapted cells by 70%. Chloramphenicol (500 micrograms per milliliter) has a much lesser effect on the adaptation process. Incubation of cell-free extracts under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithionite, dithiothreitol, NADH, NADP, ferredoxin, ATP, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, and iron does not lead to active hydrogenase formation. Furthermore, in vivo reactivation of oxygen-inactivated hydrogenase does not appear to take place. The adaptation process is very sensitive to the availability of iron. Iron-deficient cultures lose the ability to form active hydrogenase before growth, photosynthesis, and respiration are significantly affected. Preincubation of iron-deficient cells with iron 2 hours prior to the adaptation period fully restores the capacity of the cells to synthesize functional hydrogenase.

  16. Biomimetic assembly and activation of [FeFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Berggren, G; Adamska, A; Lambertz, C; Simmons, T R; Esselborn, J; Atta, M; Gambarelli, S; Mouesca, J-M; Reijerse, E; Lubitz, W; Happe, T; Artero, V; Fontecave, M

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogenases are the most active molecular catalysts for hydrogen production and uptake, and could therefore facilitate the development of new types of fuel cell. In [FeFe]-hydrogenases, catalysis takes place at a unique di-iron centre (the [2Fe] subsite), which contains a bridging dithiolate ligand, three CO ligands and two CN(-) ligands. Through a complex multienzymatic biosynthetic process, this [2Fe] subsite is first assembled on a maturation enzyme, HydF, and then delivered to the apo-hydrogenase for activation. Synthetic chemistry has been used to prepare remarkably similar mimics of that subsite, but it has failed to reproduce the natural enzymatic activities thus far. Here we show that three synthetic mimics (containing different bridging dithiolate ligands) can be loaded onto bacterial Thermotoga maritima HydF and then transferred to apo-HydA1, one of the hydrogenases of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii algae. Full activation of HydA1 was achieved only when using the HydF hybrid protein containing the mimic with an azadithiolate bridge, confirming the presence of this ligand in the active site of native [FeFe]-hydrogenases. This is an example of controlled metalloenzyme activation using the combination of a specific protein scaffold and active-site synthetic analogues. This simple methodology provides both new mechanistic and structural insight into hydrogenase maturation and a unique tool for producing recombinant wild-type and variant [FeFe]-hydrogenases, with no requirement for the complete maturation machinery. PMID:23803769

  17. Maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Forzi, Lucia; Sawers, R Gary

    2007-06-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of dihydrogen. Catalysis occurs at bimetallic active sites that contain either nickel and iron or only iron and the nature of these active sites forms the basis of categorizing the enzymes into three classes, the [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the [FeFe]-hydrogenases and the iron sulfur cluster-free [Fe]-hydrogenases. The [NiFe]-hydrogenases and the [FeFe]-hydrogenases are unrelated at the amino acid sequence level but the active sites share the unusual feature of having diatomic ligands associated with the Fe atoms in the these enzymes. Combined structural and spectroscopic studies of [NiFe]-hydrogenases identified these diatomic ligands as CN- and CO groups. Major advances in our understanding of the biosynthesis of these ligands have been achieved primarily through the study of the membrane-associated [NiFe]-hydrogenases of Escherichia coli. A complex biosynthetic machinery is involved in synthesis and attachment of these ligands to the iron atom, insertion of the Fe(CN)2CO group into the apo-hydrogenase, introduction of the nickel atom into the pre-formed active site and ensuring that the holoenzyme is correctly folded prior to delivery to the membrane. Although much remains to be uncovered regarding each of the individual biochemical steps on the pathway to synthesis of a fully functional enzyme, our understanding of the initial steps in CN- synthesis have revealed that it is generated from carbamoyl phosphate. What is becoming increasingly clear is that the metabolic origins of the carbonyl group may be different. PMID:17216401

  18. Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics of [NiFe] Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Xiong, Yijia; Straatsma, TP; Rosso, Kevin M.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-05-09

    Classical molecular force-field parameters describing the structure and motion of metal clusters in [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes can be used to compare the dynamics and thermodynamics of [NiFe] under different oxidation, protonation, and ligation circumstances. Using density functional theory (DFT) calculations of small model clusters representative of the active site and the proximal, medial, and distal Fe/S metal centers and their attached protein side chains, we have calculated classical force-field parameters for [NiFe] in reduced and oxidized states, including internal coordinates, force constants, and atom-centered charges. Derived force constants revealed that cysteinate ligands bound to the metal ions are more flexible in the Ni-B active site, which has a bridging hydroxide ligand, than in the Ni-C active site, which has a bridging hydride. Ten nanosecond all-atom, explicit-solvent MD simulations of [NiFe] hydrogenase in oxidized and reduced catalytic states established the stability of the derived force-field parameters in terms of C{alpha} and metal cluster fluctuations. Average active site structures from the protein MD simulations are consistent with [NiFe] structures from the Protein Data Bank, suggesting that the derived force-field parameters are transferrable to other hydrogenases beyond the structure used for testing. A comparison of experimental H{sub 2}-production rates demonstrated a relationship between cysteinate side chain rotation and activity, justifying the use of a fully dynamic model of [NiFe] metal cluster motion.

  19. Photosensitized production of hydrogen by hydrogenase in reversed micelles

    PubMed Central

    Hilhorst, Riet; Laane, Colja; Veeger, Cees

    1982-01-01

    Hydrogenase (hydrogen:ferricytochrome c3 oxidoreductase, EC 1.12.2.1) from Desulfovibrio vulgaris was encapsulated in reversed micelles with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant and a chloroform/octane mixture as solvent. Reducing equivalents for hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production were provided by vectorial photosensitized electron transfer from a donor (thiophenol) in the organic phase through a surfactant-Ru2+ sensitizer located in the interphase to methyl viologen concentrated in the aqueous core of the reversed micelle. The results show that reversed micelles provide a microenvironment that (i) stabilizes hydrogenase against inactivation and (ii) allows an efficient vectorial photosensitized electron and proton flow from the organic phase to hydrogenase in the aqueous phase. Images PMID:16593204

  20. Maturation of Rhizobium leguminosarum Hydrogenase in the Presence of Oxygen Requires the Interaction of the Chaperone HypC and the Scaffolding Protein HupK*

    PubMed Central

    Albareda, Marta; Pacios, Luis F.; Manyani, Hamid; Rey, Luis; Brito, Belén; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás; Palacios, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are key enzymes for the energy and redox metabolisms of different microorganisms. Synthesis of these metalloenzymes involves a complex series of biochemical reactions catalyzed by a plethora of accessory proteins, many of them required to synthesize and insert the unique NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor. HypC is an accessory protein conserved in all [NiFe] hydrogenase systems and involved in the synthesis and transfer of the Fe(CN)2CO cofactor precursor. Hydrogenase accessory proteins from bacteria-synthesizing hydrogenase in the presence of oxygen include HupK, a scaffolding protein with a moderate sequence similarity to the hydrogenase large subunit and proposed to participate as an intermediate chaperone in the synthesis of the NiFe cofactor. The endosymbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum contains a single hydrogenase system that can be expressed under two different physiological conditions: free-living microaerobic cells (∼12 μm O2) and bacteroids from legume nodules (∼10–100 nm O2). We have used bioinformatic tools to model HupK structure and interaction of this protein with HypC. Site-directed mutagenesis at positions predicted as critical by the structural analysis have allowed the identification of HupK and HypC residues relevant for the maturation of hydrogenase. Mutant proteins altered in some of these residues show a different phenotype depending on the physiological condition tested. Modeling of HypC also predicts the existence of a stable HypC dimer whose presence was also demonstrated by immunoblot analysis. This study widens our understanding on the mechanisms for metalloenzyme biosynthesis in the presence of oxygen. PMID:24942742

  1. Optimized Expression and Purification for High-Activity Preparations of Algal [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Yacoby, I.; Tegler, L. T.; Pochekailov, S.; Zhang, S.; King, P. W.

    2012-04-01

    Recombinant expression and purification of metallo-enzymes, including hydrogenases, at high-yields is challenging due to complex, and enzyme specific, post-translational maturation processes. Low fidelities of maturation result in preparations containing a significant fraction of inactive, apo-protein that are not suitable for biophysical or crystallographic studies. We describe the construction, overexpression and high-yield purification of a fusion protein consisting of the algal [2Fe2S]-ferredoxin PetF (Fd) and [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1. The maturation of Fd-HydA1 was optimized through improvements in culture conditions and media components used for expression. We also demonstrated that fusion of Fd to the N-terminus of HydA1, in comparison to the C-terminus, led to increased expression levels that were 4-fold higher. Together, these improvements led to enhanced HydA1 activity and improved yield after purification. The strong binding-affinity of Fd for DEAE allowed for two-step purification by ion exchange and StrepTactin affinity chromatography. In addition, the incorporation of a TEV protease site in the Fd-HydA1 linker allowed for the proteolytic removal of Fd after DEAE step, and purification of HydA1 alone by StrepTactin. In combination, this process resulted in HydA1 purification yields of 5 mg L{sup -1} of culture from E. coli with specific activities of 1000 U (U = 1 {micro}mol hydrogen evolved mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}). The [FeFe]-hydrogenases are highly efficient enzymes and their catalytic sites provide model structures for synthetic efforts to develop robust hydrogen activation catalysts. In order to characterize their structure-function properties in greater detail, and to use hydrogenases for biotechnological applications, reliable methods for rapid, high-yield expression and purification are required.

  2. Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Nishikawa, Koji; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2015-04-23

    The enzyme hydrogenase reversibly converts dihydrogen to protons and electrons at a metal catalyst. The location of the abundant hydrogens is of key importance for understanding structure and function of the protein. However, in protein X-ray crystallography the detection of hydrogen atoms is one of the major problems, since they display only weak contributions to diffraction and the quality of the single crystals is often insufficient to obtain sub-ångström resolution. Here we report the crystal structure of a standard [NiFe] hydrogenase (∼91.3 kDa molecular mass) at 0.89 Å resolution. The strictly anoxically isolated hydrogenase has been obtained in a specific spectroscopic state, the active reduced Ni-R (subform Ni-R1) state. The high resolution, proper refinement strategy and careful modelling allow the positioning of a large part of the hydrogen atoms in the structure. This has led to the direct detection of the products of the heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen into a hydride (H(-)) bridging the Ni and Fe and a proton (H(+)) attached to the sulphur of a cysteine ligand. The Ni-H(-) and Fe-H(-) bond lengths are 1.58 Å and 1.78Å, respectively. Furthermore, we can assign the Fe-CO and Fe-CN(-) ligands at the active site, and can obtain the hydrogen-bond networks and the preferred proton transfer pathway in the hydrogenase. Our results demonstrate the precise comprehensive information available from ultra-high-resolution structures of proteins as an alternative to neutron diffraction and other methods such as NMR structural analysis. PMID:25624102

  3. Fabrication and physical properties of [Fe/Fe4N]N multilayers with high saturation magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, B.; Lin, L.; Ma, B.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Jin, Q. Y.; Wang, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    [Fe/Fe4N]N multilayers with high saturation magnetization were prepared on MgO(200) substrate, by the DC reactive magnetron sputtering and then annealed at higher temperature. Their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. Epitaxial growth of α-Fe and γ'-Fe4N were demonstrated on MgO, and then excellent [Fe/Fe4N]N was obtained. Though the saturation magnetizations of the as-deposited [Fe/Fe4N]N are slightly below the average value of those of α-Fe and γ'-Fe4N, the saturation magnetization of the annealed [Fe(3.04 nm)/Fe4N(3.04 nm)]5 increases up to 1850 emu/cc, 32 % larger than that of α-Fe film. N atom diffusion from the γ'-Fe4N to the α-Fe layer at high temperature greatly improves the saturation magnetization.

  4. Activation and de novo synthesis of hydrogenase in chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Roessler, P G; Lien, S

    1984-12-01

    Two distinct processes are involved in the formation of active hydrogenase during anaerobic adaptation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. In the first 30 minutes of anaerobiosis, nearly all of the hydrogenase activity can be attributed to activation of a constituitive polypeptide precursor, based on the insensitivity of the process to treatment with cycloheximide (15 micrograms per milliliter). This concentration of cycloheximide inhibits protein synthesis by greater than 98%. After the initial activation period, de novo protein synthesis plays a critical role in the adaptation process since cycloheximide inhibits the expression of hydrogense in maximally adapted cells by 70%. Chloramphenicol (500 micrograms per milliliter) has a much lesser effect on the adaptation process.Incubation of cell-free extracts under anaerobic conditions in the presence of dithionite, dithiothreitol, NADH, NADP, ferredoxin, ATP, Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and iron does not lead to active hydrogenase formation. Futhermore, in vivo reactivation of oxygen-inactivated hydrogenase does not appear to take place.The adaptation process is very sensitive to the availability of iron. Iron-deficient cultures lose the ability to form active hydrogenase before growth, photosynthesis, and respiration are significantly affected. Preincubation of iron-deficient cells with iron 2 hours prior to the adaptation period fully restores the capacity of the cells to synthesize functional hydrogenase. PMID:16663954

  5. Structural and gene expression analyses of uptake hydrogenases and other proteins involved in nitrogenase protection in Frankia.

    PubMed

    Richau, K H; Kudahettige, R L; Pujic, P; Kudahettige, N P; Sellstedt, A

    2013-11-01

    The actinorhizal bacterium Frankia expresses nitrogenase and can therefore convert molecular nitrogen into ammonia and the by-product hydrogen. However, nitrogenase is inhibited by oxygen. Consequently, Frankia and its actinorhizal hosts have developed various mechanisms for excluding oxygen from their nitrogen-containing compartments. These include the expression of oxygen-scavenging uptake hydrogenases, the formation of hopanoid-rich vesicles, enclosed by multi-layered hopanoid structures, the lignification of hyphal cell walls, and the production of haemoglobins in the symbiotic nodule. In this work, we analysed the expression and structure of the so-called uptake hydrogenase (Hup), which catalyses the in vivo dissociation of hydrogen to recycle the energy locked up in this 'waste' product. Two uptake hydrogenase syntons have been identified in Frankia: synton 1 is expressed under freeliving conditions while synton 2 is expressed during symbiosis. We used qPCR to determine synton 1 hup gene expression in two Frankia strains under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We also predicted the 3D structures of the Hup protein subunits based on multiple sequence alignments and remote homology modelling. Finally, we performed BLAST searches of genome and protein databases to identify genes that may contribute to the protection of nitrogenase against oxygen in the two Frankia strains. Our results show that in Frankia strain ACN14a, the expression patterns of the large (HupL1) and small (HupS1) uptake hydrogenase subunits depend on the abundance of oxygen in the external environment. Structural models of the membrane-bound hydrogenase subunits of ACN14a showed that both subunits resemble the structures of known [NiFe] hydrogenases (Volbeda et al. 1995), but contain fewer cysteine residues than the uptake hydrogenase of the Frankia DC12 and Eu1c strains. Moreover, we show that all of the investigated Frankia strains have two squalene hopane cyclase genes (shc1 and shc2). The

  6. Nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particle-deposited N-doped graphene as an activity-modulated Pt-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavale, Vishal M.; Singh, Santosh K.; Nadeema, Ayasha; Gaikwad, Sachin S.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-01

    The size-controlled growth of nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particles (2-3 nm) and their concomitant dispersion on N-doped graphene (Fe-Fe2O3/NGr) could be attained when the mutually assisted redox reaction between NGr and Fe3+ ions could be controlled within the aqueous droplets of a water-in-oil emulsion. The synergistic interaction existing between Fe-Fe2O3 and NGr helped the system to narrow down the overpotential for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by bringing a significant positive shift to the reduction onset potential, which is just 15 mV higher than its Pt-counterpart. In addition, the half-wave potential (E1/2) of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr is found to be improved by a considerable amount of 135 mV in comparison to the system formed by dispersing Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Fe-Fe2O3/RGO), which indicates the presence of a higher number of active sites in Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. Despite this, the ORR kinetics of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr are found to be shifted significantly to the preferred 4-electron-transfer pathway compared to NGr and Fe-Fe2O3/RGO. Consequently, the H2O2% was found to be reduced by 78.3% for Fe-Fe2O3/NGr (13.0%) in comparison to Fe-Fe2O3/RGO (51.2%) and NGr (41.0%) at -0.30 V (vs. Hg/HgO). This difference in the yield of H2O2 formed between the systems along with the improvements observed in terms of the oxygen reduction onset and E1/2 in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr reveals the activity modulation achieved for the latter is due to the coexistence of factors such as the presence of the mixed valancies of iron nanoparticles, small size and homogeneous distribution of Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the electronic modifications induced by the doped nitrogen in NGr. A controlled interplay of these factors looks like worked favorably in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. As a realistic system level validation, Fe-Fe2O3/NGr was employed as the cathode electrode of a single cell in a solid alkaline electrolyte membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). The system could display an open

  7. [FeFe]-hydrogenases and photobiological hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; Cohen, Jordi; King, Paul; Schulten, Klaus; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

    2006-08-01

    The promise of efficient, economic and renewable H II photoproduction from water can potentially be met by green algae. These organisms are able to functionally link photosynthetic water oxidation to the catalytic recombination of protons and electrons to generate H II gas through the activity of the hydrogenase enzyme. Green algal hydrogenases contain a unique metallo-catalytic H-cluster that performs the reversible H II oxidation /evolution reactions. The H-cluster, located in the interior of the protein structure is irreversibly inactivated by O II, the by-product of water oxidation. We developed an Escherichi coli expression system to produce [FeFe]-hydrogenases from different biological sources and demonstrated that clostridial [FeFe]-hydrogenases have higher tolerance to O II inactivation compared to their algal counterparts. We have been using computational simulations of gas diffusion within the Clostridium pasteurianum CpI hydrogenase to identify the pathways through which O II can reach its catalytic site. Subsequently, we modify the protein structure at specific sites along the O II pathways (identified by the computational simulations) by site-directed mutagenesis with the goal of generating recombinant enzymes with higher O II tolerance. In this paper, we review the computational simulation work and report on preliminary results obtained through this strategy.

  8. Solar powered biohydrogen production requires specific localization of the hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, Nigel J.; Boehm, Marko; Eckert, Carrie; Mastroianni, Giulia; Spence, Edward M.; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Appel, Jens; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Bryan, Samantha J.

    2014-09-04

    Cyanobacteria contain a bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase which transiently produces hydrogen upon exposure of anoxic cells to light, potentially acting as a “valve” releasing excess electrons from the electron transport chain. However, its interaction with the photosynthetic electron transport chain remains unclear. By GFP-tagging the HoxF diaphorase subunit we show that the hydrogenase is thylakoid associated, comprising a population dispersed uniformly through the thylakoids and a subpopulation localized to discrete puncta in the distal thylakoid. Thylakoid localisation of both the HoxH and HoxY hydrogenase subunits is confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy. The diaphorase HoxE subunit is essential for recruitment to the dispersed thylakoid population, potentially anchoring the hydrogenase to the membrane, but aggregation to puncta occurs through a distinct HoxE-independent mechanism. Membrane association does not require NDH-1. Localization is dynamic on a scale of minutes, with anoxia and high light inducing a significant redistribution between these populations in favour of puncta. Lastly, since HoxE is essential for access to its electron donor, electron supply to the hydrogenase depends on a physiologically controlled localization, potentially offering a new avenue to enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production by exploiting localization/aggregation signals.

  9. Solar powered biohydrogen production requires specific localization of the hydrogenase

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burroughs, Nigel J.; Boehm, Marko; Eckert, Carrie; Mastroianni, Giulia; Spence, Edward M.; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Appel, Jens; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Bryan, Samantha J.

    2014-09-04

    Cyanobacteria contain a bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase which transiently produces hydrogen upon exposure of anoxic cells to light, potentially acting as a “valve” releasing excess electrons from the electron transport chain. However, its interaction with the photosynthetic electron transport chain remains unclear. By GFP-tagging the HoxF diaphorase subunit we show that the hydrogenase is thylakoid associated, comprising a population dispersed uniformly through the thylakoids and a subpopulation localized to discrete puncta in the distal thylakoid. Thylakoid localisation of both the HoxH and HoxY hydrogenase subunits is confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy. The diaphorase HoxE subunit is essential for recruitment to themore » dispersed thylakoid population, potentially anchoring the hydrogenase to the membrane, but aggregation to puncta occurs through a distinct HoxE-independent mechanism. Membrane association does not require NDH-1. Localization is dynamic on a scale of minutes, with anoxia and high light inducing a significant redistribution between these populations in favour of puncta. Lastly, since HoxE is essential for access to its electron donor, electron supply to the hydrogenase depends on a physiologically controlled localization, potentially offering a new avenue to enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production by exploiting localization/aggregation signals.« less

  10. Hydrogen activation by [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stephen B; Evans, Rhiannon M; Brooke, Emily J; Wehlin, Sara A M; Nomerotskaia, Elena; Sargent, Frank; Armstrong, Fraser A; Phillips, Simon E V

    2016-06-15

    Hydrogenase-1 (Hyd-1) from Escherichia coli is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular H2 The active site contains one Fe and one Ni atom and several conserved amino acids including an arginine (Arg(509)), which interacts with two conserved aspartate residues (Asp(118) and Asp(574)) forming an outer shell canopy over the metals. There is also a highly conserved glutamate (Glu(28)) positioned on the opposite side of the active site to the canopy. The mechanism of hydrogen activation has been dissected by site-directed mutagenesis to identify the catalytic base responsible for splitting molecular hydrogen and possible proton transfer pathways to/from the active site. Previous reported attempts to mutate residues in the canopy were unsuccessful, leading to an assumption of a purely structural role. Recent discoveries, however, suggest a catalytic requirement, for example replacing the arginine with lysine (R509K) leaves the structure virtually unchanged, but catalytic activity falls by more than 100-fold. Variants containing amino acid substitutions at either or both, aspartates retain significant activity. We now propose a new mechanism: heterolytic H2 cleavage is via a mechanism akin to that of a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP), where H2 is polarized by simultaneous binding to the metal(s) (the acid) and a nitrogen from Arg(509) (the base). PMID:27284053

  11. Distribution and activity of hydrogenase enzymes in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, R.; Nickel, J.; Glombitza, C.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Metabolically active microbial communities are present in a wide range of subsurface environments. Techniques like enumeration of microbial cells, activity measurements with radiotracer assays and the analysis of porewater constituents are currently being used to explore the subsurface biosphere, alongside with molecular biological analyses. However, many of these techniques reach their detection limits due to low microbial activity and abundance. Direct measurements of microbial turnover not just face issues of insufficient sensitivity, they only provide information about a single specific process rather than an overall microbial activity. Since hydrogenase enzymes are intracellular and ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, the enzyme activity represents a measure of total activity of the entire microbial community. A hydrogenase activity assay could quantify total metabolic activity without having to identify specific processes. This would be a major advantage in subsurface biosphere studies, where several metabolic processes can occur simultaneously. We quantified hydrogenase enzyme activity and distribution in sediment samples from different aquatic subsurface environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico) using a tritium-based assay. We found enzyme activity at all sites and depths. Volumetric hydrogenase activity did not show much variability between sites and sampling depths, whereas cell-specific activity ranged from 10-5 to 1 nmol H2 cell-1 d-1. Activity was lowest in sediment layers where nitrate was detected. Higher activity was associated with samples in which sulfate was the predominant electron acceptor. We found highest activity in samples from environments with >10 ppm methane in the pore water. The results show that cell-specific hydrogenase enzyme activity increases with decreasing energy yield of the electron acceptor used. It is not possible to convert volumetric or cell-specific hydrogenase activity into a

  12. Nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particle-deposited N-doped graphene as an activity-modulated Pt-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavale, Vishal M.; Singh, Santosh K.; Nadeema, Ayasha; Gaikwad, Sachin S.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-11-01

    The size-controlled growth of nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particles (2-3 nm) and their concomitant dispersion on N-doped graphene (Fe-Fe2O3/NGr) could be attained when the mutually assisted redox reaction between NGr and Fe3+ ions could be controlled within the aqueous droplets of a water-in-oil emulsion. The synergistic interaction existing between Fe-Fe2O3 and NGr helped the system to narrow down the overpotential for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by bringing a significant positive shift to the reduction onset potential, which is just 15 mV higher than its Pt-counterpart. In addition, the half-wave potential (E1/2) of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr is found to be improved by a considerable amount of 135 mV in comparison to the system formed by dispersing Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Fe-Fe2O3/RGO), which indicates the presence of a higher number of active sites in Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. Despite this, the ORR kinetics of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr are found to be shifted significantly to the preferred 4-electron-transfer pathway compared to NGr and Fe-Fe2O3/RGO. Consequently, the H2O2% was found to be reduced by 78.3% for Fe-Fe2O3/NGr (13.0%) in comparison to Fe-Fe2O3/RGO (51.2%) and NGr (41.0%) at -0.30 V (vs. Hg/HgO). This difference in the yield of H2O2 formed between the systems along with the improvements observed in terms of the oxygen reduction onset and E1/2 in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr reveals the activity modulation achieved for the latter is due to the coexistence of factors such as the presence of the mixed valancies of iron nanoparticles, small size and homogeneous distribution of Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the electronic modifications induced by the doped nitrogen in NGr. A controlled interplay of these factors looks like worked favorably in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. As a realistic system level validation, Fe-Fe2O3/NGr was employed as the cathode electrode of a single cell in a solid alkaline electrolyte membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). The system could display an open

  13. Rates and Routes of Electron Transfer of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Alexander; Stein, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Hydrogenase enzymes are being used in enzymatic fuel cells immobilized on a graphite or carbon electrode surface, for example. The enzyme is used for the anodic oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2) to produce protons and electrons. The association and orientation of the enzyme at the anode electrode for a direct electron transfer is not completely resolved. The distal FeS-cluster in [NiFe]-hydrogenases contains a histidine residue which is known to play a critical role in the intermolecular electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode surface. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase graphite electrode association was investigated using Brownian Dynamics simulations. Residues that were shown to be in proximity to the electrode surface were identified (His184, Ser196, Glu461, Glu464), and electron transfer routes connecting the distal FeS-cluster with the surface residues were investigated. Several possible pathways for electron transfer between the distal FeS-cluster and the terminal amino acid residues were probed in terms of their rates of electron transfer using DFT methods. The reorganization energies λ of the distal iron-sulfur cluster and coronene as a molecular model for graphite were calculated. The reorganization energy of the distal (His)(Cys)3 cluster was found to be not very different from that of a standard cubane clusters with a (Cys)4 coordination. Electronic coupling matrix elements and rates of electron transfer for the different pathways were calculated according to the Marcus equation. The rates for glutamate-mediated electrode binding were found to be incompatible with experimental data. A direct electron transfer from the histidine ligand of the distal FeS-cluster to the electrode yielded rates of electron transfer in excellent agreement with experiment. A second pathway, however, from the distal FeS-cluster to the Ser196 residue was found to be equally efficient and feasible. PMID:26218232

  14. From enzyme maturation to synthetic chemistry: the case of hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Artero, Vincent; Berggren, Gustav; Atta, Mohamed; Caserta, Giorgio; Roy, Souvik; Pecqueur, Ludovic; Fontecave, Marc

    2015-08-18

    Water splitting into oxygen and hydrogen is one of the most attractive strategies for storing solar energy and electricity. Because the processes at work are multielectronic, there is a crucial need for efficient and stable catalysts, which in addition have to be cheap for future industrial developments (electrolyzers, photoelectrochemicals, and fuel cells). Specifically for the water/hydrogen interconversion, Nature is an exquisite source of inspiration since this chemistry contributes to the bioenergetic metabolism of a number of living organisms via the activity of fascinating metalloenzymes, the hydrogenases. In this Account, we first briefly describe the structure of the unique dinuclear organometallic active sites of the two classes of hydrogenases as well as the complex protein machineries involved in their biosynthesis, their so-called maturation processes. This knowledge allows for the development of a fruitful bioinspired chemistry approach, which has already led to a number of interesting and original catalysts mimicking the natural active sites. More specifically, we describe our own attempts to prepare artificial hydrogenases. This can be achieved via the standard bioinspired approach using the combination of a synthetic bioinspired catalyst and a polypeptide scaffold. Such hybrid complexes provide the opportunity to optimize the system by manipulating both the catalyst through chemical synthesis and the protein component through mutagenesis. We also raise the possibility to reach such artificial systems via an original strategy based on mimicking the enzyme maturation pathways. This is illustrated in this Account by two examples developed in our laboratory. First, we show how the preparation of a lysozyme-{Mn(I)(CO)3} hybrid and its clean reaction with a nickel complex led us to generate a new class of binuclear Ni-Mn H2-evolving catalysts mimicking the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Then we describe how we were able to rationally design and

  15. Guiding Principles of Hydrogenase Catalysis Instigated and Clarified by Protein Film Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Fraser A; Evans, Rhiannon M; Hexter, Suzannah V; Murphy, Bonnie J; Roessler, Maxie M; Wulff, Philip

    2016-05-17

    Protein film electrochemistry (PFE) is providing cutting-edge insight into the chemical principles underpinning biological hydrogen. Attached to an electrode, many enzymes exhibit "reversible" electrocatalytic behavior, meaning that a catalyzed redox reaction appears reversible or quasi-reversible when viewed by cyclic voltammetry. This efficiency is most relevant for enzymes that are inspiring advances in renewable energy, such as hydrogen-activating and CO2-reducing enzymes. Exploiting the rich repertoire of available instrumental methods, PFE experiments yield both a general snapshot and fine detail, all from tiny samples of enzyme. The dynamic electrochemical investigations blaze new trails and add exquisite detail to the information gained from structural and spectroscopic studies. This Account describes recent investigations of hydrogenases carried out in Oxford, including ideas initiated with PFE and followed through with complementary techniques, all contributing to an eventual complete picture of fast and efficient H2 activation without Pt. By immobilization of an enzyme on an electrode, catalytic electron flow and the chemistry controlling it can be addressed at the touch of a button. The buried nature of the active site means that structures that have been determined by crystallography or spectroscopy are likely to be protected, retained, and fully relevant in a PFE experiment. An electrocatalysis model formulated for the PFE of immobilized enzymes predicts interesting behavior and gives insight into why some hydrogenases are H2 producers and others are H2 oxidizers. Immobilization also allows for easy addition and removal of inhibitors along with precise potential control, one interesting outcome being that formaldehyde forms a reversible complex with reduced [FeFe]-hydrogenases, thereby providing insight into the order of electron and proton transfers. Experiments on O2-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases show that O2 behaves like a reversible inhibitor: it

  16. Nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particle-deposited N-doped graphene as an activity-modulated Pt-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Dhavale, Vishal M; Singh, Santosh K; Nadeema, Ayasha; Gaikwad, Sachin S; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-12-21

    The size-controlled growth of nanocrystalline Fe-Fe2O3 particles (2-3 nm) and their concomitant dispersion on N-doped graphene (Fe-Fe2O3/NGr) could be attained when the mutually assisted redox reaction between NGr and Fe(3+) ions could be controlled within the aqueous droplets of a water-in-oil emulsion. The synergistic interaction existing between Fe-Fe2O3 and NGr helped the system to narrow down the overpotential for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by bringing a significant positive shift to the reduction onset potential, which is just 15 mV higher than its Pt-counterpart. In addition, the half-wave potential (E1/2) of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr is found to be improved by a considerable amount of 135 mV in comparison to the system formed by dispersing Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (Fe-Fe2O3/RGO), which indicates the presence of a higher number of active sites in Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. Despite this, the ORR kinetics of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr are found to be shifted significantly to the preferred 4-electron-transfer pathway compared to NGr and Fe-Fe2O3/RGO. Consequently, the H2O2% was found to be reduced by 78.3% for Fe-Fe2O3/NGr (13.0%) in comparison to Fe-Fe2O3/RGO (51.2%) and NGr (41.0%) at -0.30 V (vs. Hg/HgO). This difference in the yield of H2O2 formed between the systems along with the improvements observed in terms of the oxygen reduction onset and E1/2 in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr reveals the activity modulation achieved for the latter is due to the coexistence of factors such as the presence of the mixed valancies of iron nanoparticles, small size and homogeneous distribution of Fe-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the electronic modifications induced by the doped nitrogen in NGr. A controlled interplay of these factors looks like worked favorably in the case of Fe-Fe2O3/NGr. As a realistic system level validation, Fe-Fe2O3/NGr was employed as the cathode electrode of a single cell in a solid alkaline electrolyte membrane fuel cell (AEMFC). The system could display an open

  17. Energy harvesting based on FE-FE transition in ferroelectric single crystals.

    PubMed

    Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien; Sebald, Gael

    2008-02-01

    The pyroelectric properties of Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0955)Ti(0.045)O(3) single crystals versus an electric field have been studied for energy harvesting in this paper. Two thermodynamic cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) were used for this purpose. By applying an electric field, a FE-FE transition was induced, abruptly increasing the polarization. This transition minimized the supplied energy and improved the harvested energy. By discharging the single crystal at a higher temperature, a gain of 1100% was obtained with the Stirling cycle at 1 kV/mm (gain is defined as harvested energy divided by supplied energy). The study revealed that Stirling cycles are more interesting for low electric fields. Based on experimental results, simulations were carried out to estimate energy harvesting in high electric fields to evaluate the performances of thin samples (single crystals or oriented thin films). At high electric fields, both cycles gave almost the same energy harvesting, but Ericsson cycles were more appropriate to control the voltage on the sample. The simulation led to a harvested energy of 500 mJ/g for an applied electric field equal to 50 kV/mm. The efficiency with respect to Carnot was raised 20%. PMID:18334334

  18. Crystallographic studies of [NiFe]-hydrogenase mutants: towards consensus structures for the elusive unready oxidized states.

    PubMed

    Volbeda, Anne; Martin, Lydie; Barbier, Elodie; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; De Lacey, Antonio L; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Dementin, Sébastien; Rousset, Marc; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Catalytically inactive oxidized O2-sensitive [NiFe]-hydrogenases are characterized by a mixture of the paramagnetic Ni-A and Ni-B states. Upon O2 exposure, enzymes in a partially reduced state preferentially form the unready Ni-A state. Because partial O2 reduction should generate a peroxide intermediate, this species was previously assigned to the elongated Ni-Fe bridging electron density observed for preparations of [NiFe]-hydrogenases known to contain the Ni-A state. However, this proposition has been challenged based on the stability of this state to UV light exposure and the possibility of generating it anaerobically under either chemical or electrochemical oxidizing conditions. Consequently, we have considered alternative structures for the Ni-A species including oxidation of thiolate ligands to either sulfenate or sulfenic acid. Here, we report both new and revised [NiFe]-hydrogenases structures and conclude, taking into account corresponding characterizations by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), that the Ni-A species contains oxidized cysteine and bridging hydroxide ligands instead of the peroxide ligand we proposed earlier. Our analysis was rendered difficult by the typical formation of mixtures of unready oxidized states that, furthermore, can be reduced by X-ray induced photoelectrons. The present study could be carried out thanks to the use of Desulfovibrio fructosovorans [NiFe]-hydrogenase mutants with special properties. In addition to the Ni-A state, crystallographic results are also reported for two diamagnetic unready states, allowing the proposal of a revised oxidized inactive Ni-SU model and a new structure characterized by a persulfide ion that is assigned to an Ni-'Sox' species. PMID:25315838

  19. Force-field development and molecular dynamics simulations of ferrocene-peptide conjugates as a scaffold for hydrogenase mimics

    SciTech Connect

    De Hatten, Xavier; Cournia, Zoe; Smith, Jeremy C; Huc, I; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2007-08-01

    The increasing importance of hydrogenase enzymes in the new energy research field has led us to examine the structure and dynamics of potential hydrogenase mimics, based on a ferrocene-peptide scaffold, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To enable this MD study, a molecular mechanics force field for ferrocene-bearing peptides was developed and implemented in the CHARMM simulation package, thus extending the usefulness of the package into peptide-bioorganometallic chemistry. Using the automated frequency-matching method (AFMM), optimized intramolecular force-field parameters were generated through quantum chemical reference normal modes. The partial charges for ferrocene were derived by fitting point charges to quantum-chemically computed electrostatic potentials. The force field was tested against experimental X-ray crystal structures of dipeptide derivatives of ferrocene-1,1'-dicarboxylic acid. The calculations reproduce accurately the molecular geometries, including the characteristic C{sub 2}-symmetrical intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern, that were stable over 0.1 {micro}s MD simulations. The crystal packing properties of ferrocene-1-(D)alanine-(D)proline-1'-(D)alanine-(D)proline were also accurately reproduced. The lattice parameters of this crystal were conserved during a 0.1 {micro}s MD simulation and match the experimental values almost exactly. Simulations of the peptides in dichloromethane are also in good agreement with experimental NMR and circular dichroism (CD) data in solution. The developed force field was used to perform MD simulations on novel, as yet unsynthesized peptide fragments that surround the active site of [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase. The results of this simulation lead us to propose an improved design for synthetic peptide-based hydrogenase models. The presented MD simulation results of metallocenes thereby provide a convincing validation of our proposal to use ferrocene-peptides as minimal enzyme mimics.

  20. Force-field development and molecular dynamics simulations of ferrocene-peptide conjugates as a scaffold for hydrogenase mimics.

    SciTech Connect

    De Hatten, Xavier; Cournia, Zoe; Smith, Jeremy C; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2007-08-01

    The increasing importance of hydrogenase enzymes in the new energy research field has led us to examine the structure and dynamics of potential hydrogenase mimics, based on a ferrocene-peptide scaffold, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To enable this MD study, a molecular mechanics force field for ferrocene-bearing peptides was developed and implemented in the CHARMM simulation package, thus extending the usefulness of the package into peptide-bioorganometallic chemistry. Using the automated frequency-matching method (AFMM), optimized intramolecular force-field parameters were generated through quantum chemical reference normal modes. The partial charges for ferrocene were derived by fitting point charges to quantum-chemically computed electrostatic potentials. The force field was tested against experimental X-ray crystal structures of dipeptide derivatives of ferrocene-1,1{prime}-dicarboxylic acid. The calculations reproduce accurately the molecular geometries, including the characteristic C2-symmetrical intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern, that were stable over 0.1{micro}s MD simulations. The crystal packing properties of ferrocene-1-(D)alanine-(D)proline{prime}-1-(D)alanine-(D)proline were also accurately reproduced. The lattice parameters of this crystal were conserved during a 0.1 s MD simulation and match the experimental values almost exactly. Simulations of the peptides in dichloromethane are also in good agreement with experimental NMR and circular dichroism (CD) data in solution. The developed force field was used to perform MD simulations on novel, as yet unsynthesized peptide fragments that surround the active site of [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase. The results of this simulation lead us to propose an improved design for synthetic peptide-based hydrogenase models. The presented MD simulation results of metallocenes thereby provide a convincing validation of our proposal to use ferrocene-peptides as minimal enzyme mimics.

  1. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelus, C.; Carrier, P.; Saignes, P.; Libert, M.F.; Berlier, Y.; Lespinat, P.A.; Fauque, G.; Legall, J.

    1987-07-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena. (Refs. 16).

  2. Role of nickel in membrane-bound hydrogenase and nickel metabolism in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Stults, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Rhizobium japonicum requires nickel for activity. Radioactive /sup 63/Ni co-migrates with hydrogenase activity in native gel systems and co-elutes with purified hydrogenase form an affinity matrix column. A simplified scheme for the purification of hydrogenase has been developed and constitutes the first report of the aerobic purification of this enzyme from R. japonicum. The aerobic purification utilizes the general affinity matrix. Reactive Red 120-agarose and results in higher specific activity and yield of enzyme than previously reported. The stability of aerobically purified hydrogenase to oxygen is substantially greater than that reported for anaerobically isolated enzyme. Reduction of the aerobically purified enzyme in the presence of oxygen, however, results in the rapid loss of activity. R. japonicum cells accumulate nickel during heterotrophic growth and as non-growing cells. The hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 accumulates substantially greater amounts of nickel under both conditions. Kinetic studies indicate that the nickel uptake system in the hydrogenase constitutive mutant SR470 is upregulated relative to SRwt cells. The uptake system is specific for nickel, although a 10-fold excess (relative to nickel) of copper or zinc inhibits nickel uptake. The nickel uptake system appears to require energy. Under nickel-free conditions hydrogenase protein is not synthesized as determined by cross-reactivity with antibodies directed against hydrogenase, indicating that nickel regulates the formation of the enzyme as well as being a constituent of the active protein.

  3. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria L; Seibert, Michael

    2009-03-10

    The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  4. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Seibert, Michael

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides oxygen-resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H.sub.2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  5. Multiscale simulations give insight into the hydrogen in and out pathways of [NiFe]-hydrogenases from Aquifex aeolicus and Desulfovibrio fructosovorans.

    PubMed

    Oteri, Francesco; Baaden, Marc; Lojou, Elisabeth; Sacquin-Mora, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the cleavage of molecular hydrogen into protons and electrons and represent promising tools for H2-based technologies such as biofuel cells. However, many aspects of these enzymes remain to be understood, in particular how the catalytic center can be protected from irreversible inactivation by O2. In this work, we combined homology modeling, all-atom molecular dynamics, and coarse-grain Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate and compare the dynamic and mechanical properties of two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: the soluble O2-sensitive enzyme from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans, and the O2-tolerant membrane-bound hydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus. We investigated the diffusion pathways of H2 from the enzyme surface to the central [NiFe] active site, and the possible proton pathways that are used to evacuate hydrogen after the oxidation reaction. Our results highlight common features of the two enzymes, such as a Val/Leu/Arg triad of key residues that controls ligand migration and substrate access in the vicinity of the active site, or the key role played by a Glu residue for proton transfer after hydrogen oxidation. We show specificities of each hydrogenase regarding the enzymes internal tunnel network or the proton transport pathways. PMID:25399809

  6. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M; Walter, Mary E; Adams, Michael W W

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity's growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed. PMID:26543406

  7. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M.; Walter, Mary E.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity's growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus, a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed. PMID:26543406

  8. Mechanism of hydrogen activation by [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rhiannon M; Brooke, Emily J; Wehlin, Sara A M; Nomerotskaia, Elena; Sargent, Frank; Carr, Stephen B; Phillips, Simon E V; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2016-01-01

    The active site of [NiFe] hydrogenases contains a strictly conserved arginine that suspends a guanidine nitrogen atom <4.5 Å above the nickel and iron atoms. The guanidine headgroup interacts with the side chains of two conserved aspartic acid residues to complete an outer-shell canopy that has thus far proved intractable to investigation by site-directed mutagenesis. Using hydrogenase-1 from Escherichia coli, the strictly conserved residues R509 and D574 have been replaced by lysine (R509K) and asparagine (D574N) and the highly conserved D118 has been replaced by alanine (D118A) or asparagine (D118N/D574N). Each enzyme variant is stable, and their [(RS)2Niμ(SR)2Fe(CO)(CN)2] inner coordination shells are virtually unchanged. The R509K variant had >100-fold lower activity than native enzyme. Conversely, the variants D574N, D118A and D118N/D574N, in which the position of the guanidine headgroup is retained, showed 83%, 26% and 20% activity, respectively. The special kinetic requirement for R509 implicates the suspended guanidine group as the general base in H2 activation by [NiFe] hydrogenases. PMID:26619250

  9. Wiring of Photosystem II to Hydrogenase for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Mersch, Dirk; Lee, Chong-Yong; Zhang, Jenny Zhenqi; Brinkert, Katharina; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Rutherford, A William; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-07-01

    In natural photosynthesis, light is used for the production of chemical energy carriers to fuel biological activity. The re-engineering of natural photosynthetic pathways can provide inspiration for sustainable fuel production and insights for understanding the process itself. Here, we employ a semiartificial approach to study photobiological water splitting via a pathway unavailable to nature: the direct coupling of the water oxidation enzyme, photosystem II, to the H2 evolving enzyme, hydrogenase. Essential to this approach is the integration of the isolated enzymes into the artificial circuit of a photoelectrochemical cell. We therefore developed a tailor-made hierarchically structured indium-tin oxide electrode that gives rise to the excellent integration of both photosystem II and hydrogenase for performing the anodic and cathodic half-reactions, respectively. When connected together with the aid of an applied bias, the semiartificial cell demonstrated quantitative electron flow from photosystem II to the hydrogenase with the production of H2 and O2 being in the expected two-to-one ratio and a light-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.4% under low-intensity red-light irradiation. We thereby demonstrate efficient light-driven water splitting using a pathway inaccessible to biology and report on a widely applicable in vitro platform for the controlled coupling of enzymatic redox processes to meaningfully study photocatalytic reactions. PMID:26046591

  10. Experimental approaches to kinetics of gas diffusion in hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Fanny; Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Cournac, Laurent; Volbeda, Anne; Champ, Stéphanie; Martin, Lydie; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan; Rousset, Marc; Léger, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogenases, which catalyze H2 to H+ conversion as part of the bioenergetic metabolism of many microorganisms, are among the metalloenzymes for which a gas-substrate tunnel has been described by using crystallography and molecular dynamics. However, the correlation between protein structure and gas-diffusion kinetics is unexplored. Here, we introduce two quantitative methods for probing the rates of diffusion within hydrogenases. One uses protein film voltammetry to resolve the kinetics of binding and release of the competitive inhibitor CO; the other is based on interpreting the yield in the isotope exchange assay. We study structurally characterized mutants of a NiFe hydrogenase, and we show that two mutations, which significantly narrow the tunnel near the entrance of the catalytic center, decrease the rates of diffusion of CO and H2 toward and from the active site by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This proves the existence of a functional channel, which matches the hydrophobic cavity found in the crystal. However, the changes in diffusion rates do not fully correlate with the obstruction induced by the mutation and deduced from the x-ray structures. Our results demonstrate the necessity of measuring diffusion rates and emphasize the role of side-chain dynamics in determining these. PMID:18685111

  11. Experimental approaches to kinetics of gas diffusion in hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Fanny; Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Cournac, Laurent; Volbeda, Anne; Champ, Stéphanie; Martin, Lydie; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan; Rousset, Marc; Léger, Christophe

    2008-08-12

    Hydrogenases, which catalyze H(2) to H(+) conversion as part of the bioenergetic metabolism of many microorganisms, are among the metalloenzymes for which a gas-substrate tunnel has been described by using crystallography and molecular dynamics. However, the correlation between protein structure and gas-diffusion kinetics is unexplored. Here, we introduce two quantitative methods for probing the rates of diffusion within hydrogenases. One uses protein film voltammetry to resolve the kinetics of binding and release of the competitive inhibitor CO; the other is based on interpreting the yield in the isotope exchange assay. We study structurally characterized mutants of a NiFe hydrogenase, and we show that two mutations, which significantly narrow the tunnel near the entrance of the catalytic center, decrease the rates of diffusion of CO and H(2) toward and from the active site by up to 2 orders of magnitude. This proves the existence of a functional channel, which matches the hydrophobic cavity found in the crystal. However, the changes in diffusion rates do not fully correlate with the obstruction induced by the mutation and deduced from the x-ray structures. Our results demonstrate the necessity of measuring diffusion rates and emphasize the role of side-chain dynamics in determining these. PMID:18685111

  12. EPR Spectroscopic Studies of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Suess, Daniel L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Proton reduction and H2 oxidation are key elementary reactions for solar fuel production. Hydrogenases interconvert H+ and H2 with remarkable efficiency and have therefore received much attention in this context. For [FeFe]-hydrogenases, catalysis occurs at a unique cofactor called the H-cluster. In this article, we discuss ways in which EPR spectroscopy has elucidated aspects of the bioassembly of the H-cluster, with a focus on four case studies: EPR spectroscopic identification of a radical en route to the CO and CN− ligands of the H-cluster, tracing 57Fe from the maturase HydG into the H-cluster, characterization of the auxiliary Fe–S cluster in HydG, and isotopic labeling of the CN− ligands of HydA for electronic structure studies of its Hox state. Advances in cell-free maturation protocols have enabled several of these mechanistic studies, and understanding H-cluster maturation may in turn provide insights leading to improvements in hydrogenase production for biotechnological applications. PMID:26508821

  13. Distribution Analysis of Hydrogenases in Surface Waters of Marine and Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Barz, Martin; Beimgraben, Christian; Staller, Torsten; Germer, Frauke; Opitz, Friederike; Marquardt, Claudia; Schwarz, Christoph; Gutekunst, Kirstin; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich; Schmitz, Ruth; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Rüdiger; Appel, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background Surface waters of aquatic environments have been shown to both evolve and consume hydrogen and the ocean is estimated to be the principal natural source. In some marine habitats, H2 evolution and uptake are clearly due to biological activity, while contributions of abiotic sources must be considered in others. Until now the only known biological process involved in H2 metabolism in marine environments is nitrogen fixation. Principal Findings We analyzed marine and freshwater environments for the presence and distribution of genes of all known hydrogenases, the enzymes involved in biological hydrogen turnover. The total genomes and the available marine metagenome datasets were searched for hydrogenase sequences. Furthermore, we isolated DNA from samples from the North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Baltic Sea, and two fresh water lakes and amplified and sequenced part of the gene encoding the bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase. In 21% of all marine heterotrophic bacterial genomes from surface waters, one or several hydrogenase genes were found, with the membrane-bound H2 uptake hydrogenase being the most widespread. A clear bias of hydrogenases to environments with terrestrial influence was found. This is exemplified by the cyanobacterial bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase that was found in freshwater and coastal areas but not in the open ocean. Significance This study shows that hydrogenases are surprisingly abundant in marine environments. Due to its ecological distribution the primary function of the bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase seems to be fermentative hydrogen evolution. Moreover, our data suggests that marine surface waters could be an interesting source of oxygen-resistant uptake hydrogenases. The respective genes occur in coastal as well as open ocean habitats and we presume that they are used as additional energy scavenging devices in otherwise nutrient limited environments. The membrane-bound H2-evolving

  14. H, not O or pressure, causes eutectic T depression in the Fe-FeS System to 8 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Antonio S.; Walker, David

    2015-04-01

    The Fe-FeS system maintains a eutectic temperature of 990 ± 10 °C to at least 8 GPa if starting materials and pressure media are rigorously dehydrated. Literature reports of pressure-induced freezing point depression of the eutectic for the Fe-FeS system are not confirmed. Modest addition of oxygen alone is confirmed to cause negligible freezing point depression at 6 GPa. Addition of H alone causes a progressive decrease in the eutectic temperature with P in the Fe-FeS-H system to below 965 °C at 6 GPa to below 950 °C at 8 GPa. It is our hypothesis that moisture contamination in unrigorously dried experiments may be an H source for freezing point depression. O released from H2O disproportionation reacts with Fe and is sequestered as ferropericlase along the sample capsules walls, leaving the H to escape the system and/or enter the Fe-FeS mixture. The observed occurrence of ferropericlase on undried MgO capsule margins is otherwise difficult to explain, because an alternate source for the oxygen in the ferropericlase layer is difficult to identify. This study questions the use of pressure-depressed Fe-S eutectic temperatures and suggests that the lower eutectic temperatures sometimes reported are achieved by moving into the ternary Fe-S-H system. These results adjust slightly the constraints on eutectic temperatures allowed for partly solidified cores on small planets. H substantially diminishes the temperature extent of the melting interval in Fe-S by reducing the melting points of the crystalline phases more than it depresses the eutectic.

  15. Melting relations in the Fe-rich portion of the system FeFeS at 30 kb pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Bell, P.M.

    1969-01-01

    The melting relations of FeFeS mixtures covering the composition range from Fe to Fe67S33 have been determined at 30 kb pressure. The phase relations are similar to those at low pressure. The eutectic has a composition of Fe72.9S27.1 and a temperature of 990??C. Solubility of S in Fe at elevated temperatures at 30 kb is of the same order of magnitude as at low pressure. Sulfur may have significantly lowered the melting point of iron in the upper mantle during the period of coalescence of metal prior to core formation in the primitive earth. ?? 1969.

  16. Purification and properties of a protein linked to the soluble hydrogenase of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kärst, U; Suetin, S; Friedrich, C G

    1987-01-01

    In Alcaligenes eutrophus, the formation of the hydrogenases and of five new peptides is subject to the hydrogenase control system. Of these, the B peptide was purified to homogeneity. This protein (Mr, 37,500) was composed of two identical subunits (Mr, 18,800). Antibodies against the B protein were used for its quantification by rocket immunoelectrophoresis. About 4% of the total protein consisted of the B protein; its molar ratio to the NAD-linked hydrogenase was about 4:1. The B protein appeared to be associated with the NAD-linked hydrogenase, as shown by gel filtration analysis with Sephadex G-200. The B protein was not detected in cells that had not expressed the hydrogenase proteins or that lacked the genetic information of the hydrogen-oxidizing character; it was also not detected in Tn5 insertional mutants that were unable to form soluble hydrogenase antigens. Immunochemical analysis of other species and genera than A. eutrophus revealed that only strains able to form a NAD-linked hydrogenase also formed B-protein antigens. The B protein is not required for the catalytic activity of soluble hydrogenase in vitro; its function is at present unknown. Images PMID:3553156

  17. Production of biohydrogen by recombinant expression of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hydrogenases catalyze reversible reaction between hydrogen (H2) and proton. Inactivation of hydrogenase by exposure to oxygen is a critical limitation in biohydrogen production since strict anaerobic conditions are required. While [FeFe]-hydrogenases are irreversibly inactivated by oxygen, it was known that [NiFe]-hydrogenases are generally more tolerant to oxygen. The physiological function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 is still ambiguous. We herein investigated the H2 production potential of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 of Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro. The hyaA and hyaB genes corresponding to the small and large subunits of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 core enzyme, respectively, were expressed in BL21, an E. coli strain without H2 producing ability. Results Recombinant BL21 expressing [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 actively produced H2 (12.5 mL H2/(h·L) in 400 mL glucose minimal medium under micro-aerobic condition, whereas the wild type BL21 did not produce H2 even when formate was added as substrate for formate hydrogenlyase (FHL) pathway. The majority of recombinant protein was produced as an insoluble form, with translocation of a small fraction to the membrane. However, the membrane fraction displayed high activity (~65% of total cell fraction), based on unit protein mass. Supplement of nickel and iron to media showed these metals contribute essentially to the function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 as components of catalytic site. In addition, purified E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 using his6-tag displayed oxygen-tolerant activity of ~12 nmol H2/(min·mg protein) under a normal aeration environment, compared to [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which remains inactive under this condition. Conclusions This is the first report on physiological function of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 for H2 production. We found that [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 has H2 production ability even under the existence of oxygen. This oxygen-tolerant property is a significant advantage because it is not necessary to protect

  18. Hydrogenase-based nanomaterials as anode electrode catalyst in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Muneyuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Kasai, Hideaki

    2005-03-01

    We consider hydrogenase-based nanomaterials for possible use as anode electrode catalysts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). We choose Fe-only hydrogenase component of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (DdHase) as a hydrogenase complex, and investigate its catalytic activity for H 2 dissociation using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). We found two possible H-H bond cleavage pathways, which are heterolytic and possess low activation barriers. Moreover, the H 2 dissociation can be promoted by inducing spin polarization of the H 2 adduct. We report that hydrogenase or hydrogenase-based nanomaterials can manipulate to exhibit the catalytic activity equivalent to the well-known platinum catalyst.

  19. Understanding the High Activity of Fe-N-C Electrocatalysts in Oxygen Reduction: Fe/Fe3C Nanoparticles Boost the Activity of Fe-N(x).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Jie; Gu, Lin; Li, Li; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lin-Juan; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Jin-Song; Wei, Zidong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the origin of high activity of Fe-N-C electrocatalysts in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is critical but still challenging for developing efficient sustainable nonprecious metal catalysts in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we developed a new highly active Fe-N-C ORR catalyst containing Fe-N(x) coordination sites and Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals (Fe@C-FeNC), and revealed the origin of its activity by intensively investigating the composition and the structure of the catalyst and their correlations with the electrochemical performance. The detailed analyses unambiguously confirmed the coexistence of Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals and Fe-N(x) in the best catalyst. A series of designed experiments disclosed that (1) N-doped carbon substrate, Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals or Fe-N(x) themselves did not deliver the high activity; (2) the catalysts with both Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals and Fe-N(x) exhibited the high activity; (3) the higher content of Fe-N(x) gave the higher activity; (4) the removal of Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals severely degraded the activity; (5) the blocking of Fe-N(x) downgraded the activity and the recovery of the blocked Fe-N(x) recovered the activity. These facts supported that the high ORR activity of the Fe@C-FeNC electrocatalysts should be ascribed to that Fe/Fe3C nanocrystals boost the activity of Fe-N(x). The coexistence of high content of Fe-N(x) and sufficient metallic iron nanoparticles is essential for the high ORR activity. DFT calculation corroborated this conclusion by indicating that the interaction between metallic iron and Fe-N4 coordination structure favored the adsorption of oxygen molecule. These new findings open an avenue for the rational design and bottom-up synthesis of low-cost highly active ORR electrocatalysts. PMID:26906342

  20. Insight into core-shell dependent anoxic Cr(VI) removal with Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires: indispensable role of surface bound Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi; Song, Fahui

    2015-01-28

    In this study, we investigated the anoxic Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires. It was found the surface area normalized Cr(VI) removal rate constants of Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires first increased with increasing the iron oxide shell thickness and then decreased, suggesting that Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires possessed an interesting core-shell structure dependent Cr(VI) removal property. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency was positively correlated to the amount of surface bound Fe(II). This result revealed that the core-shell structure dependent Cr(VI) removal property of Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires was mainly attributed to the reduction of Cr(VI) by the surface bound Fe(II) besides the reduction of Cr(VI) adsorbed on the iron oxide shell via the electrons transferred from the iron core. The indispensable role of surface bound Fe(II) was confirmed by Tafel polarization and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic depth profiles analyses. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images of the fresh and used Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires revealed the formation of Fe(III)/Cr(III)/Cr(VI) composite oxides during the anoxic Cr(VI) removal process. This study sheds a deep insight into the anoxic Cr(VI) removal mechanism of core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires and also provides an efficient Cr(VI) removal method. PMID:25543716

  1. MR/SPECT Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy of Tumor-Targeting Fe@Fe3O4 Nanoparticles in Vivo with Low Mononuclear Phagocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Heng; Zhou, Zhiguo; Zhou, Ping; Yan, Yuping; Wang, Mingwei; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Yingjian; Yang, Shiping

    2016-08-10

    The (125)I-c(RGDyK) peptide PEGylated Fe@Fe3O4 nanoparticles ((125)I-RGD-PEG-MNPs) with the average hydrodynamic diameter of ∼40 nm as a novel multifunctional platform were developed for tumor-targeting MR/SPECT imaging guided photothermal therapy in vivo. On the αvβ3-positive U87MG glioblastoma xenograft model, the signals of tumor from T2-weighted MR and SPECT imaging were much higher than those in the blocking group at 6 h post injection (p.i.) of RGD-PEG-MNPs and (125)I-RGD-PEG-MNPs intravenously, respectively. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution were analyzed quantitatively by gamma counter ex vivo. The fact suggested that RGD-PEG-MNPs exhibited excellent targeting property and low mononuclear phagocyte uptake. At 6 h p.i. for (125)I-RGD-PEG-MNPs, the maximum uptake of 6.75 ± 1.24% of the percentage injected dose per gram (ID/g) was accumulated in the tumor. At 48 h p.i., only 1.11 ± 0.21% and 0.16 ± 0.09% ID/g were accumulated in the liver and spleen, respectively. With the guidance of MR/SPECT imaging, the multifunctional nanoparticles achieved a good photothermal therapeutic efficacy in vivo. PMID:27428929

  2. Hydrogenase synthesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum Hupc mutants is altered in sensitivity to DNA gyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Novak, P D; Maier, R J

    1989-01-01

    In the Hupc mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum SR, regulation of expression of hydrogenase is altered; the mutants synthesize hydrogenase constitutively in the presence of atmospheric levels of oxygen. The DNA gyrase inhibitors nalidixic acid, novobiocin, and coumermycin were used to inhibit growth of wild-type and mutant cells. For each inhibitor tested, growth of mutant and wild-type strains was equally sensitive. However, in contrast to the wild type, the Hupc mutants synthesized hydrogenase in the presence of high levels of any inhibitor. Cells were incubated with the drugs and simultaneously labeled with 14C-labeled amino acids, and hydrogenase was immunoprecipitated with antibody to the large subunit of the enzyme. Fluorograms of antibody blots then were scanned to determine the relative amount of hydrogenase (large subunit) synthesized in the presence or absence of the gyrase inhibitors. The amount of hydrogenase synthesized by the Hupc mutants in the presence of 300 micrograms of nalidixic acid per ml was near the level of enzyme synthesized in the absence of the inhibitor. No hydrogenase was detected in antibody blots of wild-type cultures which were derepressed for hydrogenase in the presence of 100 micrograms of coumermycin or novobiocin per ml. In contrast, hydrogenase was synthesized by the Hupc mutants in the presence of 100 micrograms of either drug per ml. The amount synthesized ranged from 5 to 32% and 20 to 49%, respectively, of that in the absence of those inhibitors, but nevertheless, hydrogenase synthesis was detected in all of the mutants examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2547335

  3. Detection and localization of two hydrogenases in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and their potential role in methane metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hanczár, Tímea; Csáki, Robert; Bodrossy, Levente; Murrell, J Colin; Kovács, Kornél L

    2002-02-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was shown to contain two distinct hydrogenases, a soluble hydrogenase and a membrane-bound hydrogenase. This is the first report of a membrane-bound hydrogenase in methanotrophs. Both enzymes were expressed apparently constitutively under normal growth conditions. The soluble hydrogenase was capable of reducing NAD(+) with molecular hydrogen. The activities of both soluble and particulate methane monooxygenases could be driven by molecular hydrogen. This confirmed that molecular hydrogen could be used as a source of reducing power for methane oxidation. Hydrogen-driven methane monooxygenase activities tolerated elevated temperatures and moderate oxygen concentrations. The significance of these findings for biotechnological applications of methanotrophs is discussed. PMID:11807566

  4. The Role of Frozen Spins in the Exchange Anisotropy of Core–Shell Fe@Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Quy Khac; Lin, Xiao-Min; Wei, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Core–shell Fe@Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit substantial exchange bias at low temperatures, mediated by unidirectionally aligned moments at the core–shell interface. These spins are frozen into magnetic alignment with field cooling, and are depinned in a temperature-dependent manner. The population of such frozen spins has a direct impact on both coercivity (HC) and the exchange-bias field (HE), which are modulated by external physical parameters such as the strength of the applied cooling field and the cycling history of magnetic field sweeps (training effect). Aging of the core–shell nanoparticles under ambient conditions results in a gradual decrease in magnetization but overall retention of HC and HE, as well as a large increase in the population of frozen spins. These changes are accompanied by a structural evolution from well-defined core–shell structures to particles containing multiple voids, attributable to the Kirkendall effect. Energy-filtered and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy both indicate further oxidation of the shell layer, but the Fe core is remarkably well preserved. The increase in frozen spin population with age is responsible for the overall retention of exchange bias, despite void formation and other oxidation-dependent changes. The exchange-bias field becomes negligible upon deliberate oxidation of Fe@Fe3O4 nanoparticles into yolk–shell particles, with a nearly complete physical separation of core and shell. PMID:21321674

  5. Structural and functional investigations of biological catalysts for optimization of solar-driven H II production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Paul W.; Svedruzic, Drazenka; Cohen, Jordi; Schulten, Klaus; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2006-08-01

    Research efforts to develop efficient systems for H II production encompass a variety of biological and chemical approaches. For solar-driven H II production we are investigating an approach that integrates biological catalysts, the [FeFe] hydrogenases, with a photoelectrochemical cell as a novel bio-hybrid system. Structurally the [FeFe] hydrogenases consist of an iron-sulfur catalytic site that in some instances is electronically wired to accessory iron-sulfur clusters proposed to function in electron transfer. The inherent structural complexity of most examples of these enzymes is compensated by characteristics desired for bio-hybrid systems (i.e., low activation energy, high catalytic activity and solubility) with the benefit of utilizing abundant, less costly non-precious metals. Redesign and modification of [FeFe] hydrogenases is being undertaken to reduce complexity and to optimize structural properties for various integration strategies. The least complex examples of [FeFe] hydrogenase are found in the species of photosynthetic green algae and are being studied as design models for investigating the effects of structural minimization on substrate transfer, catalytic activity and oxygen sensitivity. Redesigning hydrogenases for effective use in bio-hybrid systems requires a detailed understanding of the relationship between structure and catalysis. To achieve better mechanistic understanding of [FeFe] hydrogenases both structural and dynamic models are being used to identify potential substrate transfer mechanisms which are tested in an experimental system. Here we report on recent progress of our investigations in the areas of [FeFe] hydrogenase overexpression, minimization and biochemical characterization.

  6. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni-Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions. PMID:26818780

  7. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni-Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions.

  8. Molecular evolution of gas cavity in [NiFeSe] hydrogenases resurrected in silico

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Takashi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Nemoto, Michiko; Inagaki, Kenji; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Sato, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tolerance of selenium-containing [NiFeSe] hydrogenases (Hases) is attributable to the high reducing power of the selenocysteine residue, which sustains the bimetallic Ni–Fe catalytic center in the large subunit. Genes encoding [NiFeSe] Hases are inherited by few sulphate-reducing δ-proteobacteria globally distributed under various anoxic conditions. Ancestral sequences of [NiFeSe] Hases were elucidated and their three-dimensional structures were recreated in silico using homology modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, which suggested that deep gas channels gradually developed in [NiFeSe] Hases under absolute anaerobic conditions, whereas the enzyme remained as a sealed edifice under environmental conditions of a higher oxygen exposure risk. The development of a gas cavity appears to be driven by non-synonymous mutations, which cause subtle conformational changes locally and distantly, even including highly conserved sequence regions. PMID:26818780

  9. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  10. Structure prediction and molecular simulation of gases diffusion pathways in hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Vipul

    2010-01-01

    Although hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising future energy sources and the technical aspects involved in using it have advanced considerably, the future supply of hydrogen from renewable sources is still unsolved. The [Fe]- hydrogenase enzymes are highly efficient H(2) catalysts found in ecologically and phylogenetically diverse microorganisms, including the photosynthetic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. While these enzymes can occur in several forms, H(2) catalysis takes place at a unique [FeS] prosthetic group or H-cluster, located at the active site. 3D structure of the protein hydA1 hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtti was predicted using the MODELER 8v2 software. Conserved region was depicted from the NCBI CDD Search. Template selection was done on the basis NCBI BLAST results. For single template 1FEH was used and for multiple templates 1FEH and 1HFE were used. The result of the Homology modeling was verified by uploading the file to SAVS server. On the basis of the SAVS result 3D structure predicted using single template was chosen for performing molecular simulation. For performing molecular simulation three strategies were used. First the molecular simulation of the protein was performed in solvated box containing bulk water. Then 100 H(2) molecules were randomly inserted in the solvated box and two simulations of 50 and 100 ps were performed. Similarly 100 O(2) molecules were randomly placed in the solvated box and again 50 and 100 ps simulation were performed. Energy minimization was performed before each simulation was performed. Conformations were saved after each simulation. Analysis of the gas diffusion was done on the basis of RMSD, Radius of Gyration and no. of gas molecule/ps plot. PMID:21364783

  11. Ferrous Carbonyl Dithiolates as Precursors to FeFe, FeCo, and FeMn Carbonyl Dithiolates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reported are complexes of the formula Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and their use to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic dithiolato derivatives. The starting iron dithiolates were prepared by a one-pot reaction of FeCl2 and CO with chelating diphosphines and dithiolates, where dithiolate = S2(CH2)22– (edt2–), S2(CH2)32– (pdt2–), S2(CH2)2(C(CH3)2)2– (Me2pdt2–) and diphos = cis-C2H2(PPh2)2 (dppv), C2H4(PPh2)2 (dppe), C6H4(PPh2)2 (dppbz), C2H4[P(C6H11)2]2 (dcpe). The incorporation of 57Fe into such building block complexes commenced with the conversion of 57Fe into 57Fe2I4(iPrOH)4, which then was treated with K2pdt, CO, and dppe to give 57Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe). NMR and IR analyses show that these complexes exist as mixtures of all-cis and trans-CO isomers, edt2– favoring the former and pdt2– the latter. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with the Fe(0) reagent (benzylideneacetone)Fe(CO)3 gave Fe2(dithiolate)(CO)4(diphos), thereby defining a route from simple ferrous salts to models for hydrogenase active sites. Extending the building block route to heterobimetallic complexes, treatment of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) with [(acenaphthene)Mn(CO)3]+ gave [(CO)3Mn(pdt)Fe(CO)2(dppe)]+ ([3d(CO)]+). Reduction of [3d(CO)]+ with BH4– gave the Cs-symmetric μ-hydride (CO)3Mn(pdt)(H)Fe(CO)(dppe) (H3d). Complex H3d is reversibly protonated by strong acids, the proposed site of protonation being sulfur. Treatment of Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) with CpCoI2(CO) followed by reduction by Cp2Co affords CpCo(dithiolate)Fe(CO)(diphos) (4), which can also be prepared from Fe(dithiolate)(CO)2(diphos) and CpCo(CO)2. Like the electronically related (CO)3Fe(pdt)Fe(CO)(diphos), these complexes undergo protonation to afford the μ-hydrido complexes [CpCo(dithiolate)HFe(CO)(diphos)]+. Low-temperature NMR studies indicate that Co is the kinetic site of protonation. PMID:24803716

  12. A synthetic system links FeFe-hydrogenases to essential E. coli sulfur metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background FeFe-hydrogenases are the most active class of H2-producing enzymes known in nature and may have important applications in clean H2 energy production. Many potential uses are currently complicated by a crucial weakness: the active sites of all known FeFe-hydrogenases are irreversibly inactivated by O2. Results We have developed a synthetic metabolic pathway in E. coli that links FeFe-hydrogenase activity to the production of the essential amino acid cysteine. Our design includes a complementary host strain whose endogenous redox pool is insulated from the synthetic metabolic pathway. Host viability on a selective medium requires hydrogenase expression, and moderate O2 levels eliminate growth. This pathway forms the basis for a genetic selection for O2 tolerance. Genetically selected hydrogenases did not show improved stability in O2 and in many cases had lost H2 production activity. The isolated mutations cluster significantly on charged surface residues, suggesting the evolution of binding surfaces that may accelerate hydrogenase electron transfer. Conclusions Rational design can optimize a fully heterologous three-component pathway to provide an essential metabolic flux while remaining insulated from the endogenous redox pool. We have developed a number of convenient in vivo assays to aid in the engineering of synthetic H2 metabolism. Our results also indicate a H2-independent redox activity in three different FeFe-hydrogenases, with implications for the future directed evolution of H2-activating catalysts. PMID:21615937

  13. Purification and characterization of membrane-associated hydrogenase from the deep-sea epsilonproteobacterium Hydrogenimonas thermophila.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kitano, Yuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Nomura, Keigo; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-associated hydrogenase was purified from the chemolithoautotrophic epsilonproteobacterium Hydrogenimonas thermophila at 152-fold purity. The hydrogenase was found to be localized in the periplasmic space, and was easily solubilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 treatment. Hydrogen oxidation activity was 1,365 micromol H(2)/min/mg of protein at 80 degrees C at pH 9.0, with phenazine methosulphate as the electron acceptor. Hydrogen production activity was 900 micromol H(2)/min/mg of protein at 80 degrees C and pH 6.0, with reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor. The hydrogenase from this organism showed higher oxygen tolerance than those from other microorganisms showing hydrogen oxidation activity. The structural genes of this hydrogenase, which contains N-terminal amino acid sequences from both small and large subunits of purified hydrogenase, were successfully elucidated. The hydrogenase from H. thermophila was found to be phylogenetically related with H(2) uptake hydrogenases from pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria. PMID:20699572

  14. Production and Application of a Soluble Hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Chang-Hao; McTernan, Patrick M.; Walter, Mary E.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a potential renewable alternative energy carrier that could be used in the future to help supplement humanity’s growing energy needs. Unfortunately, current industrial methods for hydrogen production are expensive or environmentally unfriendly. In recent years research has focused on biological mechanisms for hydrogen production and specifically on hydrogenases, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reduction of protons to generate hydrogen. In particular, a better understanding of this enzyme might allow us to generate hydrogen that does not use expensive metals, such as platinum, as catalysts. The soluble hydrogenase I (SHI) from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus ,more » a member of the euryarchaeota, has been studied extensively and used in various biotechnological applications. This review summarizes the strategies used in engineering and characterizing three different forms of SHI and the properties of the recombinant enzymes. SHI has also been used in in vitro systems for hydrogen production and NADPH generation and these systems are also discussed.« less

  15. Molecular characterization of structural genes coding for a membrane bound hydrogenase in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Csáki, R; Hanczár, T; Bodrossy, L; Murrell, J C; Kovács, K L

    2001-12-18

    The first gene cluster encoding for a membrane bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from a methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), was cloned and sequenced. The cluster consisted of the structural genes hupS and hupL and accessory genes hupE, hupC and hupD. A DeltahupSL deletion mutant of Mc. capsulatus was constructed by marker exchange mutagenesis. Membrane associated hydrogenase activity disappeared. The membrane associated hydrogenase appeared to have a hydrogen uptake function in vivo. PMID:11750803

  16. Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine Chemistry in the Synthesis of Hydrogenase and Nitrogenase Metal Cofactors*

    PubMed Central

    Byer, Amanda S.; Shepard, Eric M.; Peters, John W.; Broderick, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogenase, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, and [Fe]-hydrogenase enzymes perform catalysis at metal cofactors with biologically unusual non-protein ligands. The FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase has a MoFe7S9 cluster with a central carbon, whereas the H-cluster of [FeFe]-hydrogenase contains a 2Fe subcluster coordinated by cyanide and CO ligands as well as dithiomethylamine; the [Fe]-hydrogenase cofactor has CO and guanylylpyridinol ligands at a mononuclear iron site. Intriguingly, radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine enzymes are vital for the assembly of all three of these diverse cofactors. This minireview presents and discusses the current state of knowledge of the radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes required for synthesis of these remarkable metal cofactors. PMID:25477518

  17. Function of Periplasmic Hydrogenases in the Sulfate-ReducingBacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Caffrey, Sean M.; Park, Hyung-Soo; Voordouw, Johanna K.; He,Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-09-24

    The sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough possesses four periplasmic hydrogenases to facilitate theoxidation of molecular hydrogen. These include an [Fe]hydrogenase, an[NiFeSe]hydrogenase, and two [NiFe]hydrogenases encoded by the hyd,hys, hyn1, and hyn2 genes, respectively. In order to understand theircellular functions, we have compared the growth rates of existing (hydand hyn1) and newly constructed (hys and hyn-1 hyd) mutants to those ofthe wild type in defined media in which lactate or hydrogen at either 5or 50 percent (vol/vol) was used as the sole electron donor for sulfatereduction. Only strains missing the [Fe]hydrogenase were significantlyaffected during growth with lactate or with 50 percent (vol/vol) hydrogenas the sole electron donor. When the cells were grown at low (5 percent[vol/vol]) hydrogen concentrations, those missing the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase suffered the greatest impairment. The growth rate datacorrelated strongly with gene expression results obtained from microarrayhybridizations and real-time PCR using mRNA extracted from cells grownunder the three conditions. Expression of the hys genes followed theorder 5 percent hydrogen>50 percent hydrogen>lactate, whereasexpression of the hyd genes followed the reverse order. These resultssuggest that growth with lactate and 50 percent hydrogen is associatedwith high intracellular hydrogen concentrations, which are best capturedby the higher activity, lower affinity [Fe]hydrogenase. In contrast,growth with 5 percent hydrogen is associated with a low intracellularhydrogen concentration, requiring the lower activity, higher affinity[NiFeSe]hydrogenase.

  18. Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii. Final technical report, August 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, D.J.

    1997-10-01

    This project is focused on investigations of the catalytic mechanism of the hydrogenase found in the aerobic, N{sub 2}-fixing microorganism Azotobacter vinelandii. This report summarizes the progress during the first two years of the current project and include the anticipated course of the research for the remaining year of the current project. Because the current proposal represents a change in direction, the authors also include a brief progress report of prior DOE-sponsored research dealing with hydrogenases.

  19. Photosynthetic electron partitioning between [FeFe]-hydrogenase and ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yacoby, Iftach; Pochekailov, Sergii; Toporik, Hila; Ghirardi, Maria L.; King, Paul W.; Zhang, Shuguang

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic water splitting, coupled to hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production, is considered a promising clean, renewable source of energy. It is widely accepted that the oxygen sensitivity of hydrogen production, combined with competition between hydrogenases and NADPH-dependent carbon dioxide fixation are the main limitations for its commercialization. Here we provide evidence that, under the anaerobic conditions that support hydrogen production, there is a significant loss of photosynthetic electrons toward NADPH production in vitro. To elucidate the basis for competition, we bioengineered a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion and characterized hydrogen production kinetics in the presence of Fd, ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR), and NADP+. Replacing the hydrogenase with a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion switched the bias of electron transfer from FNR to hydrogenase and resulted in an increased rate of hydrogen photoproduction. These results suggest a new direction for improvement of biohydrogen production and a means to further resolve the mechanisms that control partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:21606330

  20. Photosynthetic electron partitioning between [FeFe]-hydrogenase and ferredoxin:NADP+-oxidoreductase (FNR) enzymes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Iftach; Pochekailov, Sergii; Toporik, Hila; Ghirardi, Maria L; King, Paul W; Zhang, Shuguang

    2011-06-01

    Photosynthetic water splitting, coupled to hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production, is considered a promising clean, renewable source of energy. It is widely accepted that the oxygen sensitivity of hydrogen production, combined with competition between hydrogenases and NADPH-dependent carbon dioxide fixation are the main limitations for its commercialization. Here we provide evidence that, under the anaerobic conditions that support hydrogen production, there is a significant loss of photosynthetic electrons toward NADPH production in vitro. To elucidate the basis for competition, we bioengineered a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion and characterized hydrogen production kinetics in the presence of Fd, ferredoxin:NADP(+)-oxidoreductase (FNR), and NADP(+). Replacing the hydrogenase with a ferredoxin-hydrogenase fusion switched the bias of electron transfer from FNR to hydrogenase and resulted in an increased rate of hydrogen photoproduction. These results suggest a new direction for improvement of biohydrogen production and a means to further resolve the mechanisms that control partitioning of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:21606330

  1. Effects of alcohols on the reactivity and stability of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Arp, D J

    1988-02-15

    The effects of alcohols on the reactivity of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase were investigated. Hydrogenase catalyzed H2 oxidation coupled to methylene blue, benzyl viologen, or phenazine methosulfate when in the presence of solvents containing 15 or 40% ethanol or 40% methanol or 2-propanol. In general, the Km's for the electron acceptors were increased substantially by the presence of the alcohols, while the Km for H2 was not altered in a solvent containing 40% ethanol. Calculation of the apparent maximum velocities for H2 oxidation in the presence of alcohols indicated that the maximum velocity was not decreased in most cases. In contrast, the rates of both H2 evolution and isotope exchange by hydrogenase were substantially decreased when solvent containing alcohol. Hydrogenase was inactivated by 100% ethanol with a half-life of 17 s. Hydrogenase from A. vinelandii was stable when stored in alcohol/buffer solvents at 20 degrees C or below. However, the thermal stability of hydrogenase was greatly decreased by inclusion of an alcohol in the solvent. When incubated at 55 degrees C in a solvent containing 40% ethanol, activity decreased in a first-order process with a half-life of 7 min. When incubated at the same temperature in aqueous buffer, no loss of activity was observed over 30 min. PMID:3277540

  2. Occurrence and localization of two distinct hydrogenases in the heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7120.

    PubMed Central

    Houchins, J P; Burris, R H

    1981-01-01

    Two distinct types of hydrogenase occur in Anabaena 7120 and are distinguishable in whole filaments by the application of selective assay methods. A reversible hydrogenase occurs both in heterocysts and vegetative cells and can be selectively assayed by measuring H2 evolution from reduced methyl viologen. Activities in aerobically grown filaments were low but could be increased by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude by growing cells microaerobically. The presence of the reversible hydrogenase was independent of the N2-fixing properties of the organism, and activity did not respond to added H2 in the culture. Illumination was necessary during derepression of the reversible hydrogenase, and addition of 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea increased the amount of enzyme that was synthesized. An uptake hydrogenase occurred only in heterocysts of aerobically grown filaments, but a small amount of activity also was present in the vegetative cells of filaments grown microaerobically with 20% H2. It was assayed selectively by measuring an oxyhydrogen reaction at atmospheric levels of O2. Additional uptake hydrogenase could be elicited by including H2 or by removing O2 from the sparging gas of a culture. PMID:6783614

  3. Integration of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase into the anaerobic metabolism of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ciarán L.; Pinske, Constanze; Murphy, Bonnie J.; Parkin, Alison; Armstrong, Fraser; Palmer, Tracy; Sargent, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Biohydrogen is a potentially useful product of microbial energy metabolism. One approach to engineering biohydrogen production in bacteria is the production of non-native hydrogenase activity in a host cell, for example Escherichia coli. In some microbes, hydrogenase enzymes are linked directly to central metabolism via diaphorase enzymes that utilise NAD+/NADH cofactors. In this work, it was hypothesised that heterologous production of an NAD+/NADH-linked hydrogenase could connect hydrogen production in an E. coli host directly to its central metabolism. To test this, a synthetic operon was designed and characterised encoding an apparently NADH-dependent, hydrogen-evolving [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Caldanaerobacter subterranus. The synthetic operon was stably integrated into the E. coli chromosome and shown to produce an active hydrogenase, however no H2 production was observed. Subsequently, it was found that heterologous co-production of a pyruvate::ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin from Thermotoga maritima was found to be essential to drive H2 production by this system. This work provides genetic evidence that the Ca.subterranus [FeFe]-hydrogenase could be operating in vivo as an electron-confurcating enzyme. PMID:26839796

  4. A TiO₂ nanoparticle system for sacrificial solar H₂ production prepared by rational combination of a hydrogenase with a ruthenium photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Erwin; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid system comprising a hydrogenase and a photosensitizer co-attached to a nanoparticle serves as a rational model for fast dihydrogen (H(2)) production using visible light. This chapter describes a stepwise procedure for preparing TiO(2) nanoparticles functionalized with a hydrogenase from Desulfomicrobium baculatum (Db [NiFeSe]-H) and a tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium photosensitizer (RuP). Upon irradiation with visible light, these particles produce H(2) from neutral water at room temperature in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor - a test-system for the cathodic half reaction of water splitting. In particular, we describe how a hydrogenase and a photosensitizer with desired properties, including strong adsorption on TiO(2), can be selected by electrochemical methods. The catalyst Db [NiFeSe]-H is selected for its high H(2) production activity even when H(2) and traces of O(2) are present. Adsorption of Db [NiFeSe]-H and RuP on TiO(2) electrodes results in high electrochemical and photocatalytic activities that translate into nanoparticles exhibiting efficient light harvesting, charge separation, and sacrificial H(2) generation. PMID:21553186

  5. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH) fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein).

    PubMed

    Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Welch, Jeffrey; Braidy, Nady; Marquis, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni-Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH) produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression. PMID:27547572

  6. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH) fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein)

    PubMed Central

    Jugder, Bat-Erdene; Welch, Jeffrey; Braidy, Nady

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2). Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni–Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH) produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression. PMID:27547572

  7. Hydrogenase Activity of Mineral-Associated and Suspended Populations of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Essex 6

    SciTech Connect

    C.L. Reardon; T.S. Magnuson; E.S. Boyd; W.D. Leavitt; D.W. Reed; G.G. Geesey

    2014-02-01

    The interactions between sulfate-reducing microorganisms and iron oxides influence a number of important redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes including the formation of iron sulfides. Enzymes, such as hydrogenase which catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen, are known to mediate electron transfer to metals and may contribute to the formation and speciation of ferrous sulfides formed at the cell–mineral interface. In the present study, we compared the whole cell hydrogenase activity of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain Essex 6 growing as biofilms on hematite (hematite-associated) or as suspended populations using different metabolic pathways. Hematite-associated cells exhibited significantly greater hydrogenase activity than suspended populations during sulfate respiration but not during pyruvate fermentation. The enhanced activity of the hematite-associated, sulfate-grown cells appears to be dependent on iron availability rather than a general response to surface attachment since the activity of glass-associated cells did not differ from that of suspended populations. Hydrogenase activity of pyruvate-fermenting cells was stimulated by addition of iron as soluble Fe(II)Cl2 and, in the absence of added iron, both sulfate-reducing and pyruvate-fermenting cells displayed similar rates of hydrogenase activity. These data suggest that iron exerts a stronger influence on whole cell hydrogenase activity than either metabolic pathway or mode of growth. The location of hydrogenase to the cell envelope and the enhanced activity at the hematite surface in sulfate-reducing cells may influence the redox conditions that control the species of iron sulfides on the mineral surface.

  8. Essential anaplerotic role for the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Thomas J.; Costa, Kyle C.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Korpole, Suresh; Whitman, William B.; Leigh, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of study, electron flow and energy conservation in methanogenic Archaea are still not thoroughly understood. For methanogens without cytochromes, flavin-based electron bifurcation has been proposed as an essential energy-conserving mechanism that couples exergonic and endergonic reactions of methanogenesis. However, an alternative hypothesis posits that the energy-converting hydrogenase Eha provides a chemiosmosis-driven electron input to the endergonic reaction. In vivo evidence for both hypotheses is incomplete. By genetically eliminating all nonessential pathways of H2 metabolism in the model methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis and using formate as an additional electron donor, we isolate electron flow for methanogenesis from flux through Eha. We find that Eha does not function stoichiometrically for methanogenesis, implying that electron bifurcation must operate in vivo. We show that Eha is nevertheless essential, and a substoichiometric requirement for H2 suggests that its role is anaplerotic. Indeed, H2 via Eha stimulates methanogenesis from formate when intermediates are not otherwise replenished. These results fit the model for electron bifurcation, which renders the methanogenic pathway cyclic, and as such requires the replenishment of intermediates. Defining a role for Eha and verifying electron bifurcation provide a complete model of methanogenesis where all necessary electron inputs are accounted for. PMID:22872868

  9. Broad Negative Thermal Expansion Operation-Temperature Window Achieved by Adjusting Fe-Fe Magnetic Exchange Coupling in La(Fe,Si)13 Compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Rongjin; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Wen; Wang, Wei; Huang, Chuanjun; Gong, Pifu; Lin, Zheshuai; Li, Laifeng

    2015-08-17

    Cubic La(Fe,Si)13-based compounds have been recently developed as promising negative thermal expansion(NTE) materials, but the narrow NTE operation-temperature window(∼110 K) restricts their actual applications. In this work, we demonstrate that the NTE operation-temperature window of LaFe(13-x)Si(x) can be significantly broadened by adjusting Fe-Fe magnetic exchange coupling as x ranges from 2.8 to 3.1. In particular, the NTE operation-temperature window of LaFe10.1Si2.9 is extended to 220 K. More attractively, the coefficients of thermal expansion of LaFe10.0Si3.0 and LaFe9.9Si3.1 are homogeneous in the NTE operation-temperature range of about 200 K, which is much valuable for the stability of fabricating devices. The further experimental characterizations combined with first-principles studies reveal that the tetragonal phase is gradually introduced into the cubic phase as the Si content increases, hence modifies the Fe-Fe interatomic distance. The reduction of the overall Fe-Fe magnetic exchange interactions contributes to the broadness of NTE operation-temperature window for LaFe(13-x)Si(x). PMID:26196377

  10. Enhanced dewatering of excess activated sludge through decomposing its extracellular polymeric substances by a Fe@Fe2O3-based composite conditioner.

    PubMed

    He, Dong-Qin; Luo, Hong-Wei; Huang, Bao-Cheng; Qian, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Efficient sludge dewatering methods are highly desired by municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study, Fe@Fe2O3 nanomaterial, combined with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and H2SO4, was used for sludge dewatering. This composite conditioner exhibited an excellent dewatering capability. By using uniform design, the optimized dosages of Fe@Fe2O3, H2SO4 and PDMDAAC were determined to be 40, 136 and 4.8mg/gDS (dry solids), respectively. The moisture content of sludge cake decreased from 78.1% to 64.8%, and the capillary suction time from 56 to 21s. The sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were decomposed, resulting in greater conversion of the bound water into free water and the release of free water. The electron spin resonance results show that the molecular oxygen activation process induced by Fe@Fe2O3 produced hydroxyl radicals, which were mainly responsible for the EPS decomposition. In this way, an efficient composite conditioner for enhancing sludge dewatering was developed. PMID:27395000

  11. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of the phosphate mineral barbosalite FeFe23+()2( - Implications for the molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Lana, Cristiano de Carvalho; Souza, Bárbara Firmino e.

    2013-11-01

    Natural single-crystal specimens of barbosalite from Brazil, with general formula FeFe23+()2( were investigated by Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The mineral occurs as secondary products in granitic pegmatites. The Raman spectrum of barbosalite is characterized by bands at 1020, 1033 and 1044 cm-1 cm-1, assigned to ν1 symmetric stretching mode of the HOPO33- and PO43- units. Raman bands at around 1067, 1083 and 1138 cm-1 are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The set of Raman bands observed at 575, 589 and 606 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands at 439, 461, 475 and 503 cm-1 are attributed to the ν2 PO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. Strong Raman bands observed at 312, 346 cm-1 with shoulder bands at 361, 381 and 398 cm-1 are assigned to FeO stretching vibrations. No bands which are attributable to water vibrations were found. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects of the molecular structure of barbosalite to be assessed.

  12. Hydrogenase Gene Distribution and H2 Consumption Ability within the Thiomicrospira Lineage.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Moritz; Perner, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Thiomicrospira were originally characterized as sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs. Attempts to grow them on hydrogen failed for many years. Only recently we demonstrated hydrogen consumption among two of three tested Thiomicrospira and posited that hydrogen consumption may be more widespread among Thiomicrospira than previously assumed. Here, we investigate and compare the hydrogen consumption ability and the presence of group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes (enzyme catalyzes H2↔2H(+) + 2e(-)) for sixteen different Thiomicrospira species. Seven of these Thiomicrospira species encoded group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes and five of these species could also consume hydrogen. All Thiomicrospira species exhibiting hydrogen consumption were from hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge or Eastern Pacific ridges. The tested Thiomicrospira from Mediterranean and Western Pacific vents could not consume hydrogen. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes were categorized into two clusters: those resembling the hydrogenase from Hydrogenovibrio are in cluster I and are related to those from Alpha- and other Gammaproteobacteria. In cluster II, hydrogenases found exclusively in Thiomicrospira crunogena strains are combined and form a monophyletic group with those from Epsilonproteobacteria suggesting they were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Hydrogen consumption appears to be common among some Thiomicrospira, given that five of the tested sixteen strains carried this trait. The hydrogen consumption ability expands their competitiveness within an environment. PMID:26903978

  13. (Catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase from aerobic N sub 2 -fixing microorganisms)

    SciTech Connect

    Arp, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes which catalyze reactions involving dihydrogen. They serve integral roles in a number of microbial metabolic pathways. Our research is focussed on investigations of the catalytic mechanism of the hydrogenases found in aerobic, N{sub 2}-fixing microorganisms such as Azotobacter vinelandii and the agronomically important Bradyrhizobium japonicum as well as microorganisms with similar hydrogenases. The hydrogenases isolated from these microorganisms are Ni- and Fe-containing heterodimers. Our work has focussed on three areas during the last grant period. In all cases, a central theme has been the role of inhibitors in the characteristics under investigation. In addition, a number of collaborative efforts have yielded interesting results. In metalloenzymes such as hydrogenase, inhibitors often influence the activity of the enzyme through ligand interactions with redox centers, often metals, within the enzyme. Therefore, investigations of the ability of various compounds to inhibit an enzyme's activity, as well as the mechanism of inhibition, can provide insight into the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme as well as the role of various redox centers in catalysis. We have investigated in detail four inhibitors of A. vinelandii and the results are summarized here. The influence of these inhibitors on the spectral properties of the enzyme are summarized. Electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet spectra investigations are discussed. 9 figs.

  14. Hydrogenase Gene Distribution and H2 Consumption Ability within the Thiomicrospira Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Moritz; Perner, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Thiomicrospira were originally characterized as sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs. Attempts to grow them on hydrogen failed for many years. Only recently we demonstrated hydrogen consumption among two of three tested Thiomicrospira and posited that hydrogen consumption may be more widespread among Thiomicrospira than previously assumed. Here, we investigate and compare the hydrogen consumption ability and the presence of group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes (enzyme catalyzes H2↔2H+ + 2e-) for sixteen different Thiomicrospira species. Seven of these Thiomicrospira species encoded group 1 [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes and five of these species could also consume hydrogen. All Thiomicrospira species exhibiting hydrogen consumption were from hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic ridge or Eastern Pacific ridges. The tested Thiomicrospira from Mediterranean and Western Pacific vents could not consume hydrogen. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase genes were categorized into two clusters: those resembling the hydrogenase from Hydrogenovibrio are in cluster I and are related to those from Alpha- and other Gammaproteobacteria. In cluster II, hydrogenases found exclusively in Thiomicrospira crunogena strains are combined and form a monophyletic group with those from Epsilonproteobacteria suggesting they were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Hydrogen consumption appears to be common among some Thiomicrospira, given that five of the tested sixteen strains carried this trait. The hydrogen consumption ability expands their competitiveness within an environment. PMID:26903978

  15. [NiFe]-hydrogenase is essential for cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 aerobic growth in the dark

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Edith; Checchetto, Vanessa; Franchin, Cinzia; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Berto, Paola; Szabò, Ildikò; Giacometti, Giorgio M.; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Costantini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has a bidirectional [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Hox hydrogenase) which reversibly reduces protons to H2. This enzyme is composed of a hydrogenase domain and a diaphorase moiety, which is distinctly homologous to the NADH input module of mitochondrial respiratory Complex I. Hox hydrogenase physiological function is still unclear, since it is not required for Synechocystis fitness under standard growth conditions. We analyzed the phenotype under prolonged darkness of three Synechocystis knock-out strains, lacking either Hox hydrogenase (ΔHoxE-H) or one of the proteins responsible for the assembly of its NiFe active site (ΔHypA1 and ΔHypB1). We found that Hox hydrogenase is required for Synechocystis growth under this condition, regardless of the functional status of its catalytic site, suggesting an additional role beside hydrogen metabolism. Moreover, quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that the expression levels of several subunits of the respiratory NADPH/plastoquinone oxidoreductase (NDH-1) are reduced when Synechocystis is grown in the dark. Our findings suggest that the Hox hydrogenase could contribute to electron transport regulation when both photosynthetic and respiratory pathways are down-regulated, and provide a possible explanation for the close evolutionary relationship between mitochondrial respiratory Complex I and cyanobacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenases. PMID:26215212

  16. A modular system for regeneration of NAD cofactors using graphite particles modified with hydrogenase and diaphorase moieties.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Holly A; Lauterbach, Lars; Ash, Philip A; Lenz, Oliver; Vincent, Kylie A

    2012-02-01

    Pyrolytic graphite particles modified with hydrogenase and an NAD(+)/NADH cycling enzyme provide a modular heterogeneous catalyst system for regeneration of oxidised or reduced nicotinamide cofactors using H(2) and H(+) as electron source or sink. Particles can be tuned for cofactor supply under different conditions by appropriate choice of hydrogenase. PMID:21986817

  17. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: Effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bonam, D.; Lehman, L.; Roberts, G.P.; Ludden, P.W.

    1989-06-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of (/sup 35/S)methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase.

  18. Efficiency of hydrogen photoproduction by chloroplast-bacterial hydrogenase systems.

    PubMed

    Krasnovsky, A A; Van Ni, C; Nikandrov, V V; Brin, G P

    1980-11-01

    A comparative study of H(2) photoproduction by chloroplasts and solubilized chlorophyll was performed in the presence of hydrogenase preparations of Clostridium butyricum. The photoproduction of H(2) by chloroplasts in the absence of exogenous electron donors, and with irreversibly oxidized dithiothreitol and cysteine, is thought to be limited by a cyclic transport of electrons wherein methylviologen short-circuits the electron transport in photosystem I. The efficiency of H(2) photoproduction by chloroplasts with ascorbate and NADPH is limited by a back reaction between light-reduced methylviologen and the oxidized electron donors. The use of a combination of electron donors (dithiothreitol and ascorbate), providing anaerobiosis without damage to chloroplasts, makes it possible to avoid consumption of reduced methylviologen for the reduction of oxidized electron donors and to exclude the short-circuiting of electron transfer. Under these conditions, photoproduction of H(2) was observed to occur with a rate of 350 to 400 micromoles H(2) per milligram chlorophyll per hour. In this case, the full electron-transferring capability of photosystem I (measured by irreversible photoreduction of methyl red or O(2)) is used to produce H(2). PMID:16661554

  19. Advances in the Function and Regulation of Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Veaudor, Théo; Chauvat, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In order to use cyanobacteria for the biological production of hydrogen, it is important to thoroughly study the function and the regulation of the hydrogen-production machine in order to better understand its role in the global cell metabolism and identify bottlenecks limiting H2 production. Most of the recent advances in our understanding of the bidirectional [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase (Hox) came from investigations performed in the widely-used model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 where Hox is the sole enzyme capable of combining electrons with protons to produce H2 under specific conditions. Recent findings suggested that the Hox enzyme can receive electrons from not only NAD(P)H as usually shown, but also, or even preferentially, from ferredoxin. Furthermore, plasmid-encoded functions and glutathionylation (the formation of a mixed-disulfide between the cysteines residues of a protein and the cysteine residue of glutathione) are proposed as possible new players in the function and regulation of hydrogen production. PMID:25365180

  20. Dual role of HupF in the biosynthesis of [NiFe] hydrogenase in Rhizobium leguminosarum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background [NiFe] hydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of hydrogen into protons and electrons, to use H2 as energy source, or the production of hydrogen through proton reduction, as an escape valve for the excess of reduction equivalents in anaerobic metabolism. Biosynthesis of [NiFe] hydrogenases is a complex process that occurs in the cytoplasm, where a number of auxiliary proteins are required to synthesize and insert the metal cofactors into the enzyme structural units. The endosymbiotic bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum requires the products of eighteen genes (hupSLCDEFGHIJKhypABFCDEX) to synthesize an active hydrogenase. hupF and hupK genes are found only in hydrogenase clusters from bacteria expressing hydrogenase in the presence of oxygen. Results HupF is a HypC paralogue with a similar predicted structure, except for the C-terminal domain present only in HupF. Deletion of hupF results in the inability to process the hydrogenase large subunit HupL, and also in reduced stability of this subunit when cells are exposed to high oxygen tensions. A ΔhupF mutant was fully complemented for hydrogenase activity by a C-terminal deletion derivative under symbiotic, ultra low-oxygen tensions, but only partial complementation was observed in free living cells under higher oxygen tensions (1% or 3%). Co-purification experiments using StrepTag-labelled HupF derivatives and mass spectrometry analysis indicate the existence of a major complex involving HupL and HupF, and a less abundant HupF-HupK complex. Conclusions The results indicate that HupF has a dual role during hydrogenase biosynthesis: it is required for hydrogenase large subunit processing and it also acts as a chaperone to stabilize HupL when hydrogenase is synthesized in the presence of oxygen. PMID:23136881

  1. [Stability of the hydrogenase from Tetraselmis subcordiformis and its preliminary purification].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Chen, Zhao'an; Cao, Xupeng; Lu, Hongbin; Xue, Song; Zhang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    Tetraselmis subcordiformis, a marine green alga, can produce hydrogen by photobiologically hydrolyzing seawater with hydrogenase. In this study, the preliminary purification of the enzyme was explored by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and the impact of sodium dithionite, beta-mercaptoethanol and glycerol on the enzyme stability during the process was investigated. The experimental results illustrated that sodium dithionite provided significant protection on the hydrogenase by depleting oxygen, while glycerol, a protectant against the structure instability of the enzyme, also presented protection. Crude enzyme with specific activity of 0.557 U/mg protein was extracted using 60%-70% saturated ammonium sulfate solution supplemented with 200 mmol/L sodium dithionite and 5% glycerol, and the hydrogenase recovery yield was about 30%. PMID:20954403

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of NiFe hydrogenase by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, Pierre; Etienne, Emilien; Dementin, Sébastien; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Léger, Christophe; Burlat, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenases reversibly catalyze the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and are inhibited by several small molecules including O2, CO and NO. In the present work, we investigate the mechanism of inhibition by NO of the oxygen-sensitive NiFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans by coupling site-directed mutagenesis, protein film voltammetry (PFV) and EPR spectroscopy. We show that micromolar NO strongly inhibits NiFe hydrogenase and that the mechanism of inhibition is complex, with NO targeting several metallic sites in the protein. NO reacts readily at the NiFe active site according to a two-step mechanism. The first and faster step is the reversible binding of NO to the active site followed by a slower and irreversible transformation at the active site. NO also induces irreversible damage of the iron-sulfur centers chain. We give direct evidence of preferential nitrosylation of the medial [3Fe-4S] to form dinitrosyl-iron complexes. PMID:26827939

  3. Immobilization of isolated and cellular hydrogenase of D. desulfuricans in radiation-polymerized polyacrylamides

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek, E.; Martin, W.G.; Williams, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    Purified hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was immobilized either by entrapment or absorption onto porous neutral and charged acrylamide beads. Surface absorption and crosslinking on the beads resulted in a high hydrogenase activity and a good immobilization coefficient compared to the enzyme and whole cells entrapped in the same matrix. Maximum enzyme activity (citrate-phosphate buffer) was shifted to pH 6.5 upon immobilization in contrast to 6.0 for the free enzyme and the range of 6-7 for whole cells. Both the purified enzyme and whole cells were most active when held in neutral matrices. Immobilization improved the temperature stability (65 degrees C) and long term storage (4 degrees C) of the hydrogenase activity of both the purified enzyme and whole cells.

  4. Immobilization of isolated and cellular hydrogenase of D. desulfuricans in radiation-polymerized polyacrylamides.

    PubMed

    Ziomek, E; Martin, W G; Williams, R E

    1984-02-01

    Purified hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was immobilized either by entrapment or absorption onto porous neutral and charged acrylamide beads. Surface absorption and crosslinking on the beads resulted in a high hydrogenase activity and a good immobilization coefficient compared to the enzyme and whole cells entrapped in the same matrix. Maximum enzyme activity (citrate-phosphate buffer) was shifted to pH 6.5 upon immobilization in contrast to 6.0 for the free enzyme and the range of 6-7 for whole cells. Both the purified enzyme and whole cells were most active when held in neutral matrices. Immobilization improved the temperature stability (65 degrees C) and long term storage (4 degrees C) of the hydrogenase activity of both the purified enzyme and whole cells. PMID:6383215

  5. Acetylene is an active-site-directed, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J.

    1987-10-06

    The inhibition of purified and membrane-bound hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii by dihydrogen-free acetylene was investigated. The inhibition was a time-dependent process which exhibited first-order kinetics. Both H/sub 2/ and CO protected against the inhibition by acetylene. K/sub protect(app)/ values of 0.41 and 24 ..mu..M were derived for these gases, respectively. Both H/sub 2/-oxidizing activity and the tritium exchange capacity of the purified enzyme were inhibited at the same rate by acetylene. Removal of acetylene reversed the inhibition for both the purified and the membrane-associated form of the enzyme. The purified hydrogenases from both Rhizobium japonicum and Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were also inhibited by acetylene in a time-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that acetylene is an active-site-directed, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of some membrane-bound hydrogenases from aerobic bacteria.

  6. Hydrogenases in green algae: do they save the algae's life and solve our energy problems?

    PubMed

    Happe, Thomas; Hemschemeier, Anja; Winkler, Martin; Kaminski, Annette

    2002-06-01

    Green algae are the only known eukaryotes with both oxygenic photosynthesis and a hydrogen metabolism. Recent physiological and genetic discoveries indicate a close connection between these metabolic pathways. The anaerobically inducible hydA genes of algae encode a special type of highly active [Fe]-hydrogenase. Electrons from reducing equivalents generated during fermentation enter the photosynthetic electron transport chain via the plastoquinone pool. They are transferred to the hydrogenase by photosystem I and ferredoxin. Thus, the [Fe]-hydrogenase is an electron 'valve' that enables the algae to survive under anaerobic conditions. During sulfur deprivation, illuminated algal cultures evolve large quantities of hydrogen gas, and this promises to be an alternative future energy source. PMID:12049920

  7. Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD+ and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

  8. Engineering Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus to Overproduce Its Cytoplasmic [NiFe]-Hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Chandrayan, Sanjeev K.; McTernan, Patrick M.; Hopkins, R. Christopher; Sun, Junsong; Jenney, Francis E.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2012-01-01

    The cytoplasmic hydrogenase (SHI) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus is an NADP(H)-dependent heterotetrameric enzyme that contains a nickel-iron catalytic site, flavin, and six iron-sulfur clusters. It has potential utility in a range of bioenergy systems in vitro, but a major obstacle in its use is generating sufficient amounts. We have engineered P. furiosus to overproduce SHI utilizing a recently developed genetic system. In the overexpression (OE-SHI) strain, transcription of the four-gene SHI operon was under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, and a Strep-tag II was added to the N terminus of one subunit. OE-SHI and wild-type P. furiosus strains had similar rates of growth and H2 production on maltose. Strain OE-SHI had a 20-fold higher transcription of the polycistronic hydrogenase mRNA encoding SHI, and the specific activity of the cytoplasmic hydrogenase was ∼10-fold higher when compared with the wild-type strain, although the expression levels of genes encoding processing and maturation of SHI were the same in both strains. Overexpressed SHI was purified by a single affinity chromatography step using the Strep-tag II, and it and the native form had comparable activities and physical properties. Based on protein yield per gram of cells (wet weight), the OE-SHI strain yields a 100-fold higher amount of hydrogenase when compared with the highest homologous [NiFe]-hydrogenase system previously reported (from Synechocystis). This new P. furiosus system will allow further engineering of SHI and provide hydrogenase for efficient in vitro biohydrogen production. PMID:22157005

  9. Evolutionary and Biotechnological Implications of Robust Hydrogenase Activity in Halophilic Strains of Tetraselmis

    PubMed Central

    D'Adamo, Sarah; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Boyd, Eric S.; Brown, Susan L.; Baxter, Bonnie K.; Peters, John W.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), relatively few studies have focused on H2 production and hydrogenase adaptations in marine or halophilic algae. Salt water organisms likely offer several advantages for biotechnological H2 production due to the global abundance of salt water, decreased H2 and O2 solubility in saline and hypersaline systems, and the ability of extracellular NaCl levels to influence metabolism. We screened unialgal isolates obtained from hypersaline ecosystems in the southwest United States and identified two distinct halophilic strains of the genus Tetraselmis (GSL1 and QNM1) that exhibit both robust fermentative and photo H2-production activities. The influence of salinity (3.5%, 5.5% and 7.0% w/v NaCl) on H2 production was examined during anoxic acclimation, with the greatest in vivo H2-production rates observed at 7.0% NaCl. These Tetraselmis strains maintain robust hydrogenase activity even after 24 h of anoxic acclimation and show increased hydrogenase activity relative to C. reinhardtii after extended anoxia. Transcriptional analysis of Tetraselmis GSL1 enabled sequencing of the cDNA encoding the FeFe-hydrogenase structural enzyme (HYDA) and its maturation proteins (HYDE, HYDEF and HYDG). In contrast to freshwater Chlorophyceae, the halophilic Tetraselmis GSL1 strain likely encodes a single HYDA and two copies of HYDE, one of which is fused to HYDF. Phylogenetic analyses of HYDA and concatenated HYDA, HYDE, HYDF and HYDG in Tetraselmis GSL1 fill existing knowledge gaps in the evolution of algal hydrogenases and indicate that the algal hydrogenases sequenced to date are derived from a common ancestor. This is consistent with recent hypotheses that suggest fermentative metabolism in the majority of eukaryotes is derived from a common base set of enzymes that emerged early in eukaryotic evolution with subsequent losses in some organisms. PMID

  10. Evolutionary and biotechnological implications of robust hydrogenase activity in halophilic strains of Tetraselmis.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Sarah; Jinkerson, Robert E; Boyd, Eric S; Brown, Susan L; Baxter, Bonnie K; Peters, John W; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water algae (e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), relatively few studies have focused on H2 production and hydrogenase adaptations in marine or halophilic algae. Salt water organisms likely offer several advantages for biotechnological H2 production due to the global abundance of salt water, decreased H2 and O2 solubility in saline and hypersaline systems, and the ability of extracellular NaCl levels to influence metabolism. We screened unialgal isolates obtained from hypersaline ecosystems in the southwest United States and identified two distinct halophilic strains of the genus Tetraselmis (GSL1 and QNM1) that exhibit both robust fermentative and photo H2-production activities. The influence of salinity (3.5%, 5.5% and 7.0% w/v NaCl) on H2 production was examined during anoxic acclimation, with the greatest in vivo H2-production rates observed at 7.0% NaCl. These Tetraselmis strains maintain robust hydrogenase activity even after 24 h of anoxic acclimation and show increased hydrogenase activity relative to C. reinhardtii after extended anoxia. Transcriptional analysis of Tetraselmis GSL1 enabled sequencing of the cDNA encoding the FeFe-hydrogenase structural enzyme (HYDA) and its maturation proteins (HYDE, HYDEF and HYDG). In contrast to freshwater Chlorophyceae, the halophilic Tetraselmis GSL1 strain likely encodes a single HYDA and two copies of HYDE, one of which is fused to HYDF. Phylogenetic analyses of HYDA and concatenated HYDA, HYDE, HYDF and HYDG in Tetraselmis GSL1 fill existing knowledge gaps in the evolution of algal hydrogenases and indicate that the algal hydrogenases sequenced to date are derived from a common ancestor. This is consistent with recent hypotheses that suggest fermentative metabolism in the majority of eukaryotes is derived from a common base set of enzymes that emerged early in eukaryotic evolution with subsequent losses in some organisms. PMID

  11. Proton electroreduction catalyzed by cobaloximes: functional models for hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Razavet, Mathieu; Artero, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc

    2005-06-27

    Cobaloximes have been examined as electrocatalysts for proton reduction in nonaqueous solvent in the presence of triethylammonium chloride. [Co(III)(dmgH)2pyCl], working at moderate potentials (-0.90 V/(Ag/AgCl/3 mol x L(-1) NaCl) and in neutral conditions, is a promising catalyst as compared to other first-row transition metal complexes which generally function at more negative potentials and/or at lower pH. More than 100 turnovers can be achieved during controlled-potential electrolysis without detectable degradation of the catalyst. Cyclic voltammograms simulation is consistent with a heterolytic catalytic mechanism and allowed us to extract related kinetic parameters. Introduction of an electron-donating (electron-withdrawing) substituent in the axial pyridine ligand significantly increases (decreases) the rate constant of the catalytic cycle determining step. This effect linearly correlates with the Hammet coefficients of the introduced substituents. The influence of the equatorial glyoxime ligand was also investigated and the capability of the stabilized BF2-bridged species [Co(dmgBF2)2(OH2)2] for electrocatalyzed hydrogen evolution confirmed. PMID:15962987

  12. Flow-FISH analysis and isolation of clostridial strains in an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen producing system by hydrogenase gene target.

    PubMed

    Jen, Chang Jui; Chou, Chia-Hung; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Yu, Sian-Jhong; Chen, Wei-En; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Wen, Fu-Shyan

    2007-04-01

    By using hydrogenase gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), the predominant clostridial hydrogenase that may have contributed to biohydrogen production in an anaerobic semi-solid fermentation system has been monitored. The results revealed that a Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogenase gene sequence can be detected by both PCR and RT-PCR and suggested that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene was dominant in hydrogenase activity and population. Whereas another Clostridium saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene can be detected only by RT-PCR and suggest that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene may be less dominant in population. In this study, hydrogenase gene-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that only 6.6% of the total eubacterial cells in a hydrogen-producing culture were detected to express the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase, whereas the eubacteria that expressed the C. pasteurianum-like hydrogenase was 25.6%. A clostridial strain M1 possessing the identical nucleotide sequences of the C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase gene was then isolated and identified as Clostridium butyricum based on 16S rRNA sequence. Comparing to the original inoculum with mixed microflora, either using C. butyricum M1 as the only inoculum or co-culturing with a Bacillus thermoamylovorans isolate will guarantee an effective and even better production of hydrogen from brewery yeast waste. PMID:17277963

  13. Hydrogen Production by a Hyperthermophilic Membrane-Bound Hydrogenase in Soluble Nanolipoprotein Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T

    2008-10-22

    Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.

  14. Function of the chloroplast hydrogenase in the microalga Chlamydomonas: the role of hydrogenase and state transitions during photosynthetic activation in anaerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Ghysels, Bart; Godaux, Damien; Matagne, René F; Cardol, Pierre; Franck, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Like a majority of photosynthetic microorganisms, the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii may encounter O2 deprived conditions on a regular basis. In response to anaerobiosis or in a respiration defective context, the photosynthetic electron transport chain of Chlamydomonas is remodeled by a state transition process to a conformation that favours the photoproduction of ATP at the expense of reductant synthesis. In some unicellular green algae including Chlamydomonas, anoxia also triggers the induction of a chloroplast-located, oxygen sensitive hydrogenase, which accepts electrons from reduced ferredoxin to convert protons into molecular hydrogen. Although microalgal hydrogen evolution has received much interest for its biotechnological potential, its physiological role remains unclear. By using specific Chlamydomonas mutants, we demonstrate that the state transition ability and the hydrogenase function are both critical for induction of photosynthesis in anoxia. These two processes are thus important for survival of the cells when they are transiently placed in an anaerobic environment. PMID:23717558

  15. Mutational analysis of the hyc-operon determining the relationship between hydrogenase-3 and NADH pathway in Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jian; Jawed, Muhammad; Wang, Jun; Xu, Li; Yan, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the hydrogenase-3 gene cluster (hycDEFGH) was isolated and identified from Enterobacter aerogenes CCTCC AB91102. All gene products were highly homologous to the reported bacterial hydrogenase-3 (Hyd-3) proteins. The genes hycE, hycF, hycG encoding the subunits of hydrogenase-3 were targeted for genetic knockout to inhibit the FHL hydrogen production pathway via the Red recombination system, generating three mutant strains AB91102-E (ΔhycE), AB91102-F (ΔhycF) and AB91102-G (ΔhycG). Deletion of the three genes affected the integrity of hydrogenase-3. The hydrogen production experiments with the mutant strains showed that no hydrogen was detected compared with the wild type (0.886 mol/mol glucose), demonstrating that knocking out any of the three genes could inhibit NADH hydrogen production pathway. Meanwhile, the metabolites of the mutant strains were significantly changed in comparison with the wild type, indicating corresponding changes in metabolic flux by mutation. Additionally, the activity of NADH-mediated hydrogenase was found to be nil in the mutant strains. The chemostat experiments showed that the NADH/NAD(+) ratio of the mutant strains increased nearly 1.4-fold compared with the wild type. The NADH-mediated hydrogenase activity and NADH/NAD(+) ratio analysis both suggested that NADH pathway required the involvement of the electron transport chain of hydrogenase-3. PMID:26672442

  16. The Uptake Hydrogenase in the Unicellular Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. Strain PCC 7822 Protects Nitrogenase from Oxygen Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Sherman, Debra M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 is a unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that can produce large quantities of H2 when grown diazotrophically. This strain is also capable of genetic manipulations and can represent a good model for improving H2 production from cyanobacteria. To this end, a knockout mutation was made in the hupL gene (ΔhupL), and we determined how this would affect the amount of H2 produced. The ΔhupL mutant demonstrated virtually no nitrogenase activity or H2 production when grown under N2-fixing conditions. To ensure that this mutation only affected the hupL gene, a complementation strain was constructed readily with wild-type properties; this indicated that the original insertion was only in hupL. The mutant had no uptake hydrogenase activity but had increased bidirectional hydrogenase (Hox) activity. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry under the electron microscope indicated that the mutant had neither HupL nor NifHDK, although the nif genes were transcribed. Interestingly, biochemical analysis demonstrated that both HupL and NifH could be membrane associated. The results indicated that the nif genes were transcribed but that NifHDK was either not translated or was translated but rapidly degraded. We hypothesized that the Nif proteins were made but were unusually susceptible to O2 damage. Thus, we grew the mutant cells under anaerobic conditions and found that they grew well under N2-fixing conditions. We conclude that in unicellular diazotrophs, like Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822, the HupLS complex helps remove oxygen from the nitrogenase, and that this is a more important function than merely oxidizing the H2 produced by the nitrogenase. PMID:24317398

  17. Powerful fermentative hydrogen evolution of photosynthate in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii BL J mediated by a bidirectional hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ankita; Parameswaran, Prathap; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered good models for biohydrogen production because they are relatively simple organisms with a demonstrable ability to generate H2 under certain physiological conditions. However, most produce only little H2, revert readily to H2 consumption, and suffer from hydrogenase sensitivity to O2. Strains of the cyanobacteria Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes obtained from marine intertidal cyanobacterial mats were recently found to display much better H2 production potential. Because of their ecological origin in environments that become quickly anoxic in the dark, we hypothesized that this differential ability may have evolved to serve a role in the fermentation of the photosynthate. Here we show that, when forced to ferment internal substrate, these cyanobacteria display desirable characteristics of physiological H2 production. Among them, the strain L. aestuarii BL J had the fastest specific rates and attained the highest H2 concentrations during fermentation of photosynthate, which proceeded via a mixed acid fermentation pathway to yield acetate, ethanol, lactate, H2, CO2, and pyruvate. Contrary to expectations, the H2 yield per mole of glucose was only average compared to that of other cyanobacteria. Thermodynamic analyses point to the use of electron donors more electronegative than NAD(P)H in Lyngbya hydrogenases as the basis for its strong H2 production ability. In any event, the high specific rates and H2 concentrations coupled with the lack of reversibility of the enzyme, at the expense of internal, photosynthetically generated reductants, makes L. aestuarii BL J and/or its enzymes, a potentially feasible platform for large-scale H2 production. PMID:25540642

  18. Regulation and genetic organization of hydrogenase: Final progress report for the period June 1, 1985--July 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Krasna, A.I.

    1988-10-01

    Hydrogenase is an enzyme which plays an important role in the anaerobic metabolism of many bacteria. The objectives of the research were to elucidate the regulation and genetic organization of hydrogenase in microorganisms. A mutation in the E. coli hydE gene leads to loss of all hydrogenase activities and isoenzymes as well as all formate-related activities. A 0.9 kb DNA fragment has been cloned from an E. coli genomic DNA library which restored all hydrogenase and formate activities to a hydE mutant strain. This gene coded for a polypeptide of subunit mw 36 kDa which is required for hydrogenase synthesis. It is involved in incorporation of nickel into hydrogenase. A mutation in the E coli hupB gene leads to the loss of the uptake of H/sub 2/ by dyes and the ability to grow on fumarate plus H/sub 2/, but expresses normal levels of hydrogenase when assayed by deuterium exchange. This mutation also leads to loss of all formate-related activities. The mutation mapped near minute 17 and a single mutation was responsible for loss of both activities. A 1.4 kb DNA fragment was isolated which restored the hydrogen uptake activities and coded for a polypeptide of subunit mw 30 kDa. Dna fragments have been isolated from Chromatium vinosum and Proteus vulgaris which restored hydrogenase activities to E. coli strains with mutations in the hydA or hydB regulatory genes and which lack all hydrogenase activities. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Hydrogenase of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus is an elemental sulfur reductase or sulfhydrogenase: evidence for a sulfur-reducing hydrogenase ancestor.

    PubMed

    Ma, K; Schicho, R N; Kelly, R M; Adams, M W

    1993-06-01

    Microorganisms growing near and above 100 degrees C have recently been discovered near shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. Most are obligately dependent upon the reduction of elemental sulfur (S0) to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) for optimal growth, even though S0 reduction readily occurs abiotically at their growth temperatures. The sulfur reductase activity of the anaerobic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100 degrees C by a metabolism that produces H2S if S0 is present, was found in the cytoplasm. It was purified anaerobically and was shown to be identical to the hydrogenase that had been previously purified from this organism. Both S0 and polysulfide served as substrates for H2S production, and the S0 reduction activity but not the H2-oxidation activity was enhanced by the redox protein rubredoxin. The H2-oxidizing and S0-reduction activities of the enzyme also showed different responses to pH, temperature, and inhibitors. This bifunctional "sulfhydrogenase" enzyme can, therefore, dispose of the excess reductant generated during fermentation using either protons or polysulfides as the electron acceptor. In addition, purified hydrogenases from both hyperthermophilic and mesophilic representatives of the archaeal and bacterial domains were shown to reduce S0 to H2S. It is suggested that the function of some form of ancestral hydrogenase was S0 reduction rather than, or in addition to, the reduction of protons. PMID:8389482

  20. Metabolic control of Clostridium thermocellum via inhibition of hydrogenase activity and the glucose transport rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H2) are also produced. The effect of hydrogenase inhibitors (H2, carbon monoxide (CO) and methyl viologen) on product selectivity was investigated....

  1. Antigenic determinants of the membrane-bound hydrogenase in Alcaligenes eutrophus are exposed toward the periplasm.

    PubMed Central

    Eismann, K; Mlejnek, K; Zipprich, D; Hoppert, M; Gerberding, H; Mayer, F

    1995-01-01

    Electron microscopic immunogold labeling experiments were performed with ultrathin sections of plasmolyzed cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus and "whole-mount" samples of spheroplasts and protoplasts. They demonstrated that antigenic determinants of the membrane-bound hydrogenase are exposed, at the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane, to the periplasm. PMID:7592402

  2. Designed surface residue substitutions in [NiFe] hydrogenase that improve electron transfer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yonemoto, Isaac T; Smith, Hamilton O; Weyman, Philip D

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii "Deep Ecotype" [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electrons necessary for hydrogen production. Ferredoxin is the first soluble electron transfer mediator to receive high-energy electrons from photosystem I, and bears an electron with sufficient potential to efficiently reduce protons. Thus, we engineered a hydrogenase-ferredoxin fusion that also contained several other modifications. In addition to the C-terminal ferredoxin fusion, we truncated the C-terminus of the hydrogenase small subunit, identified as the available terminus closer to the electron transfer region. We also neutralized an anionic patch surrounding the interface Fe-S cluster to improve transfer kinetics with the negatively charged ferredoxin. Initial screening showed the enzyme tolerated both truncation and charge neutralization on the small subunit ferredoxin-binding face. While the enzyme activity was relatively unchanged using the substrate methyl viologen, we observed a marked improvement from both the ferredoxin fusion and surface modification using only dithionite as an electron donor. Combining ferredoxin fusion and surface charge modification showed progressively improved activity in an in vitro assay with purified enzyme. PMID:25603181

  3. Designed Surface Residue Substitutions in [NiFe] Hydrogenase that Improve Electron Transfer Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yonemoto, Isaac T.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Weyman, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii “Deep Ecotype” [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electrons necessary for hydrogen production. Ferredoxin is the first soluble electron transfer mediator to receive high-energy electrons from photosystem I, and bears an electron with sufficient potential to efficiently reduce protons. Thus, we engineered a hydrogenase-ferredoxin fusion that also contained several other modifications. In addition to the C-terminal ferredoxin fusion, we truncated the C-terminus of the hydrogenase small subunit, identified as the available terminus closer to the electron transfer region. We also neutralized an anionic patch surrounding the interface Fe-S cluster to improve transfer kinetics with the negatively charged ferredoxin. Initial screening showed the enzyme tolerated both truncation and charge neutralization on the small subunit ferredoxin-binding face. While the enzyme activity was relatively unchanged using the substrate methyl viologen, we observed a marked improvement from both the ferredoxin fusion and surface modification using only dithionite as an electron donor. Combining ferredoxin fusion and surface charge modification showed progressively improved activity in an in vitro assay with purified enzyme. PMID:25603181

  4. Hydrogenase activity of mineral-associated and suspended populations of Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans Essex 6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactions between sulfate-reducing microorganisms and iron oxides influence a number of important redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes including the formation of iron sulfides. Enzymes, such as hydrogenase which catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen, are known to mediate...

  5. Lyophilization protects [FeFe]-hydrogenases against O2-induced H-cluster degradation.

    PubMed

    Noth, Jens; Kositzki, Ramona; Klein, Kathrin; Winkler, Martin; Haumann, Michael; Happe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nature has developed an impressive repertoire of metal-based enzymes that perform complex chemical reactions under moderate conditions. Catalysts that produce molecular hydrogen (H2) are particularly promising for renewable energy applications. Unfortunately, natural and chemical H2-catalysts are often irreversibly degraded by molecular oxygen (O2). Here we present a straightforward procedure based on freeze-drying (lyophilization), that turns [FeFe]-hydrogenases, which are excellent H2-producers, but typically extremely O2-sensitive in solution, into enzymes that are fully resistant against O2. Complete dryness protects and conserves both, the [FeFe]-hydrogenase proteins and their inorganic active-site cofactor (H-cluster), when exposed to 100% O2 for days. The full H2-formation capacity is restored after solvation of the lyophilized enzymes. However, even minimal moisturizing re-establishes O2-sensitivity. The dry [FeFe]-hydrogenase material is superior also for advanced spectroscopic investigations on the H-cluster reaction mechanism. Our method provides a convenient way for long-term storage and impacts on potential biotechnological hydrogen production applications of hydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26364994

  6. Lyophilization protects [FeFe]-hydrogenases against O2-induced H-cluster degradation

    PubMed Central

    Noth, Jens; Kositzki, Ramona; Klein, Kathrin; Winkler, Martin; Haumann, Michael; Happe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nature has developed an impressive repertoire of metal-based enzymes that perform complex chemical reactions under moderate conditions. Catalysts that produce molecular hydrogen (H2) are particularly promising for renewable energy applications. Unfortunately, natural and chemical H2-catalysts are often irreversibly degraded by molecular oxygen (O2). Here we present a straightforward procedure based on freeze-drying (lyophilization), that turns [FeFe]-hydrogenases, which are excellent H2-producers, but typically extremely O2-sensitive in solution, into enzymes that are fully resistant against O2. Complete dryness protects and conserves both, the [FeFe]-hydrogenase proteins and their inorganic active-site cofactor (H-cluster), when exposed to 100% O2 for days. The full H2-formation capacity is restored after solvation of the lyophilized enzymes. However, even minimal moisturizing re-establishes O2-sensitivity. The dry [FeFe]-hydrogenase material is superior also for advanced spectroscopic investigations on the H-cluster reaction mechanism. Our method provides a convenient way for long-term storage and impacts on potential biotechnological hydrogen production applications of hydrogenase enzymes. PMID:26364994

  7. How the oxygen tolerance of a [NiFe]-hydrogenase depends on quaternary structure.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Philip; Thomas, Claudia; Sargent, Frank; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2016-03-01

    'Oxygen-tolerant' [NiFe]-hydrogenases can catalyze H2 oxidation under aerobic conditions, avoiding oxygenation and destruction of the active site. In one mechanism accounting for this special property, membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenases accommodate a pool of electrons that allows an O2 molecule attacking the active site to be converted rapidly to harmless water. An important advantage may stem from having a dimeric or higher-order quaternary structure in which the electron-transfer relay chain of one partner is electronically coupled to that in the other. Hydrogenase-1 from E. coli has a dimeric structure in which the distal [4Fe-4S] clusters in each monomer are located approximately 12 Å apart, a distance conducive to fast electron tunneling. Such an arrangement can ensure that electrons from H2 oxidation released at the active site of one partner are immediately transferred to its counterpart when an O2 molecule attacks. This paper addresses the role of long-range, inter-domain electron transfer in the mechanism of O2-tolerance by comparing the properties of monomeric and dimeric forms of Hydrogenase-1. The results reveal a further interesting advantage that quaternary structure affords to proteins. PMID:26861789

  8. A Fe/Fe3O4/N-carbon composite with hierarchical porous structure and in situ formed N-doped graphene-like layers for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Meng, Qing; Zhu, Shen-min; Sun, Zeng-hui; Yang, Hao; Chen, Zhi-xin; Zhu, Cheng-ling; Guo, Zai-ping; Zhang, Di

    2015-03-14

    A Fe/Fe3O4/N-carbon composite consisting of a porous carbon matrix containing a highly conductive N-doped graphene-like network and Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles was prepared. The porous carbon has a hierarchical structure which is inherited from rice husk and the N-doped graphene-like network formed in situ. When used as an anode material for lithium batteries, the composite delivered a reversible capacity of approximately 610 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1) even after 100 cycles, due to the synergism between the unique hierarchical porous structures, highly electrically conductive N-doped graphene-like networks and nanosized particles of Fe/Fe3O4. This work provides a simple approach to prepare N-doped porous carbon activated nanoparticle composites which could be used to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries. PMID:25655996

  9. Importance of the Protein Framework for Catalytic Activity of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Knörzer, Philipp; Silakov, Alexey; Foster, Carina E.; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Happe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The active center (H-cluster) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases is embedded into a hydrophobic pocket within the protein. We analyzed several amino acids, located in the vicinity of this niche, by site-directed mutagenesis of the [FeFe]-hydrogenases from Clostridium pasteurianum (CpI) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrHydA1). These amino acids are highly conserved and predicted to be involved in H-cluster coordination. Characterization of two hydrogenase variants confirmed this hypothesis. The exchange of residues CrHydA1Met415 and CrHydA1Lys228 resulted in inactive proteins, which, according to EPR and FTIR analyses, contain no intact H-cluster. However, [FeFe]-hydrogenases in which CpIMet353 (CrHydA1Met223) and CpICys299 (CrHydA1Cys169) were exchanged to leucine and serine, respectively, showed a structurally intact H-cluster with catalytic activity either absent (CpIC299S) or strongly diminished (CpIM353L). In the case of CrHydA1C169S, the H-cluster was trapped in an inactive state exhibiting g values and vibrational frequencies that resembled the Htrans state of DdH from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. This cysteine residue, interacting with the bridge head nitrogen of the di(methyl)amine ligand, seems therefore to represent an essential contribution of the immediate protein environment to the reaction mechanism. Exchanging methionine CpIM353 (CrHydA1M223) to leucine led to a strong decrease in turnover without affecting the Km value of the electron donor. We suggest that this methionine constitutes a “fine-tuning” element of hydrogenase activity. PMID:22110126

  10. Solid particle erosion of an Fe-Fe3C metal matrix composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsley, B. A.; Marder, A. R.

    1998-03-01

    The erosion resistance and morphology of spheroidized Fe-C alloys containing 0.2 to 1.4 wt pct carbon was investigated. The Fe-C alloy system was chosen as a model metal-matrix composite for the study of the effect on erosion of a hard second phase in a ductile matrix. Alloys were austenitized and water quenched to form martensite, then tempered at 690 °C for different times to produce carbide sizes of 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4 μm. Utilizing these materials, it was found that the erosion resistance increased as the microstructural features decreased in size, with the important microstructural variables being carbide spacing and ferrite grain size. These variables control dislocation motion in the ferrite and, in turn, affect the plastic deformation and the erosion resistance of the spheroidized alloys. For the 0.4 to 1.4 pct C alloys, the carbide spacing was sufficient to determine erosion rate, whereas, for the 0.2 pct C alloys, ferrite grain size became the controlling structure. Microstructural spacing, which is a measure of the mean free path between both the grain boundaries and the carbides, was found to describe all of the erosion data. A Hall-Petch-type relationship was found between microstructural spacing and both erosion rate and hardness.

  11. Negative impact of oxygen molecular activation on Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Wu, Hao; Ai, Zhihui

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of oxygen molecule can inhibit Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires at neutral pH of 6.1. 100% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by the Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires within 60 min in the anoxic condition, in contrast, only 81.2% of Cr(VI) was sequestrated in the oxic condition. Removal kinetics analysis indicated that the presence of oxygen could inhibit the Cr(VI) removal efficiency by near 3 times. XRD, SEM, and XPS analysis revealed that either the anoxic or oxic Cr(VI) removal was involved with adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and re-adsorption processes. More Cr(VI) was bound in a reduced state of Cr(III) in the anoxic process, while a thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell, leading to inhibiting the electron transfer, was found under the oxic process. The negative impact of oxygen molecule was attributed to the oxygen molecular activation which competed with Cr(VI) adsorbed for the consumption of donor electrons from Fe(0) core and ferrous ions bound on the iron oxides surface under the oxic condition. This study sheds light on the understanding of the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in oxic and anoxic environment, as well provides helpful guide for optimizing Cr(VI) removal conditions in real applications. PMID:25988715

  12. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. PMID:27406922

  13. A redox hydrogel protects the O2 -sensitive [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Oughli, Alaa Alsheikh; Conzuelo, Felipe; Winkler, Martin; Happe, Thomas; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Rüdiger, Olaf; Plumeré, Nicolas

    2015-10-12

    The integration of sensitive catalysts in redox matrices opens up the possibility for their protection from deactivating molecules such as O2 . [FeFe]-hydrogenases are enzymes catalyzing H2 oxidation/production which are irreversibly deactivated by O2 . Therefore, their use under aerobic conditions has never been achieved. Integration of such hydrogenases in viologen-modified hydrogel films allows the enzyme to maintain catalytic current for H2 oxidation in the presence of O2 , demonstrating a protection mechanism independent of reactivation processes. Within the hydrogel, electrons from the hydrogenase-catalyzed H2 oxidation are shuttled to the hydrogel-solution interface for O2 reduction. Hence, the harmful O2 molecules do not reach the hydrogenase. We illustrate the potential applications of this protection concept with a biofuel cell under H2 /O2 mixed feed. PMID:26073322

  14. The biosynthetic routes for carbon monoxide and cyanide in the Ni-Fe active site of hydrogenases are different.

    PubMed

    Roseboom, Winfried; Blokesch, Melanie; Böck, August; Albracht, Simon P J

    2005-01-17

    The incorporation of carbon into the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands of [NiFe]-hydrogenases has been investigated by using (13)C labelling in infrared studies of the Allochromatium vinosum enzyme and by (14)C labelling experiments with overproduced Hyp proteins from Escherichia coli. The results suggest that the biosynthetic routes of the carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands in [NiFe]-hydrogenases are different. PMID:15642360

  15. Impact of the chemicals, essential for the purification process of strict Fe-hydrogenase, on the corrosion of mild steel.

    PubMed

    Rouvre, Ingrid; Gauquelin, Charles; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle; Basseguy, Régine

    2016-06-01

    The influence of additional chemical molecules, necessary for the purification process of [Fe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum, was studied on the anaerobic corrosion of mild steel. At the end of the purification process, the pure [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase was recovered in a Tris-HCl medium containing three other chemicals at low concentration: DTT, dithionite and desthiobiotin. Firstly, mild steel coupons were exposed in parallel to a 0.1M pH7 Tris-HCl medium with or without pure hydrogenase. The results showed that hydrogenase and the additional molecules were in competition, and the electrochemical response could not be attributed solely to hydrogenase. Then, solutions with additional chemicals of different compositions were studied electrochemically. DTT polluted the electrochemical signal by increasing the Eoc by 35mV 24h after the injection of 300μL of control solutions with DTT, whereas it drastically decreased the corrosion rate by increasing the charge transfer resistance (Rct 10 times the initial value). Thus, DTT was shown to have a strong antagonistic effect on corrosion and was removed from the purification process. An optimal composition of the medium was selected (0.5mM dithionite, 7.5mM desthiobiotin) that simultaneously allowed a high activity of hydrogenase and a lower impact on the electrochemical response for corrosion tests. PMID:26774688

  16. Synthesis and vibrational spectroscopy of 57Fe-labeled models of [NiFe] hydrogenase: first direct observation of a nickel–iron interaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures, spectral data, computational chemistry details, animated vibrational modes as GIFs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4cc04572f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Wang, Hongxin; Meier, Florian; Gee, Leland B.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Kaupp, Martin; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    A new route to iron carbonyls has enabled synthesis of 57Fe-labeled [NiFe] hydrogenase mimic (OC)3 57Fe(pdt)Ni(dppe). Its study by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy revealed Ni–57Fe vibrations, as confirmed by calculations. The modes are absent for [(OC)3 57Fe(pdt)Ni(dppe)]+, which lacks Ni–57Fe bonding, underscoring the utility of the analyses in identifying metal–metal interactions. PMID:25237680

  17. Effect of H2 binding on the nonadiabatic transition probability between singlet and triplet states of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site.

    PubMed

    Kaliakin, Danil S; Zaari, Ryan R; Varganov, Sergey A

    2015-02-12

    We investigate the effect of H2 binding on the spin-forbidden nonadiabatic transition probability between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states of [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site model, using a velocity averaged Landau-Zener theory. Density functional and multireference perturbation theories were used to provide parameters for the Landau-Zener calculations. It was found that variation of the torsion angle between the terminal thiolate ligands around the Ni center induces an intersystem crossing between the lowest energy singlet and triplet electronic states in the bare active site and in the active site with bound H2. Potential energy curves between the singlet and triplet minima along the torsion angle and H2 binding energies to the two spin states were calculated. Upon H2 binding to the active site, there is a decrease in the torsion angle at the minimum energy crossing point between the singlet and triplet states. The probability of nonadiabatic transitions at temperatures between 270 and 370 K ranges from 35% to 32% for the active site with bound H2 and from 42% to 38% for the bare active site, thus indicating the importance of spin-forbidden nonadiabatic pathways for H2 binding on the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site. PMID:25603170

  18. Hydrogenase of the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus is an elemental sulfur reductase or sulfhydrogenase: Evidence for a sulfur-reducing hydrogenase ancestor

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, K.; Adams, M.W.W. ); Schicho, R.N. ); Kelly, R.M. )

    1993-06-01

    Microorganisms growing near and above 100[degrees]C have recently been discovered near shallow and deep sea hydrothermal vents. Most are obligately dependent upon the reduction of elemental sulfur (S[sup 0]) to hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S) for optimal growth, even though S[sup 0] reduction readily occurs abiotically at their growth temperatures. The sulfur reductase activity of the anaerobic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100[degrees]C by a metabolism that produces H[sub 2]S if S[sup 0] is present, was found in the cytoplasm. It was purified anaerobically and was shown to be identical to the hydrogenase that had been previously purified from this organism. Both S[sup 0] and polysulfide served as substrates for H[sub 2]S production, and the S[sub 0] reduction activity but not the H[sub 2]-oxidation activity was enhanced by the redox protein rubredoxin. The H[sub 2]-oxidizing and S[sup 0]-reduction activities of the enzyme also showed different responses to pH, temperature, and inhibitors. This bifunctional [open quotes]sulfhydrogenase[close quotes] enzyme can, therefore, dispose of the excess reductant generated during fermentation using either protons or polysulfides as the electron acceptor. In addition, purified hydrogenases from both hyperthermophilic and mesophilic representatives of the archaeal and bacterial domains were shown to reduce S[sup 0] to H[sub 2]S. It is suggested that the function of some form of ancestral hydrogenase was S[sup 0] reduction rather than, or in addition, to the reduction of protons. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Converting the NiFeS Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase to a Hydrogenase and a Hydroxylamine Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongyun; Wolfe, Marcus T.; Staples, Christopher R.; Ludden, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    Substitution of one amino acid for another at the active site of an enzyme usually diminishes or eliminates the activity of the enzyme. In some cases, however, the specificity of the enzyme is changed. In this study, we report that the changing of a metal ligand at the active site of the NiFeS-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) converts the enzyme to a hydrogenase or a hydroxylamine reductase. CODH with alanine substituted for Cys531 exhibits substantial uptake hydrogenase activity, and this activity is enhanced by treatment with CO. CODH with valine substituted for His265 exhibits hydroxylamine reductase activity. Both Cys531 and His265 are ligands to the active-site cluster of CODH. Further, CODH with Fe substituted for Ni at the active site acquires hydroxylamine reductase activity. PMID:12374822

  20. Isolation, purification and characterization of the hydrogen evolution promoting factor of hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Tian-Qing; Zhang, Hui-Miao; Sun, Shi-Hua

    1996-03-01

    A component (s-factor) with obvious promoting effect on hydrogen evolution of hydrogenase has been isolated and extracted from a cell-free preparation of Spirulina platensis. The effect of the s-factor in the reaction system is similar to that of Na2S2O4, but is coupled with light. The s-factor has the maximum absorption peak at 620 nm in the oxidized state, at 590 nm in the reduced state. The partially purified s-factor showed two bands by SDS-PAGE and is distinctly different from phycocyanin, which has no change of oxidized state and reduced state absorption spectra, and also has no promoting effect on hydrogenase of Spirulina platensis under the light.

  1. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Lindsey A.; Parkin, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  2. Electrochemical insights into the mechanism of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Lindsey A; Parkin, Alison

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogenases are enzymes of great biotechnological relevance because they catalyse the interconversion of H2, water (protons) and electricity using non-precious metal catalytic active sites. Electrochemical studies into the reactivity of NiFe membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH) have provided a particularly detailed insight into the reactivity and mechanism of this group of enzymes. Significantly, the control centre for enabling O2 tolerance has been revealed as the electron-transfer relay of FeS clusters, rather than the NiFe bimetallic active site. The present review paper will discuss how electrochemistry results have complemented those obtained from structural and spectroscopic studies, to present a complete picture of our current understanding of NiFe MBH. PMID:26862221

  3. Metal transfer within the E. coli HypB-HypA complex of hydrogenase accessory proteins†

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Colin D.; Ngu, Thanh T.; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Zamble, Deborah B.

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in E. coli is a complex process involving many steps and multiple accessory proteins. The two accessory proteins, HypA and HypB, interact with each other and are thought to cooperate to insert nickel into the active site of the hydrogenase-3 precursor protein. Both of these accessory proteins bind metal individually, but little is known about the metal-binding activities of the proteins once they assemble together into a functional complex. In this study, we investigate how complex formation modulates metal binding to the E. coli proteins HypA and HypB. This work lead to a re-evaluation of the HypA nickel affinity, revealing a KD on the order of 10−8 M. HypA can efficiently remove nickel, but not zinc, from the metal-binding site in the GTPase domain of HypB, a process that is less efficient when complex formation between HypA and HypB is disrupted. Furthermore, nickel release from HypB to HypA is specifically accelerated when HypB is loaded with GDP, but not GTP. These results are consistent with the HypA-HypB complex serving as a transfer step in the relay of nickel from membrane transporter to its final destination in the hydrogenase active site, and suggest that this complex contributes to the metal fidelity of this pathway. PMID:23899293

  4. Hydrogenase-independent uptake and metabolism of electrons by the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis

    PubMed Central

    Lohner, Svenja T; Deutzmann, Jörg S; Logan, Bruce E; Leigh, John; Spormann, Alfred M

    2014-01-01

    Direct, shuttle-free uptake of extracellular, cathode-derived electrons has been postulated as a novel mechanism of electron metabolism in some prokaryotes that may also be involved in syntrophic electron transport between two microorganisms. Experimental proof for direct uptake of cathodic electrons has been mostly indirect and has been based on the absence of detectable concentrations of molecular hydrogen. However, hydrogen can be formed as a transient intermediate abiotically at low cathodic potentials (<−414 mV) under conditions of electromethanogenesis. Here we provide genetic evidence for hydrogen-independent uptake of extracellular electrons. Methane formation from cathodic electrons was observed in a wild-type strain of the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis as well as in a hydrogenase-deletion mutant lacking all catabolic hydrogenases, indicating the presence of a hydrogenase-independent mechanism of electron catabolism. In addition, we discovered a new route for hydrogen or formate production from cathodic electrons: Upon chemical inhibition of methanogenesis with 2-bromo-ethane sulfonate, hydrogen or formate accumulated in the bioelectrochemical cells instead of methane. These results have implications for our understanding on the diversity of microbial electron uptake and metabolism. PMID:24844759

  5. Reversible and irreversible effects of nitric oxide on the soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1988-01-01

    The effects of NO on the H2-oxidizing and diaphorase activities of the soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were investigated. With fully activated enzyme, NO (8-150 nM in solution) inhibited H2 oxidation in a time- and NO-concentration-dependent process. Neither H2 nor NAD+ appeared to protect the enzyme against the inhibition. Loss of activity in the absence of an electron acceptor was about 10 times slower than under turnover conditions. The inhibition was partially reversible; approx. 50% of full activity was recoverable after removal of the NO. Recovery was slower in the absence of an electron acceptor than in the presence of H2 plus an electron acceptor. The diaphorase activity of the unactivated hydrogenase was not affected by NO concentrations of up to 200 microM in solution. Exposure of the unactivated hydrogenase to NO irreversibly inhibited the ability of the enzyme to be fully activated for H2-oxidizing activity. The enzyme also lost its ability to respond to H2 during activation in the presence of NADH. The results are interpreted in terms of a complex inhibition that displays elements of (1) a reversible slow-binding inhibition of H2-oxidizing activity, (2) an irreversible effect on H2-oxidizing activity and (30 an irreversible inhibition of a regulatory component of the enzyme. Possible sites of action for NO are discussed. PMID:3052436

  6. Enhancing hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes by heterologous expression of hydrogenase genes originated from Synechocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlu; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhang, Chuanxi; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-09-01

    The hydrogenase genes (hoxEFUYH) of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were cloned and heterologously expressed in Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC13408 for the first time in this study, and the hydrogen yield was significantly enhanced using the recombinant strain. A recombinant plasmid containing the gene in-frame with Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) gene was transformed into E. aerogenes ATCC13408 to produce a GST-fusion protein. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis confirm the successful expression of the hox genes. The hydrogenase activity of the recombinant strain is 237.6±9.3ml/(g-DW·h), which is 152% higher than the wild strain. The hydrogen yield of the recombinant strain is 298.3ml/g-glucose, which is 88% higher than the wild strain. During hydrogen fermentation, the recombinant strain produces more acetate and butyrate, but less ethanol. This is corresponding to the NADH metabolism in the cell due to the higher hydrogenase activity with the heterologous expression of hox genes. PMID:27343449

  7. Proton Reduction Using a Hydrogenase-Modified Nanoporous Black Silicon Photoelectrode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixin; Anderson, Nicholas C; Ratzloff, Michael W; Mulder, David W; Zhu, Kai; Turner, John A; Neale, Nathan R; King, Paul W; Branz, Howard M

    2016-06-15

    Metalloenzymes featuring earth-abundant metal-based cores exhibit rates for catalytic processes such as hydrogen evolution comparable to those of noble metals. Realizing these superb catalytic properties in artificial systems is challenging owing to the difficulty of effectively interfacing metalloenzymes with an electrode surface in a manner that supports efficient charge-transfer. Here, we demonstrate that a nanoporous "black" silicon (b-Si) photocathode provides a unique interface for binding an adsorbed [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzyme ([FeFe]-H2ase). The resulting [FeFe]-H2ase/b-Si photoelectrode displays a 280 mV more positive onset potential for hydrogen generation than bare b-Si without hydrogenase, similar to that observed for a b-Si/Pt photoelectrode at the same light intensity. Additionally, we show that this H2ase/b-Si electrode exhibits a turnover frequency of ≥1300 s(-1) and a turnover number above 10(7) and sustains current densities of at least 1 mA/cm(2) based on the actual surface area of the electrode (not the smaller projected geometric area), orders of magnitude greater than that observed for previous enzyme-catalyzed electrodes. While the long-term stability of hydrogenase on the b-Si surface remains too low for practical applications, this work extends the proof-of-concept that biologically derived metalloenzymes can be interfaced with inorganic substrates to support technologically relevant current densities. PMID:27219350

  8. [FeFe]-hydrogenase oxygen inactivation is initiated at the H cluster 2Fe subcluster.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kevin D; Ratzloff, Michael W; Mulder, David W; Artz, Jacob H; Ghose, Shourjo; Hoffman, Andrew; White, Spencer; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Broderick, Joan B; Bothner, Brian; King, Paul W; Peters, John W

    2015-02-11

    The [FeFe]-hydrogenase catalytic site H cluster is a complex iron sulfur cofactor that is sensitive to oxygen (O2). The O2 sensitivity is a significant barrier for production of hydrogen as an energy source in water-splitting, oxygenic systems. Oxygen reacts directly with the H cluster, which results in rapid enzyme inactivation and eventual degradation. To investigate the progression of O2-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase inactivation and the process of H cluster degradation, the highly O2-sensitive [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1 from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was exposed to defined concentrations of O2 while monitoring the loss of activity and accompanying changes in H cluster spectroscopic properties. The results indicate that H cluster degradation proceeds through a series of reactions, the extent of which depend on the initial enzyme reduction/oxidation state. The degradation process begins with O2 interacting and reacting with the 2Fe subcluster, leading to degradation of the 2Fe subcluster and leaving an inactive [4Fe-4S] subcluster state. This final inactive degradation product could be reactivated in vitro by incubation with 2Fe subcluster maturation machinery, specifically HydF(EG), which was observed by recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:25579778

  9. Inactivation of Hydrogenase in Cell-free Extracts and Whole Cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardi by Oxygen 1

    PubMed Central

    Erbes, David L.; King, Dan; Gibbs, Martin

    1979-01-01

    O2 irreversibly inactivates hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardi. The mechanism for the inactivation involves the reaction of one molecule of hydrogenase with one molecule of O2 (or two oxygen atoms) in the transition complex of the rate-limiting step. The second order rate constant for this reaction is 190 atmospheres−1 minute−1 (1.4 × 105 molar−1 minute−1). At levels above 0.01 atmosphere O2, the increased numbers of O2 molecules may compete for the site of inactivation hindering the proper orientation for inactivation of any one O2 molecule and resulting in lowered rates of inactivation. CO is a reversible inhibitor of hydrogenase acting competitively against H2. The Ki for CO is 0.0010 atmosphere. CO antagonizes O2 inactivation. In a period when complete inactivation by O2 would usually occur, the presence of CO greatly reduces the inactivation rate. After 3 hours of adaptation in whole cells, the presence of H2 lowers the rate of deadaptation of hydrogenase. Inasmuch as H2 promotes increased O2 uptake the cellular concentration of O2 is likely to be lower. After 48 hours of adaptation O2 uptake is reduced even when H2 is present and the pattern of deadaptation under O2 with and without H2 and CO is qualitatively the same as observed for the inactivation of cell-free hydrogenase. The mechanism of inactivation of cell-free hydrogenase by O2 may be the same as the mechanism for loss of hydrogenase during deadaptation in whole algal cells. PMID:16660871

  10. Probing the origin of the metabolic precursor of the CO ligand in the catalytic center of [NiFe] hydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Bürstel, Ingmar; Hummel, Philipp; Siebert, Elisabeth; Wisitruangsakul, Nattawadee; Zebger, Ingo; Friedrich, Bärbel; Lenz, Oliver

    2011-12-30

    The O(2)-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases of Ralstonia eutropha are capable of H(2) conversion in the presence of ambient O(2). Oxygen represents not only a challenge for catalysis but also for the complex assembling process of the [NiFe] active site. Apart from nickel and iron, the catalytic center contains unusual diatomic ligands, namely two cyanides (CN(-)) and one carbon monoxide (CO), which are coordinated to the iron. One of the open questions of the maturation process concerns the origin and biosynthesis of the CO group. Isotope labeling in combination with infrared spectroscopy revealed that externally supplied gaseous (13)CO serves as precursor of the carbonyl group of the regulatory [NiFe] hydrogenase in R. eutropha. Corresponding (13)CO titration experiments showed that a concentration 130-fold higher than ambient CO (0.1 ppmv) caused a 50% labeling of the carbonyl ligand in the [NiFe] hydrogenase, leading to the conclusion that the carbonyl ligand originates from an intracellular metabolite. A novel setup allowed us to the study effects of CO depletion on maturation in vivo. Upon induction of CO depletion by addition of the CO scavenger PdCl(2), cells cultivated on H(2), CO(2), and O(2) showed severe growth retardation at low cell concentrations, which was on the basis of partially arrested hydrogenase maturation, leading to reduced hydrogenase activity. This suggests gaseous CO as a metabolic precursor under these conditions. The addition of PdCl(2) to cells cultivated heterotrophically on organic substrates had no effect on hydrogenase maturation. These results indicate at least two different pathways for biosynthesis of the CO ligand of [NiFe] hydrogenase. PMID:22049085

  11. Probing the Origin of the Metabolic Precursor of the CO Ligand in the Catalytic Center of [NiFe] Hydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Bürstel, Ingmar; Hummel, Philipp; Siebert, Elisabeth; Wisitruangsakul, Nattawadee; Zebger, Ingo; Friedrich, Bärbel; Lenz, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases of Ralstonia eutropha are capable of H2 conversion in the presence of ambient O2. Oxygen represents not only a challenge for catalysis but also for the complex assembling process of the [NiFe] active site. Apart from nickel and iron, the catalytic center contains unusual diatomic ligands, namely two cyanides (CN−) and one carbon monoxide (CO), which are coordinated to the iron. One of the open questions of the maturation process concerns the origin and biosynthesis of the CO group. Isotope labeling in combination with infrared spectroscopy revealed that externally supplied gaseous 13CO serves as precursor of the carbonyl group of the regulatory [NiFe] hydrogenase in R. eutropha. Corresponding 13CO titration experiments showed that a concentration 130-fold higher than ambient CO (0.1 ppmv) caused a 50% labeling of the carbonyl ligand in the [NiFe] hydrogenase, leading to the conclusion that the carbonyl ligand originates from an intracellular metabolite. A novel setup allowed us to the study effects of CO depletion on maturation in vivo. Upon induction of CO depletion by addition of the CO scavenger PdCl2, cells cultivated on H2, CO2, and O2 showed severe growth retardation at low cell concentrations, which was on the basis of partially arrested hydrogenase maturation, leading to reduced hydrogenase activity. This suggests gaseous CO as a metabolic precursor under these conditions. The addition of PdCl2 to cells cultivated heterotrophically on organic substrates had no effect on hydrogenase maturation. These results indicate at least two different pathways for biosynthesis of the CO ligand of [NiFe] hydrogenase. PMID:22049085

  12. Synthesis, structure and geometrically frustrated magnetism of the layered oxide-stannide compounds Fe(Fe3-xMnx)Si2Sn7O16.

    PubMed

    Allison, M C; Avdeev, M; Schmid, S; Liu, S; Söhnel, T; Ling, C D

    2016-06-21

    Fe4Si2Sn7O16 has a unique crystal structure that contains alternating layers of Fe(2+) ions octahedrally coordinated by O (oxide layer) and Sn (stannide layer), bridged by SiO4 tetrahedra. The formula can be written as FeFe3Si2Sn7O16 to emphasise the distinction between the layers. Here, we report the changes in structure and properties as iron is selectively replaced by manganese in the oxide layer. Solid-state synthesis was used to produce polycrystalline samples of Fe(Fe3-xMnx)Si2Sn7O16 for x≤ 2.55, the structures of which were characterised using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Single-crystal samples were also grown at x = 0.35, 0.95, 2.60 and characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction. We show that manganese is doped exclusively into the oxide layer, and that this layer contains exclusively magnetically active high-spin M(2+) transition metal cations; while the stannide layer only accommodates non-magnetic low-spin Fe(2+). All samples show clear evidence of geometrically frustrated magnetism, which we associate with the fact that the topology of the high-spin M(2+) ions in the oxide layer describes a perfect kagomé lattice. Despite this frustration, the x = 0 and x = 2.55 samples undergo long-range antiferromagnetic ordering transitions at 3.0 K and 2.5 K, respectively. PMID:27225937

  13. [NiFe]-hydrogenases revisited: nickel-carboxamido bond formation in a variant with accrued O2-tolerance and a tentative re-interpretation of Ni-SI states.

    PubMed

    Volbeda, Anne; Martin, Lydie; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; De Lacey, Antonio L; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C

    2015-04-01

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases are well-studied enzymes capable of oxidizing molecular hydrogen and reducing protons. EPR and FTIR spectroscopic studies have shown that these enzymes can be isolated in several redox states that include paramagnetic oxidized inactive Ni-A and Ni-B species and a reduced Ni-C form. The latter and the diamagnetic respectively more oxidized Ni-SI and more reduced Ni-R forms are generally thought to be involved in the catalytic cycle of [NiFe]-hydrogenases. With the exception of Ni-SI, these different stable states have been well characterized. Here, based on the crystal structure of a partially reduced Desulfovibrio fructosovorans (Df) enzyme and data from the literature we propose that at least one of the Ni-SI sub-states contains an unexpected combination of hydride and sulfenic acid moieties. We have also determined the structure of the less oxygen-sensitive Df [NiFe]-hydrogenase V74C mutant and found that more than half of the active site nickel occupies a novel position, called Ni'. In this new position, the metal ion is coordinated by two cysteine thiolates, a bridging species modeled as SH(-) and a main chain carboxamido N atom. The Ni' coordination is similar to the one found in Ni superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that operates at significantly more positive potentials than [NiFe]-hydrogenases. We propose that the oxygen-tolerance of the V74C variant results from a high potential stabilization of a Ni'(iii) species induced by the change in the metal ion coordination sphere. We also propose that transient Ni'(iii) species can rapidly attract successive electrons from the Fe4S4 proximal cluster accelerating the reduction of oxygen to water and hydroxide. The naturally occurring oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases have an unusual proximal cluster that has been shown to be exceptionally plastic and capable of undergoing two successive one-electron oxidations. This double oxidation is modulated by the migration of one of the iron atoms in the

  14. Halotolerant and Resistant to High pH Hydrogenase from Haloalkaliphilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfonatronum thiodismutans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detkova, Ekaterina N.; Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogenase is the key enzyme of energetic metabolism in cells, it catalyzing the converse reaction of hydrogen oxidation and responsible for consumption and excretion of hydrogen in bacteria. Hydrogenases are proteins containing either Nickel and Iron, or the only Iron in theirs active center. Hydrogenases have been found in many microorganisms, such as Methanogenic, acetogenic, nitrogen-fixing, photosynthetic and sulfate-reducing bacteria that could utilize the hydrogen as energy source or use it as electron sink. Hydrogenases are subject for wide physiological, biochemical, physicochemical and genetic studies due to theirs abilities produce the molecular hydrogen as alternative source of pure energy. Notwithstanding on enough large quantity of works that deal with intracellular and extrasellular enzymes of halophilic bacteria, the data about hydrogenases and theirs functions of salts practically are absent. The study of hydrogenase in cell-free extracts of extremely halophilic eubacterium Acetohalobium mabaticum showed dramatic increasing activity of the enzyme at high concentrations of NaCl and KCI (close to saturated solution). Here we present the data of free-cells extracted hydrogenase from new haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfonatronum thiodismutans, which grow on highly miniralized carbonate-bicarbonate medium in salinity range 1 to 7 % and at pH 7.8 - 10.5. Studied enzyme was active in Concentration range from 0 to 4.3 M NaCl with optimum at 1.0 M NaCl. At 1.0 M NaCl the enzyme activity was increased on 20 %, but with changing concentration from 2.1 M to 3.4 M the activity decreased and was kept on constant level. NaHCO3 inhibited hydrogenase activity on more then 30 %. The maximum of enzyme activity was observed at pH 9.5 with limits 7.5 and 11.5 that practically equal to pH optimum of bacterial growth. Therefore the hydrogenase of Desulfanatronum thiodismutans is tolerant to high concentrations of sodium salts and it also resistant to

  15. Genomic and metagenomic surveys of hydrogenase distribution indicate H2 is a widely utilised energy source for microbial growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Greening, Chris; Biswas, Ambarish; Carere, Carlo R; Jackson, Colin J; Taylor, Matthew C; Stott, Matthew B; Cook, Gregory M; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-03-01

    Recent physiological and ecological studies have challenged the long-held belief that microbial metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2) is a niche process. To gain a broader insight into the importance of microbial H2 metabolism, we comprehensively surveyed the genomic and metagenomic distribution of hydrogenases, the reversible enzymes that catalyse the oxidation and evolution of H2. The protein sequences of 3286 non-redundant putative hydrogenases were curated from publicly available databases. These metalloenzymes were classified into multiple groups based on (1) amino acid sequence phylogeny, (2) metal-binding motifs, (3) predicted genetic organisation and (4) reported biochemical characteristics. Four groups (22 subgroups) of [NiFe]-hydrogenase, three groups (6 subtypes) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and a small group of [Fe]-hydrogenases were identified. We predict that this hydrogenase diversity supports H2-based respiration, fermentation and carbon fixation processes in both oxic and anoxic environments, in addition to various H2-sensing, electron-bifurcation and energy-conversion mechanisms. Hydrogenase-encoding genes were identified in 51 bacterial and archaeal phyla, suggesting strong pressure for both vertical and lateral acquisition. Furthermore, hydrogenase genes could be recovered from diverse terrestrial, aquatic and host-associated metagenomes in varying proportions, indicating a broad ecological distribution and utilisation. Oxygen content (pO2) appears to be a central factor driving the phylum- and ecosystem-level distribution of these genes. In addition to compounding evidence that H2 was the first electron donor for life, our analysis suggests that the great diversification of hydrogenases has enabled H2 metabolism to sustain the growth or survival of microorganisms in a wide range of ecosystems to the present day. This work also provides a comprehensive expanded system for classifying hydrogenases and identifies new prospects for investigating H2

  16. Novel [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts indicative of active facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes in earthworm gut contents.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Wüst, Pia K; Hellmuth, Susanne; Borst, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2011-09-01

    The concomitant occurrence of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) and organic acids along the alimentary canal of the earthworm is indicative of ongoing fermentation during gut passage. Fermentative H(2) production is catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases and group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenases in obligate anaerobes (e.g., Clostridiales) and facultative aerobes (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), respectively, functional groups that might respond differently to contrasting redox conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the redox potentials of the alimentary canal of Lumbricus terrestris and analyze the hydrogenase transcript diversities of H(2) producers in glucose-supplemented gut content microcosms. Although redox potentials in the core of the alimentary canal were variable on an individual worm basis, average redox potentials were similar. The lowest redox potentials occurred in the foregut and midgut regions, averaging 40 and 110 mV, respectively. Correlation plots between hydrogenase amino acid sequences and 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that closely related hydrogenases belonged to closely related taxa, whereas distantly related hydrogenases did not necessarily belong to distantly related taxa. Of 178 [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 177 clustered in 12 Clostridiales-affiliated operational taxonomic units, the majority of which were indicative of heretofore unknown hydrogenases. Of 86 group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 79% and 21% were affiliated with organisms in the Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae, respectively. The collective results (i) suggest that fermenters must cope with variable and moderately oxidative redox conditions along the alimentary canal, (ii) demonstrate that heretofore undetected hydrogenases are present in the earthworm gut, and (iii) corroborate previous findings implicating Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermentative taxa in earthworm gut content. PMID:21784904

  17. Novel [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts Indicative of Active Facultative Aerobes and Obligate Anaerobes in Earthworm Gut Contents▿†

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Oliver; Wüst, Pia K.; Hellmuth, Susanne; Borst, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A.; Drake, Harold L.

    2011-01-01

    The concomitant occurrence of molecular hydrogen (H2) and organic acids along the alimentary canal of the earthworm is indicative of ongoing fermentation during gut passage. Fermentative H2 production is catalyzed by [FeFe]-hydrogenases and group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenases in obligate anaerobes (e.g., Clostridiales) and facultative aerobes (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), respectively, functional groups that might respond differently to contrasting redox conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the redox potentials of the alimentary canal of Lumbricus terrestris and analyze the hydrogenase transcript diversities of H2 producers in glucose-supplemented gut content microcosms. Although redox potentials in the core of the alimentary canal were variable on an individual worm basis, average redox potentials were similar. The lowest redox potentials occurred in the foregut and midgut regions, averaging 40 and 110 mV, respectively. Correlation plots between hydrogenase amino acid sequences and 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that closely related hydrogenases belonged to closely related taxa, whereas distantly related hydrogenases did not necessarily belong to distantly related taxa. Of 178 [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 177 clustered in 12 Clostridiales-affiliated operational taxonomic units, the majority of which were indicative of heretofore unknown hydrogenases. Of 86 group 4 [NiFe]-hydrogenase gene transcripts, 79% and 21% were affiliated with organisms in the Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae, respectively. The collective results (i) suggest that fermenters must cope with variable and moderately oxidative redox conditions along the alimentary canal, (ii) demonstrate that heretofore undetected hydrogenases are present in the earthworm gut, and (iii) corroborate previous findings implicating Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae as active fermentative taxa in earthworm gut content. PMID:21784904

  18. Photoelectrochemical H2 Evolution with a Hydrogenase Immobilized on a TiO2 -Protected Silicon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Park, Hyun S; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-05-10

    The combination of enzymes with semiconductors enables the photoelectrochemical characterization of electron-transfer processes at highly active and well-defined catalytic sites on a light-harvesting electrode surface. Herein, we report the integration of a hydrogenase on a TiO2 -coated p-Si photocathode for the photo-reduction of protons to H2 . The immobilized hydrogenase exhibits activity on Si attributable to a bifunctional TiO2 layer, which protects the Si electrode from oxidation and acts as a biocompatible support layer for the productive adsorption of the enzyme. The p-Si|TiO2 |hydrogenase photocathode displays visible-light driven production of H2 at an energy-storing, positive electrochemical potential and an essentially quantitative faradaic efficiency. We have thus established a widely applicable platform to wire redox enzymes in an active configuration on a p-type semiconductor photocathode through the engineering of the enzyme-materials interface. PMID:27061334

  19. Metabolic control of Clostridium thermocellum via inhibition of hydrogenase activity and the glucose transport rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsin-Fen; Knutson, Barbara L; Nokes, Sue E; Lynn, Bert C; Flythe, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the ability to catabolize cellulosic biomass into ethanol, but acetic acid, lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen gas (H(2)) are also produced. The effect of hydrogenase inhibitors (H(2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methyl viologen) on product selectivity was investigated. The anticipated effect of these hydrogenase inhibitors was to decrease acetate production. However, shifts to ethanol and lactate production are also observed as a function of cultivation conditions. When the sparge gas of cellobiose-limited chemostat cultures was switched from N(2) to H(2), acetate declined, and ethanol production increased 350%. In resting cell suspensions, lactate increased when H(2) or CO was the inhibitor or when the cells were held at elevated hyperbaric pressure (6.8 atm). In contrast, methyl-viologen-treated resting cells produced twice as much ethanol as the other treatments. The relationship of chemostat physiology to methyl viologen inhibition was revealed by glucose transport experiments, in which methyl viologen decreased the rate of glucose transport by 90%. C. thermocellum produces NAD(+) from NADH by H(2), lactate, and ethanol production. When the hydrogenases were inhibited, the latter two products increased. However, excess substrate availability causes fructose 1,6-diphosphate, the glycolytic intermediate that triggers lactate production, to increase. Compensatory ethanol production was observed when the chemostat fluid dilution rate or methyl viologen decreased substrate transport. This research highlights the complex effects of high concentrations of dissolved gases in fermentation, which are increasingly envisioned in microbial applications of H(2) production for the conversion of synthetic gases to chemicals. PMID:22218768

  20. Purification and properties of the membrane-bound by hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.

    PubMed

    Lalla-Maharajh, W V; Hall, D O; Cammack, R; Rao, K K; Le Gall, J

    1983-02-01

    The membrane-bound hydrogenase from the anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (Norway strain) has been purified to homogeneity, with an overall 80-fold purification and a specific activity of 70 mumol of H2 evolved/min per mg of protein. The hydrogenase had a relative molecular mass of 58 000 as determined by gel filtration and was estimated to contain six iron atoms and six acid-labile sulphur groups per molecule. The absorption spectrum of the enzyme was characteristic of an iron-sulphur protein. The E400 and E280 were 28 500 and 109 000 M-1.cm-1 respectively. The e.s.r. of the oxidized protein indicated the presence of [4Fe-4S]3+ or [3Fe-3S]3+, and another paramagnetic centre, probably Ni(III). The hydrogenase was inhibited by heavy-metal salts, carbon monoxide and high ionic strength. However, it was resistant to inhibition by thiol-blocking and metal-complexing reagents. N-Bromosuccinimide totally inhibited the enzyme activity at low concentrations. The enzyme was stable to O2 over long periods and to high temperatures. It catalyses both H2-evolution and H2-uptake with a variety of artificial electron carriers. D. desulfuricans cytochrome C3, its natural electron carrier, had a high affinity for the enzyme (Km = 2 microns). Rate enhancement was observed when cytochrome C3 was added to Methyl Viologen in the H2-evolution assay. The pH optimum for H2-evolution was 6.5. PMID:6303306

  1. Hydrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense is inhibited by nitrite, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Tibelius, K.H.; Knowles, R.

    1984-10-01

    Nitrite, NO, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibited O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake (H/sup 3/H oxidation) in denitrifying Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 grown anaerobically on N/sub 2/O or NO/sub 3//sup -/. The apparent K/sub i/ values for inhibition of O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake were 20 ..mu..M for NO/sub 2//sup -/, 0.4 ..mu..M for NO, 28 ..mu..M for CO, and 88 ..mu..M for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/. These inhibitors also affected methylene blue-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake, presumably by acting directly on the hydrogenase. Nitrite and NO inhibited H/sub 2/ uptake irreversibly, whereas inhibition due to CO was easily reversed by repeatedly evacuating and backfilling with N/sub 2/. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibition was not readily reversed, partly due to difficulty in removing the last traces of this gas from solution. The NO/sub 2//sup -/ inhibition of malate-dependent respiration was readily reversed by repeatedly washing the cells, in contrast to the effect of NO/sub 2//sup -/ on H/sub 2/-dependent respiration. These results suggest that the low hydrogenase activities observed in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cultures of A. brasilense may be due to the irreversible inhibition of hydrogenase by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and NO produced by NO/sub 3//sup -/ reduction.

  2. A Redox Active [2Fe-2S] Cluster on the Hydrogenase Maturase HydF.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Eric M; Byer, Amanda S; Betz, Jeremiah N; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

    2016-06-28

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases are nature's most prolific hydrogen catalysts, excelling at facilely interconverting H2 and protons. The catalytic core common to all [FeFe]-hydrogenases is a complex metallocofactor, referred to as the H-cluster, which is composed of a standard [4Fe-4S] cluster linked through a bridging thiolate to a 2Fe subcluster harboring dithiomethylamine, carbon monoxide, and cyanide ligands. This 2Fe subcluster is synthesized and inserted into [FeFe]-hydrogenase by three maturase enzymes denoted HydE, HydF, and HydG. HydE and HydG are radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes and synthesize the nonprotein ligands of the H-cluster. HydF is a GTPase that functions as a scaffold or carrier for 2Fe subcluster production. Herein, we utilize UV-visible, circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies to establish the existence of redox active [4Fe-4S] and [2Fe-2S] clusters bound to HydF. We have used spectroelectrochemical titrations to assign iron-sulfur cluster midpoint potentials, have shown that HydF purifies with a reduced [2Fe-2S] cluster in the absence of exogenous reducing agents, and have tracked iron-sulfur cluster spectroscopic changes with quaternary structural perturbations. Our results provide an important foundation for understanding the maturation process by defining the iron-sulfur cluster content of HydF prior to its interaction with HydE and HydG. We speculate that the [2Fe-2S] cluster of HydF either acts as a placeholder for HydG-derived Fe(CO)2CN species or serves as a scaffold for 2Fe subcluster assembly. PMID:27232385

  3. Synthesis and decarbonylation reactions of the triiron phosphinidene complex [Fe3Cp3(μ-H)(μ3-PPh)(CO)4]: easy cleavage and formation of P-H and Fe-Fe bonds.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Celedonio M; Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; González, Rocío; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2011-11-01

    The binuclear phosphine complex [Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(2)(CO)(PH(2)Ph)] (Cp = η(5)-C(5)H(5)) reacted with the acetonitrile adduct [Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(2)(CO)(NCMe)] in dichloromethane at 293 K to give the trinuclear hydride-phosphinidene derivative [Fe(3)Cp(3)(μ-H)(μ(3)-PPh)(CO)(4)] as a mixture of cis,anti and trans isomers (Fe-Fe = 2.7217(6) Å for the cis,anti isomer). In contrast, photochemical treatment of the phosphine complex with [Fe(2)Cp(2)(CO)(4)] gave the phosphide-bridged complex trans-[Fe(3)Cp(3)(μ-PHPh)(μ-CO)(2)(CO)(3)] as the major product, along with small amounts of the binuclear hydride-phosphide complexes [Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-H)(μ-PHPh)(CO)(2)] (cis and trans isomers), which are more selectively prepared from [Fe(2)Cp(2)(CO)(4)] and PH(2)Ph at 388 K. The photochemical decarbonylation of either of the mentioned triiron compounds led reversibly to three different products depending on the reaction conditions: (a) the 48-electron phosphinidene cluster [Fe(3)Cp(3)(μ-H)(μ(3)-PPh)(μ-CO)(2)] (Fe-Fe = 2.592(2)-2.718(2) Å); (b) the 50-electron complex [Fe(3)Cp(3)(μ-H)(μ(3)-PPh)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)], also having carbonyl- and hydride-bridged metal-metal bonds (Fe-Fe = 2.6177(3) and 2.7611(4) Å, respectively); and (c) the 48-electron phosphide cluster [Fe(3)Cp(3)(μ-PHPh)(μ(3)-CO)(μ-CO)(2)], an isomer of the latter phosphinidene complex now having three intermetallic bonds (Fe-Fe = 2.5332(8)-2.6158(8) Å). PMID:21981036

  4. Molecular detection of the clostridia in an anaerobic biohydrogen fermentation system by hydrogenase mRNA-targeted reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Jen; Chen, Wei-En; Shih, Shiou-Yun; Yu, Sian-Jhong; Lay, Jiunn-Jyi; Wen, Fu-Shyan; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2006-05-01

    Molecular biological approaches were developed to monitor the potential biohydrogen-producing clostridia in an anaerobic semisolid fermentation system that used brewery yeast waste as the fermentation substrate. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with 16S rDNA gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to confirm the existence of clostridia in the system. Remarkably, reproducible nucleotide sequences of clostridia were obtained from different hydrogen production stages by using hydrogenase gene-targeted reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. These RNA-based information suggested that the predominant hydrogen-producing strains possess either a specific Clostridium pasteurianum-like or a specific Clostridium saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase sequence. Comparison of the hydrogenase gene-targeted sequence profiles between PCR and RT-PCR revealed that the specific C. pasteurianum-like hydrogenase harboring bacterial strains were dominant in both mRNA and bacterial population level. On the other hand, the specific C. saccharobutylicum-like hydrogenase harboring strains expressed high level of hydrogenase mRNA but may not be dominant in population. Furthermore, quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed the expression pattern of the clostridial hydrogenase mRNA and may serve as an activity index for the system. PMID:16217655

  5. The AbrB2 Autorepressor, Expressed from an Atypical Promoter, Represses the Hydrogenase Operon To Regulate Hydrogen Production in Synechocystis Strain PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Dutheil, Jérémy; Saenkham, Panatda; Sakr, Samer; Leplat, Christophe; Ortega-Ramos, Marcia; Bottin, Hervé; Cournac, Laurent; Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    We have thoroughly investigated the abrB2 gene (sll0822) encoding an AbrB-like regulator in the wild-type strain of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC6803. We report that abrB2 is expressed from an active but atypical promoter that possesses an extended −10 element (TGTAATAT) that compensates for the absence of a −35 box. Strengthening the biological significance of these data, we found that the occurrence of an extended −10 promoter box and the absence of a −35 element are two well-conserved features in abrB2 genes from other cyanobacteria. We also show that AbrB2 is an autorepressor that is dispensable to cell growth under standard laboratory conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AbrB2 also represses the hox operon, which encodes the Ni-Fe hydrogenase of biotechnological interest, and that the hox operon is weakly expressed even though it possesses the two sequences resembling canonical −10 and −35 promoter boxes. In both the AbrB2-repressed promoters of the abrB2 gene and the hox operon, we found a repeated DNA motif [TT-(N5)-AAC], which could be involved in AbrB2 repression. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that a TT-to-GG mutation of one of these elements increased the activity of the abrB2 promoter. We think that our abrB2-deleted mutant with increased expression of the hox operon and hydrogenase activity, together with the reporter plasmids we constructed to analyze the abrB2 gene and the hox operon, will serve as useful tools to decipher the function and the regulation of hydrogen production in Synechocystis. PMID:22865847

  6. How oxygen reacts with oxygen-tolerant respiratory [NiFe]-hydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Philip; Day, Christopher C; Sargent, Frank; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2014-05-01

    An oxygen-tolerant respiratory [NiFe]-hydrogenase is proven to be a four-electron hydrogen/oxygen oxidoreductase, catalyzing the reaction 2 H2 + O2 = 2 H2O, equivalent to hydrogen combustion, over a sustained period without inactivating. At least 86% of the H2O produced by Escherichia coli hydrogenase-1 exposed to a mixture of 90% H2 and 10% O2 is accounted for by a direct four-electron pathway, whereas up to 14% arises from slower side reactions proceeding via superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The direct pathway is assigned to O2 reduction at the [NiFe] active site, whereas the side reactions are an unavoidable consequence of the presence of low-potential relay centers that release electrons derived from H2 oxidation. The oxidase activity is too slow to be useful in removing O2 from the bacterial periplasm; instead, the four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to harmless water ensures that the active site survives to catalyze sustained hydrogen oxidation. PMID:24715724

  7. Stepwise isotope editing of [FeFe]-hydrogenases exposes cofactor dynamics.

    PubMed

    Senger, Moritz; Mebs, Stefan; Duan, Jifu; Wittkamp, Florian; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Heberle, Joachim; Haumann, Michael; Stripp, Sven Timo

    2016-07-26

    The six-iron cofactor of [FeFe]-hydrogenases (H-cluster) is the most efficient H2-forming catalyst in nature. It comprises a diiron active site with three carbon monoxide (CO) and two cyanide (CN(-)) ligands in the active oxidized state (Hox) and one additional CO ligand in the inhibited state (Hox-CO). The diatomic ligands are sensitive reporter groups for structural changes of the cofactor. Their vibrational dynamics were monitored by real-time attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Combination of (13)CO gas exposure, blue or red light irradiation, and controlled hydration of three different [FeFe]-hydrogenase proteins produced 8 Hox and 16 Hox-CO species with all possible isotopic exchange patterns. Extensive density functional theory calculations revealed the vibrational mode couplings of the carbonyl ligands and uniquely assigned each infrared spectrum to a specific labeling pattern. For Hox-CO, agreement between experimental and calculated infrared frequencies improved by up to one order of magnitude for an apical CN(-) at the distal iron ion of the cofactor as opposed to an apical CO. For Hox, two equally probable isomers with partially rotated ligands were suggested. Interconversion between these structures implies dynamic ligand reorientation at the H-cluster. Our experimental protocol for site-selective (13)CO isotope editing combined with computational species assignment opens new perspectives for characterization of functional intermediates in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27432985

  8. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Gee, Leland B; Scott, Aubrey D; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the (57)Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique 'wagging' mode involving H(-) motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)(57)Fe plane was studied using (57)Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)(57)Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe-CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)(57)Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)(57)Fe(CO)3](+) and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H(-) binding Ni more tightly than Fe. The present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe-H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts. PMID:26259066

  9. Electron transfer activation of a second water channel for proton transport in [FeFe]-hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.

    2014-12-14

    Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton transport mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with electron transport to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton transport mechanisms of the enzyme in different electronic states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single electronic state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be transported with a low free energy barrier. The remaining electronic states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton transport in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton transport in electronic state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.

  10. Hydride bridge in [NiFe]-hydrogenase observed by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Hideaki; Krämer, Tobias; Wang, Hongxin; Schilter, David; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Gee, Leland B.; Scott, Aubrey D.; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2015-08-01

    The metabolism of many anaerobes relies on [NiFe]-hydrogenases, whose characterization when bound to substrates has proven non-trivial. Presented here is direct evidence for a hydride bridge in the active site of the 57Fe-labelled fully reduced Ni-R form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F [NiFe]-hydrogenase. A unique `wagging' mode involving H- motion perpendicular to the Ni(μ-H)57Fe plane was studied using 57Fe-specific nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On Ni(μ-D)57Fe deuteride substitution, this wagging causes a characteristic perturbation of Fe-CO/CN bands. Spectra have been interpreted by comparison with Ni(μ-H/D)57Fe enzyme mimics [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H/D)57Fe(CO)3]+ and DFT calculations, which collectively indicate a low-spin Ni(II)(μ-H)Fe(II) core for Ni-R, with H- binding Ni more tightly than Fe. The present methodology is also relevant to characterizing Fe-H moieties in other important natural and synthetic catalysts.