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Sample records for feline leukemia viruses

  1. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  3. Properties of feline leukemia virus. III. Analysis of the RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Brian, D A; Thomason, A R; Rottman, F M; Velicer, L F

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of virus labeling was used to study the maturation of viral RNA in the Rickard strain of feline leukemia virus. Viral RNA labeled over differing intervals was characterized by gel electrophoresis and velocity sedimentation in sucrose gradients made up in aqueous buffer and 99% dimethyl sulfoxide. Labeled virus was found within 30 min after adding radioactive uridine to the cells and production of labeled virus reached a maximum at 4 to 5 h after pulse labeling. Native RNA from feline leukemia virus resolved into three size classes when analyzed by electrophoresis on 2.0% polyacrylamide-0.5% agarose gels: a 6.2 x 10(6) to 7.1 x 10(6) mol wt (50 to 60S) class, an 8.7 x 10(4) mol wt (approximately 8S) class, and a 2.5 x 10(4) mol wt (4 to 5S) class. From two experiments during which RNA degradation appeared minimal, these made up to 57 to 76%, 2 to 5%, and 6 to 12%, respectively, of the total RNA. The 8S RNA in feline leukemia virus has not previously been reported. The 50 to 60S RNA from virus harvested after 4 h of labeling electrophoretically migrated faster and sedimented more slowly in sucrose gradients than did the same RNA species harvested after 20 h of labeling. This argues for an intravirion modification of the high-molecular-weight RNA. The large subunits of denatured viral RNA from both 4- and 20-h labeled-viral RNA electrophoretically migrated with an estimated molecular weight of 3.2 x 10(6) but sedimented with 28S ribosomal RNA (1.8 X 10(6) mol wt) when analyzed by velocity sedimentation through 99% dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:169389

  4. Genotyping of feline leukemia virus in Mexican housecats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Hugo; Autran, Marcela; García, M Martha; Carmona, M Ángel; Rodríguez, Cecilia; Martínez, H Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with variable rates of infection globally. DNA was obtained from cats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proviral DNA of pol and env genes was detected using PCR. Seventy-six percent of cats scored positive for FeLV using env-PCR; and 54 %, by pol-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of both regions identified sequences that correspond to a group that includes endogenous retroviruses. They form an independent branch and, therefore, a new group of endogenous viruses. Cat gender, age, outdoor access, and cohabitation with other cats were found to be significant risk factors associated with the disease. This strongly suggests that these FeLV genotypes are widely distributed in the studied feline population in Mexico. PMID:26747244

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  6. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  7. Anemia associated with feline leukemia virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L; Jarrett, W; Jarrett, O; Laird, H

    1975-01-01

    The types of anemia associated with natural and experimental feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats were investigated. In one experiment, 10 kittens were inoculated neonatally with Jarrett FeLV-1, an isolate of subgroup A; 6 developed anemia a few weeks later. This anemia was characterized by macrocytosis, normoblastosis, increased erythropoiesis in the bone marrow, and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Anemia was transient and nonfatal and occurred before the onset of lympoid malignancy. The same type of anemia was also seen in 9 of 24 kittens inoculated with Jarrett FeLV-9 of subgroups A and B. A different form of anemai occurred in another experiment in which 10 kittens were inoculated with FeLV-C of subgroup C only. All 10 kittens developed a profound aplastic or erythroblastopenic anemia in which the bone marrow became depleted of erythroid tissue; all kittens died within 16 weeks, most as a direct result of anemia. In an experiment in which kittens were inoculated with FeLV-B of subgroup B only, no kitten showed anemia. Cats with naturally acquired, nonleukemic lymphosarcoma were also studied. Of 33 lymphosarcomas in which myelophthisis was excluded as a cause, 54% of the affected cats had anemia, the features of which were consistent with hemolytic origin. When virus could be grown from these lymphosarcomas, it was of subgroup A alone or a combination of A and B. With one exception, anemic cats had low or negative titers to feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigens. Until more isolates have been tested, it is not known if the various hematologic changes reflected differences in the pathogenic effects of the subgroups of the virus or of types of strains within them. PMID:163317

  8. Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Greggs, Willie M.; Clouser, Christine L.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is a significant cause of neoplastic-related disorders affecting cats worldwide. Treatment options for FeLV are limited, associated with serious side effects, and can be cost-prohibitive. The development of drugs used to treat a related retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has been rapid, leading to the approval of five drug classes. Although structural differences affect the susceptibility of gammaretroviruses to anti-HIV drugs, the similarities in mechanism of replication suggest that some anti-HIV-1 drugs may also inhibit FeLV. This study demonstrates the anti-FeLV activity of four drugs approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) at non-toxic concentrations. Of these, tenofovir and raltegravir are anti-HIV-1 drugs, while decitabine and gemcitabine are approved to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and pancreatic cancer, respectively, but also have anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture. Our results indicate that these drugs may be useful for FeLV treatment and should be investigated for mechanism of action and suitability for veterinary use. PMID:22258856

  9. Genetic diversity in the feline leukemia virus gag gene.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Maki; Watanabe, Shinya; Odahara, Yuka; Nakagawa, So; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belongs to the Gammaretrovirus genus and is horizontally transmitted among cats. FeLV is known to undergo recombination with endogenous retroviruses already present in the host during FeLV-subgroup A infection. Such recombinant FeLVs, designated FeLV-subgroup B or FeLV-subgroup D, can be generated by transduced endogenous retroviral env sequences encoding the viral envelope. These recombinant viruses have biologically distinct properties and may mediate different disease outcomes. The generation of such recombinant viruses resulted in structural diversity of the FeLV particle and genetic diversity of the virus itself. FeLV env diversity through mutation and recombination has been studied, while gag diversity and its possible effects are less well understood. In this study, we investigated recombination events in the gag genes of FeLVs isolated from naturally infected cats and reference isolates. Recombination and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the gag genes often contain endogenous FeLV sequences and were occasionally replaced by entire endogenous FeLV gag genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions of FeLV gag sequences allowed for classification into three distinct clusters, similar to those previously established for the env gene. Analysis of the recombination junctions in FeLV gag indicated that these variants have similar recombination patterns within the same genotypes, indicating that the recombinant viruses were horizontally transmitted among cats. It remains to be investigated whether the recombinant sequences affect the molecular mechanism of FeLV transmission. These findings extend our understanding of gammaretrovirus evolutionary patterns in the field. PMID:25892717

  10. Frequency and significance of feline leukemia virus infection in necropsied cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Theilen, G

    1987-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection was diagnosed immunohistologically on paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from 1,095 necropsied cats. Significant association of FeLV infection was demonstrated by chi 2 and Fisher's tests with various conditions and diseases (ie, anemia, tumors of the leukemia/lymphoma complex, feline infectious peritonitis, bacterial infections, emaciation, FeLV-associated enteritis, lymphatic hyperplasia, and hemorrhage). Unexpected findings associated with FeLV infection were icterus, several types of hepatitis, and liver degeneration. A negative association with FeLV infection was found for most parasitic and viral infections, including feline panleukopenia. Neither positive nor negative associations were established for FeLV infection and most forms of nephritis, including severe glomerulonephritis. Feline leukemia virus-infected cats were significantly (Kruskal-Wallis test) older than were FeLV-negative cats with the same nonneoplastic FeLV-associated diseases. PMID:3037951

  11. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  12. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:17495320

  13. Genomically intact endogenous feline leukemia viruses of recent origin.

    PubMed

    Roca, Alfred L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-04-01

    We isolated and sequenced two complete endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs), designated enFeLV-AGTT and enFeLV-GGAG. In enFeLV-AGTT, the open reading frames are reminiscent of a functioning FeLV genome, and the 5' and 3' long terminal repeat sequences are identical. Neither endogenous provirus is genetically fixed in cats but polymorphic, with 8.9 and 15.2% prevalence for enFeLV-AGTT and enFeLV-GGAG, respectively, among a survey of domestic cats. Neither provirus was found in the genomes of related species of the Felis genus, previously shown to harbor enFeLVs. The absence of mutational divergence, polymorphic incidence in cats, and absence in related species suggest that these enFeLVs may have entered the germ line more recently than previously believed, perhaps coincident with domestication, and reopens the question of whether some enFeLVs might be replication competent. PMID:15047851

  14. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Colin-Flores, Rafael F; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2014-06-01

    Several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. Blood samples from 227 owned cats in Merida, Mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody. Serological detection of FeLV and D immitis antigens, and FIV antibodies was performed using the commercial kit SNAP Feline Triple Test. The prevalence was found to be 7.5% for FeLV, 2.5% for FIV and 0% for D immitis. Adult cats were at a higher risk of coming into contact with FeLV (P <0.01) than younger cats. Owing to its low prevalence, a risk factor analysis was not performed for FIV. The prevalence of retroviral infections found in this study was low, but within the limits reported in the different geographical areas of the world. Cases of filariosis in the domestic cats of Merida, Mexico, may be absent or very low; however, the low sample size may have influenced these results. PMID:24196568

  15. Overexpression of feline tripartite motif-containing 25 interferes with the late stage of feline leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Koba, Ryota; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) regulates various cellular processes through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of TRIM25 is induced by type I interferon and that TRIM25 is involved in the host cellular innate immune response against retroviral infection. Although retroviral infection is prevalent in domestic cats, the roles of feline TRIM25 in the immune response against these viral infections are poorly understood. Because feline TRIM25 is expected to modulate the infection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), we investigated its effects on early- and late-stage FeLV replication. This study revealed that ectopic expression of feline TRIM25 in HEK293T cells reduced viral protein levels leading to the inhibition of FeLV release. Our findings show that feline TRIM25 has a potent antiviral activity and implicate an antiviral mechanism whereby feline TRIM25 interferes with late-stage FeLV replication. PMID:25913257

  16. Detection of Feline leukemia virus in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Inés; Doménech, Ana; García-Montijano, Marino; Collado, Victorio M; Sánchez, Celia; Tejerizo, J German; Galka, Margarita; Fernández, Pilar; Gómez-Lucía, Esperanza

    2008-05-01

    Feline retroviruses are rarely reported in lynx species. Twenty-one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) blood and tissue samples collected from Doñana National Park and Los Villares (Sierra Morena) in southern Spain during 1993-2003 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to amplify nucleic acids from feline retroviruses. Six samples were positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), but no samples tested positive for Feline immunodeficiency virus. The BLAST analysis indicated that 5 of the 6 sequences were closely related to FeLV strain Rickard subgroup A, whereas 1 sequence was identical to FeLV. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of FeLV in the endangered Iberian lynx. PMID:18460634

  17. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

  18. Analysis of intracellular feline leukemia virus proteins. I. Identification of a 60,000-dalton precursor of feline leukemia virus p30.

    PubMed Central

    Okasinki, G F; Velicer, L F

    1976-01-01

    The synthesis and release of feline leukemia virus p30 was studied using a permanently infected feline thymus tumor cell line. Disrupted cells were divided into two subcellular fractions, a cytoplasmic extract (CE) representing cellular material soluble in 0.5% NP-40 and a particulate fraction (PF) insoluble in 0.5% NP-40 but soluble in 0.2% deoxycholate and 0.5% NP-40. Intracellular feline leukemia virus p30 was isolated from infected cells by immune precipitation with antiserum to p30 and subsequent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the precipitated proteins. Cells labeled for 3 h with [35S]methionine contained equal amounts of p30 in both the CE and the PF. p30 synthesis was estimated to be 0.8% of the total host cell protein synthesis. Immune precipitates from cell pulse labeled for 2.5 min contained a labeled 60,000-dalton polypeptide (Pp60) in the PF and a polypeptide in the CE that comigrated with feline leukemia virus p30 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When cells were chased after a pulse label, there was a rapid loss of Pp60 in the PF and an accumulation of p30 in the CE within 30 min followed by distribution of p30 in both the PF and the CE. Estimation of intracellular and extracellular p30 levels during a 0.5- to 24-h chase period suggested that most of the newly synthesized p30 was incorporated into extracellular virus. Typtic peptide analysis of labeled Pp60 and p30 demonstrated the presence of 13 of 15 p30 peptides within the Pp60 molecule. The tryptic peptide analysis in concert with the pulse-chase labeling data provides strong evidence that Pp60 is a precursor of p30. Images PMID:185422

  19. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  20. Therapeutic effects of recombinant feline interferon-omega on feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-coinfected symptomatic cats.

    PubMed

    de Mari, Karine; Maynard, Laurence; Sanquer, Annaelle; Lebreux, Bernard; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2004-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon, rFeIFN-omega, was evaluated for the treatment of cats presented with clinical signs associated with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) coinfection in the field. In this multicentric, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 81 cats meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly placed into 2 groups and treated subcutaneously with rFelFN-omega (1 million [M]U/kg per day) or placebo once daily for 5 consecutive days in 3 series (day 0, 14, 60). The cats were monitored for up to 1 year for clinical signs and mortality. During the initial 4-month period, interferon (IFN)-treated cats (n = 39) had significantly reduced clinical scores compared with placebo (n = 42), with all cats having received concomitant supportive therapies. Compared with the control, the IFN-treated group showed significantly lower rates of mortality: 39% versus 59% (1.7-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 9-month time point and 47% versus 59% (1.4-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 12-month time point. The IFN treatment was associated with minor but consistent improvement in abnormal hematologic parameters (red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and white blood cell count), apparently underlying the positive effects of IFN on clinical parameters. These data demonstrate that rFeIFN-omega initially has statistically significant therapeutic effects on clinical signs and later on survival of cats with clinical signs associated with FeLV infection and FeLV/FIV coinfection. PMID:15320583

  1. Diseases associated with spontaneous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M

    1989-05-01

    More than 2000 cats sent for necropsy in order to provide a diagnosis were investigated immunohistologically using paraffin sections for the presence of a persistent infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). The spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases associated significantly with FeLV infection was determined statistically. Three-quarters of the cats with persistent FeLV infections died of non-neoplastic diseases and about 23% died of tumors, nearly exclusively those of the leukemia/lymphoma disease complex. A strong association with liver degeneration, icterus and a FeLV-associated enteritis was found in addition to the known association with non-neoplastic diseases and conditions such as anemia, bacterial secondary infections and respiratory tract inflammations due to the immunosuppressive effect of FeLV, hemorrhages and feline infectious peritonitis. Surprisingly, diseases and conditions like feline infectious panleukopenia, enteritis (of other types than FeLV-associated enteritis and feline infectious panleukopenia), glomerulonephritis, uremia and hemorrhagic cystitis were not associated with persistent FeLV infection. Another unexpected finding was that most pathogenic infectious agents demonstrated in the cats were not FeLV-associated either. Thus, immunosuppression due to FeLV infection seems to make the animals susceptible to certain pathogenic infectious agents, but not to the majority. PMID:2549696

  2. Novel Feline Leukemia Virus Interference Group Based on the env Gene.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ariko; Watanabe, Shinya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Ngo, Minh Ha; Makundi, Isaac; Kawasaki, Junna; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subgroups have emerged in infected cats via the mutation or recombination of theenvgene of subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A), the primary virus. We report the isolation and characterization of a novelenvgene, TG35-2, and report that the TG35-2 pseudotype can be categorized as a novel FeLV subgroup. The TG35-2 envelope protein displays strong sequence identity to FeLV-A Env, suggesting that selection pressure in cats causes novel FeLV subgroups to emerge. PMID:26889025

  3. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

  4. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma. PMID:24317268

  5. Association of feline leukemia virus with lymphosarcoma and other disorders in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cotter, S M; Hardy, W D; Essex, M

    1975-03-01

    Two hundred fifty Boston cats with disorders such as lymphosarcoma, myeloproliferative disease, anemia, glomerulonephritis, pregnancy abnormalities, feline infectious peritonitis, toxoplasmosis, and various bacterial infections were examined for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by immunofluorescence. Antibody titers against feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) were tested in 133 of these cats. The tests for FeLV and FOCMA antibody were also conducted among healthy cats not known to have been exposed to FeLV, as well as among healthy cats from households where FeLV was known to be present. Most of the cats with lymphosarcoma and the other aforementioned disorders were infected with FeLV and low FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats known to have been exposed to FeLV were often viremic, but those that remained healthy were able to develop high FOCMA antibody titers. Healthy cats without known prior exposure to FeLV were unlikely to be viremic but often had detectable FOCMA antibody titers, indicating that some exposure occurs under natural conditions in the Boston area. The association of FeLV with infections other than lymphosarcoma was assumed to be caused by the immunosuppresive effect of FeLV, thus allowing development of disease. PMID:163223

  6. Broadening the use of antiretroviral therapy: the case for feline leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Greggs, Willie M; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have saved and extended the lives of millions of individuals infected with HIV. The major classes of anti-HIV drugs include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and entry/fusion inhibitors. While antiretroviral drug regimens are not commonly used to treat other types of retroviral infections, there are instances where there is a perceived need for re-evaluation of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. One case in point is that of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), an infection of companion felines. While vaccines exist to prevent FeLV infection and spread, they have not eliminated FeLV infection. For FeLV-infected felines and their human companions, antiretroviral therapy would be desirable and of practical importance if good options were available. Here, we discuss FeLV biology and current treatment options, and propose that there is a need for antiretroviral treatment options for FeLV infection. The comparative use and analysis of antiretroviral therapy can provide new insights into the mechanism of antiretroviral drug action. PMID:21479142

  7. Feline Leukemia Virus Infection Requires a Post-Receptor Binding Envelope-Dependent Cellular Component▿

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Naveen; Thickett, Kelly R.; Na, Hong; Leung, Cherry; Tailor, Chetankumar S.

    2011-01-01

    Gammaretrovirus receptors have been suggested to contain the necessary determinants to mediate virus binding and entry. Here, we show that murine NIH 3T3 and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing receptors for subgroup A, B, and C feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are weakly susceptible (101 to 102 CFU/ml) to FeLV pseudotype viruses containing murine leukemia virus (MLV) core (Gag-Pol) proteins, whereas FeLV receptor-expressing murine Mus dunni tail fibroblast (MDTF) cells are highly susceptible (104 to 106 CFU/ml). However, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the FeLV subgroup B receptor PiT1 are highly susceptible to gibbon ape leukemia virus pseudotype virus, which differs from the FeLV pseudotype viruses only in the envelope protein. FeLV resistance is not caused by a defect in envelope binding, low receptor expression levels, or N-linked glycosylation. Resistance is not alleviated by substitution of the MLV core in the FeLV pseudotype virus with FeLV core proteins. Interestingly, FeLV resistance is alleviated by fusion of receptor-expressing NIH 3T3 and BHK cells with MDTF or human TE671 cells, suggesting the absence of an additional cellular component in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells that is required for FeLV infection. The putative FeLV-specific cellular component is not a secreted factor, as MDTF conditioned medium does not alleviate the block to FeLV infection. Together, our findings suggest that FeLV infection requires an additional envelope-dependent cellular component that is absent in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells but that is present in MDTF and TE671 cells. PMID:21917946

  8. Disruption of Thiamine Uptake and Growth of Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup A

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Ramon; Miller, A. Dusty

    2013-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic cats and some wild cats despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines against the virus. FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) is transmitted in natural infections, and FeLV subgroups B, C, and T can evolve directly from FeLV-A by mutation and/or recombination with endogenous retroviruses in domestic cats, resulting in a variety of pathogenic outcomes. The cell surface entry receptor for FeLV-A is a putative thiamine transporter (THTR1). Here, we have addressed whether FeLV-A infection might disrupt thiamine uptake into cells and, because thiamine is an essential nutrient, whether this disruption might have pathological consequences. First, we cloned the cat ortholog of the other of the two known thiamine transporters in mammals, THTR2, and we show that feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) and feTHTR2 both mediate thiamine uptake, but feTHTR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-A. We found that feTHTR1 is widely expressed in cat tissues and in cell lines, while expression of feTHTR2 is restricted. Thiamine uptake mediated by feTHTR1 was indeed blocked by FeLV-A infection, and in feline fibroblasts that naturally express feTHTR1 and not feTHTR2, this blockade resulted in a growth arrest at physiological concentrations of extracellular thiamine. The growth arrest was reversed at high extracellular concentrations of thiamine. Our results show that FeLV-A infection can indeed disrupt thiamine uptake with pathological consequences. A prediction of these experiments is that raising the plasma levels of thiamine in FeLV-infected cats may ameliorate the pathogenic effects of infection. PMID:23269813

  9. [Efficacy of siRNA on feline leukemia virus replication in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Melanie; Weber, Karin; Rauch, Gisep; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hosie, Margaret J; Meli, Marina L; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) can lead to severe clinical signs in cats. Until now, there is no effective therapy for FeLV-infected cats. RNA interference-based antiviral therapy is a new concept. Specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) are designed complementary to the mRNA of a target region, and thus inhibit replication. Several studies have proven efficacy of siRNAs in inhibiting virus replication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of siRNAs against FeLV replication in vitro. siRNAs against the FeLV env gene and the host cell surface receptor (feTHTR1) which is used by FeLV-A for entry as well as siRNA that were not complementary to the FeLV or cat genome, were tested. Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK cells) were transfected with FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. On day 13, infected cells were transfected with siRNAs. As control, cells were mock-transfected or treated with azidothymidine (AZT) (5 μg/ml). Culture supernatants were analyzed for FeLV RNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and for FeLV p27 by ELISA every 24 hours for five days. All siRNAs significantly reduced viral RNA and p27 production, starting after 48 hours. The fact that non-complementary siRNAs also inhibited virus replication may lead to the conclusion that unspecific mechanisms rather than specific binding lead to inhibition. PMID:26054227

  10. Comparative examination of cats with feline leukemia virus-associated enteritis and other relevant forms of feline enteritis.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Kremendahl, J; Jackson, M L; Reinacher, M

    2001-07-01

    Cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated enteritis (FAE), enteritis of other known viral etiology (parvovirus [PV], enteric coronavirus [CoV]), and enteritis of unknown etiology with histologic features similar to those of FAE and PV enteritis (EUE) and FeLV-negative and FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations were examined. Amount and types of infiltrating leukocytes in the jejunum and activity and cellular constituents of mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow were determined. PV and CoV infections were confirmed by immunohistologic demonstration of PV and CoV antigen, ultrastructural demonstration of viral particles in the intestinal content, and in situ hybridization for PV genome. FeLV infection was detected by immunohistology for gp70, p27, and p15E. Latent FeLV infection was excluded by polymerase chain reaction methods for exogenous FeLV DNA. Enterocyte lesions involved the crypts in cats with PV enteritis, FAE, and EUE and the villous tips in cats with CoV enteritis. Inflammatory infiltration was generally dominated by mononuclear cells and was moderate in the unaltered intestine and in cats with PV enteritis and marked in cats with FAE, CoV enteritis, and EUE. In cats with EUE, myeloid/histiocyte antigen-positive macrophages were relatively numerous, suggesting recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes. Lymphoid tissues were depleted in cats with PV enteritis and with EUE but were normal or hyperplastic in cats with FAE. Bone marrow activity was decreased in cats with PV enteritis; in cats with FAE or EUE and in FeLV-positive cats without enterocyte alterations, activity was slightly increased. In cats with FAE and PV enteritis, a T-cell-dominated response prevailed. EUE showed some parallels to human inflammatory bowel disease, indicating a potential harmful effect of infiltrating macrophages on the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11467470

  11. Molecular and clinical study on prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1 and calicivirus in correlation with feline leukemia and immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Hamideh; Madadgar, Omid; Jamshidi, Shahram; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Darzi Lemraski, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases (URTD) are common clinical problem in cats worldwide. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the main primary pathogens. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are also among the most common infectious diseases of cats which suppress the immunity. Oropharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and blood samples were taken from 16 cats with clinical signs of URTD and 26 clinically healthy cats. PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect FHV/FIV or FCV/FeLV infections, respectively. Feline calicivirus was detected in all cats with URTD and 87.00% and 93.00% of them were positive for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Feline herpesvirus rate of infection was 43.00% in sick cats. In clinically normal cats, prevalence rates of FCV and FHV were about 50.00%, but FIV and FeLV rates (42.00% and 65.00% respectively) were higher compared to other studies. Stomatitis was observed in 50.00% of cats with URTD. The main causative agent of corneal ulcers is FHV-1, but in 50.00% of cats with corneal ulcers, FCV was detected alone. It seems new variants of Caliciviruses are the main causative agents to attack uncommon tissues like cornea, although retroviral infections may be in the background of these various signs. The high retroviral prevalence may be due to existence of large population of stray cats. This is the first molecular study of FeLV and FCV in Iran and seems that FCV and FHV prevalence rates in FIV or FeLV infected cats is more than other non-infected ones. PMID:25610576

  12. Serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filoni, Claudia; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2003-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a Lentivirus, are members of the family Retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. Morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. Infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. To investigate the prevalence of FeLV and feline lentiviruses in neotropic small felids kept in captivity in São Paulo state. Brazil, serum samples from 104 animals belonging to the species Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, and Oncifelis geoffroyi were tested for FeLV and feline lentiviruses by commercially available immunoassays. All results were negative, suggesting that retrovirus infection is not an important clinical problem in these populations. Because domestic cats in São Paulo city are naturally infected with these pathogens, and feral cats are commonly found in zoologic facilities in Brazil, preventive measures should be taken to avoid transmission of retroviruses to naive populations of wild and captive neotropic felids in Brazil. PMID:12723802

  13. EPIZOOTIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS IN THE FLORIDA PUMA

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Mark W.; Brown, Meredith A.; Shindle, David B.; Terrell, Scott P.; Hayes, Kathleen A.; Ferree, Bambi C.; McBride, R. T.; Blankenship, Emmett L.; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B.; Roelke, Melody E.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002–2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains. PMID:18689639

  14. Quantitation of specific antibodies bound to feline leukemia virus in the plasma of pet cats.

    PubMed

    Snyder, H W; Singhal, M C; Yoshida, L H; Jones, F R

    1985-08-01

    A method is described for determining levels of circulating immune complexes (CIC) composed of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigens and corresponding antibodies in plasma of persistently-infected pet cats. The procedure is based on the ability of high-titered heterologous anti-FeLV serum to chase cat anti-FeLV IgG from dissociated CIC by successfully competing for binding of free antigen. The eluted cat antibody is then collected and quantitated. In a study of cats in the process of clearing persistent FeLV infections, measured levels of FeLV-specific CIC correlated well with fluctuating levels of free FeLV antigen and antibody. The Raji cell assay for CIC in those cats was of comparatively little value in following the clearance of the virus, presumably because that assay does not distinguish between CIC containing viral and those containing non-viral antigens. The method described can be adapted to studies of specific immune complexes associated with a variety of syndromes, provided that the antigen eliciting the immune response is known. PMID:2995795

  15. Epizootiology and management of feline leukemia virus in the Florida puma.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Meredith A; Shindle, David B; Terrell, Scott P; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ferree, Bambi C; McBride, R T; Blankenship, Emmett L; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B; Roelke, Melody E; Kiltie, Richard A; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-07-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002-2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains. PMID:18689639

  16. Presence of 5'-terminal cap structures in virus-specific RNA from feline leukemia virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, A R; Friderici, K H; Velicer, L F; Rottman, F

    1978-01-01

    The F-422 line of feline thymus tumor cells, chronically infected with the Rickard strain of feline leukemia virus (R-FeLV), was labeled with 32P, and the total cytoplasmic RNA was isolated. The RNA was centrifuged through sucrose gradients, and R-FeLV virus-specific RNA (vRNA) was located by hybridization of portions of the gradient fractions to R-FeLV complementary DNA. vRNA classes with average sedimentation coefficients of approximately 36S, 28S, 23S, and 15S were identified. Each class of RNA was recovered by hybridized with mercurated R-FeLV complementary DNA, and the hybrids were chromatographed on columns of sulfhydryl-Sepharose to separate them from unhybridized cellular RNA. Although insufficient amount of 36S and 28S vRNA were obtained for further analysis, the 23S and 15S VRNA classes were analyzed to determine the nature of their 5' termini. Each of these vRNA classes was found to contain stoichiometric amounts of cap structures per unit length of RNA, consistent with the presence of one cap per molecule. The structure of the 23S vRNA cap was found to be m7G5'ppp5'GmpAp, whereas that of the 15S vRNA cap was m7G5'ppp5'GmpGp. PMID:207884

  17. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 109 and 0.86 × 109, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 104 IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats. PMID:24136209

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L.; Rosensteel, Bryan B.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-09-30

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  19. No benefit of therapeutic vaccination in clinically healthy cats persistently infected with feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Spiri, Andrea M; Riond, Barbara; Grest, Paula; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-03-24

    Therapeutic vaccinations have a potential application in infections where no curative treatment is available. In contrast to HIV, efficacious vaccines for a cat retrovirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), are commercially available. However, the infection is still prevalent, and no effective treatment of the infection is known. By vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats and presenting FeLV antigens to the immune system of the host, e.g., in the form of recombinant and/or adjuvanted antigens, we intended to shift the balance toward an advantage of the host so that persistent infection could be overcome by the infected cat. Two commercially available FeLV vaccines efficacious in protecting naïve cats from FeLV infection were tested in six experimentally and persistently FeLV-infected cats: first, a canarypox-vectored vaccine, and second, an adjuvanted, recombinant envelope vaccine was repeatedly administered with the aim to stimulate the immune system. No beneficial effects on p27 antigen and plasma viral RNA loads, anti-FeLV antibodies, or life expectancy of the cats were detected. The cats were unable to overcome or decrease viremia. Some cats developed antibodies to FeLV antigens although not protective. Thus, we cannot recommend vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats as a means of improving their FeLV status, quality of life or life expectancy. We suggest testing of all cats for FeLV infection prior to FeLV vaccination. PMID:25698488

  20. Comprehensive mapping of receptor-functioning domains in feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor FLVCR1.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer K; Fung, Claire; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2006-02-01

    Infection of cells by the highly anemogenic feline leukemia virus subgroup C (FeLV-C) is mediated by the heme exporter FLVCR1, a cell surface protein containing 12 potential transmembrane segments with six presumptive extracellular loops (ECLs). To identify FLVCR1 residues critical for mediating FeLV-C infection, we first independently isolated a human cDNA encoding the FLVCR2 protein that shares 52% identity to human FLVCR1, and we show that FLVCR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-C. Then, by generating specific hybrids between FLVCR1 and FLVCR2 and testing susceptibility of mouse cells expressing these hybrids to beta-galactosidase encoding FeLV-C, we identify FLVCR1 ECLs 1 and 6 as critical for mediating FeLV-C infection. Mouse cells expressing a hybrid protein containing FLVCR2 backbone with the ECL6 sequence from FLVCR1 were highly susceptible to FeLV-C infection. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a single mutation of Asn463 in FLVCR2 ECL6 to an acidic Asp residue (a residue present in the corresponding position 487 in FLVCR1 ECL6) is sufficient to render FLVCR2 functional as an FeLV-C receptor. However, an Asp487Asn mutation in FLVCR1 ECL6 or substitution of the entire FLVCR1 ECL6 sequence for FLVCR2 ECL6 sequence does not disrupt receptor function. Subsequent substitutions show that residues within FLVCR1 ECL1 also contribute to mediating FeLV-C infection. Furthermore, our results suggest that FLVCR1 regions that mediate FeLV-C surface unit binding are distinct from ECL1 and ECL6. Our results are consistent with previous conclusions that infection of cells by gammaretroviruses involves interaction of virus with multiple receptor regions. PMID:16439531

  1. Comprehensive Mapping of Receptor-Functioning Domains in Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup C Receptor FLVCR1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer K.; Fung, Claire; Tailor, Chetankumar S.

    2006-01-01

    Infection of cells by the highly anemogenic feline leukemia virus subgroup C (FeLV-C) is mediated by the heme exporter FLVCR1, a cell surface protein containing 12 potential transmembrane segments with six presumptive extracellular loops (ECLs). To identify FLVCR1 residues critical for mediating FeLV-C infection, we first independently isolated a human cDNA encoding the FLVCR2 protein that shares 52% identity to human FLVCR1, and we show that FLVCR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-C. Then, by generating specific hybrids between FLVCR1 and FLVCR2 and testing susceptibility of mouse cells expressing these hybrids to β-galactosidase encoding FeLV-C, we identify FLVCR1 ECLs 1 and 6 as critical for mediating FeLV-C infection. Mouse cells expressing a hybrid protein containing FLVCR2 backbone with the ECL6 sequence from FLVCR1 were highly susceptible to FeLV-C infection. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a single mutation of Asn463 in FLVCR2 ECL6 to an acidic Asp residue (a residue present in the corresponding position 487 in FLVCR1 ECL6) is sufficient to render FLVCR2 functional as an FeLV-C receptor. However, an Asp487Asn mutation in FLVCR1 ECL6 or substitution of the entire FLVCR1 ECL6 sequence for FLVCR2 ECL6 sequence does not disrupt receptor function. Subsequent substitutions show that residues within FLVCR1 ECL1 also contribute to mediating FeLV-C infection. Furthermore, our results suggest that FLVCR1 regions that mediate FeLV-C surface unit binding are distinct from ECL1 and ECL6. Our results are consistent with previous conclusions that infection of cells by gammaretroviruses involves interaction of virus with multiple receptor regions. PMID:16439531

  2. Phylogenetic and Structural Diversity in the Feline Leukemia Virus Env Gene

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Anai, Yukari; Ochi, Haruyo; Nakagawa, So; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belongs to the genus Gammaretrovirus, and causes a variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases in cats. Alteration of viral env sequences is thought to be associated with disease specificity, but the way in which genetic diversity of FeLV contributes to the generation of such variants in nature is poorly understood. We isolated FeLV env genes from naturally infected cats in Japan and analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of these genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions separated our FeLV samples into three distinct genetic clusters, termed Genotypes I, II, and III. Genotype I is a major genetic cluster and can be further classified into Clades 1–7 in Japan. Genotypes were correlated with geographical distribution; Genotypes I and II were distributed within Japan, whilst FeLV samples from outside Japan belonged to Genotype III. These results may be due to geographical isolation of FeLVs in Japan. The observed structural diversity of the FeLV env gene appears to be caused primarily by mutation, deletion, insertion and recombination, and these variants may be generated de novo in individual cats. FeLV interference assay revealed that FeLV genotypes did not correlate with known FeLV receptor subgroups. We have identified the genotypes which we consider to be reliable for evaluating phylogenetic relationships of FeLV, which embrace the high structural diversity observed in our sample. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of Gammaretrovirus evolutionary patterns in the field, and may provide a useful basis for assessing the emergence of novel strains and understanding the molecular mechanisms of FeLV transmission in cats. PMID:23593376

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    area. Clinically affected cats tend to be 5 years or older at the time of hospitalization. Experimental and seroepidemiologic studies suggest that FIV is transmitted mainly by bites. Intimate, non-traumatic contact (mutual grooming, shared use of food, water and litter pans) is inefficient in transmitting the infection. In utero and venereal transmission could not be demonstrated in laboratory settings. There is no statistical linkage between FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in nature. The FeLV infection rate in FIV-infected animals is the same as it is for non-FIV-infected cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2549690

  4. Increased risk for lymphoma and glomerulonephritis in a closed population of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Francis, D P; Essex, M; Jakowski, R M; Cotter, S M; Lerer, T J; Hardy, W D

    1980-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated diseases were observed in a household in eastern Connecticut having 134 cats over a period of five and a half years. FeLV-positive cats had a much higher mortality rate (34.6 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up) than did FeLV-negative cats (8.9 deaths per 1000 cat-months of follow-up). The leading cause of death was glomerulonephritis followed by lymphoma. The relative risk for virus-positive cats as compared to virus-negative cats for the two diseases was 9.9 and 9.6, respectively. The major risk factors for the development of lymphoma were virus positivity and low antibody titer to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA). No significant differences in cancer incidence were seen between the two major breeds (Abyssinian and Burmese) in the household. An older age at arrival in the house decreased death rates for all causes in the household, but it did not significantly affect death rates from lymphoma, although there was a positive trend. PMID:6244730

  5. Feline Leukemia Virus DNA Vaccine Efficacy Is Enhanced by Coadministration with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Linda; Argyle, David; Bain, Derek; Nicolson, Lesley; Dunham, Stephen; Golder, Matthew C.; McDonald, Michael; McGillivray, Christine; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.; Onions, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The expectation that cell-mediated immunity is important in the control of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection led us to test a DNA vaccine administered alone or with cytokines that favored the development of a Th1 immune response. The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The genetic adjuvants were plasmids encoding the feline cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, or gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Kittens were immunized by three intramuscular inoculations of the FeLV DNA vaccine alone or in combination with plasmids expressing IFN-γ, IL-12, or both IL-12 and IL-18. Control kittens were inoculated with empty plasmid. Following immunization, anti-FeLV antibodies were not detected in any kitten. Three weeks after the final immunization, the kittens were challenged by the intraperitoneal inoculation of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 and were then monitored for a further 15 weeks for the presence of virus in plasma and, at the end of the trial, for latent virus in bone marrow. The vaccine consisting of FeLV DNA with the IL-12 and IL-18 genes conferred significant immunity, protecting completely against transient and persistent viremia, and in five of six kittens protecting against latent infection. None of the other vaccines provided significant protection. PMID:11507187

  6. Identification of a feline leukemia virus variant that can use THTR1, FLVCR1, and FLVCR2 for infection.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Zvi; Duffy, Simon P; Adema, Karen W; Prasad, Rati; Hussain, Naveen; Willett, Brian J; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2009-07-01

    The pathogenic subgroup C feline leukemia virus (FeLV-C) arises in infected cats as a result of mutations in the envelope (Env) of the subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A). To better understand emergence of FeLV-C and potential FeLV intermediates that may arise, we characterized FeLV Env sequences from the primary FY981 FeLV isolate previously derived from an anemic cat. Here, we report the characterization of the novel FY981 FeLV Env that is highly related to FeLV-A Env but whose variable region A (VRA) receptor recognition sequence partially resembles the VRA sequence from the prototypical FeLV-C/Sarma Env. Pseudotype viruses bearing FY981 Env were capable of infecting feline, human, and guinea pig cells, suggestive of a subgroup C phenotype, but also infected porcine ST-IOWA cells that are normally resistant to FeLV-C and to FeLV-A. Analysis of the host receptor used by FY981 suggests that FY981 can use both the FeLV-C receptor FLVCR1 and the feline FeLV-A receptor THTR1 for infection. However, our results suggest that FY981 infection of ST-IOWA cells is not mediated by the porcine homologue of FLVCR1 and THTR1 but by an alternative receptor, which we have now identified as the FLVCR1-related protein FLVCR2. Together, our results suggest that FY981 FeLV uses FLVCR1, FLVCR2, and THTR1 as receptors. Our findings suggest the possibility that pathogenic FeLV-C arises in FeLV-infected cats through intermediates that are multitropic in their receptor use. PMID:19369334

  7. Identification of a Feline Leukemia Virus Variant That Can Use THTR1, FLVCR1, and FLVCR2 for Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Zvi; Duffy, Simon P.; Adema, Karen W.; Prasad, Rati; Hussain, Naveen; Willett, Brian J.; Tailor, Chetankumar S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenic subgroup C feline leukemia virus (FeLV-C) arises in infected cats as a result of mutations in the envelope (Env) of the subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A). To better understand emergence of FeLV-C and potential FeLV intermediates that may arise, we characterized FeLV Env sequences from the primary FY981 FeLV isolate previously derived from an anemic cat. Here, we report the characterization of the novel FY981 FeLV Env that is highly related to FeLV-A Env but whose variable region A (VRA) receptor recognition sequence partially resembles the VRA sequence from the prototypical FeLV-C/Sarma Env. Pseudotype viruses bearing FY981 Env were capable of infecting feline, human, and guinea pig cells, suggestive of a subgroup C phenotype, but also infected porcine ST-IOWA cells that are normally resistant to FeLV-C and to FeLV-A. Analysis of the host receptor used by FY981 suggests that FY981 can use both the FeLV-C receptor FLVCR1 and the feline FeLV-A receptor THTR1 for infection. However, our results suggest that FY981 infection of ST-IOWA cells is not mediated by the porcine homologue of FLVCR1 and THTR1 but by an alternative receptor, which we have now identified as the FLVCR1-related protein FLVCR2. Together, our results suggest that FY981 FeLV uses FLVCR1, FLVCR2, and THTR1 as receptors. Our findings suggest the possibility that pathogenic FeLV-C arises in FeLV-infected cats through intermediates that are multitropic in their receptor use. PMID:19369334

  8. Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A.; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V.; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology/ Principal Findings We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001). Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. Conclusions/Significance It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat

  9. Comparative Efficacy of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccine and Canarypox Virus-Vectored Vaccine during Virulent FeLV Challenge and Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Carritt, K; Lane, J; Jayappa, H; Stahl, M; Bourgeois, M

    2015-07-01

    Four vaccines for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are available in the United States. This study's purpose was to compare the efficacy of Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (an inactivated, adjuvanted whole-virus vaccine) and PureVax recombinant FeLV (a live, canarypox virus-vectored vaccine) following FeLV challenge. Cats were vaccinated at 9 and 12 weeks with Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (group A, n = 11) or PureVax recombinant FeLV (group B, n = 10). Group C (n = 11) comprised unvaccinated controls. At 3 months postvaccination, cats were immunosuppressed and challenged with FeLV-A/61E. The outcomes measured were persistent antigenemia at 12 weeks postchallenge (PC) and proviral DNA and viral RNA at 3 to 9 weeks PC. Persistent antigenemia was observed in 0 of 11 cats in group A, 5 of 10 cats in group B, and 10 of 11 cats in group C. Group A was significantly protected compared to those in groups B (P < 0.013) and C (P < 0.0001). No difference was found between groups B and C (P > 0.063). The preventable fraction was 100% for group A and 45% for group B. At 9 weeks PC, proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected 1 of 11 cats in group A, 6 of 10 cats in group B, and 9 of 11 cats in group C. Nucleic acid loads were significantly lower in group A than in group C (P < 0.01). Group A had significantly lower proviral DNA loads than group B at weeks 6 to 9 (P < 0.02). The viral RNA loads were significantly lower in group A than in group B at weeks 7 to 9 (P < 0.01). The results demonstrate that Nobivac feline 2-FeLV-vaccinated cats were fully protected against persistent antigenemia and had significantly smaller amounts of proviral DNA and plasma viral RNA loads than PureVax recombinant FeLV-vaccinated cats and unvaccinated controls. PMID:25972402

  10. Variable regions A and B in the envelope glycoproteins of feline leukemia virus subgroup B and amphotropic murine leukemia virus interact with discrete receptor domains.

    PubMed Central

    Tailor, C S; Kabat, D

    1997-01-01

    The surface (SU) envelope glycoproteins of feline leukemia virus subgroup B (FeLV-B) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) are highly related, even in the variable regions VRA and VRB that have been shown to be required for receptor recognition. However, FeLV-B and A-MLV use different sodium-dependent phosphate symporters, Pit1 and Pit2, respectively, as receptors for infection. Pit1 and Pit2 are predicted to have 10 membrane-spanning domains and five extracellular loops. The close relationship of the retroviral envelopes enabled us to generate pseudotype virions carrying chimeric FeLV-B/A-MLV envelope glycoproteins. We found that some of the pseudotype viruses could not use Pit1 or Pit2 proteins but could efficiently utilize specific chimeric Pit1/Pit2 proteins as receptors. By studying Mus dunni tail fibroblasts expressing chimeric Pit1/Pit2 proteins and pseudotype virions carrying chimeric FeLV-B/A-MLV envelopes, we show that FeLV-B and A-MLV VRA and VRB interact in a modular manner with specific receptor domains. Our results suggest that FeLV-B VRA interacts with Pit1 extracellular loops 4 and 5 and that residues Phe-60 and Pro-61 of FeLV-B VRA are essential for receptor choice. However, this interaction is insufficient for infection, and an additional interaction between FeLV-B VRB and Pit1 loop 2 is essential. Similarly, A-MLV infection requires interaction of A-MLV VRA with Pit2 loops 4 and 5 and VRB with Pit2 loop 2, with residues Tyr-60 and Val-61 of A-MLV VRA being critical for receptor recognition. Together, our results suggest that FeLV-B and A-MLV infections require two major discrete interactions between the viral SU envelope glycoproteins and their respective receptors. We propose a common two-step mechanism for interaction between retroviral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface receptors. PMID:9371598

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Mora, Mónica; Napolitano, Constanza; Ortega, René; Poulin, Elie; Pizarro-Lucero, José

    2015-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are two of the most common viruses affecting domestic cats (Felis catus). During the last two decades, reports show that both viruses also infect or affect other species of the family Felidae. Human landscape perturbation is one of the main causes of emerging diseases in wild animals, facilitating contact and transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild animals. We investigated FIV and FeLV infection in free-ranging guignas (Leopardus guigna) and sympatric domestic cats in human perturbed landscapes on Chiloé Island, Chile. Samples from 78 domestic cats and 15 guignas were collected from 2008 to 2010 and analyzed by PCR amplification and sequencing. Two guignas and two domestic cats were positive for FIV; three guignas and 26 domestic cats were positive for FeLV. The high percentage of nucleotide identity of FIV and FeLV sequences from both species suggests possible interspecies transmission of viruses, facilitated by increased contact probability through human invasion into natural habitats, fragmentation of guigna habitat, and poultry attacks by guignas. This study enhances our knowledge on the transmission of pathogens from domestic to wild animals in the global scenario of human landscape perturbation and emerging diseases. PMID:25380363

  12. Localization of neutralizing regions of the envelope gene of feline leukemia virus by using anti-synthetic peptide antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J H; McGee, J S; Munson, M; Houghten, R A; Kloetzer, W; Bittle, J L; Grant, C K

    1987-01-01

    We synthesized 27 synthetic peptides corresponding to approximately 80% of the sequences encoding gp70 and p15E of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subtype B. The peptides were conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and injected into rabbits for preparation of antipeptide antisera. These sera were then tested for their ability to neutralize a broad range of FeLV isolates in vitro. Eight peptides elicited neutralizing responses against subtype B isolates. Five of these peptides corresponded to sequences of gp70 and three to p15E. The ability of these antipeptide antisera to neutralize FeLV subtypes A and C varied. In certain circumstances, failure to neutralize a particular isolate corresponded to sequence changes within the corresponding peptide region. However, four antibodies which preferentially neutralized the subtype B viruses were directed to epitopes in common with Sarma subtype C virus. These results suggest that distal changes in certain subtypes (possibly glycosylation differences) alter the availability of certain epitopes in one virus isolate relative to another. We prepared a "nest" of overlapping peptides corresponding to one of the neutralizing regions of gp70 and performed slot blot analyses with both antipeptide antibodies and a monoclonal antibody which recognized this epitope. We were able to define a five-amino-acid sequence required for reactivity. Comparisons were made between an anti-synthetic peptide antibody and a monoclonal antibody reactive to this epitope for the ability to bind both peptide and virus, as well as to neutralize virus in vitro. Both the anti-synthetic peptide and the monoclonal antibodies bound peptide and virus to high titers. However, the monoclonal antibody had a 4-fold-higher titer against virus and a 10-fold-higher neutralizing titer than did the anti-synthetic peptide antibody. Competition assays were performed with these two antibodies adjusted to equivalent antivirus titers against intact virions

  13. Flow cytometric and radioisotopic determinations of platelet survival time in normal cats and feline leukemia virus-infected cats

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R.M.; Boyce, J.T.; Kociba, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of a flow cytometric technique to measure platelet survival time in cats utilizing autologous platelets labeled in vitro with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). When compared with a 51Cr method, no significant differences in estimated survival times were found. Both the 51Cr and FITC-labeling procedures induced similar changes in platelet shape and collagen-induced aggregation. Platelets labeled with FITC had significantly greater volumes compared with those of glutaraldehyde-fixed platelets. These changes were primarily related to the platelet centrifugation and washing procedures rather than the labels themselves. This novel technique potentially has wide applicability to cell circulation time studies as flow cytometry equipment becomes more readily available. Problems with the technique are discussed. In a preliminary study of the platelet survival time in feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats, two of three cats had significantly reduced survival times using both flow cytometric and radioisotopic methods. These data suggest increased platelet turnover in FeLV-infected cats.

  14. Feline leukemia virus integrase and capsid packaging functions do not change the insertion profile of standard Moloney retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Métais, J-Y; Topp, S; Doty, R T; Borate, B; Nguyen, A-D; Wolfsberg, T G; Abkowitz, J L; Dunbar, C E

    2010-06-01

    Adverse events linked to perturbations of cellular genes by vector insertion reported in gene therapy trials and animal models have prompted attempts to better understand the mechanisms directing viral vector integration. The integration profiles of vectors based on MLV, ASLV, SIV and HIV have all been shown to be non-random, and novel vectors with a safer integration pattern have been sought. Recently, we developed a producer cell line called CatPac that packages standard MoMLV vectors with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag, pol and env gene products. We now report the integration profile of this vector, asking if the FeLV integrase and capsid proteins could modify the MoMLV integration profile, potentially resulting in a less genotoxic pattern. We transduced rhesus macaque CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells with CatPac or standard MoMLV vectors, and determined their integration profile by LAM-PCR. We obtained 184 and 175 unique integration sites (ISs) respectively for CatPac and standard MoMLV vectors, and these were compared with 10 000 in silico-generated random IS. The integration profile for CatPac vector was similar to MoMLV and equally non-random, with a propensity for integration near transcription start sites and in highly dense gene regions. We found an IS for CatPac vector localized 715 nucleotides upstream of LMO-2, the gene involved in the acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed by X-SCID patients treated by gene therapy using MoMLV vectors. In conclusion, we found that replacement of MoMLV env, gag and pol gene products with FeLV did not alter the basic integration profile. Thus, there appears to be no safety advantage for this packaging system. However, considering the stability and efficacy of CatPac vectors, further development is warranted, using potentially safer vector backbones, for instance those with a SIN configuration. PMID:20237508

  15. Genetic determinants of feline leukemia virus-induced lymphoid tumors: patterns of proviral insertion and gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, C; Fulton, R; Nishigaki, K; Tsujimoto, H; Levy, L; Terry, A; Spandidos, D; Onions, D; Neil, J C

    1994-12-01

    The genetic basis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-induced lymphoma was investigated in a series of 63 lymphoid tumors and tumor cell lines of presumptive T-cell origin. These were examined for virus-induced rearrangements of the c-myc, flvi-2 (bmi-1), fit-1, and pim-1 loci, for T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements, and for the presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B). The myc locus was most frequently affected in naturally occurring lymphomas (32%; n = 38) either by transduction (21%) or by proviral insertion (11%). Proviral insertions were also common at flvi-2 (24%). The two other loci were occupied in a smaller number of the naturally occurring tumors (fit-1, 8%; pim-1, 5%). Examination of the entire set of tumors showed that significant numbers were affected at two (19%) or three (5%) of the loci. Occupation of the fit-1 locus was observed most frequently in tumors induced by FeLV-myc strains, while flvi-2 insertions occurred with similar frequency in the presence or absence of obvious c-myc activation. These results suggest a hierarchy of mutational events in the genesis of feline T-cell lymphomas by FeLV and implicate insertion at fit-1 as a late progression step. The strongest links observed were with T-cell development, as monitored by rearrangement status of the TCR beta-chain gene, which was positively associated with activation of myc (P < 0.001), and with proviral insertion at flvi-2 (P = 0.02). This analysis also revealed a genetically distinct subset of thymic lymphomas with unrearranged TCR beta-chain genes in which the known target loci were involved very infrequently. The presence of env recombinant FeLV (FeLV-B) showed a negative correlation with proviral insertion at fit-1, possibly due to the rapid onset of these tumors. These results shed further light on the multistep process of FeLV leukemogenesis and the relationships between lymphoid cell maturation and susceptibility to FeLV transformation. PMID:7966623

  16. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOBEC3H gene of domestic cats (Felis catus) and their association with the susceptibility to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Fernanda Luz; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; da Silva, Tailene Rabello; Costenaro, Jamile Girardi; Knak, Marcus Braga; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2014-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are widely distributed retroviruses that infect domestic cats (Felis catus). Restriction factors are proteins that have the ability to hamper retroviruses' replication and are part of the conserved mechanisms of anti-viral immunity of mammals. The APOBEC3 protein family is the most studied class of restriction factors; they are cytidine deaminases that generate hypermutations in provirus DNA during reverse transcription, thus causing hypermutations in the viral genome, hindering virus replication. One of the feline APOBEC3 genes, named APOBEC3H, encodes two proteins (APOBEC3H and APOBEC3CH). In other mammals, APOBEC3H single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can alter the stability and cellular localization of the encoded protein, thus influencing its subcellular localization and reducing its anti-viral effect. In cats, the association of APOBEC3H SNPs with susceptibility to retroviral infections was not yet demonstrated. Therefore, this study aimed the investigation on the variability of APOBEC3H and the possible association with FIV/FeLV infections. DNA obtained from whole blood of fifty FIV- and/or FeLV-infected cats and fifty-nine FIV- and/or FeLV-uninfected cats were used as templates to amplify two different regions of the APOBEC3H, with subsequent sequencing and analysis. The first region was highly conserved among all samples, while in the second, six single-nucleotide variation points were identified. One of the SNPs, A65S (A65I), was significantly correlated with the susceptibility to FIV and/or FeLV infections. On the other hand, the haplotype analysis showed that the combination "GGGGCC" was positively correlated with the lack of FIV and/or FeLV infections. Our results indicate that, as previously shown in other mammals, variability of restriction factors may contribute to susceptibility of domestic cats to retroviral infections; however, these results should be confirmed by more

  17. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China. PMID:26362646

  18. 76 FR 3075 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. The.... Product: Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. Field Test Locations: Alabama,...

  19. Nucleotide Sequence of the Envelope Gene of Gardner-Arnstein Feline Leukemia Virus B Reveals Unique Sequence Homologies with a Murine Mink Cell Focus-Forming Virus

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John H.; Mullins, James I.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene and the adjacent 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus of subgroup B (GA-FeLV-B) has been determined. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of the gp70-p15E polyprotein to those of several previously reported murine retroviruses revealed striking homologies between GA-FeLV-B gp70 and the gp70 of a Moloney virus-derived mink cell focus-forming virus. These homologies were located within the substituted (presumably xenotropic) portion of the mink cell focus-forming virus envelope gene and comprised amino acid sequences not present in three ecotropic virus gp70s. In addition, areas of insertions and deletions, in general, were the same between GA-FeLV-B and Moloney mink cell focus-forming virus, although the sizes of the insertions and deletions differed. Homologies between GA-FeLV-B and mink cell focus-forming virus gp70s is functionally significant in that they both possess expanded host ranges, a property dictated by gp70. The amino acid sequence of FeLV-B contains 12 Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences, indicating 12 possible sites of N-linked glycosylation as compared with 7 or 8 for its murine counterparts. Comparison of the 3′ LTR of GA-FeLV-B to AKR and Moloney virus LTRs revealed extensive conservation in several regions including the “CCAAT” and Goldberg-Hogness (TATA) boxes thought to be involved in promotion of transcription and in the repeat region of the LTR. The inverted repeats that flanked the LTR of GA-FeLV-B were identical to the murine inverted repeats, but were one base longer than the latter. The region of U3 corresponding to the approximately 75-nucleotide “enhancer sequence” is present in GA-FeLV-B, but contains deletions relative to AKR and Moloney virus and is not repeated. An interesting pallindrome in the repeat region immediately 3′ to the U3 region was noted in all the LTRs, but was particularly pronounced in GA-FeLV-B. Possible roles for this

  20. Mutations within a putative cysteine loop of the transmembrane protein of an attenuated immunodeficiency-inducing feline leukemia virus variant inhibit envelope protein processing.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, C C; Poss, M L; Thomas, E; Overbaugh, J

    1995-01-01

    A replication-defective feline leukemia virus molecular clone, 61B, has been shown to cause immunodeficiency in cats and cytopathicity in T cells after a long latency period when coinfected with a minimally pathogenic helper virus (J. Overbaugh, E. A. Hoover, J. I. Mullins, D. P. W. Burns, L. Rudensey, S. L. Quackenbush, V. Stallard, and P. R. Donahue, Virology 188:558-569, 1992). The long-latency phenotype of 61B has been mapped to four mutations in the extracellular domain of the envelope transmembrane protein, and we report here that these mutations cause a defect in envelope protein processing. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that the 61B gp85 envelope precursor was produced but that further processing to generate the surface protein (SU/gp70) and the transmembrane protein (TM/p15E) did not occur. The 61B precursor was not expressed on the cell surface and appeared to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Two of the four 61B-specific amino acid changes are located within a putative cysteine loop in a region of TM that is conserved among retroviruses. Introduction of these two amino acid changes into a replication-competent highly cytopathic virus resulted in the production of noninfectious virus that exhibited an envelope-protein-processing defect. This analysis suggests that mutations in a conserved region within a putative cysteine loop affect retroviral envelope protein maturation and viral infectivity. PMID:7884859

  1. Pre- and postexposure chemoprophylaxis: evidence that 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine inhibits feline leukemia virus disease by a drug-induced vaccine response.

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, L E; Polas, P J; Hayes, K A; Swenson, C L; Johnson, S; Kociba, G J

    1992-01-01

    The benefits of postexposure 3'-azido-3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) prophylaxis following human immunodeficiency virus exposure are unknown. We describe a comprehensive assessment of pre- and postexposure AZT therapy in the feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-cat model for AIDS which included in vitro testing, an in vivo dose-response titration, a postexposure treatment study, plasma drug concentration determinations, and evaluation of the immune response to FeLV. In in vitro studies, AZT prevented FeLV infection of a feline T-lymphoid cell line, giving 50 and 90% inhibition concentrations of 4.6 and 11.1 mM, respectively. In all of the in vivo efficacy studies, AZT was administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion for 28 days. AZT toxicity was excessive at a dosage of 120 mg/kg of body weight per day, causing acute anemia, but AZT was tolerable at 60 mg/kg/day. In preexposure studies, AZT was efficacious in preventing chronic antigenemia at a dosage of > or = 15 mg/kg/day, at which plasma AZT concentrations averaged between 0.51 and 0.81 micrograms/ml (2.13 and 3.03 microM). As a postexposure treatment, at 60 mg/kg/day, AZT prevented chronic FeLV antigenemia when treatment was started up to 96 h post-virus inoculation (p.i.), but not when treatment was started at 192 h p.i. The 4-day period between 96 and 192 h p.i. appears to be critical for establishing chronic viremia. It is presumed that the increase in virus load between 4 and 8 days p.i. was able to overwhelm the immunologic functions responsible for containment of FeLV infection, even though AZT therapy effectively controlled viremia during the treatment period. The antibody response to FeLV varied depending on the time of AZT treatment initiation relative to virus challenge.When AZT treatment was started 48 h before or 8 h after FeLV challenge, antibodies to FeLV were not detected until after AZT treatment was discontinued at 28 days p.i. Following AZT treatment, however, antibody titers rapidly increased at a

  2. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  3. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  4. Development of a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus vaccine and wild strains.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Fang; Chan, Kun-Wei; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Chung, Yang-Tsung; Kuo, James; Wang, Chi-Young

    2014-05-19

    A multiplex amplification refractory mutation system reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (ARMS RT-PCR) was developed for the differential diagnosis of Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine and wild-type strains based on a point mutation between the vaccine strain (S) and the wild-type strain (T) located in the p27 gene. This system was further upgraded to obtain a real-time ARMS RT-PCR (ARMS qRT-PCR) with a high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) platform. The genotyping of various strains of FeLV was determined by comparing the HRMA curves with the defined wild-type FeLV (strain TW1), and the results were expressed as a percentage confidence. The detection limits of ARMS RT-PCR and ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA were 100 and 1 copies of transcribed FeLV RNA per 0.5 ml of sample, respectively. No false-positive results were obtained with 6 unrelated pathogens and 1 feline cell line. Twelve FeLV Taiwan strains were correctly identified using ARMS qRT-PCR combined with HRMA. The genotypes of the strains matched the defined FeLV wild-type strain genotype with at least 91.17% confidence. A higher degree of sequence polymorphism was found throughout the p27 gene compared with the long terminal repeat region. In conclusion, the current study describes the phylogenetic relationship of the FeLV Taiwan strains and demonstrates that the developed ARMS RT-PCR assay is able to be used to detect the replication of a vaccine strain that has not been properly inactivated, thus acting as a safety check for the quality of FeLV vaccines. PMID:24842287

  5. A soluble envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus (FeLIX) present in serum of domestic cats mediates infection of a pathogenic variant of feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Shojima, Takayuki; Fukui, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    T-lymphotropic feline leukemia virus (FeLV-T), a highly pathogenic variant of FeLV, induces severe immunosuppression in cats. FeLV-T is fusion defective because in its PHQ motif, a gammaretroviral consensus motif in the N terminus of an envelope protein, histidine is replaced with aspartate. Infection by FeLV-T requires FeLIX, a truncated envelope protein encoded by an endogenous FeLV, for transactivation of infectivity and Pit1 for binding FeLIX. Although Pit1 is present in most tissues in cats, the expression of FeLIX is limited to certain cells in lymphoid organs. Therefore, the host cell range of FeLV-T was thought to be restricted to cells expressing FeLIX. However, because FeLIX is a soluble factor and is expressed constitutively in lymphoid organs, we presumed it to be present in blood and evaluated its activities in sera of various mammalian species using a pseudotype assay. We demonstrated that cat serum has FeLIX activity at a functional level, suggesting that FeLIX is present in the blood and that FeLV-T may be able to infect cells expressing Pit1 regardless of the expression of FeLIX in vivo. In addition, FeLIX activities in sera were detected only in domestic cats and not in other feline species tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report to prove that a large amount of truncated envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus is circulating in the blood to facilitate the infection of a pathogenic exogenous retrovirus. PMID:25395593

  6. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection among adult cats at an animal control center: association of viremia with phenotype and season.

    PubMed

    McMichael, J C; Stiers, S; Coffin, S

    1986-04-01

    The overall frequency of feline leukemia virus infection among 555 cats tested from the Hillsborough County Florida Animal Control facility, using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was 9.4%. Among male cats, the frequency was 13.8%, which was statistically higher (P = 0.003) than that for females (5.9%). There was no statistical evidence to associate frequency of viral infection with hair length or coloration. There was an association with color distribution. The frequency of viral infection in cats with a solid color in their coat, excluding tabby, calico, and tortoise, was higher (12.2%) than the frequency in the remainder of the cats (5.5%; P = 0.011). Finally, there was a difference in frequency related to season. For the 10 months of the study, cats collected in the 5 cooler months (January, February, March, April, and October) had a frequency of 14.6%; cats obtained in the 5 warmer months (May, June, July, August, and September) had a frequency of 7.2% (P = 0.038). PMID:3008609

  7. Function of a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat of feline leukemia virus isolated from an unusual set of naturally occurring tumors.

    PubMed

    Athas, G B; Lobelle-Rich, P; Levy, L S

    1995-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses have been characterized from naturally occurring non-B-cell, non-T-cell tumors occurring in the spleens of infected cats. These proviruses exhibit a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR), namely, a 21-bp tandem triplication beginning 25 bp downstream of the enhancer. The repeated finding of the triplication-containing LTR in non-B-cell, non-T-cell lymphomas of the spleen suggests that the unique LTR is an essential participant in the development of tumors of this particular phenotype. The nucleotide sequence of the triplication-containing LTR most closely resembles that of FeLV subgroup C. Studies performed to measure the ability of the triplication-containing LTR to modulate gene expression indicate that the 21-bp triplication provides transcriptional enhancer function to the LTR that contains it and that it substitutes at least in part for the duplication of the enhancer. The 21-bp triplication confers a bona fide enhancer function upon LTR-directed reporter gene expression; however, the possibility of a spacer function was not eliminated. The studies demonstrate further that the triplication-containing LTR acts preferentially in a cell-type-specific manner, i.e., it is 12-fold more active in K-562 cells than is an LTR lacking the triplication. A recombinant, infectious FeLV bearing the 21-bp triplication in U3 was constructed. Cells infected with the recombinant were shown to accumulate higher levels of viral RNA transcripts and virus particles in culture supernatants than did cells infected with the parental type. The triplication-containing LTR is implicated in the induction of tumors of a particular phenotype, perhaps through transcriptional regulation of the virus and/or adjacent cellular genes, in the appropriate target cell. PMID:7745680

  8. Evaluation of the effect of short-term treatment with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir (Isentress) on the course of progressive feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Andrea; Cattori, Valentino; Riond, Barbara; Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-02-25

    Cats persistently infected with the gammaretrovirus feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are at risk to die within months to years from FeLV-associated disease, such as immunosuppression, anemia or lymphoma/leukemia. The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been demonstrated to reduce FeLV replication in vitro. The aim of the present study was to investigate raltegravir in vivo for its safety and efficacy to suppress FeLV replication. The safety was tested in three naïve specified pathogen-free (SPF) cats during a 15 weeks treatment period (initially 20mg then 40mg orally b.i.d.). No adverse effects were noted. The efficacy was tested in seven persistently FeLV-infected SPF cats attained from 18 cats experimentally exposed to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The seven cats were treated during nine weeks (40mg then 80mg b.i.d.). Raltegravir was well tolerated even at the higher dose. A significant decrease in plasma viral RNA loads (∼5×) was found; however, after treatment termination a rebound effect was observed. Only one cat developed anti-FeLV antibodies and viral RNA loads remained decreased after treatment termination. Of note, one of the untreated FeLV-A infected cats developed fatal FeLV-C associated anemia within 5 weeks of FeLV-A infection. Moreover, progressive FeLV infection was associated with significantly lower enFeLV loads prior to infection supporting that FeLV susceptibility may be related to the genetic background of the cat. Overall, our data demonstrate the ability of raltegravir to reduce viral replication also in vivo. However, no complete control of viremia was achieved. Further investigations are needed to find an optimized treatment against FeLV. (250 words). PMID:25500005

  9. Long-term follow up of feline leukemia virus infection and characterization of viral RNA loads using molecular methods in tissues of cats with different infection outcomes.

    PubMed

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Widmer, Stefan; Kessler, Yvonne; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Grest, Paula; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-02-01

    It is a remarkable feature for a retrovirus that an infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) can result in various outcomes. Whereas some cats contain the infection and show a regressive course, others stay viremic and succumb to the infection within a few years. We hypothesized, that differences in the infection outcome might be causally linked to the viral RNA and provirus loads within the host and these loads therefore may give additional insight into the pathogenesis of the virus. Thus, the goals of the present study were to follow-up on experimentally infected cats and investigate tissues from cats with different infection outcomes using sensitive, specific TaqMan real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Nineteen experimentally FeLV-A/Glasgow-1-infected cats were categorized into having regressive, progressive or reactivated FeLV infection according to follow-up of FeLV p27 antigen detection in the blood. Remarkably, regressively infected cats showed detectable provirus and viral RNA loads in almost all of the 27 tested tissues, even many years after virus exposure. Moreover, some regressively infected cats reactivated the infection, and these cats had intermediate to high viral RNA and provirus tissue loads. The highest loads were found in viremic cats, independent of their health status. Tissues that represented sites of virus replication and shedding revealed the highest viral RNA and provirus loads, while the lowest loads were present in muscle and nerve tissues. A supplementary analysis of 20 experimentally infected cats with progressive infection revealed a median survival time of 3.1 years (range from 0.6 to 6.5 years); ∼70% (n=14) of these cats developed lymphoma, while leukemia and non-regenerative anemia were observed less frequently. Our results demonstrate that the different infection outcomes are associated with differences in viral RNA and provirus tissue loads. Remarkably, no complete clearance of FeLV viral RNA or provirus was

  10. Hydrodynamic diameters of murine mammary, Rous sarcoma, and feline leukemia RNA tumor viruses: studies by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy and electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeen, I; Rimai, L; Luftig, R B; Libes, L; Retzel, E; Rich, M; McCormick, J J

    1976-01-01

    We have studied purified preparations of murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV; Prague strain), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) by laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy, ultra-centrifugation, and electron microscopy. The laser beat frequency light-scattering spectroscopy measurements yield the light-scattering intensity, weighted diffusion coefficients. The corresponding average hydrodynamic diameters, as calculated from the diffusion coefficients by the Stokes-Einstein equation for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 144 +/- 6 nm, 147 +/- 7 nm, and 168 +/- 6 nm. Portions of the purified RSV and MuMTV preparations, from which light-scattering samples were obtained, and portions of the actual FeLV light-scattering samples were examined by negatively stained, catalase crystal-calibrated electron microscopy. The light-scattering intensity weighted averages of the electron micrograph size distributions were calculated by weighing each size by its theoretical relative scattering intensity, as obtained from published tables computed according to the Mie scattering theory. These averages and the experimentally observed hydrodynamic diameters agreed to within +/- 5%, which is the combined experimental error in the electron microscopic and light-scattering techniques. We conclude that the size distributions of singlet particles observed in the electron micrographs are statistically true representations of the sedimentation-purified solution size distributions. The sedimentation coefficients (S20, w) for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: 595 +/- 29S, 689 +/- 35S, and 880 +/- 44S. Virus partial specific volumes were taken as the reciprocals of the buoyant densities, determined in sucrose density gradients. The Svedberg equation was used to calculate particle weights from the measured diffusion and sedimentation coefficients. The particle weights for MuMTV, RSV, and FeLV, respectively, are: (3.17 +/- 0.32) x 10(8), (4.17 +/- 0

  11. Placental Expression of the Heme Transporter, Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup C Receptor, Is related to Maternal Iron Status in Pregnant Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Young, Melissa F.; Essley, Bridget V.; McNanley, Thomas J.; Cooper, Elizabeth M.; Pressman, Eva K.; McIntyre, Allison W.; Orlando, Mark S.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Guillet, Ronnie; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the expression of heme transporters in human placenta and possible associations between these transporters and maternal or neonatal iron status. To address this area of research, relative protein expression of 2 heme transporters, Feline Leukemia Virus, Subgroup C, Receptor 1 (FLVCR1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP), was assessed using Western-blot analysis in human placental tissue in relation to maternal/neonatal iron status and placental iron concentration. Placental FLVCR1 (n = 71) and BCRP (n = 83) expression were assessed at term (36.6–41.7 wk gestation) in a cohort of pregnant adolescents (13–18 y of age) at high-risk of iron deficiency. Both FLVCR1 and BCRP were detected in all placental samples assayed. Placental FLVCR1 expression was positively related to placental BCRP expression (n = 69; R2 = 0.104; P < 0.05). Adolescents that were anemic at delivery had lower placental FLVCR1 expression (n = 49; P < 0.05). Placental FLVCR1 expression was positively associated with placental iron concentration at delivery (n = 61; R2 = 0.064; P < 0.05). In contrast, placental BCRP expression was not significantly associated with maternal iron status or placental iron content. Both FLVCR1 and BCRP are highly expressed in human placental tissue, but only FLVCR1 was significantly inversely associated with maternal iron status and placental iron concentration. Further analysis is needed to explore potential functional roles of FLVCR1 in human placental iron transport. PMID:21593354

  12. Amino-terminal domain of the v-fms oncogene product includes a functional signal peptide that directs synthesis of a transforming glycoprotein in the absence of feline leukemia virus gag sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E.F.; Roussel, M.F.; Hampe, A.; Walker, M.H.; Fried, V.A.; Look, A.T.; Rettenmier, C.W.; Sherr, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 5' segment of the human genomic c-fms proto-oncogene suggested that recombination between feline leukemia virus and feline c-fms sequences might have occurred in a region encoding the 5' untranslated portion of c-fms mRNA. The polyprotein precursor gP180/sup gag-fms/ encoded by the McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus was therefore predicted to contain 34 v-fms-coded amino acids derived from sequences of the c-fms gene that are not ordinarily translated from the proto-oncogene mRNA. The (gP180/sup gag-fms/) polyprotein was cotranslationally cleaved near the gag-fms junction to remove its gag gene-coded portion. Determination of the amino-terminal sequence of the resulting v-fms-coded glycoprotein, gp120/sup v-fms/, showed that the site of proteolysis corresponded to a predicted signal peptidase cleavage site within the c-fms gene product. Together, these analyses suggested that the linked gag sequences may not be necessary for expression of a biologically active v-fms gene product. The gag-fms sequences of feline sarcoma virus strain McDonough and the v-fms sequences alone were inserted into a murine retroviral vector containing a neomycin resistance gene. The authors conclude that a cryptic hydrophobic signal peptide sequence in v-fms was unmasked by gag deletion, thereby allowing the correct orientation and transport of the v-fms was unmasked by gag deletion, thereby allowing the correct orientation and transport of the v-fms gene product within membranous organelles. It seems likely that the proteolytic cleavage of gP180/gag-fms/ is mediated by signal peptidase and that the amino termini of gp140/sup v-fms/ and the c-fms gene product are identical.

  13. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    PubMed

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  14. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  15. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  16. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  17. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  18. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  19. Ocular manifestations of feline viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Feline viral diseases are common and cats can be presented with a variety of clinical manifestations. Ocular disease associated with viral pathogens is not unusual, particularly with viruses causing upper respiratory tract disease in cats, such as feline herpesvirus type 1 and feline calicivirus. These agents mainly cause ocular surface disease. Other viruses, such as feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus, can cause uveitis, while feline leukemia virus can induce ocular lymphosarcoma. This review covers the most common viral pathogens of cats that cause ocular manifestations, the specific features of the ocular diseases caused by these viruses and therapeutic recommendations. PMID:24461645

  20. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

  1. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  2. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  3. Feline fecal virome reveals novel and prevalent enteric viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José; Kondov, Nikola O.; Wong, Walt; Reuter, Gábor; Knowles, Nick J.; Vega, Everardo; Esona, Mathew D.; Deng, Xutao; Vinjé, Jan; Delwart, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Humans keep more than 80 million cats worldwide, ensuring frequent contacts with their viruses. Despite such interactions the enteric virome of cats remains poorly understood. We analyzed a fecal sample from a single healthy cat from Portugal using viral metagenomics and detected five eukaryotic viral genomes. These viruses included a novel picornavirus (proposed genus “Sakobuvirus”) and bocavirus (feline bocavirus 2), a variant of feline astrovirus 2 and sequence fragments of a highly divergent feline rotavirus and picobirnavirus. Feline sakobuvirus A represents the prototype species of a proposed new genus in the Picornaviridae family, distantly related to human salivirus and kobuvirus. Feline astroviruses (mamastrovirus 2) are the closest relatives of the classic human astroviruses (mamastrovirus 1), suggestive of past cross-species transmission. Presence of these viruses by PCR among Portuguese cats was detected in 13% (rotavirus), 7% (astrovirus), 6% (bocavirus), 4% (sakobuvirus), and 4% (picobirnavirus) of 55 feline fecal samples. Co-infections were frequent with 40% (4/10) of cats shedding more than one of these viruses. Our study provides an initial unbiased description of the feline fecal virome indicating a high level of asymptomatic infections. Availability of the genome sequences of these viruses will facilitate future tropism and disease association studies. PMID:24793097

  4. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  5. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  6. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  7. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  8. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus....

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  10. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  11. Detection of Antibodies to the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Transmembrane Protein p15E: an Alternative Approach for Serological FeLV Detection Based on Antibodies to p15E

    PubMed Central

    Boenzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Hartnack, Sonja; Huder, Jon; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate whether the diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection by serology might be feasible and useful. Among the various viral proteins, the FeLV env-gene product (SU) and the envelope transmembrane protein p15E were considered promising candidates for the serological diagnosis of FeLV infection. Thus, we evaluated p15E and three other FeLV antigens, namely, a recombinant env-gene product, whole FeLV, and a short peptide from the FeLV transmembrane protein, for their potential to detect FeLV infection. To evaluate possible exposure of cats to FeLV, we tested serum and plasma samples from experimentally and naturally infected and vaccinated cats for the presence of antibodies to these antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The serological results were compared with the p27 and proviral real-time PCR results. We found that p15E displayed a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 100% in experimentally infected cats. In naturally infected cats, p15E showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 85.6%. Vaccinated cats displayed minimal antibody levels to p15E, suggesting that anti-p15E antibodies indicate infection rather than vaccination. The other antigens turned out to be too unspecific. The lower specificity in cats exposed to FeLV under field conditions may be explained by the fact that some cats become infected and seroconvert in the absence of detectable viral nucleic acids in plasma. We conclude that p15E serology may become a valuable tool for diagnosing FeLV infection; in some cases, it may replace PCR. PMID:24696026

  12. Detection of antibodies to the feline leukemia Virus (FeLV) transmembrane protein p15E: an alternative approach for serological FeLV detection based on antibodies to p15E.

    PubMed

    Boenzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Hartnack, Sonja; Huder, Jon; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this report was to investigate whether the diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection by serology might be feasible and useful. Among the various viral proteins, the FeLV env-gene product (SU) and the envelope transmembrane protein p15E were considered promising candidates for the serological diagnosis of FeLV infection. Thus, we evaluated p15E and three other FeLV antigens, namely, a recombinant env-gene product, whole FeLV, and a short peptide from the FeLV transmembrane protein, for their potential to detect FeLV infection. To evaluate possible exposure of cats to FeLV, we tested serum and plasma samples from experimentally and naturally infected and vaccinated cats for the presence of antibodies to these antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The serological results were compared with the p27 and proviral real-time PCR results. We found that p15E displayed a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 100% in experimentally infected cats. In naturally infected cats, p15E showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 85.6%. Vaccinated cats displayed minimal antibody levels to p15E, suggesting that anti-p15E antibodies indicate infection rather than vaccination. The other antigens turned out to be too unspecific. The lower specificity in cats exposed to FeLV under field conditions may be explained by the fact that some cats become infected and seroconvert in the absence of detectable viral nucleic acids in plasma. We conclude that p15E serology may become a valuable tool for diagnosing FeLV infection; in some cases, it may replace PCR. PMID:24696026

  13. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus Gag proteins.

    PubMed

    Burkala, Evan; Poss, Mary

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the predicted biochemical properties of Gag proteins from a diverse group of feline immunodeficiency viruses (FIV) to determine how different evolutionary histories of virus and host have changed or constrained these important structural proteins. Our data are based on FIV sequences derived from domestic cat (FIVfca), cougar (FIVpco), and lions (FIVple). Analyses consisted of determining the selective forces acting at each position in the protein and the comparing predictions for secondary structure, charge, hydrophobicity and flexibility for matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, and the C-terminal peptide, which comprise the Gag proteins. We demonstrate that differences among the FIV Gag proteins have largely arisen by neutral evolution, although many neutrally evolving regions have maintained biochemical features. Regions with predicted differences in biochemical features appear to involve intramolecular interactions and structural elements that undergo conformational changes during particle maturation. In contrast, the majority of sites involved in intermolecular contacts on the protein surface are constrained by purifying selection. There is also conservation of sites that interact with host proteins associated with cellular trafficking and particle budding. NC is the only protein with evidence of positive selection, two of which occur in the N-terminal region responsible for RNA binding and interaction with host proteins. PMID:17265140

  14. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America. PMID:16454381

  15. Is feline foamy virus really apathogenic?

    PubMed

    German, A C; Harbour, D A; Helps, C R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    2008-05-15

    Feline foamy virus (FFV) is a retrovirus commonly found in cats. It is generally thought to be apathogenic, making it a suitable candidate as a gene therapy vector. However, there have been reports of association of FFV with chronic progressive arthritis and a cofactor effect with feline immunodeficiency virus. This study investigated experimental FFV infection and whether this was associated with signs of disease. Eight young specific pathogen free cats were inoculated intramuscularly with FFV. The cats were examined twice weekly and blood and pharyngeal samples were taken. Haematology, biochemistry and FFV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. Tissue samples were also collected throughout the six month period. FFV was initially detected by qPCR in the blood within the first two weeks of infection and viraemia persisted throughout the study. Two peaks of viraemia were observed, at day 20 (80-170FFU/ml blood) and day 155 (332-415FFU/ml blood). FFV was also consistently detected in oropharyngeal samples after day 36. Anti-FFV IgG was detected in all cats by ELISA; antibody levels had an early peak around day 35 and then increased again following the second rise in circulating viral load. All cats remained clinically normal, except for one cat with an unrelated gingivitis. None of the cats developed pyrexia. The biochemical profile and blood cell counts remained within normal limits except for one cat with a persistent eosinophilia. Initial fluctuations in white cell counts settled within three weeks and did not deviate outside of the normal ranges. All tissue samples contained FFV DNA; lymphoreticular tissues, salivary gland and lung had the highest viral loads. Although there were no gross pathological lesions on post mortem examination, histologically a mild glomerulonephritis and a moderate interstitial pneumonia were observed in all cats. We conclude that during the six month period of infection, although cats appeared clinically normal

  16. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

  17. Quality of different in-clinic test systems for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Griessmayr, Pascale; Schulz, Bianka; Greene, Craig E; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Jarrett, Os; Egberink, Herman F

    2007-12-01

    Many new diagnostic in-house tests for identification of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection have been licensed for use in veterinary practice, and the question of the relative merits of these kits has prompted comparative studies. This study was designed to define the strengths and weaknesses of seven FIV and eight FeLV tests that are commercially available. In this study, 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats were tested. Those samples reacting FIV-positive in at least one of the tests were confirmed by Western blot, and those reacting FeLV-positive were confirmed by virus isolation. In addition, a random selection of samples testing negative in all test systems was re-tested by Western blot (100 samples) and by virus isolation (81 samples). Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of each test and the quality of the results were compared. PMID:17604205

  18. Transcriptome analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Harun, Mohammad Syamsul Reza; Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal systemic disease caused by FIP virus (FIPV). There are no effective vaccines or treatment available, and the virus virulence determinants and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we describe the sequencing of RNA extracted from Crandell Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells infected with FIPV using the Illumina next-generation sequencing approach. Bioinformatics analysis, based on Felis catus 2X annotated shotgun reference genome, using CLC bio Genome Workbench is used to map both control and infected cells. Kal's Z test statistical analysis is used to analyze the differentially expressed genes from the infected CRFK cells. In addition, RT-qPCR analysis is used for further transcriptional profiling of selected genes in infected CRFK cells and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy and FIP-diagnosed cats. PMID:25720485

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

  20. Production of feline leukemia inhibitory factor with biological activity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kanegi, R; Hatoya, S; Tsujimoto, Y; Takenaka, S; Nishimura, T; Wijewardana, V; Sugiura, K; Takahashi, M; Kawate, N; Tamada, H; Inaba, T

    2016-07-15

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a cytokine which is essential for oocyte and embryo development, embryonic stem cell, and induced pluripotent stem cell maintenance. Leukemia inhibitory factor improves the maturation of oocytes in the human and the mouse. However, feline LIF (fLIF) cloning and effects on oocytes during IVM have not been reported. Thus, we cloned complete cDNA of fLIF and examined its biological activity and effects on oocytes during IVM in the domestic cat. The aminoacid sequence of fLIF revealed a homology of 81% or 92% with that of mouse or human. The fLIF produced by pCold TF DNA in Escherichia coli was readily soluble and after purification showed bioactivity in maintaining the undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells and enhancing the proliferation of human erythrocyte leukemia cells. Furthermore, 10- and 100-ng/mL fLIF induced cumulus expansion with or without FSH and EGF (P < 0.05). The rate of metaphase II oocytes was also improved with 100-ng/mL fLIF (P < 0.05). We therefore confirmed the successful production for the first time of biologically active fLIF and revealed its effects on oocytes during IVM in the domestic cat. Feline LIF will further improve reproduction and stem cell research in the feline family. PMID:27020881

  1. Canine and feline host ranges of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus: distinct host cell tropisms of each virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Truyen, U; Parrish, C R

    1992-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as an apparently new virus during the mid-1970s. The origin of CPV is unknown, but a variation from feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) or another closely related parvovirus is suspected. Here we examine the in vitro and in vivo canine and feline host ranges of CPV and FPV. Examination of three canine and six feline cell lines and mitogen-stimulated canine and feline peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed that CPV replicates in both canine and feline cells, whereas FPV replicates efficiently only in feline cells. The in vivo host ranges were unexpectedly complex and distinct from the in vitro host ranges. Inoculation of dogs with FPV revealed efficient replication in the thymus and, to some degree, in the bone marrow, as shown by virus isolation, viral DNA recovery, and Southern blotting and by strand-specific in situ hybridization. FPV replication could not be demonstrated in mesenteric lymph nodes or in the small intestine, which are important target tissues in CPV infection. Although CPV replicated well in all the feline cells tested in vitro, it did not replicate in any tissue of cats after intramuscular or intravenous inoculation. These results indicate that these viruses have complex and overlapping host ranges and that distinct tissue tropisms exist in the homologous and heterologous hosts. Images PMID:1323703

  2. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag’s N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  3. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  4. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  5. Survival of a cat with pneumonia due to cowpox virus and feline herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Martin, M; Stone, B; Hetzel, U; Kipar, A

    2009-09-01

    Cowpox virus infection in cats is rare and usually leads to cutaneous lesions alone. Pulmonary infection and pneumonia have been documented occasionally but all such cases described to date have been fatal. Although usually affecting the upper respiratory tract, feline herpesvirus can also induce pneumonia. The present report describes the case of a cat that recovered from a pneumonia in which both poxvirus and feline herpesvirus were demonstrated. PMID:19769672

  6. Case series of feline panleukopenia virus in an animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Benjanirut, Chutamas

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a series of confirmed and suspected cases of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and in-contact cats in an adoption-guarantee shelter in an FPV-endemic area by reviewing shelter records over a 10-month period (January-October 2010). Cats were divided into three groups: in-contact group - asymptomatic cats that were housed with a FPV fecal antigen (Ag)-positive cat/kitten as part of a litter group (n = 66); FPV-survivors group (FPV-infected survivors) - tested FPV fecal Ag-positive and showed clinical signs of FPV, but survived (n = 27); FPV-non-survivors group (FPV-infected non-survivors) - showed clinical signs of FPV and either tested FPV fecal Ag-positive or were housed with an Ag-positive family member, but did not survive (n = 52). Ages ranged from 3 weeks to 3 years, but most were <6 months old (in-contact group: 79%; FPV-survivors group: 70%; FPV-non-survivors group: 85%). A seasonal peak occurred over summer, but cases occurred year-round. Anorexia, dehydration, fever and diarrhea predominated in the FPV-survivors group, and death was preceded by clinical signs of circulatory shock in the FPV-non-survivors group. Housing litters of kittens with their mother was not associated with improved outcome, perhaps because in this population clinical FPV infection was relatively common in queens arriving at the shelter with susceptible litters. PMID:23873047

  7. Cutaneous lesions associated with coronavirus-induced vasculitis in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and concurrent feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Martha J; Silkstone, Malcolm A; Kipar, Anja M

    2005-08-01

    This report describes a clinical case of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) with multisystemic involvement, including multiple nodular cutaneous lesions, in a cat that was co-infected with feline coronavirus and feline immunodeficiency virus. The skin lesions were caused by a pyogranulomatous-necrotising dermal phlebitis and periphlebitis. Immunohistology demonstrated the presence of coronavirus antigen in macrophages within these lesions. The pathogenesis of FIP involves a viral associated, disseminated phlebitis and periphlebitis which can arise at many sites. Target organs frequently include the eyes, abdominal organs, pleural and peritoneal membranes, and central nervous tissues, but cutaneous lesions have not previously been reported. PMID:16055009

  8. New acute transforming feline retovirus with fms homology specifies a C-terminally truncated version of the c-fms protein that is different from SM-feline sarcoma virus v-fms protein

    SciTech Connect

    Besmer, P.; Lader, E.; George, P.C.; Bergold, P.J.; Qui, F.; Zuckerman, E.E.; Hardy, W.D.

    1986-10-01

    The HZ5-feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) is a new acute transforming feline retrovirus which was isolated from a multicentric fibrosarcoma of a domestic cat. The HZ5-FeSV transforms fibroblasts in vitro and is replication defective. A biologically active integrated HZ5-FeSV provirus was molecularly cloned from cellular DNA of HZ5-FeSV-infected FRE-3A rat cells. The HZ5-FeSV has oncogene homology with the fms sequences of the SM-FeSV. The genome organization of the 8.6-kilobase HZ5-FeSV provirus is 5' ..delta..gag-fms-..delta..pol-..delta..env 3'. The HZ5- and SM-FeSVs display indistinguishable in vitro transformation characteristics, and the structures of the gag-fms transforming genes in the two viruses are very similar. In the HZ5-FeSV and the SM-FeSV, identical c-fms and feline leukemia virus p10 sequences form the 5' gag-fms junction. With regard to v-fms the two viruses are homologous up to 11 amino acids before the C terminus of the SM-FeSV v-fms protein. In HZ5-FeSV a segment of 362 nucleotides then follows before the 3' recombination site with feline leukemia virus pol. The new 3' v-fms sequence encodes 27 amino acids before reaching a TGA termination signal. The relationship of this sequence with the recently characterized human c-fms sequence has been examined. The 3' HZ5-FeSV v-fms sequence is homologous with 3' c-fms sequences. A frameshift mutation (11-base-pair deletion) was found in the C-terminal fms coding sequence of the HZ5-FeSV. As a result, the HZ5-FeSV v-fms protein is predicted to be a C-terminally truncated version of c-fms. This frameshift mutation may determine the oncogenic properties of v-fms in the HZ5-FeSV.

  9. Upregulation of Surface Feline CXCR4 Expression following Ectopic Expression of CCR5: Implications for Studies of the Cell Tropism of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Brian J.; Cannon, Celia A.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2002-01-01

    Feline CXCR4 and CCR5 were expressed in feline cells as fusion proteins with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Expression of the EGFP fusion proteins was localized to the cell membrane, and surface expression of CXCR4 was confirmed by using a cross-species-reactive anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody. Ectopic expression of feline CCR5 enhanced expression of either endogenous feline CXCR4 or exogenous feline or human CXCR4 expressed from a retrovirus vector, indicating that experiments investigating the effect of CCR5 expression on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection must be interpreted with caution. Susceptibility to infection with cell culture-adapted strains of FIV or to syncytium formation following transfection with a eukaryotic vector expressing an env gene from a cell culture-adapted strain of virus correlated with expression of either human or feline CXCR4, whereas feline CCR5 had no effect. In contrast, neither CXCR4 nor CCR5 rendered cells permissive to either productive infection with primary strains of FIV or syncytium formation following transfection with primary env gene expression vectors. Screening a panel of Ghost cell lines expressing diverse human chemokine receptors confirmed that CXCR4 alone supported fusion mediated by the FIV Env from cell culture-adapted viruses. CXCR4 expression was upregulated in Ghost cells coexpressing CXCR4 and CCR5 or CXCR4, CCR5, and CCR3, and susceptibility to FIV infection could be correlated with the level of CXCR4 expression. The data suggest that β-chemokine receptors may influence FIV infection by modulating the expression of CXCR4. PMID:12186908

  10. Apoptosis transcriptional mechanism of feline infectious peritonitis virus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Shuid, Ahmad Naqib; Safi, Nikoo; Haghani, Amin; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Haron, Mohd Syamsul Reza; Tan, Sheau Wei; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis has been postulated to play an important role during feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection; however, its mechanism is not well characterized. This study is focused on apoptosis and transcriptional profiling of FIPV-infected cells following in vitro infection of CRFK cells with FIPV 79-1146 WSU. Flow cytometry was used to determine mode of cell death in first 42 h post infection (hpi). FIPV infected cells underwent early apoptosis at 9 hpi (p < 0.05) followed by late apoptosis at 12 hpi (p < 0.05) and necrosis from 24 hpi (p < 0.05). Then, next generation sequencing was performed on 9 hpi and control uninfected cells by Illumina analyzer. An aggregate of 4546 genes (2229 down-regulated and 2317 up-regulated) from 17 cellular process, 11 molecular functions and 130 possible biological pathways were affected by FIPV. 131 genes from apoptosis cluster (80 down-regulated and 51 up-regulated) along with increase of apoptosis, p53, p38 MAPK, VEGF and chemokines/cytokines signaling pathways were probably involved in apoptosis process. Six of the de-regulated genes expression (RASSF1, BATF2, MAGEB16, PDCD5, TNFα and TRAF2) and TNFα protein concentration were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively, at different time-points. Up-regulations of both pro-apoptotic (i.e. PDCD5) and anti-apoptotic (i.e. TRAF2) were detected from first hpi and continuing to deregulate during apoptosis process in the infected cells. PMID:26386572

  11. Rapid and sensitive detection of Feline immunodeficiency virus using an insulated isothermal PCR-based assay with a point-of-need PCR detection platform.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Rebecca Penrose; Kania, Stephen A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Ma, Li-Juan; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is an important infectious agent of cats. Clinical syndromes resulting from FIV infection include immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections, and neoplasia. In our study, a 5' long terminal repeat/gag region-based reverse transcription insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (RT-iiPCR) was developed to amplify all known FIV strains to facilitate point-of-need FIV diagnosis. The RT-iiPCR method was applied in a point-of-need PCR detection platform--a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted RT-iiPCR results from nucleic acids within 1 hr. Limit of detection 95% of FIV RT-iiPCR was calculated to be 95 copies standard in vitro transcription RNA per reaction. Endpoint dilution studies with serial dilutions of an ATCC FIV type strain showed that the sensitivity of lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent was comparable to that of a reference nested PCR. The established reaction did not amplify any nontargeted feline pathogens, including Felid herpesvirus 1, feline coronavirus, Feline calicivirus, Feline leukemia virus, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and Chlamydophila felis. Based on analysis of 76 clinical samples (including blood and bone marrow) with the FIV RT-iiPCR, test sensitivity was 97.78% (44/45), specificity was 100.00% (31/31), and agreement was 98.65% (75/76), determined against a reference nested-PCR assay. A kappa value of 0.97 indicated excellent correlation between these 2 methods. The lyophilized FIV RT-iiPCR reagent, deployed on a user-friendly portable device, has potential utility for rapid and easy point-of-need detection of FIV in cats. PMID:26185125

  12. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  13. Ebola virus mediated infectivity is restricted in canine and feline cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Ziying; Bart, Stephen M; Ruthel, Gordon; Vande Burgt, Nathan H; Haines, Kathleen M; Volk, Susan W; Vite, Charles H; Freedman, Bruce D; Bates, Paul; Harty, Ronald N

    2016-01-15

    Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses belong to the Filoviridae family and often cause severe, fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. The magnitude of the 2014 outbreak in West Africa and the unprecedented emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States underscore the urgency to better understand the dynamics of Ebola virus infection, transmission and spread. To date, the susceptibility and possible role of domestic animals and pets in the transmission cycle and spread of EVD remains unclear. We utilized infectious VSV recombinants and lentivirus pseudotypes expressing the EBOV surface glycoprotein (GP) to assess the permissiveness of canine and feline cells to EBOV GP-mediated entry. We observed a general restriction in EBOV-mediated infection of primary canine and feline cells. To address the entry mechanism, we used cells deficient in NPC1, a host protein implicated in EBOV entry, and a pharmacological blockade of cholesterol transport, to show that an NPC1-dependent mechanism of EBOV entry is conserved in canine and feline cells. These data demonstrate that cells of canine and feline origin are susceptible to EBOV GP mediated infection; however, infectivity of these cells is reduced significantly compared to controls. Moreover, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of EBOV GP mediated entry into cells of canine and feline origin. PMID:26711035

  14. Molecular characterization and virus neutralization patterns of severe, non-epizootic forms of feline calicivirus infections resembling virulent systemic disease in cats in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein.

    PubMed

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Samman, Ayman; Hoffmann, Karolin; Sydler, Titus; Cattori, Valentino; Graf, Felix; Diserens, Kevin A; Padrutt, Isabelle; Nesina, Stefanie; Berger, Alice; Ruetten, Maja; Riond, Barbara; Hosie, Margaret J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2016-01-15

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) infections are associated with oral ulceration, chronic stomatitis and a limping syndrome. Epizootic outbreaks of virulent systemic disease (VSD) have been reported in the USA and Europe. Here, the molecular characterization and neutralization patterns of FCV isolates from cases of severe, non-epizootic infection associated with skin ulceration and edema are presented. Samples from eleven symptomatic cats, four in-contact cats and 27 cats with no contact with symptomatic cats were collected and tested for FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Phylogenetic analyses based on the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV and virus neutralization with antisera raised against four FCV vaccine strains were performed. Nine kittens and two adult cats in two shelters and two veterinary clinics in four geographically distinct locations in Switzerland and Liechtenstein were affected. The cats showed fever, tongue and skin ulceration, head and paw edema, and occasionally jaundice, generalized edema and dyspnea. All symptomatic cats tested FCV-positive but were negative for FHV-1, FeLV and FIV, with the exception of one FIV-positive kitten. All kittens of one litter and both adult cats died. The disease did not spread to cats in the environment. Cats in the environment displayed phylogenetically distinct, but related, FCV strains. Virus neutralization patterns suggested that some cases might have been potentially prevented by vaccination with the optimal vaccine strain. In conclusion, clinicians should be aware of severe, non-epizootic forms of FCV infections with initial clinical presentations similar to VSD. PMID:26711049

  15. Feline Foamy Virus Adversely Affects Feline Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Expansion: Implications for Animal Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J.; Wood, Joshua A.; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients. PMID:25404388

  16. Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yalow, R S; Gross, L

    1976-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology. PMID:1066697

  17. Feline Tetherin Is Characterized by a Short N-Terminal Region and Is Counteracted by the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Michele; Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Salata, Cristiano; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Pistello, Mauro; Borsetti, Alessandra; Palù, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Tetherin (BST2) is the host cell factor that blocks the particle release of some enveloped viruses. Two putative feline tetherin proteins differing at the level of the N-terminal coding region have recently been described and tested for their antiviral activity. By cloning and comparing the two reported feline tetherins (called here cBST2504 and cBST2*) and generating specific derivative mutants, this study provides evidence that feline tetherin has a shorter intracytoplasmic domain than those of other known homologues. The minimal tetherin promoter was identified and assayed for its ability to drive tetherin expression in an alpha interferon-inducible manner. We also demonstrated that cBST2504 is able to dimerize, is localized at the cellular membrane, and impairs human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release, regardless of the presence of the Vpu antagonist accessory protein. While cBST2504 failed to restrict wild-type feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) egress, FIV mutants, bearing a frameshift at the level of the envelope-encoding region, were potently blocked. The transient expression of the FIV envelope glycoprotein was able to rescue mutant particle release from feline tetherin-positive cells but did not antagonize human BST2 activity. Moreover, cBST2504 was capable of specifically immunoprecipitating the FIV envelope glycoprotein. Finally, cBST2504 also exerted its function on HIV-2 ROD10 and on the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. Taken together, these results show that feline tetherin does indeed have a short N-terminal region and that the FIV envelope glycoprotein is the predominant factor counteracting tetherin restriction. PMID:22514338

  18. Myocarditis caused by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Five Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rolim, V Machado; Casagrande, R Assis; Wouters, A Terezinha Barth; Driemeier, D; Pavarini, S Petinatti

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections have been implicated as the cause of cardiomyopathy in several mammalian species. This study describes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and myocarditis associated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in five cats aged between 1 and 4 years. Clinical manifestations included dyspnoea in four animals, one of which also exhibited restlessness. One animal showed only lethargy, anorexia and vomiting. Necropsy examination revealed marked cardiomegaly, marked left ventricular hypertrophy and pallor of the myocardium and epicardium in all animals. Microscopical and immunohistochemical examination showed multifocal infiltration of the myocardium with T lymphocytes and fewer macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells. An intense immunoreaction for FIV antigen in the cytoplasm and nucleus of lymphocytes and the cytoplasm of some macrophages was observed via immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC did not reveal the presence of antigen from feline calicivirus, coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, feline parvovirus, Chlamydia spp. or Toxoplasma gondii. The results demonstrate the occurrence of FIV infection in inflammatory cells in the myocardium of five cats with myocarditis and HCM. PMID:26797583

  19. Genetics and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional potential differentiated healthy cats from cats with FIP. These findings may have potential as diagnostic markers for virulent FIP-associated FCoV. PMID:19788813

  20. Genetics and Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional potential differentiated healthy cats from cats with FIP. These findings may have potential as diagnostic markers for virulent FIP-associated FCoV. PMID:19788813

  1. Domestic cats infected with lion or puma lentivirus develop anti-feline immunodeficiency virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Hageman, Catherine L; Hoover, Edward A

    2003-09-01

    Attenuated live viral strains have afforded significant protection against virus challenge in HIV vaccine models. Although both cellular and humoral immunity are assumed to be vital for protection, specific parameters consistently associated with control of infection have been elusive. Our previous studies have shown that lentiviruses from 2 nondomestic feline species--lion (Pathera leo) and puma (Felis concolor)--persistently but nonpathogenetically infect domestic cats (Felis domestica). Moreover, infection with either the puma lentivirus (PLV) or lion lentivirus (LLV) conferred partial protection against superinfection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the feline equivalent of HIV. To determine whether domestic cats infected by the lentiviruses of pumas or lions generate cross-reactive immune responses, we infected groups of 5 domestic cats with PLV, LLV, or a sham control and then monitored virus load, hematologic parameters, antibody protection, proliferative responses, and the ability of blood mononuclear cells to inhibit LLV, PLV, and FIV replication in vitro. All cats inoculated with LLV or PLV developed persistent infection, and low-level cell-associated viremia has been previously described. Infected cats also generated robust antibody titers and lymphocytes that proliferated in response to viral antigens and downregulated PLV, LLV, and FIV replication in vitro. This latter activity was CD8 cell associated for PLV and LLV inhibition but not for FIV inhibition. Thus, cats infected with the phylogenetically more ancient and less pathogenic feline lentiviruses generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses reactive against both the homologous viruses and the heterologous FIV of domestic cats, which correlated with decreased viral load. These results are analogous to protection studies with attenuated primate immunodeficiency viruses and provide a system by which to examine adaptation, interference, and cross protection among

  2. Vaccination of cats with an attenuated recombinant myxoma virus expressing feline calicivirus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Victoria J; Tarpey, Ian; Spibey, Norman

    2002-06-01

    Myxoma virus, a member of the Poxviridae family (genus Leporipoxvirus) is the agent responsible for myxomatosis in the European rabbit. Recombinant myxoma viruses expressing the capsid gene of an F9 strain of feline calicivirus (FCV) were constructed from an apathogenic, laboratory attenuated, isolate of myxoma virus. The FCV capsid genes were recombined into the myxoma growth factor (MGF) locus of the myxoma genome and expressed from synthetic poxvirus promoters. Myxoma virus is unable to replicate productively in feline cells in vitro, however, cells infected with recombinant viruses do express the heterologous antigens from both late and early/late synthetic promoters. Cats immunised with myxoma-FCV recombinant virus generated high levels of serum neutralising antibody and were protected from disease on subsequent challenge with virulent FCV. Furthermore, there was no evidence of transmission of myxoma-FCV recombinant virus from vaccinated to non-vaccinated cats. These results demonstrate the potential of myxoma virus as a safe vaccine vector for use in non-lepori species and in particular the cat. PMID:12057600

  3. Role of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Lymphomagenesis-Going Alone or Colluding?

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarah; Wang, Wenqi; Miller, Craig; McLuckie, Alicia; Beatty, Julia A; Grant, Chris K; VandeWoude, Sue; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2016-03-31

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring lentivirus of domestic and nondomestic feline species. Infection in domestic cats leads to immune dysfunction via mechanisms similar to those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, as such, is a valuable natural animal model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. An association between FIV and an increased incidence of neoplasia has long been recognized, with frequencies of up to 20% in FIV-positive cats recorded in some studies. This is similar to the rate of neoplasia seen in HIV-positive individuals, and in both species neoplasia typically requires several years to arise. The most frequently reported type of neoplasia associated with FIV infection is lymphoma. Here we review the possible mechanisms involved in FIV lymphomagenesis, including the possible involvement of coinfections, notably those with gamma-herpesviruses. PMID:27034392

  4. Intracellular proteins of feline immunodeficiency virus and their antigenic relationship with equine infectious anaemia virus proteins.

    PubMed

    Egberink, H F; Ederveen, J; Montelaro, R C; Pedersen, N C; Horzinek, M C; Koolen, M J

    1990-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) grown in cat lymphocyte and thymocyte cultures was labelled with L-[35S]methionine or [3H]glucosamine and virus-coded proteins were identified using immunoprecipitation. Polypeptides with apparent Mr values of 15K, 24K, 43K, 50K, 120K and 160K were detected. An additional polypeptide of 10K was detected by Western blot analysis. The two highest Mr species sometimes appeared as one band, of which only the 120K polypeptide was glycosylated. In the presence of tunicamycin gp120 was no longer detectable and a non-glycosylated precursor of 75K was found instead. Pulse-chase experiments suggested that the smaller polypeptides p24 and p15 are cleavage products of both p160 and p50. Western blot analysis using a rabbit serum directed against p26 of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and an anti-EIAV horse serum from a field case of infection revealed a cross-reactivity with p24 of FIV. Cat sera collected late after experimental FIV infection recognized p26 of EIAV, indicating a reciprocal cross-reactivity. PMID:1690264

  5. Antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Waurzyniak, Barbara; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-04-01

    WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and spermicidal activities. WHI-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). This study evaluated whether topical application of WHI-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), via a nontoxic gel microemulsion can block vaginal as well as rectal transmission of feline AIDS (FAIDS) by chronically FIV-infected feline T cells in the natural host model. Genital transmission of FIV was monitored in recipient cats by the appearance of viral antibodies to FIV Gag proteins and by virus isolation of blood leukocytes as measured by FIV reverse transcriptase activity and FIV-specific PCR. Microbicidal activity was considered effective when the treated cats did not show evidence of FIV infection for up to 18 weeks postchallenge. An aggregate analysis of 46 specific-pathogen-free cats revealed that a single dose of the infected cell inoculum efficiently transmitted FIV infection when delivered into the vagina (100%) or rectum (66%). Pretreatment of the vagina or rectum with 2% WHI-07 alone or in combination with 0.25% VDDTC significantly (P = 0.004) protected cats from genital transmission by the highly infectious inoculum (7 million FIV(Bangston)-infected feline T cells). Collectively, using the vaginal and rectal transmucosal model for FAIDS, our studies demonstrated that WHI-07 either alone or in combination with a vanadocene has clinical potential for the development of a dual-function anti-HIV microbicide for sexually active women. PMID:15047505

  6. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary “arms race” between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus. IMPORTANCE Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  7. Protection against feline immunodeficiency virus using replication defective proviral DNA vaccines with feline interleukin-12 and -18.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Stephen P; Flynn, J Norman; Rigby, Mark A; Macdonald, Julie; Bruce, Jennifer; Cannon, Celia; Golder, Matthew C; Hanlon, Linda; Harbour, David A; Mackay, Nancy A; Spibey, Norman; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C

    2002-02-22

    A molecular clone of the Glasgow-8 isolate of FIV (FIVGL8) was rendered replication defective by an in-frame deletion in either reverse transcriptase (deltaRT) or integrase (deltaIN) genes for use as DNA vaccines. To test the ability of these multi-gene vaccines to protect against two feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolates of differing virulence, cats were immunized using either DNA vaccine alone or co-administered with interleukin-12 (IL-12) and/or interleukin-18 (IL-18) cytokine DNA. Animals were challenged sequentially with FIV-Petaluma (FIVPET) an FIV isolate of relatively low virulence and subsequently with the more virulent FIVGL8. A proportion of vaccinates (5/18 deltaIN and 2/12 deltaRT) were protected against primary challenge with FIV(PET). Five of the vaccinated-protected cats were re-challenged with FIV(PET); four (all deltaIN) remained free of viraemia whilst all naive controls became viraemic. Following subsequent challenge with the more virulent FIVGL8 these four vaccinated-protected animals all became viraemic but showed lower proviral loads than naive cats. This study suggests that while our current DNA vaccines may not produce sterilizing immunity against more virulent isolates of FIV, they may nevertheless significantly reduce the impact of infection. PMID:11858854

  8. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C; O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A lion lentivirus (FIV-Ple) was isolated by infection of lion lymphocytes in vitro. Seroconversion was documented in two Serengeti lions, and discordance of mother-cub serological status argues against maternal transmission (in favor of horizontal spread) as a major route of infection among lions. A phylogenetic analysis of cloned FIV-Ple pol gene sequences from 27 lions from four African populations (from the Serengeti reserve, Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara, and Kruger Park) revealed remarkably high intra- and interindividual genetic diversity at the sequence level. Three FIV-Ple phylogenetic clusters or clades were resolved with phenetic, parsimony, and likelihood analytical procedures. The three clades, which occurred not only together in the same population but throughout Africa, were as divergent from each other as were homologous pol sequences of lentivirus isolated from distinct feline species, i.e., puma and domestic cat. The FIV-Ple clades, however, were more closely related to each other than to other feline lentiviruses (monophyletic for lion species), suggesting that the ancestors of FIV-Ple evolved in allopatric (geographically isolated) lion populations that converged recently. To date, there is no clear evidence of FIV-Ple-associated pathology, raising the possibility of a historic genetic accommodation of the lion lentivirus and its host leading to a coevolved host-parasite symbiosis (or commensalism) in the population similar to that hypothesized for endemic

  9. Samples with high virus load cause a trend toward lower signal in feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Meli, Marina L; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Oswald; Lutz, Hans; McDonald, Michael; Addie, Diane D

    2013-04-01

    Measurement of feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titres is utilised mainly for diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and for quarantine purposes. However, occasional samples show a falsely low or negative FCoV antibody test. We tested the hypothesis that such results are due to virus in the sample binding antibody and rendering it unavailable to antigen in the test. Thirteen effusions, one plasma and three undefined samples from cats with FIP, which gave unexpectedly low FCoV antibody titres, were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Increasing amounts of virus correlated with lower signals in indirect immunoflourescent, enzyme-linked immunosorbent asssay and rapid immunomigration antibody tests. However, five samples were negative by RT-PCR, so the presence of virus alone may not explain all cases of false-negative FCoV antibody tests, although it is a possible explanation in 71% of discordant samples. We conclude that falsely low or negative FCoV antibody tests can occur in samples rich in virus. PMID:23220869

  10. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-08-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combination. All 517 cases of human leukemia and 162 lung cancer were negative for a PCR of the BLV proviral DNA. In conclusion, although meat has been imported from BLV endemic areas, the BLV infection does not appear to be the cause of human leukemia or lung cancer in Koreans. These results can be used as a control for further studies on the BLV in Koreans. PMID:16100451

  11. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  12. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  13. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  14. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-neutralization test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product shall be tested for potency using five... susceptibility. (1) A constant virus-varying serum neutralization test in tissue culture using 100 to 300 TCID50 of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a...

  15. Oncogene Activation in Myeloid Leukemias by Graffi Murine Leukemia Virus Proviral Integration

    PubMed Central

    Denicourt, Catherine; Edouard, Elsy; Rassart, Eric

    1999-01-01

    The Graffi murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a nondefective retrovirus that induces granulocytic leukemia in BALB/c and NFS mice. To identify genes involved in Graffi MuLV-induced granulocytic leukemia, tumor cell DNAs were examined for genetic alterations at loci described as common proviral integration sites in MuLV-induced myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid leukemias. Southern blot analysis revealed rearrangements in c-myc, Fli-1, Pim-1, and Spi-1/PU.1 genes in 20, 10, 3.3, and 3.3% of the tumors tested, respectively. These results demonstrate for the first time the involvement of those genes in granulocytic leukemia. PMID:10196342

  16. Crystal Structure of Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Main Protease in Complex with Synergetic Dual Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Xuemeng; Yang, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause highly prevalent diseases in humans and animals. Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus, resulting in a lethal systemic granulomatous disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats worldwide. No specific vaccines or drugs have been approved to treat FIP. CoV main proteases (Mpros) play a pivotal role in viral transcription and replication, making them an ideal target for drug development. Here, we report the crystal structure of FIPV Mpro in complex with dual inhibitors, a zinc ion and a Michael acceptor. The complex structure elaborates a unique mechanism of two distinct inhibitors synergizing to inactivate the protease, providing a structural basis to design novel antivirals and suggesting the potential to take advantage of zinc as an adjunct therapy against CoV-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) have the largest genome size among all RNA viruses. CoV infection causes various diseases in humans and animals, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). No approved specific drugs or vaccinations are available to treat their infections. Here, we report a novel dual inhibition mechanism targeting CoV main protease (Mpro) from feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), which leads to lethal systemic granulomatous disease in cats. Mpro, conserved across all CoV genomes, is essential for viral replication and transcription. We demonstrated that zinc ion and a Michael acceptor-based peptidomimetic inhibitor synergistically inactivate FIPV Mpro. We also solved the structure of FIPV Mpro complexed with two inhibitors, delineating the structural view of a dual inhibition mechanism. Our study provides new insight into the pharmaceutical strategy against CoV Mpro through using zinc as an adjuvant therapy to enhance the efficacy of an irreversible

  17. Holoprosencephaly and Pure Red Cell Aplasia in a Feline Leukaemia Virus-Positive Kitten.

    PubMed

    Southard, T L; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, J; Priest, H; Stokol, T

    2016-01-01

    A 9-month-old, female, domestic longhair cat with severe anaemia tested positive for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and was humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination. Gross findings included a non-divided rostral telencephalon, consistent with semilobar holoprosencephaly. Histological examination of the bone marrow revealed an almost complete absence of erythroid precursor cells, consistent with pure red cell aplasia, and mild to moderate myelofibrosis. This case demonstrates a very unusual central nervous system defect, as well as an atypical presentation of pure red cell aplasia, in a FeLV-positive kitten. PMID:26897097

  18. Progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Torten, M; Franchini, M; Barlough, J E; George, J W; Mozes, E; Lutz, H; Pedersen, N C

    1991-01-01

    Within 6 months of infection with the Petaluma isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats exhibited a decrease in the percentage and number of circulating CD4+ lymphocytes and in the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio, along with a marginally significant depression of pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. There was no loss of responsiveness to concanavalin A during this stage, and the cats were capable of mounting a satisfactory antibody response to a T-dependent, synthetic polypeptide immunogen. The pokeweed mitogen response deficit became clearly demonstrable by 11 to 12 months postinfection. A decline in the lymphocyte proliferative response to concanavalin A and a diminished ability to mount an in vivo antibody response to the T-dependent immunogen evolved by 25 to 44 months postinfection. Virus infection did not affect the ability of cats to mount an antibody response to a T-independent synthetic polypeptide immunogen. These data indicate that feline immunodeficiency virus produces a slowly progressive deterioration of T-cell function but does not affect the ability of B cells to recognize and respond to a T-independent antigenic stimulus. PMID:1673159

  19. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. PMID:25613718

  20. Delayed Infection after Immunization with a Peptide from the Transmembrane Glycoprotein of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J.; Moraillon, A.; Crespeau, F.; Baud, S.; Sonigo, P.; Pancino, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in the quantitative assessment of viral burden, by permitting the extension of criteria applied to assess the efficacy of vaccines from all-or-none protection to diminution of the viral burden, may allow the identification of original immunogens of value in combined vaccines. Peptides corresponding to three domains of the envelope glycoproteins of feline immunodeficiency virus that are recognized during natural infection were used to immunize cats. After challenge with a primary isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, the development of acute infection was monitored by quantitative assessment of the viral burden in plasma and tissues by competitive reverse transcription-PCR, by measurement of the humoral response developed to viral components, and by lymphocyte subset analysis. Whereas immunization with two peptides derived from the surface glycoprotein had no effect on the early course of infection, immunization with a peptide derived from the transmembrane glycoprotein delayed infection, as reflected by a diminished viral burden in the early phase of primary infection and delayed seroconversion. This peptide, located in the membrane-proximal region of the extracellular domain, has homology to an epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recognized by a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that lentivirus transmembrane glycoproteins share a determinant in the juxtamembrane ectodomain which could be of importance in the design of vaccines against AIDS. PMID:9499101

  1. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats via artificial insemination.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, H L; Howard, J; Sellon, R K; Wildt, D E; Tompkins, W A; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether semen from male domestic cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) can transmit virus to females. Twelve inseminations were performed by an intrauterine laparoscopic technique with fresh or cryopreserved electroejaculates from asymptomatic males chronically infected with the NCSU1 strain of FIV. Of six inseminations performed with fresh semen, three resulted in infection of queens, as indicated by seroconversion, expression of FIV gag provirus in peripheral blood leukocytes, and reduced peripheral CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratios. None of the six inseminates with thawed cryopreserved semen resulted in infection. Two infected queens and one uninfected queen became pregnant. Virus was not evident in the seven offspring. We conclude that FIV can be transmitted horizontally by artificial insemination with fresh semen. PMID:8892958

  2. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... susceptible cats (four vaccinates and one control) as the test animals. Blood samples drawn from each cat... of virus shall be used. Cats shall be considered susceptible if there is no neutralization at a 1:2... dose and the cats observed each day for 14 to 21 days. (3) Serology. At the end of the...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus integrase inhibitors efficiently suppress feline immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and provide a rationale to redesign antiretroviral treatment for feline AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, Andrea; Pistello, Mauro; D'Ostilio, Daniela; Zabogli, Elisa; Taglia, Fabiana; Mancini, Fabiola; Ferro, Stefania; Matteucci, Donatella; De Luca, Laura; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Ciervo, Alessandra; Chimirri, Alba; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Background Treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been hampered by the absence of a specific combination antiretroviral treatment (ART). Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are emerging as a promising new drug class for HIV-1 treatment, and we evaluated the possibility of inhibiting FIV replication using INSTIs. Methods Phylogenetic analysis of lentiviral integrase (IN) sequences was carried out using the PAUP* software. A theoretical three-dimensional structure of the FIV IN catalytic core domain (CCD) was obtained by homology modeling based on a crystal structure of HIV-1 IN CCD. The interaction of the transferred strand of viral DNA with the catalytic cavity of FIV IN was deduced from a crystal structure of a structurally similar transposase complexed with transposable DNA. Molecular docking simulations were conducted using a genetic algorithm (GOLD). Antiviral activity was tested in feline lymphoblastoid MBM cells acutely infected with the FIV Petaluma strain. Circular and total proviral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR. Results The calculated INSTI-binding sites were found to be nearly identical in FIV and HIV-1 IN CCDs. The close similarity of primate and feline lentivirus IN CCDs was also supported by phylogenetic analysis. In line with these bioinformatic analyses, FIV replication was efficiently inhibited in acutely infected cell cultures by three investigational INSTIs, designed for HIV-1 and belonging to different classes. Of note, the naphthyridine carboxamide INSTI, L-870,810 displayed an EC50 in the low nanomolar range. Inhibition of FIV integration in situ was shown by real-time PCR experiments that revealed accumulation of circular forms of FIV DNA within cells treated with L-870,810. Conclusion We report a drug class (other than nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors) that is capable of inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. The present study helped establish L-870,810, a compound successfully tested in

  4. Transmigration of macrophages across the choroid plexus epithelium in response to the feline immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, Rick B.; Bragg, D. C.; Poulton, Winona; Hudson, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Although lentiviruses such as human, feline and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, FIV, SIV) rapidly gain access to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the mechanisms that control this entry are not well understood. One possibility is that the virus may be carried into the brain by immune cells that traffic across the blood–CSF barrier in the choroid plexus. Since few studies have directly examined macrophage trafficking across the blood–CSF barrier, we established transwell and explant cultures of feline choroid plexus epithelium and measured trafficking in the presence or absence of FIV. Macrophages in co-culture with the epithelium showed significant proliferation and robust trafficking that was dependent on the presence of epithelium. Macrophage migration to the apical surface of the epithelium was particularly robust in the choroid plexus explants where 3-fold increases were seen over the first 24 h. Addition of FIV to the cultures greatly increased the number of surface macrophages without influencing replication. The epithelium in the transwell cultures was also permissive to PBMC trafficking, which increased from 17 to 26% of total cells after exposure to FIV. Thus, the choroid plexus epithelium supports trafficking of both macrophages and PBMCs. FIV significantly enhanced translocation of macrophages and T cells indicating that the choroid plexus epithelium is likely to be an active site of immune cell trafficking in response to infection. PMID:22281685

  5. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Siebelink, K H; Tijhaar, E; Huisman, R C; Huisman, W; de Ronde, A; Darby, I H; Francis, M J; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein (beta-Galactosidase-Env) were incorporated into immune-stimulating complexes or adjuvanted with Quil A. Although all immunized cats developed antibodies against the envelope protein, only the cats vaccinated with the rVV-expressed envelope glycoproteins developed antibodies which neutralized FIV infection of Crandell feline kidney cells. These antibodies failed to neutralize infection of thymocytes with a molecularly cloned homologous FIV. After the third immunization the cats were challenged with homologous FIV. Two weeks after challenge the cell-associated viral load proved to be significantly higher in the cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 than in the other cats. The cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 also developed antibodies against the Gag proteins more rapidly than the cats immunized with beta-Galactosidase-Env or the control cats. This suggested that immunization with rVV-expressed glycoprotein of FIV results in enhanced infectivity of FIV. It was shown that the observed enhancement could be transferred to naive cats with plasma collected at the day of challenge. PMID:7745719

  6. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Fino, Viviana R; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2008-05-01

    A majority of illnesses caused by foodborne viruses are associated with fresh produce. Fruits and vegetables may be considered high-risk foods, as they are often consumed raw without a specific inactivation step. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate nonthermal treatments for the inactivation of foodborne pathogens. This study investigates the UV inactivation of three viruses: feline calicivirus (a surrogate for norovirus), and two picornaviruses, hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus. Three produce types were selected for their different surface topographies and association with outbreaks. Green onions, lettuce, and strawberries were individually spot inoculated with 10(7) to 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each virus per ml and exposed to UV light at various doses (< or = 240 mW s/cm2), and viruses were eluted using an optimized recovery strategy. Virus infection was quantified by TCID50 in mammalian cell culture and compared with untreated recovered virus. UV light applied to contaminated lettuce resulted in inactivation of 4.5 to 4.6 log TCID50/ml; for contaminated green onions, inactivation ranged from 2.5 to 5.6 log TCID50/ml; and for contaminated strawberries, inactivation ranged from 1.9 to 2.6 log TCID50/ml for the three viruses tested. UV light inactivation on the surface of lettuce is more effective than inactivation on the other two produce items. Consistently, the lowest results were observed in the inactivation of viruses on strawberries. No significant differences (P > 0.05) for virus inactivation were observed among the three doses applied (40, 120, and 240 mW s/cm2) on the produce, with the exception of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus inactivation on green onions, where inactivation continued at 120 mW s/cm2 (P < 0.05). PMID:18522022

  7. ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Bartusch, Christina; Prange, Reinhild

    2016-01-01

    The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release. Hence, MLV utilizes only a subset of ESCRT factors, and viral and viral-like particles differ in ESCRT-III factor requirements. PMID:27096867

  8. ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release.

    PubMed

    Bartusch, Christina; Prange, Reinhild

    2016-01-01

    The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release. Hence, MLV utilizes only a subset of ESCRT factors, and viral and viral-like particles differ in ESCRT-III factor requirements. PMID:27096867

  9. Genetic diversity of feline cowpox virus, Germany 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaysser, Philipp; von Bomhard, Wolf; Dobrzykowski, Linda; Meyer, Hermann

    2010-03-24

    Recent cowpox virus (CPXV) infections of humans in Europe transmitted from cats and pet rats have risen public awareness of this rare zoonosis. Based on serosurveys wild rodents are regarded as primary reservoir hosts. Cats can become infected while hunting and could therefore serve as a sentinel for CPXV strains circulating in wild rodents. In a retrospective study we analysed 73 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin samples from cats with a histologically proven CPXV infection. Specimens had been collected in different parts of Germany during 2000-2008. Following DNA extraction part of the hemagglutinin gene was amplified and sequenced from 72 samples. A phylogenetic analysis was inferred resulting in a total of 21 different CPXV genetic variants. The geographic distribution was imposed on a map. PMID:19879071

  10. Vaccination against δ-retroviruses: the bovine leukemia virus paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  11. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  12. B epitopes and selection pressures in feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Pancino, G; Chappey, C; Saurin, W; Sonigo, P

    1993-01-01

    In order to map linear B epitopes in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoproteins (Env), a random library of FIV Env polypeptides fused to beta-galactosidase and expressed in Escherichia coli was screened by using sera from experimentally FIV-infected cats. We mapped five antibody-binding domains in the surface envelope glycoprotein (SU1 to SU5) and four in the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein (TM1 to TM4). Immunological analysis with 48 serum samples from naturally or experimentally infected cats of diverse origins revealed a broad group reactivity for epitopes SU2, TM2, and TM3, whereas SU3 appeared as strictly type specific. To study selection pressures acting on the identified immunogenic domains, we analyzed structural constraints and distribution of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations (amino acids unchanged or changed). Two linear B epitopes (SU3 and TM4) appeared to be submitted to positive selection for change, a pattern of evolution predicting their possible involvement in antiviral protection. These experiments provide a pertinent choice of oligopeptides for further analysis of the protective response against FIV envelope glycoproteins, as a model to understand the role of antibody escape in lentiviral persistence and to design feline AIDS vaccines. Images PMID:7678301

  13. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Esseili, Malak A; Saif, Linda J; Farkas, Tibor; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  14. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Esseili, Malak A.; Saif, Linda J.; Farkas, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Canine-Origin H3N2 Feline Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Cats in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jun; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Moon, Hyoung-Joon; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonseong; Park, Bong-Kyun; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Jeong-Ki; An, Dong-Jun; Song, Dae-Sub

    2013-01-01

    A canine-origin Korean H3N2 feline influenza virus (FIV), A/feline/Korea/01/2010 (H3N2), was isolated in 2010 from a dead cat with severe respiratory disease. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of this virus, containing 3' and 5' noncoding regions, which will help elucidate the molecular basis of the pathogenesis, transmission, and evolution of FIV. PMID:23516235

  16. Nucleolin Interacts with the Feline Calicivirus 3′ Untranslated Region and the Protease-Polymerase NS6 and NS7 Proteins, Playing a Role in Virus Replication ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-01-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  17. Nucleolin interacts with the feline calicivirus 3' untranslated region and the protease-polymerase NS6 and NS7 proteins, playing a role in virus replication.

    PubMed

    Cancio-Lonches, Clotilde; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Galvan-Mendoza, Iván; Ureña, Luis; Vashist, Surender; Goodfellow, Ian; Salas-Benito, Juan; Gutiérrez-Escolano, Ana Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Cellular proteins play many important roles during the life cycle of all viruses. Specifically, host cell nucleic acid-binding proteins interact with viral components of positive-stranded RNA viruses and regulate viral translation, as well as RNA replication. Here, we report that nucleolin, a ubiquitous multifunctional nucleolar shuttling phosphoprotein, interacts with the Norwalk virus and feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Nucleolin can also form a complex in vitro with recombinant Norwalk virus NS6 and -7 (NS6/7) and can be copurified with the analogous protein from feline calicivirus (p76 or NS6/7) from infected feline kidney cells. Nucleolin RNA levels or protein were not modified during FCV infection; however, as a consequence of the infection, nucleolin was seen to relocalize from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm, as well as to the perinuclear area where it colocalizes with the feline calicivirus NS6/7 protein. In addition, antibodies to nucleolin were able to precipitate viral RNA from feline calicivirus-infected cells, indicating a direct or indirect association of nucleolin with the viral RNA during virus replication. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a reduction of the cytopathic effect and virus yield in CrFK cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nucleolin is a nucleolar component that interacts with viral RNA and NS6/7 and is required for feline calicivirus replication. PMID:21680514

  18. Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weibin; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Slavkovic Lukic, Dragana; Räthe, Ann-Mareen; Bao, Qiuying; Kehl, Timo; Bleiholder, Anne; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin

    2013-01-01

    New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism. PMID:23857307

  19. Feline foamy virus-based vectors: advantages of an authentic animal model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weibin; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Lukic, Dragana Slavkovic; Räthe, Ann-Mareen; Bao, Qiuying; Kehl, Timo; Bleiholder, Anne; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin

    2013-07-01

    New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism. PMID:23857307

  20. Detection of feline immunodeficiency virus in saliva and plasma by cultivation and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, D; Baldinotti, F; Mazzetti, P; Pistello, M; Bandecchi, P; Ghilarducci, R; Poli, A; Tozzini, F; Bendinelli, M

    1993-01-01

    The rates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) isolation from saliva, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected cats were compared; isolation rates were 18, 14, and 81%, respectively, in naturally infected cats and 25, 57, and 100%, respectively, in experimentally infected animals. There was no obvious relationship between isolation rate and clinical stage or between isolation rate and the titer of neutralizing antibody in serum. Virus could be isolated from one salivary gland as early as 1 week postinfection and, on a more regular basis, starting at 3 weeks postinfection, when, however, most other tissues were also positive. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that FIV genomes are present in saliva and plasma more frequently than expected on the basis of isolation data. Saliva was also found to contain viral DNA, indicating that it may harbor virus-infected cells as well as free virus. The addition of plasma but not of saliva to PBMC cultures delayed FIV growth. Isolation from plasma may be hampered by FIV neutralizing antibody and by the cytotoxic activity of this fluid for the PBMC used as a cell substrate. Images PMID:8384624

  1. In vitro antiviral activity of circular triple helix forming oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis virus replication.

    PubMed

    Choong, Oi Kuan; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 10(14) in the virus-inoculated cells to 10(9) in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection. PMID:24707494

  2. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Circular Triple Helix Forming Oligonucleotide RNA towards Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Oi Kuan; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a severe fatal immune-augmented disease in cat population. It is caused by FIP virus (FIPV), a virulent mutant strain of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV). Current treatments and prophylactics are not effective. The in vitro antiviral properties of five circular Triple-Helix Forming Oligonucleotide (TFO) RNAs (TFO1 to TFO5), which target the different regions of virulent feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 genome, were tested in FIPV-infected Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells. RT-qPCR results showed that the circular TFO RNAs, except TFO2, inhibit FIPV replication, where the viral genome copy numbers decreased significantly by 5-fold log10 from 1014 in the virus-inoculated cells to 109 in the circular TFO RNAs-transfected cells. Furthermore, the binding of the circular TFO RNA with the targeted viral genome segment was also confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The strength of binding kinetics between the TFO RNAs and their target regions was demonstrated by NanoITC assay. In conclusion, the circular TFOs have the potential to be further developed as antiviral agents against FIPV infection. PMID:24707494

  3. Differential effects of viroporin inhibitors against feline infectious peritonitis virus serotypes I and II.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Nakano, Kenta; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV), a feline coronavirus of the family Coronaviridae, causes a fatal disease called FIP in wild and domestic cat species. The genome of coronaviruses encodes a hydrophobic transmembrane protein, the envelope (E) protein. The E protein possesses ion channel activity. Viral proteins with ion channel activity are collectively termed "viroporins". Hexamethylene amiloride (HMA), a viroporin inhibitor, can inhibit the ion channel activity of the E protein and replication of several coronaviruses. However, it is not clear whether HMA and other viroporin inhibitors affect replication of FIPV. We examined the effect of HMA and other viroporin inhibitors (DIDS [4,4'-disothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulphonic acid] and amantadine) on infection by FIPV serotypes I and II. HMA treatment drastically decreased the titers of FIPV serotype I strains Black and KU-2 in a dose-dependent manner, but it only slightly decreased the titer of FIPV serotype II strain 79-1146. In contrast, DIDS treatment decreased the titer of FIPV serotype II strain 79-1146 in dose-dependent manner, but it only slightly decreased the titers of FIPV serotype I strains Black and KU-2. We investigated whether there is a difference in ion channel activity of the E protein between viral serotypes using E. coli cells expressing the E protein of FIPV serotypes I and II. No difference was observed, suggesting that a viroporin other than the E protein influences the differences in the actions of HMA and DIDS on FIPV serotypes I and II. PMID:25701212

  4. Choroid plexus macrophages proliferate and release toxic factors in response to feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Bragg, D C; Hudson, L C; Liang, Y H; Tompkins, M B; Fernandes, A; Meeker, R B

    2002-06-01

    Recent observations have suggested that lentiviruses stimulate the proliferation and activation of microglia. A similar effect within the dense macrophage population of the choroid plexus could have significant implications for trafficking of virus and inflammatory cells into the brain. To explore this possibility, we cultured fetal feline macrophages and examined their response to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or the T-cell-derived protein, recombinant human CD40-ligand trimer (rhuCD40-L). The rhCD40-L was the most potent stimulus for macrophage proliferation, often inducing a dramatic increase in macrophage density. Exposure to FIV resulted in a small increase in the number of macrophages and macrophage nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine. The increase in macrophage density after FIV infection also correlated with an increase in neurotoxic activity of the macrophage-conditioned medium. Starting at 16-18 weeks postinfection, well after the peak of viremia, a similar toxic activity was detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from FIV-infected cats. Toxicity in the CSF increased over time and was paralleled by strong CD18 staining of macrophages/microglia in the choroid plexus and adjacent parenchyma. These results suggest that lentiviral infection of the choroid plexus can induce a toxic inflammatory response that is fueled by local macrophage proliferation. Together with the observation of increasing toxic activity in the CSF and increased CD18 staining in vivo, these observations suggest that choroid plexus macrophages may contribute to an inflammatory cascade in the brain that progresses independently of systemic and CSF viral load. PMID:12053277

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  6. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; Brettschneider, Helene; Caldwell, Peter; Oosthuizen, Almero; Dalton, Desiré L; du Plessis, Liza; Steyl, Johan; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research. PMID:27380652

  7. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calves under study were born to infected dams with high proviral load (PVL) in blood and high antibody titers and detectable provirus in the colostrum. The PVL for five out of seven calves was low at birth. All animals reached PVLs of more than 1% infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), three at 3 months, one at 6 months, and one at 12 months. High PVLs persisted until the end of the study, and, in two animals, exceeded one BLV copy per cell. Two other calves maintained a high PVL from birth until the end of the study. Antibody titers were 32 or higher in the first sample from six out of seven calves. These decayed at 3–6 months to 16 or lower, and then increased again after this point. Conclusions Calves infected during the first week of life could play an active role in early propagation of BLV to susceptible animals, since their PVL raised up during the first 12 months and persist as high for years. Early elimination could help to prevent transmission to young susceptible animals and to their own offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the kinetics of BLV proviral load and antibody titers in newborn infected calves. PMID:24708791

  8. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    PubMed

    Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2006-04-01

    Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time. PMID:16870878

  9. The oral and conjunctival microbiotas in cats with and without feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Weese, Scott J; Nichols, Jamieson; Jalali, Mohammad; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The oral and conjunctival microbiotas likely play important roles in protection from opportunistic infections, while also being the source of potential pathogens. Yet, there has been limited investigation in cats, and the impact of comorbidities such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has not been reported. Oral and conjunctival swabs were collected from cats with FIV infection and FIV-uninfected controls, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene (V4) PCR and next generation sequencing. 9,249 OTUs were identified from conjunctival swabs, yet the most common 20 (0.22%) OTUs accounted for 76% of sequences. The two most abundant OTUs both belonged to Staphylococcus, and accounted for 37% of sequences. Cats with FIV infection had significantly lower relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes, and a higher relative abundance of Deinococcus-Thermus. There were significant differences in both community membership (P = 0.006) and community structure (P = 0.02) between FIV-infected and FIV-uninfected cats. FIV-infected cats had significantly higher relative abundances of Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria in the oral cavity, and significantly higher relative abundances of several bacterial classes including Fusobacteria (0.022 vs 0.007, P = 0.006), Actinobacteria (0.017 vs 0.003, P = 0.003), Sphingobacteria (0.00015 vs 0.00003, P = 0.0013) and Flavobacteria (0.0073 vs 0.0034, P = 0.030). The feline conjunctival and oral microbiotas are complex polymicrobial communities but dominated by a limited number of genera. There is an apparent impact of FIV infection on various components of the microbiota, and assessment of the clinical relevance of these alterations in required. PMID:25879465

  10. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a vaccine against feline coronavirus: immunogenicity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hebben, Matthias; Duquesne, Véronique; Cronier, Joëlle; Rossi, Bernard; Aubert, André

    2004-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a coronavirus that induces a fatal systemic disease mediated by an inappropriate immune response. Most previous vaccination attempts against FIPV were unsuccessful because IgG antibodies against the surface protein enhance the infection. However, two studies have shown that poxvirus vectors (vaccinia WR and canarypox) expressing only the FIPV membrane (M) protein can elicit a partially protective immunity which is supposed to be cell-mediated (Virology 181 (1991) 327; International patent WO 97/20054 (1997)). In our study, we report the construction of another poxvirus, the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), as an expression vector for the FIPV M protein. In this vector, the M gene has been inserted downstream a strong early/late promoter, whereas the two previously described poxviruses expressed the M protein during their early stage only. The immunogenicity of the recombinant MVA-M was evaluated in the murine model which revealed an effect of the vector on the Th1/Th2 balance. The vaccine was then tested in cats to evaluate its efficacy in an FIPV 79-1146 challenge. Vaccinated kittens developed FIPV-specific antibodies after immunization, however, none of them was protected against FIPV. Our results suggest a crucial role for the type of poxviral promoter that must be used to induce an effective immune response against FIPV. PMID:15123156

  11. RNase H activity associated with reverse transcriptase from feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cronn, R C; Whitmer, J D; North, T W

    1992-01-01

    Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes requires the action of an RNase H for template switching and primer generation. In this report, we compare enzymatic properties of the RNase H associated with the reverse transcriptase (RT) from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and that from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both enzymes displayed substrate preference for poly[3H](rG) . poly(dC) hybird over poly[3H](rA) . poly(dT) and cation preference for Mg2+ over Mn2+. Activity of the FIV RNase H upon poly(rG) . poly(dC) produced hydrolysis products from 1 to 6 nucleotides in length, similar to that reported for HIV. Dextran sulfates were effective inhibitors of both the FIV and HIV RNase H and RT activities. Nearly identical inhibition constants (0.12 nM) were obtained for all enzyme activities with dextran sulfate 500,000, while different inhibition constants were observed with dextran sulfate 8,000. Our results suggest that FIV and HIV RTs contain a conserved region that is sensitive to the larger dextran sulfate and that dextran sulfate 8,000 may interact at a different site or by a different mechanism. Images PMID:1370549

  12. Persistent Gene Expression in Mouse Nasal Epithelia following Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Vector Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Patrick L.; Burnight, Erin R.; Hickey, Melissa A.; Blissard, Gary W.; McCray, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Gene transfer development for treatment or prevention of cystic fibrosis lung disease has been limited by the inability of vectors to efficiently and persistently transduce airway epithelia. Influenza A is an enveloped virus with natural lung tropism; however, pseudotyping feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based lentiviral vector with the hemagglutinin envelope protein proved unsuccessful. Conversely, pseudotyping FIV with the envelope protein from influenza D (Thogoto virus GP75) resulted in titers of 106 transducing units (TU)/ml and conferred apical entry into well-differentiated human airway epithelial cells. Baculovirus GP64 envelope glycoproteins share sequence identity with influenza D GP75 envelope glycoproteins. Pseudotyping FIV with GP64 from three species of baculovirus resulted in titers of 107 to 109 TU/ml. Of note, GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus resulted in high-titer FIV preparations (∼109 TU/ml) and conferred apical entry into polarized primary cultures of human airway epithelia. Using a luciferase reporter gene and bioluminescence imaging, we observed persistent gene expression from in vivo gene transfer in the mouse nose with A. californica GP64-pseudotyped FIV (AcGP64-FIV). Longitudinal bioluminescence analysis documented persistent expression in nasal epithelia for ∼1 year without significant decline. According to histological analysis using a LacZ reporter gene, olfactory and respiratory epithelial cells were transduced. In addition, methylcellulose-formulated AcGP64-FIV transduced mouse nasal epithelia with much greater efficiency than similarly formulated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV. These data suggest that AcGP64-FIV efficiently transduces and persistently expresses a transgene in nasal epithelia in the absence of agents that disrupt the cellular tight junction integrity. PMID:16188984

  13. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-associated leukemia/lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This article summarizes the current pathophysiologic basis for human T cell lymphotropic virus-associated leukemia/lymphoma as well as past, present, and future therapeutic options. Recent findings New studies have been published on allogeneic stem cell transplantation, arsenic trioxide, and bortezomib for this condition. Summary Studies of the molecular biology of human T cell lymphotropic virus-1-induced T cell leukemia/lymphoma have defined a critical role for oncoprotein, Tax, and activation of nuclear factor κB transcription pathways, which have provided rational approaches to improved therapy for T cell leukemia/lymphoma as well as a model for other hematopoietic malignancies characterized by nuclear factor κB activation. PMID:16093798

  14. Replication of the Moloney murine sarcoma-leukemia virus in XC cells.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, S T; Benyesh-Melnick, M; Biswal, N

    1973-01-01

    The XC rat cell line was found to support the replication of a strain of the Moloney murine sarcoma-leukemia virus. In growth curve experiments cytopathology was paralleled by the production of murine sarcoma virus and leukemia virus progeny having the biologic, antigenic, and biophysical properties of the infecting virus. PMID:4346280

  15. Successive deaths of a captive snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) by infection with feline panleukopenia virus at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Mochizuki, Masami; Umemura, Takashi; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2011-04-01

    Feline parvoviruses were isolated from frozen samples of intestines taken from a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and a serval (Leptailurus serval) that died successively at Sapporo Maruyama Zoo in Hokkaido, Japan. Isolates possessed an antigenic epitope for both the feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and mink enteritis virus, identified with a hemagglutination inhibition test. Sequencing analyses of the VP2 region of the isolates revealed that the two isolates were identical and of the FPLV-type. These results suggested that FPLV was introduced from a feral cat which entered the zoo and transmitted the virus inside the zoo. PMID:21116104

  16. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: P<0.05). The prevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; P<0.05). With over 80% of this pet cat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new

  17. DNA vaccination using expression vectors carrying FIV structural genes induces immune response against feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Cuisinier, A M; Mallet, V; Meyer, A; Caldora, C; Aubert, A

    1997-07-01

    Following inactivated virus vaccination trials, the surface glycoprotein gp120 of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was considered as one of the determinants for protection. However, several vaccination trials using recombinant Env protein or some peptides failed to induce protection. To understand the role of the gp120 protein in vivo, we vaccinated cats with naked DNA coding for FIV structural proteins gp120 and p10. We analyzed the ability of these vaccinations to induce immune protection and to influence the onset of infection. Injection in cat muscles of expression vectors coding for the FIV gp120 protein induced a humoral response. Cats immunized twice with the gp120 gene showed different patterns after challenge. Two cats were, like the control cats, infected from the second week after infection onwards. The two others maintained a low proviral load with no modification of their antibody pattern. The immune response induced by gp120 DNA injection could control the level of viral replication. This protective-like immune response was not correlated to the humoral response. All the cats immunized with the gp120 gene followed by the p10 gene were infected, like the control cats, from the second week but they developed a complete humoral response against viral proteins after challenge. Furthermore, they showed a sudden but transient drop of the proviral load at 4 weeks after infection. Under these conditions, one injection of the p10 gene after one injection of the gp120 gene was not sufficient to stimulate protection. On the contrary, after a period, it seems to facilitate virus replication. PMID:9269051

  18. Amino acid changes in the spike protein of feline coronavirus correlate with systemic spread of virus from the intestine and not with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily; Tasker, Séverine; Day, Michael J; Harley, Ross; Kipar, Anja; Siddell, Stuart G; Helps, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a mutation in the spike protein gene of feline coronavirus (FCoV), which results in an amino acid change from methionine to leucine at position 1058, may be associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Tissue and faecal samples collected post mortem from cats diagnosed with or without FIP were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect FCoV RNA. In cats with FIP, 95% of tissue, and 81% of faecal samples were PCR-positive, as opposed to 22% of tissue, and 60% of faecal samples in cats without FIP. Relative FCoV copy numbers were significantly higher in the cats with FIP, both in tissues (P < 0.001) and faeces (P = 0.02). PCR-positive samples underwent pyrosequencing encompassing position 1058 of the FCoV spike protein. This identified a methionine codon at position 1058, consistent with the shedding of an enteric form of FCoV, in 77% of the faecal samples from cats with FIP, and in 100% of the samples from cats without FIP. In contrast, 91% of the tissue samples from cats with FIP and 89% from cats without FIP had a leucine codon at position 1058, consistent with a systemic form of FCoV. These results suggest that the methionine to leucine substitution at position 1058 in the FCoV spike protein is indicative of systemic spread of FCoV from the intestine, rather than a virus with the potential to cause FIP. PMID:24767677

  19. Amino acid changes in the spike protein of feline coronavirus correlate with systemic spread of virus from the intestine and not with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a mutation in the spike protein gene of feline coronavirus (FCoV), which results in an amino acid change from methionine to leucine at position 1058, may be associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Tissue and faecal samples collected post mortem from cats diagnosed with or without FIP were subjected to RNA extraction and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect FCoV RNA. In cats with FIP, 95% of tissue, and 81% of faecal samples were PCR-positive, as opposed to 22% of tissue, and 60% of faecal samples in cats without FIP. Relative FCoV copy numbers were significantly higher in the cats with FIP, both in tissues (P < 0.001) and faeces (P = 0.02). PCR-positive samples underwent pyrosequencing encompassing position 1058 of the FCoV spike protein. This identified a methionine codon at position 1058, consistent with the shedding of an enteric form of FCoV, in 77% of the faecal samples from cats with FIP, and in 100% of the samples from cats without FIP. In contrast, 91% of the tissue samples from cats with FIP and 89% from cats without FIP had a leucine codon at position 1058, consistent with a systemic form of FCoV. These results suggest that the methionine to leucine substitution at position 1058 in the FCoV spike protein is indicative of systemic spread of FCoV from the intestine, rather than a virus with the potential to cause FIP. PMID:24767677

  20. Productive Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James; Power, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 101.3 to 102.1 50% tissue culture infective doses/106 cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy. PMID:9971834

  1. A survey of feline leukaemia virus infection of domestic cats from selected areas in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchaamba, Francis; Mutiringindi, Takudzwa H; Tivapasi, Musavenga T; Dhliwayo, Solomon; Matope, Gift

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) p27 antigen and to determine risk factors and the haematological changes associated with infection in domestic cats in Zimbabwe. Sera were collected for detection of the p27 antigen, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels, whilst whole blood was collected for haematology. FeLV p27 antigen was detected using a rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Data on risk factors were analysed using a logistic regression model. Of the 100 cats tested, 41% (95% CI: 31.19% - 50.81%) (41/100) were positive for the FeLV p27 antigen. Sex and health status of cats were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with infection. Intact cats (OR = 9.73), those living in multicat housing (OR = 5.23) and cats that had access to outdoor life (OR = 35.5) were found to have higher odds of infection compared with neutered cats, those living in single-cat housing, and without access to outdoor life, respectively. Biochemistry and haematology revealed no specific changes. The results showed that FeLV infection was high in sampled cats, providing evidence of active infection. Thus, it would be prudent to introduce specific control measures for FeLV infection in Zimbabwe. PMID:25686080

  2. A neutron study of the feline leukaemia virus fusion peptide: Implications for biological fusion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Sarah M. A.; Darkes, Malcolm J. M.; Bradshaw, Jeremy P.

    Neutron diffraction studies were performed on stacked phospholipid bilayers to determine the effects of the feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) fusion peptide on membrane structure. Bilayers were composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with 50% (mol) dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. Neutron scattering profiles with peptide present showed an increase in scattering density in the lipid-tails region, whilst scattering by the lipid headgroup region was decreased. This is interpreted as a lowering of the packing density of the lipid headgroups and an increase in the packing density of the lipid tails. Modelling studies and experimental evidence have suggested that fusion peptides catalyse fusion by increasing the negative curvature of the target membrane's outer monolayer. Our results presented here add support to this hypothesis for the fusion mechanism. The 2H 2O scattering profile was also slightly perturbed in the lipid headgroup region with 1% (mol)FeLV fusion peptide present. The FeLV peptide had no significant effect on the organisation of bilayers containing only dioleoylphosphatidylcholine.

  3. Leukemia induction by a new strain of Friend mink cell focus-inducing virus: synergistic effect of Friend ecotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Chesebro, B; Wehrly, K; Nishio, J; Evans, L

    1984-01-01

    A new strain of Friend recombinant mink cell focus-inducing retrovirus, FMCF -1-E, was found to induce leukemias in NFS and IRW mice. Although the isolate was obtained from a stock of FMCF -1 ( Troxler et al., J. Exp. Med. 148:639-653, 1978), FMCF -1-E was distinguishable from FMCF -1 by oligonucleotide fingerprinting and antigenic analysis, using monoclonal antibodies. These analyses suggested that FMCF -1-E is a distinct FMCF isolate rather than a simple variant of FMCF -1. After neonatal inoculation, the latency for leukemia induction was 3 to 8 months. A similar long latency was also seen when Friend murine leukemia virus 57 was inoculated into adult (6-week-old) IRW mice. However, sequential inoculation of FMCF -1-E at birth followed by Friend murine leukemia 57 at 6 weeks of age led to a shortened latency period (2.5 to 4 months). Only neonatal inoculation of Friend murine leukemia virus 57 was able to induce a more rapid appearance of leukemia. The leukemia cell type in the majority of cases, regardless of virus inoculation protocol, was erythroid, but occasional myeloid, lymphoid, and mixed leukemias were also observed. In contrast to NFS and IRW mice, BALB/c mice were resistant to leukemia induction by FMCF -1-E and also showed some transient resistance to leukemia induction by Friend murine leukemia virus 57. Images PMID:6202886

  4. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  5. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M A; Brown, E W; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the domestic cat. The puma sequences formed two highly divergent groups, analogous to the clades which have been defined for domestic cat and lion (Panthera leo) FIV. The puma clade A was made up of samples from Florida and California, whereas clade B consisted of samples from other parts of North America, Central America, and Brazil. The difference between these two groups was as great as that reported among three lion FIV clades. Within puma clades, sequence variation is large, comparable to between-clade differences seen for domestic cat clades, allowing recognition of 15 phylogenetic lineages (subclades) among puma FIV-Pco. Large sequence divergence among isolates, nearly complete species monophyly, and widespread geographic distribution suggest that FIV-Pco has evolved within the puma species for a long period. The sequence data provided evidence for vertical transmission of FIV-Pco from mothers to their kittens, for coinfection of individuals by two different viral strains, and for cross-species transmission of FIV from a domestic cat to a puma. These factors may all be important for understanding the epidemiology and natural history of FIV in the puma. PMID:8794304

  6. The protective rate of the feline immunodeficiency virus vaccine: An Australian field study.

    PubMed

    Westman, M E; Malik, R; Hall, E; Harris, M; Norris, J M

    2016-09-01

    A case-control field study was undertaken to determine the level of protection conferred to client-owned cats in Australia against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using a commercial vaccine. 440 cats with outdoor access from five Australian states/territories underwent testing, comprising 139 potential cases (complete course of primary FIV vaccinations and annual boosters for three or more years), and 301 potential controls (age, sex and postcode matched FIV-unvaccinated cats). FIV status was determined using a combination of antibody testing (using point-of-care test kits) and nucleic acid amplification, as well as virus isolation in cases where results were discordant and in all suspected FIV-vaccinated/FIV-infected cats ('vaccine breakthroughs'). Stringent inclusion criteria were applied to both 'cases' and 'controls'; 89 FIV-vaccinated cats and 212 FIV-unvaccinated cats ultimately satisfied the inclusion criteria. Five vaccine breakthroughs (5/89; 6%), and 25 FIV-infected controls (25/212; 12%) were identified, giving a vaccine protective rate of 56% (95% CI -20 to 84). The difference in FIV prevalence rates between the two groups was not significant (P=0.14). Findings from this study raise doubt concerning the efficacy of Fel-O-Vax FIV® under field conditions. Screening for FIV infection may be prudent before annual FIV re-vaccination and for sick FIV-vaccinated cats. Owners should not rely on vaccination alone to protect cats against the risk of acquiring FIV infection; other measures such as cat curfews, the use of 'modular pet parks' or keeping cats exclusively indoors, are recommended. PMID:27522177

  7. Rapid evolution of the env gene leader sequence in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity. We estimated that env evolved at a rate of 1.16×10−3 substitutions per site per year and demonstrated that recombinant sequences evolved faster than non-recombinant sequences. It was evident that the V3–V5 fragment of FIV env displayed higher evolutionary rates in healthy cats than in those with terminal illness. Our study provided the first evidence that the leader sequence of env, rather than the V3–V5 sequence, had the highest intra-host diversity and the highest evolutionary rate of all env fragments, consistent with this region being under a strong selective pressure for genetic variation. Overall, FIV env displayed relatively low intra-host diversity and evolved slowly in naturally infected cats. The maximum evolutionary rate was observed in the leader sequence of env. Although genetic stability is not necessarily a prerequisite for clinical stability, the higher genetic stability of FIV compared with human immunodeficiency virus might explain why many naturally infected cats do not progress rapidly to AIDS. PMID:25535323

  8. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  9. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, M A; Brown, E W; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the domestic cat. The puma sequences formed two highly divergent groups, analogous to the clades which have been defined for domestic cat and lion (Panthera leo) FIV. The puma clade A was made up of samples from Florida and California, whereas clade B consisted of samples from other parts of North America, Central America, and Brazil. The difference between these two groups was as great as that reported among three lion FIV clades. Within puma clades, sequence variation is large, comparable to between-clade differences seen for domestic cat clades, allowing recognition of 15 phylogenetic lineages (subclades) among puma FIV-Pco. Large sequence divergence among isolates, nearly complete species monophyly, and widespread geographic distribution suggest that FIV-Pco has evolved within the puma species for a long period. The sequence data provided evidence for vertical transmission of FIV-Pco from mothers to their kittens, for coinfection of individuals by two different viral strains, and for cross-species transmission of FIV from a domestic cat to a puma. These factors may all be important for understanding the epidemiology and natural history of FIV in the puma. PMID:8794304

  10. No involvement of bovine leukemia virus in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, A.P.; Robison, L.L.; Kashmiri, S.V.; McClain, K.L.; Woods, W.G.; Smithson, W.A.; Heyn, R.; Finlay, J.; Schuman, L.M.; Renier, C.

    1988-05-15

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma. Much speculation continues to be directed at the role of BLV in human leukemia. To test this hypothesis rigorously, a case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted between December 1983 and February 1986. Cases (less than or equal to 16 years at diagnosis) derived from patients diagnosed at the primary institutions and affiliated hospitals were matched (age, sex, and race) with regional population controls. DNA samples from bone marrow or peripheral blood from 157 cases (131 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 26 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and peripheral blood from 136 controls were analyzed by Southern blot technique, under highly stringent conditions, using cloned BLV DNA as a probe. None of the 157 case or 136 control DNA samples hybridized with the probe. The high statistical power and specificity of this study provide the best evidence to date that genomic integration of BLV is not a factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia/non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  11. Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Choi, K. Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease. PMID:24750974

  12. Immunocytochemical demonstration of feline infectious peritonitis virus within cerebrospinal fluid macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ives, Edward J; Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Cian, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    A 4-month-old female entire domestic shorthair cat presented with an acute onset of blindness, tetraparesis and subsequent generalised seizure activity. Haematology and serum biochemistry demonstrated a moderate, poorly regenerative anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperglobulinaemia with a low albumin:globulin ratio. Serology for feline coronavirus antibody was positive with an elevated alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. Analysis of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) demonstrated markedly elevated protein and a mixed, predominately neutrophilic pleocytosis. Immunocytochemistry for feline coronavirus was performed on the CSF, with positive staining observed inside macrophages. The cat was subsequently euthanased, and both histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with a diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. This is the first reported use of immunocytochemistry for detection of feline coronavirus within CSF macrophages. If this test proves highly specific, as for identification of feline coronavirus within tissue or effusion macrophages, it would be strongly supportive of an ante-mortem diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats with central nervous system involvement without the need for biopsy. PMID:23744728

  13. Substrate specificity of three viral thymidine kinases (TK): vaccinia virus TK, feline herpesvirus TK, and canine herpesvirus TK.

    PubMed

    Solaroli, N; Johansson, M; Balzarini, J; Karlsson, A

    2006-01-01

    In search of novel suicide gene candidates we have cloned and characterized thymidine kinases from three viruses; vaccinia virus TK (VVTK), feline herpesvirus TK (FHV-TK), and canine herpesvirus TK (CHV-TK). Our studies showed that VVTK primarily is a thymidine kinase, with a substrate specificity mainly restricted to dThd and only minor affinity for dCyd. VVTK also is related closely to mammalian thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), with 66% identity and 75% general homology. Although CHV-TK and FHV-TK are sequence related to herpes simplex virus types 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK), with 31% and 35% identity and a general similarity of 54%, the substrate specificity of these enzymes was restricted to dThd and thymidine analogs. PMID:17065088

  14. Mechanisms of pathogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus as a model for human T-cell leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Yoko; Murakami, Hironobu; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) make up a unique retrovirus family. Both viruses induce chronic lymphoproliferative diseases with BLV affecting the B-cell lineage and HTLV-1 affecting the T-cell lineage. The pathologies of BLV- and HTLV-induced infections are notably similar, with an absence of chronic viraemia and a long latency period. These viruses encode at least two regulatory proteins, namely, Tax and Rex, in the pX region located between the env gene and the 3′ long terminal repeat. The Tax protein is a key contributor to the oncogenic potential of the virus, and is also the key protein involved in viral replication. However, BLV infection is not sufficient for leukemogenesis, and additional events such as gene mutations must take place. In this review, we first summarize the similarities between the two viruses in terms of genomic organization, virology, and pathology. We then describe the current knowledge of the BLV model, which may also be relevant for the understanding of leukemogenesis caused by HTLV-1. In addition, we address our improved understanding of Tax functions through the newly identified BLV Tax mutants, which have a substitution between amino acids 240 and 265. PMID:24265629

  15. Pattern of seroreactivity against feline foamy virus proteins in domestic cats from Germany.

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Anne; Mühle, Michael; Hechler, Torsten; Bevins, Sarah; vandeWoude, Sue; Denner, Joachim; Löchelt, Martin

    2011-10-15

    The prevalence of feline foamy virus (FFV, spumaretrovirinae) in naturally infected domestic cats ranges between 30 and 80% FFV positive animals depending on age, sex and geographical region analyzed. Two serotypes have been reported for FFV designated FUV7-like and F17/951-like. Serotype-specific neutralization has been shown to correlate with sequence divergence in the surface (SU) domain of the envelope protein (Env). We analyzed a serum collection of 262 domestic cat sera from Germany using a GST-capture ELISA setup screening for Gag and Bet specific antibodies and identified 39% FFV positive animals. Due to the heterogeneity of the serological samples, cut-offs for Gag and Bet reactivity had to be experimentally determined since application of calculated cut-off values yielded some false-positive results; the new cut-off values turned out to be also fully applicable to a previous study. Using the already established FUV7 ElpSU antigen and the newly cloned and produced F17/951 ElpSU antigen, both consisting of the corresponding ectodomains of the envelope leader protein (Elp) and SU protein, we aimed at the detection of Env-specific antibodies and discrimination between the two known FFV serotypes within the diagnostic FFV ELISA. We validated the ElpSU antigens using cat reference sera of known serotype and screened with this assay domestic cat sera from Germany. Use of the FUV7- and F17/951 ElpSU antigens in ELISA resulted in the detection of Env-specific antibodies in both cat reference sera and sera from domestic cats in Germany, but failed to allow serotyping at the same time. PMID:21724269

  16. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  17. The role of accessory proteins in the replication of feline infectious peritonitis virus in peripheral blood monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-03-23

    The ability to productively infect monocytes/macrophages is the most important difference between the low virulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In vitro, the replication of FECV in peripheral blood monocytes always drops after 12h post inoculation, while FIPV sustains its replication in the monocytes from 45% of the cats. The accessory proteins of feline coronaviruses have been speculated to play a prominent role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with attenuated viruses. Still, no functions have been ascribed to them. In order to investigate if the accessory proteins of FIPV are important for sustaining its replication in monocytes, replication kinetics were determined for FIPV 79-1146 and its deletion mutants, lacking either accessory protein open reading frame 3abc (FIPV-Δ3), 7ab (FIPV-Δ7) or both (FIPV-Δ3Δ7). Results showed that the deletion mutants FIPV-Δ7 and FIPV-Δ3Δ7 could not maintain their replication, which was in sharp contrast to wt-FIPV. FIPV-Δ3 could still sustain its replication, but the percentage of infected monocytes was always lower compared to wt-FIPV. In conclusion, this study showed that ORF7 is crucial for FIPV replication in monocytes/macrophages, giving an explanation for its importance in vivo, its role in the development of FIP and its conservation in field strains. The effect of an ORF3 deletion was less pronounced, indicating only a supportive role of ORF3 encoded proteins during the infection of the in vivo target cell by FIPVs. PMID:23182908

  18. Isolation of Naturally Occurring Viruses of the Murine Leukemia Virus Group in Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Janet W.; Rowe, Wallace P.; Capps, Worth I.; Huebner, Robert J.

    1969-01-01

    A tissue culture cell system for isolation and identification of members of the murine leukemia virus group (the complement fixation for murine leukemia test) was modified to permit the isolation of naturally occurring virus from leukemic and normal mice. The important factors for increasing the sensitivity of the test were the use of National Institutes of Health (NIH) strain Webster Swiss embryo cell cultures and the selection of rat-immune sera having complement-fixing antibodies to tissue culture antigens of both the Gross and FMR subgroups. In all, 163 strains of mouse leukemia virus, from 11 inbred mouse strains, have been isolated. Representative virus isolates were shown to possess the properties of the murine leukemia virus group; i.e., they were chloroform-sensitive, noncytopathic agents which replicated in mouse embryo tissue culture and produced group-reactive, complement-fixing antigen and budding C-type particles visible by electron microscopy. These viruses could serve as helpers in the rescue of Moloney sarcoma virus genome from non-producer hamster sarcoma cells, yielding pseudotypes. All of the 19 field isolates tested were neutralized by Gross passage A antiserum but not by potent antisera to the Moloney, Rauscher, and Friend strains. Virus was recovered regularly from embryos and from the plasma and spleen of adult mice of high leukemic strains. In low leukemic mouse strains, different patterns of virus detection were observed. In C3H/He mice, virus was occasionally present in embryos and was found in 40% of adult spleens. BALB/c mice were virus-negative as fetuses or weanlings, but spleens of more than half of the mice over 6 months of age yielded virus. NIH mice have never yielded virus. In reciprocal matings between AKR and BALB/c mice, virus recovery from embryos was maternally determined. The development of tissue culture isolation procedures made possible for the first time the application of classical infectious disease methods to the

  19. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis {Delta}lysA {Delta}panCD Vaccine in Domestic Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)+ and FIV- cats (n = 4/group) received 2 x 10**6 cfu Mycobacterium tuberculosis Delta-lysA Delta-panCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses; albeit, at lower levels in FIV+ cats as compared to FIV- cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses ...

  20. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats. PMID:23202500

  1. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-15

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm.

  2. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ... diagnosed with leukemia are over 50 years old. Leukemia Starts in Bone Marrow Click for more information ...

  3. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  4. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  5. Role of mink cell focus-inducing virus in leukemias induced by Friend ecotropic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, J

    1984-01-01

    Recombinant viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of murine leukemias induced by a variety of long-latency retroviruses. Neonatal mice of several strains were inoculated with Friend ecotropic virus (F-Eco) and analyzed for the presence of mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) virus or DNA restriction enzyme fragments which were specific for Friend MCF virus (F-MCF). MCF virus was detected within 2 weeks of inoculation in NFS /N mice and at about 2 months after inoculation in BALB/c mice. Both of these strains developed erythroblastosis after inoculation with F-Eco. In contrast, MCF virus was not detected in F-Eco-inoculated C57BL mice. These mice were resistant to erythroblastosis but developed lymphoma or myelogenous leukemia or both at about 5 months after inoculation. Thus, although MCF viruses were associated with F-Eco erythroblastosis in NFS /N and BALB/c mice, they were not necessary for F-Eco-induced lymphoid or myeloid leukemias in C57BL mice. To investigate the association between resistance to erythroblastosis and absence of MCF virus, C57BL mice were inoculated with pseudotypic mixtures of F-Eco plus F-MCF; MCF virus replicated well in these mice, but the mice remained resistant to erythroblastosis. Furthermore, in genetic crosses between C57BL and NFS /N or BALB/c, some mice inherited resistance to F-Eco erythroblastosis without inheriting the C57BL resistance to the generation of MCF viruses. These results indicate that C57BL mice carry a gene for resistance to F-Eco erythroblastosis which is distinct from the C57BL genes which interfere with the generation of MCF viruses. Images PMID:6726889

  6. An update on feline infectious peritonitis: virology and immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C

    2014-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) continues to be one of the most researched infectious diseases of cats. The relatively high mortality of FIP, especially for younger cats from catteries and shelters, should be reason enough to stimulate such intense interest. However, it is the complexity of the disease and the grudging manner in which it yields its secrets that most fascinate researchers. Feline leukemia virus infection was conquered in less than two decades and the mysteries of feline immunodeficiency virus were largely unraveled in several years. After a half century, FIP remains one of the last important infections of cats for which we have no single diagnostic test, no vaccine and no definitive explanations for how virus and host interact to cause disease. How can a ubiquitous and largely non-pathogenic enteric coronavirus transform into a highly lethal pathogen? What are the interactions between host and virus that determine both disease form (wet or dry) and outcome (death or resistance)? Why is it so difficult, and perhaps impossible, to develop a vaccine for FIP? What role do genetics play in disease susceptibility? This review will explore research conducted over the last 5 years that attempts to answer these and other questions. Although much has been learned about FIP in the last 5 years, the ultimate answers remain for yet more studies. PMID:24837550

  7. Antiviral treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Taffin, Elien; Paepe, Dominique; Goris, Nesya; Auwerx, Joeri; Debille, Mariella; Neyts, Johan; Van de Maele, Isabel; Daminet, Sylvie

    2015-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats (feline AIDS), is a ubiquitous health threat to the domestic and feral cat population, also triggering disease in wild animals. No registered antiviral compounds are currently available to treat FIV-infected cats. Several human antiviral drugs have been used experimentally in cats, but not without the development of serious adverse effects. Here we report on the treatment of six naturally FIV-infected cats, suffering from moderate to severe disease, with the antiretroviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine ([R]-PMPDAP), a close analogue of tenofovir, a widely prescribed anti-HIV drug in human medicine. An improvement in the average Karnofsky score (pretreatment 33.2 ± 9.4%, post-treatment 65±12.3%), some laboratory parameters (ie, serum amyloid A and gammaglobulins) and a decrease of FIV viral load in plasma were noted in most cats. The role of concurrent medication in ameliorating the Karnofsky score, as well as the possible development of haematological side effects, are discussed. Side effects, when noted, appeared mild and reversible upon cessation of treatment. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn owing to the small number of patients and lack of a placebo-treated control group, the activity of (R)-PMPDAP, as observed here, warrants further investigation. PMID:24782459

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein mediates apoptosis in activated PBMC by a mechanism dependent on gp41 function

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali; Tompkins, Wayne A. . E-mail: Wayne_Tompkins@ncsu.edu

    2004-12-20

    Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes immunodeficiency in cats, which parallels HIV-1-induced immunodeficiency in humans. It has been established that HIV envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates T cell loss via a mechanism that requires CXCR4 binding. The Env glycoprotein of FIV, similar to HIV, requires CXCR4 binding for viral entry, as well as inducing membrane fusion leading to syncytia formation. However, the role of FIV Env in T cell loss and the molecular mechanisms governing this process have not been elucidated. We studied the role of Env glycoprotein in FIV-mediated T cell apoptosis in an in vitro model. Our studies demonstrate that membrane-expressed FIV Env induces apoptosis in activated feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by a mechanism that requires CXCR4 binding, as the process was inhibited by CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, studies regarding the role of CD134, the recently identified primary receptor of FIV, suggest that binding to CD134 may not be important for induction of apoptosis in PBMC. However, inhibiting Env-mediated fusion post CXCR4 binding by FIV gp41-specific fusion inhibitor also inhibited apoptosis. Under similar conditions, a fusion-defective gp41 mutant was unable to induce apoptosis in activated PBMC. Our findings are the first report suggesting the potential of FIV Env to mediate apoptosis in bystander cells by a process that is dependent on gp41 function.

  9. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Particles: Effect of Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Nitzan; Gladnikoff, Micha; Barlam, David; Shneck, Roni Z.; Rein, Alan; Rousso, Itay

    2006-01-01

    After budding from the host cell, retroviruses undergo a process of internal reorganization called maturation, which is prerequisite to infectivity. Viral maturation is accompanied by dramatic morphological changes, which are poorly understood in physical/mechanistic terms. Here, we study the mechanical properties of live mature and immature murine leukemia virus particles by indentation-type experiments conducted with an atomic force microscope tip. We find that both mature and immature particles have an elastic shell. Strikingly, the virus shell is twofold stiffer in the immature (0.68 N/m) than the mature (0.31 N/m) form. However, finite-element simulation shows that the average Young's modulus of the immature form is more than fourfold lower than that of the mature form. This finding suggests that per length unit, the protein-protein interactions in the mature shell are stronger than those in the immature shell. We also show that the mature virus shell is brittle, since it can be broken by application of large loading forces, by firm attachment to a substrate, or by repeated application of force. Our results are the first analysis of the mechanical properties of an animal virus, and demonstrate a linkage between virus morphology and mechanical properties. PMID:16632508

  11. A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Harvey J.; Mikovits, Judy A.; Switzer, William M.; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Montoya, Jose G.; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R.; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. PMID:22991430

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of Feline infectious peritonitis virus main protease in complex with an inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinshan; Wang, Fenghua; Tan, Yusheng; Chen, Xia; Zhao, Qi; Fu, Sheng; Li, Shuang; Chen, Cheng; Yang, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a lethal systemic granulomatous disease in wild and domestic cats around the world. Currently, no effective vaccines or drugs have been developed against it. As a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus, FIPV encodes two polyprotein precursors required for genome replication and transcription. Each polyprotein undergoes extensive proteolytic processing, resulting in functional subunits. This process is mainly mediated by its genome-encoded main protease, which is an attractive target for antiviral drug design. In this study, the main protease of FIPV in complex with a Michael acceptor-type inhibitor was crystallized. The complex crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = 112.3, b = 112.3, c = 102.1 Å. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:25484209

  13. Envelope polypeptides of Friend leukemia virus: purification and structural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J; Falk, H; Hunsmann, G

    1980-01-01

    Roughly 10% of surface glycoproteins in the envelope of mature Friend murine leukemia virus are coupled to membrane polypeptides by disulfide bridges. The remaining 90% of these glycoproteins are associated noncovalently. However, they could also be linked to membrane polypeptides by the treatment of purified Friend murine leukemia virus with 2,2'dithiobis(m-nitropyridine). These amphiphilic heterodimer polypeptides, gp84/86, were recovered almost quantitatively in the form of aggregates, termed rosettes, when prepared by solubilization of the viral membrane with Triton X-100 and subsequent velocity sedimentation. gp69/71 and p12(E)/15(E) were purified from these protein micelles after reduction of the disulfide bonds by gel chromatography. Electron micrographs of rosettes, as well as of purified p12(E)/15(E), showed structures different from native viral knobs. Isolated gp84/86 could be reassociated and then displayed more similarity to these viral surface projections. As shown by peptide mapping, the primary structures of the glycoproteins gp69/71 are highly related as are those of the membrane polypeptides p12(E) and p15(E). Furthermore, it was shown by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and re-electrophoresis of purified gp84/86 that the larger component, gp86, was composed of gp71 associated with p15(E) and p12(E), whereas the smaller component, gp84, was formed by gp69 bound only to p12(E). Images PMID:7411688

  14. Effect of chloroquine on feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Katoh, Yasuichiroh; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2013-08-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a feline coronavirus-induced fatal disease in domestic and wild cats. Several studies have investigated potential treatments for FIP. However, there have been no reports on agents that have exhibited a therapeutic effect. Recently, chloroquine has been reported to antiviral effect. We investigated whether chloroquine can be used to treat FIP in vitro and in vivo. It was demonstrated that chloroquine has inhibitory effect against the replication of FIPV and anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In vivo study using cats with experimentally induced FIP, the clinical score of chloroquine-treatment groups were better than in chloroquine-untreated group. However, alanine aminotransferase levels increased in the chloroquine-treated groups. It will be necessary to further investigate the possibility of FIP treatment with a combination of chloroquine and other agents. PMID:23648708

  15. True versus False Parasite Interactions: A Robust Method to Take Risk Factors into Account and Its Application to Feline Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hellard, Eléonore; Pontier, Dominique; Sauvage, Frank; Poulet, Hervé; Fouchet, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple infections are common in natural host populations and interspecific parasite interactions are therefore likely within a host individual. As they may seriously impact the circulation of certain parasites and the emergence and management of infectious diseases, their study is essential. In the field, detecting parasite interactions is rendered difficult by the fact that a large number of co-infected individuals may also be observed when two parasites share common risk factors. To correct for these “false interactions”, methods accounting for parasite risk factors must be used. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present paper we propose such a method for presence-absence data (i.e., serology). Our method enables the calculation of the expected frequencies of single and double infected individuals under the independence hypothesis, before comparing them to the observed ones using the chi-square statistic. The method is termed “the corrected chi-square.” Its robustness was compared to a pre-existing method based on logistic regression and the corrected chi-square proved to be much more robust for small sample sizes. Since the logistic regression approach is easier to implement, we propose as a rule of thumb to use the latter when the ratio between the sample size and the number of parameters is above ten. Applied to serological data for four viruses infecting cats, the approach revealed pairwise interactions between the Feline Herpesvirus, Parvovirus and Calicivirus, whereas the infection by FIV, the feline equivalent of HIV, did not modify the risk of infection by any of these viruses. Conclusions/Significance This work therefore points out possible interactions that can be further investigated in experimental conditions and, by providing a user-friendly R program and a tutorial example, offers new opportunities for animal and human epidemiologists to detect interactions of interest in the field, a crucial step in the challenge of

  16. Study of the Associations Between TT Virus Single and Mixed Infections With Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shaheli, Marjan; Yaghobi, Ramin; Rezaeian, Abbasali; Iravani Saadi, Mahdiyar; Ramzi, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pathogenic association of Transfusion Transmitted Virus or Torque teno Virus (TT Virus) single and mixed infections with leukemia was under evaluation in these years but confront with controversies. This hypothesis is based on the higher prevalence of TT Virus infection in patients with leukemia compared with controls. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TT Virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections in patients with leukemia and healthy controls. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 95 patients with leukemia and 100 healthy controls who were admitted to the Namazi Hospital affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, were enrolled between years 2012 and 2013. Blood samples treated with EDTA were collected from each patient with leukemia and controls. The existence of TT Virus infection was analyzed using the semi-nested PCR method. The immunological prevalence of HBV and HCV infections were evaluated using HBs-Ag and HCV-Ab ELISA based protocols, respectively. Active CMV infection was also evaluated using an immunofluorescence method. Also risk factors of leukemia and viral infections were statistically analyzed in patients with leukemia. Results: The TT Virus infection was significantly found in 40 of 95 (42.1%) and 12 of 100 (12%) patients with leukemia and controls, respectively. The HBs-Ag and HCV-Ab were detected in 27 of 95 (28.4%) and 18 of 69 (26.1%) patients with leukemia but were not found in the controls. Active CMV infection was also found in 11 of 69 (16%) patients and none of the controls. Significant co-infection of TT Virus was found with HBV (15 of 40; 37.5%), HCV (14 of 40; 35%) and CMV (7 of 40; 17.5%) in patients with leukemia. Conclusions: Confirmation of the significantly higher frequency of TT Virus, HBV, HCV and CMV single infection and their co-infection in patients with leukemia compared with healthy

  17. Biochemical analysis of murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced leukemias of strain BALB/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.W.; Hopkins, N.; Fleissner, E.

    1980-02-01

    Murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced BALB/c leukemias were characterized with respect to viral proteins and RNA. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral structural proteins revealed that for p12, p15, p30, and gp70, three to four electrophoretic variants of each could be detected. There was no correlation found between any of these mobilities and N- or B-tropism of the viruses. Proteins of all xenotropic viral isolates were identical in their gel electrophoretic profiles. The similar phenotypes of multiple viral clones from individual leukemias and of isolates grown in different cells suggest that the polymorphism of ecotropic viruses was generated in vivo rather than during in vitro virus growth. By two-dimensional fingerprinting of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides from 70S viral RNA, the previously reported association of N- and B-tropism with two distinct oligonucleotides was confirmed. The presence of two other oligonucleotides was correlated with positive and negative phenotypes of the virus-coded G/sub IX/ cell surface antigen. The RNAs of two B-tropic isolates with distinctive p15 and p12 phenotypes differed from the RNA of a prototype N-tropic virus by the absence of three oligonucleotides mapping in the 5' portion (gag region) of the prototype RNA. In addition, one small-plaque B-tropic virus displayed extensive changes in the RNA sequences associated with the env region of the prototype.

  18. Detection of a unique antigen on radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemia B6RV2

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, E.; Uenaka, A.; Stockert, E.; Obata, Y.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemia of a male C57BL/6 mouse, B6RV2, is immunogenic to female BALB/c X C57BL/6 F1 mice. In these mice, B6RV2 tumors regressed after initial growth, and after tumor regression the mice were resistant to repeated inocula of up to 10(8) B6RV2 cells. Serum from these mice reacted with B6RV2 in mixed hemadsorption or protein A assays, and absorption analysis indicated that the antigen was restricted to B6RV2; it could not be detected in normal thymocytes or spleen concanavalin A blasts from different inbred strains, nor in 16 C57BL/6 or BALB/c leukemias. Spleen cells from mice in which the tumor had regressed were cytotoxic to B6RV2 after in vitro stimulation with B6RV2, as shown by /sup 51/chromium release assay. This cytotoxicity was eliminated by pretreatment of the cells with anti-Thy-1.2, anti-Lyt-2.2, anti-Lyt-3.2, and complement, indicating that the effector cells were T-cells. The specificity of T-cell killing of B6RV2 was examined by competitive inhibition assays with unlabeled cells; only B6RV2 inhibited killing, while eight other C57BL/6 leukemias did not inhibit. Thus, the antigen on B6RV2 defined serologically and by cytotoxic T-cells is a unique antigen. However, it was not revealed by antibody-blocking test whether the unique determinant defined serologically was related to that recognized by T-cells; B6RV2 antiserum did not block lytic activity in the absence of added complement, irrespective of whether the target cells were untreated or anti-H-2b-treated B6RV2. H-2Kb antisera, but not H-2Db antisera, blocked lysis. This indicated that the H-2Kb molecule was exclusively involved in recognition of B6RV2 by cytotoxic T-cell.

  19. Descriptive distribution and phylogenetic analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolates of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive distribution and phylogeny of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) were studied in cats suspected of having feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in Malaysia. Ascitic fluids and/or biopsy samples were subjected to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeted for a conserved region of 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the FCoV genome. Eighty nine percent of the sampled animals were positive for the presence of FCoV. Among the FCoV positive cats, 80% of cats were males and 64% were below 2 years of age. The FCoV positive cases included 56% domestic short hair (DSH), 40% Persian, and 4% Siamese cats. The nucleotide sequences of 10 selected amplified products from FIP cases were determined. The sequence comparison revealed that the field isolates had 96% homology with a few point mutations. The extent of homology decreased to 93% when compared with reference strains. The overall branching pattern of phylogenetic tree showed two distinct clusters, where all Malaysian isolates fall into one main genetic cluster. These findings provided the first genetic information of FCoV in Malaysia. PMID:20053278

  20. Descriptive distribution and phylogenetic analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolates of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Saeed; Arshad, Siti S; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Omar, Abdul R; Zeenathul, Nazariah A; Fong, Lau S; Rahman, Nor-Alimah; Arshad, Habibah; Shamsudin, Shahirudin; Isa, Mohd-Kamarudin A

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive distribution and phylogeny of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) were studied in cats suspected of having feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in Malaysia. Ascitic fluids and/or biopsy samples were subjected to a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeted for a conserved region of 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the FCoV genome. Eighty nine percent of the sampled animals were positive for the presence of FCoV. Among the FCoV positive cats, 80% of cats were males and 64% were below 2 years of age. The FCoV positive cases included 56% domestic short hair (DSH), 40% Persian, and 4% Siamese cats. The nucleotide sequences of 10 selected amplified products from FIP cases were determined. The sequence comparison revealed that the field isolates had 96% homology with a few point mutations. The extent of homology decreased to 93% when compared with reference strains. The overall branching pattern of phylogenetic tree showed two distinct clusters, where all Malaysian isolates fall into one main genetic cluster. These findings provided the first genetic information of FCoV in Malaysia. PMID:20053278

  1. An epidemiological study of natural in utero infection with bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Thurmond, M C; Carter, R L; Puhr, D M; Burridge, M J; Miller, J M; Schmerr, M J; Van der Maaten, M J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of natural in utero infection with bovine leukemia virus for association with breed, sex, dam age, dam parity and time of maternal seroconversion. Analyses conducted for breed and sex, dam age and parity and time of maternal seroconversion were the FUNCAT procedure for categorical data, Wilcoxon Rank Sums test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. A total of 223 calves born between July 1979, and September 1980, to cows infected with bovine leukemia virus in the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit herd were tested for detectable bovine leukemia virus antibodies prior to the consumption of colostrum. Sera were tested for antibodies by agar-gel immunodiffusion and radioimmunoprecipitation using the glycoprotein-51 antigen. In a group of 125 calves in which in utero infection could be confirmed through serological follow-up (group A), eight calves (6.4%) had precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies. For all 223 calves (group B), 18 (8.1%) had detectable bovine leukemia virus antibodies. For calves in group A, no associations were detected between precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies and breed (p = 0.66), dam age (p = 0.86), dam parity (p = 0.83), or time of maternal seroconversion to bovine leukemia virus (p = 0.50). However, precolostral bovine leukemia virus antibodies were found in 17.4% of the males and 3.6% of the females in group A (p = 0.11) and in 12.4% of the males and 3.6% of the females in group B (p = 0.04). PMID:6315199

  2. Visualization of feline calicivirus replication in real-time with recombinant viruses engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y

    2010-04-25

    Caliciviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis was used to insert a transprimer sequence into random sites of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome. A site in the LC gene (encoding the capsid leader protein) of the FCV genome was identified that could tolerate foreign insertions, and two viable recombinant FCV variants expressing LC fused either to AcGFP, or DsRedFP were recovered. The effects of the insertions on LC processing, RNA replication, and stability of the viral genome were analyzed, and the progression of a calicivirus single infection and co-infection were captured by real-time imaging fluorescent microscopy. The ability to engineer viable recombinant caliciviruses expressing foreign markers enables new approaches to investigate virus and host cell interactions, as well as studies of viral recombination, one of the driving forces of calicivirus evolution. PMID:20137802

  3. Efficient transduction of feline neural progenitor cells for delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor using a feline immunodeficiency virus-based lentiviral construct.

    PubMed

    You, X Joann; Gu, Ping; Wang, Jinmei; Song, Tianran; Yang, Jing; Liew, Chee Gee; Klassen, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs). Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein-before and after differentiation-all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease. PMID:20936061

  4. Induction of feline immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in vivo with carrier-free synthetic peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, J N; Cannon, C A; Beatty, J A; Mackett, M; Rigby, M A; Neil, J C; Jarrett, C

    1994-01-01

    The role of cellular immunity in the establishment and progression of immunosuppressive lentivirus infection remains equivocal. To develop a model system with which these aspects of the host immune response can be studied experimentally, we examined the response of cats to a hybrid peptide containing predicted T-and B-cell epitopes from the gag and env genes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Cats were immunized with an unmodified 17-residue peptide incorporating residues 196 to 208 (from gag capsid protein p24) and 395 to 398 (from env glycoprotein gp120) of the FIV Glasgow-8 strain by using Quil A as an adjuvant. Virus-specific lymphocytotoxicity was measured by chromium-51 release assays. The target cells were autologous or allogeneic skin fibroblasts either infected with recombinant FIV gag vaccinia virus or pulsed with FIV peptides. Effector cells were either fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells or T-cell lines stimulated with FIV peptides in vitro. Cytotoxic effector cells from immunized cats lysed autologous, but not allogeneic, target cells when they were either infected with recombinant FIV gag vaccinia virus or pulsed with synthetic peptides comprising residues 196 to 205 or 200 to 208 plus 395. Depletion of CD8+ T cells, from the effector cell population abrogated the lymphocytotoxicity. Immunized cats developed an antibody response to the 17-residue peptide immunogen and to recombinant p24. However, no antibodies which recognized smaller constituent peptides could be detected. This response correlated with peptide-induced T-cell proliferation in vitro. This study demonstrates that cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for FIV can be induced following immunization with an unmodified short synthetic peptide and defines a system in which the protective or pathological role of such responses can be examined. PMID:8057464

  5. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  6. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  7. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  8. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  9. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  10. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  11. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  12. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe,...

  13. Emerging Viruses in the Felidae: Shifting Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Stephen J.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Brown, Meredith A.; Johnson, Warren E.; Antunes, Agostinho; Roelke, Melody E.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids. PMID:22470834

  14. Human APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Melanie; Schnierle, Barbara S. . E-mail: schba@pei.de

    2005-06-20

    The human APOBEC3G protein exhibits broad antiretroviral activity against a variety of retroviruses. It is packaged into viral particles and executes its antiviral function in the target cell. The packaging of APOBEC3G into different viral particles requires a mechanism that confers this promiscuity. Here, APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus (MLV) was studied using retroviral vectors. APOBEC3G uptake did not require either its cytidine deaminase activity or the presence of a retroviral vector genome. Results from immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies of APOBEC3G with a MLV Gag-CFP (cyan fluorescent protein) fusion protein imply an interaction between both proteins. RNase A treatment did not inhibit the co-precipitation of Gag-CFP and APOBEC3G, suggesting that the interaction is RNA independent. Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag, the MLV Gag precursor protein appears to interact with APOBEC3G, indicating that Gag contains conserved structures which are used to encapsidate APOBEC3G into different retroviral particles.

  15. An improved syncytia infectivity assay for the bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Diglio, C A; Piper, C E; Ferrer, J F

    1978-06-01

    Several factors that influence the sensitivity of the syncytia infectivity assay for the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and BLV-infected lymphocytes have been examined. The use of early-passage indicator bovine embryonic spleen (BESP) cells and their pretreatment with diethylamino-ethyl-dextran (DEAE-D) was essential for optimal sensitivity. Polybrene was less effective than DEAE-D. The combination of DEAE-D and polybrene was more effective than DEAE-D alone when BLV-infected leukocytes were used as the inoculum, but not when the inoculum was a cell-free BLV preparation. Using BESP cell passages 4 to 11 as indicators, reproducible titers were obtained when aliquots of the same virus stock were assayed at different times after freezer storage. When assaying peripheral blood lymphocytes from infected cattle, optimal syncytia responses were observed consistently by inoculating 5 X 10(6) viable lymphocytes per 60-mm Falcon dish. Centrifugation of peripheral blood leukocytes from BLV-infected cattle in discontinuous bovine serum albumin gradients can be used to separate a subpopulation of infected lymphocytes. Use of this subpopulation as the inoculum, rather than unseparated buffy-coat leukocytes, greatly increases the sensitivity of the syncytia infectivity assay. PMID:210107

  16. Tightly bound zinc in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human T-cell leukemia virus type I, and other retroviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Bess, J W; Powell, P J; Issaq, H J; Schumack, L J; Grimes, M K; Henderson, L E; Arthur, L O

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation in the presence of 1 mM EDTA. Pelleted gradient fractions were analyzed for total protein, total Gag capsid protein, and total zinc. Zinc was found to copurify and concentrate with the virus particles. Through successive cycles of resuspending in buffer containing EDTA and repelleting, the zinc content remained constant at about 1.7 mol of zinc per mol of Gag protein. Proteins from purified virus (HIV-1 and HTLV-I) were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotted to polyvinylidene fluoride paper, and probed with 65ZnCl2. Viral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins (HIV-1 p7NC and HTLV-I p15NC) bound 65Zn2+. Other retroviruses, including simian immunodeficiency virus, equine infectious anemia virus, bovine leukemia virus, Moloney murine leukemia virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, were found to contain amounts of zinc per milligram of total protein similar to those found in HIV-1 and HTLV-I. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that retroviral NC proteins function as zinc finger proteins in mature viruses. Images PMID:1731111

  17. Identification of three feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) env gene subtypes and comparison of the FIV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Sodora, D L; Shpaer, E G; Kitchell, B E; Dow, S W; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illnesses in cats. As such, FIV appears to be a feline analog of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A hallmark of HIV infection is the large degree of viral genetic diversity that can develop within an infected individual and the even greater and continually increasing level of diversity among virus isolates from different individuals. Our goal in this study was to determine patterns of FIV genetic diversity by focusing on a 684-nucleotide region encompassing variable regions V3, V4, and V5 of the FIV env gene in order to establish parallels and distinctions between FIV and HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Our data demonstrate that, like HIV-1, FIV can be separated into distinct envelope sequence subtypes (three are described here). Similar to that found for HIV-1, the pairwise sequence divergence within an FIV subtype ranged from 2.5 to 15.0%, whereas that between subtypes ranged from 17.8 to 26.2%. However, the high number of synonymous nucleotide changes among FIV V3 to V5 env sequences may also include a significant number of back mutations and suggests that the evolutionary distances among FIV subtypes are underestimated. Although only a few subtype B viruses were available for examination, the pattern of diversity between the FIV A and B subtypes was found to be significantly distinct; subtype B sequences had proportionally fewer mutations that changed amino acids, compared with silent changes, suggesting a more advanced state of adaptation to the host. No similar distinction was evident for HIV-1 subtypes. The diversity of FIV genomes within individual infected cats was found to be as high as 3.7% yet twofold lower than that within HIV-1-infected people over a comparable region of the env gene. Despite these differences, significant parallels between patterns of FIV evolution and HIV-1 evolution exist, indicating that a wide array of potentially divergent virus challenges need to be considered

  18. Vaccination against δ−Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related δ-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of δ-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  19. Snapshot of viral infections in wild carnivores reveals ubiquity of parvovirus and susceptibility of Egyptian mongoose to feline panleukopenia virus.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida D; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox's as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten's as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically

  20. Feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase: expression, functional characterization, and reconstitution of the 66- and 51-kilodalton subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Amacker, M; Hottiger, M; Hübscher, U

    1995-01-01

    The two subunits of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) were cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins are enzymatically active as homodimers (p66 and p51) as well as a heterodimer p66/p51. The biochemical properties of the FIV RT are very similar to those of the counterpart of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in being an RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. When a double-stranded DNA containing a small gap of 26 nucleotides was tested, we found a new activity of the FIV RT p66/p51 heterodimer--the cat viral enzyme could perform strand displacement DNA synthesis of approximately 300 bases. The FIV RT homodimer p66 alone could carry out limited strand displacement DNA synthesis, but this activity was stimulated by the p51 subunit at a molar ratio of one molecule of p66 to five molecules of p51. On the other hand, the homodimeric p51 itself was unable to fill a small gap of 26 nucleotides in a double-stranded DNA substrate and was not active by itself in strand displacement DNA synthesis. These data are in agreement with an earlier finding of strand displacement DNA synthesis by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RT (M. Hottiger, V.N. Podust, R.L. Thimmig, C.S. McHenry, and U. Hübscher. J. Biol. Chem. 269:986-991, 1994). Our data therefore suggest a general and important function of lentiviral p51 subunits in strand displacement DNA synthesis which appears to be required in later stages of the lentiviral replication cycle, when DNA-dependent DNA synthesis occurs on double-stranded DNA. PMID:7545246

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA alters gene expression of splicing factors and proteasome-ubiquitination proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, Magnus; Chatterji, Udayan; Schaffer, Lana; Rozieres, Sohela de; Elder, John H.

    2008-02-20

    Expression of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) accessory protein OrfA (or Orf2) is critical for efficient viral replication in lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. OrfA has been reported to exhibit functions in common with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory proteins Vpr and Tat, although the function of OrfA has not been fully explained. Here, we use microarray analysis to characterize how OrfA modulates the gene expression profile of T-lymphocytes. The primary IL-2-dependent T-cell line 104-C1 was transduced to express OrfA. Functional expression of OrfA was demonstrated by trans complementation of the OrfA-defective clone, FIV-34TF10. OrfA-expressing cells had a slightly reduced cell proliferation rate but did not exhibit any significant alteration in cell cycle distribution. Reverse-transcribed RNA from cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP + OrfA were hybridized to Affymetrix HU133 Plus 2.0 microarray chips representing more than 47,000 genome-wide transcripts. By using two statistical approaches, 461 (Rank Products) and 277 (ANOVA) genes were identified as modulated by OrfA expression. The functional relevance of the differentially expressed genes was explored by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The analyses revealed alterations in genes critical for RNA post-transcriptional modifications and protein ubiquitination as the two most significant functional outcomes of OrfA expression. In these two groups, several subunits of the spliceosome, cellular splicing factors and family members of the proteasome-ubiquitination system were identified. These findings provide novel information on the versatile function of OrfA during FIV infection and indicate a fine-tuning mechanism of the cellular environment by OrfA to facilitate efficient FIV replication.

  2. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically

  3. Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA alters gene expression of splicing factors and proteasome-ubiquitination proteins.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, Magnus; Chatterji, Udayan; Schaffer, Lana; de Rozières, Sohela; Elder, John H

    2008-02-20

    Expression of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) accessory protein OrfA (or Orf2) is critical for efficient viral replication in lymphocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. OrfA has been reported to exhibit functions in common with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) accessory proteins Vpr and Tat, although the function of OrfA has not been fully explained. Here, we use microarray analysis to characterize how OrfA modulates the gene expression profile of T-lymphocytes. The primary IL-2-dependent T-cell line 104-C1 was transduced to express OrfA. Functional expression of OrfA was demonstrated by trans complementation of the OrfA-defective clone, FIV-34TF10. OrfA-expressing cells had a slightly reduced cell proliferation rate but did not exhibit any significant alteration in cell cycle distribution. Reverse-transcribed RNA from cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or GFP+OrfA were hybridized to Affymetrix HU133 Plus 2.0 microarray chips representing more than 47,000 genome-wide transcripts. By using two statistical approaches, 461 (Rank Products) and 277 (ANOVA) genes were identified as modulated by OrfA expression. The functional relevance of the differentially expressed genes was explored by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The analyses revealed alterations in genes critical for RNA post-transcriptional modifications and protein ubiquitination as the two most significant functional outcomes of OrfA expression. In these two groups, several subunits of the spliceosome, cellular splicing factors and family members of the proteasome-ubiquitination system were identified. These findings provide novel information on the versatile function of OrfA during FIV infection and indicate a fine-tuning mechanism of the cellular environment by OrfA to facilitate efficient FIV replication. PMID:17963812

  4. Replication Properties of Clade A/C Chimeric Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses and Evaluation of Infection Kinetics in the Domestic Cat▿

    PubMed Central

    de Rozìeres, Sohela; Thompson, Jesse; Sundstrom, Magnus; Gruber, Julia; Stump, Debora S.; de Parseval, Aymeric P.; VandeWoude, Sue; Elder, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes progressive immunodeficiency in domestic cats, with clinical course dependent on virus strain. For example, clade A FIV-PPR is predominantly neurotropic and causes a mild disease in the periphery, whereas clade C FIV-C36 causes fulminant disease with CD4+ T-cell depletion and neutropenia but no significant pathology in the central nervous system. In order to map pathogenic determinants, chimeric viruses were prepared between FIV-C36 and FIV-PPR, with reciprocal exchanges involving (i) the 3′ halves of the viruses, including the Vif, OrfA, and Env genes; (ii) the 5′ end extending from the 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) to the beginning of the capsid (CA)-coding region; and (iii) the 3′ LTR and Rev2-coding regions. Ex vivo replication rates and in vivo replication and pathologies were then assessed and compared to those of the parental viruses. The results show that FIV-C36 replicates ex vivo and in vivo to levels approximately 20-fold greater than those of FIV-PPR. None of the chimeric FIVs recapitulated the replication rate of FIV-C36, although most replicated to levels similar to those of FIV-PPR. The rates of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene transcription driven by the FIV-C36 and FIV-PPR LTRs were identical. Furthermore, the ratios of surface glycoprotein (SU) to capsid protein (CA) in the released particles were essentially the same in the wild-type and chimeric FIVs. Tests were performed in vivo on the wild-type FIVs and chimeras carrying the 3′ half of FIV-C36 or the 3′ LTR and Rev2 regions of FIV-C36 on the PPR background. Both chimeras were infectious in vivo, although replication levels were lower than for the parental viruses. The chimera carrying the 3′ half of FIV-C36 demonstrated an intermediate disease course with a delayed peak viral load but ultimately resulted in significant reductions in neutrophil and CD4+ T cells, suggesting potential adaptation in vivo. Taken together, the findings

  5. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro. PMID:25896976

  6. Activation of enhancer sequences in type II human T-cell leukemia virus and bovine leukemia virus long terminal repeats by virus-associated trans-acting regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C A; Sodroski, J G; Kettman, R; Haseltine, W A

    1986-01-01

    The ability of the sequences present in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of human T-cell leukemia viruses type I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) and of bovine leukemia virus to function as enhancer elements was investigated. Recombinant plasmids that contained the HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and bovine leukemia virus LTRs at a distance from a simian virus 40 promoter element located 5' to the bacterial gene encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.28) were constructed. We report that all three LTR sequences contain enhancer elements capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed from a distal heterologous promoter. The enhancer present in the HTLV-I LTR was active in uninfected cells of lymphoid and nonlymphoid origin. In contrast, the enhancer activity of the HTLV-II and bovine leukemia virus LTR sequences was evident only in virus-infected cells. This activity is likely due to virus-associated trans-acting transcriptional factors previously shown to be present in HTLV- and bovine leukemia virus-infected cells. The implication of these observations for virus replication and transforming activity are discussed. Images PMID:3005624

  7. N-terminally myristoylated feline foamy virus Gag allows Env-independent budding of sub-viral particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Yong-Boum; Löchelt, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation. PMID:22163342

  8. Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than increased by positive genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Durden, Monica; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B). The subsequent effects of inbreeding were measured using 42 genome-wide STR markers. P generation cats produced 57 first filial (F1) kittens, only five of which (9.0%) demonstrated a natural resistance to FIPV infection. One of these five F1 survivors was then used to produce six F1/P-backcrosses kittens, only one of which proved resistant to FIP. Six of eight of the F1 and F1/P survivors succumbed to a secondary exposure 4-12 months later. Therefore, survival after both primary and secondary infection was decreased rather than increased by positive selection for resistance. The common genetic factor associated with this diminished resistance was a loss of heterozygosity. PMID:26964713

  9. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G.; Affranchino, Jose L.

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  10. N-Terminally Myristoylated Feline Foamy Virus Gag Allows Env-Independent Budding of Sub-Viral Particles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kim, Yong-Boum; Löchelt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation. PMID:22163342

  11. ORF7-encoded accessory protein 7a of feline infectious peritonitis virus as a counteragent against IFN-α-induced antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    The type I IFN-mediated immune response is the first line of antiviral defence. Coronaviruses, like many other viruses, have evolved mechanisms to evade this innate response, ensuring their survival. Several coronavirus accessory genes play a central role in these pathways, but for feline coronaviruses this has never to our knowledge been studied. As it has been demonstrated previously that ORF7 is essential for efficient replication in vitro and virulence in vivo of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), the role of this ORF in the evasion of the IFN-α antiviral response was investigated. Deletion of ORF7 from FIPV strain 79-1146 (FIPV-Δ7) rendered the virus more susceptible to IFN-α treatment. Given that ORF7 encodes two proteins, 7a and 7b, it was further explored which of these proteins is active in this mechanism. Providing 7a protein in trans rescued the mutant FIPV-Δ7 from IFN sensitivity, which was not achieved by addition of 7b protein. Nevertheless, addition of protein 7a to FIPV-Δ3Δ7, a FIPV mutant deleted in both ORF3 and ORF7, could no longer increase the replication capacity of this mutant in the presence of IFN. These results indicate that FIPV 7a protein is a type I IFN antagonist and protects the virus from the antiviral state induced by IFN, but it needs the presence of ORF3-encoded proteins to exert its antagonistic function. PMID:24189622

  12. Structure Determination of Feline Calicivirus Virus-Like Particles in the Context of a Pseudo-Octahedral Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Wim P.; Buisson, Marlyse; Estrozi, Leandro F.; Schoehn, Guy; Billet, Olivier; Hannas, Zahia; Sigoillot, Cécile; Poulet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The vesivirus feline calicivirus (FCV) is a positive strand RNA virus encapsidated by an icosahedral T=3 shell formed by the viral VP1 protein. Upon its expression in the insect cell - baculovirus system in the context of vaccine development, two types of virus-like particles (VLPs) were formed, a majority built of 60 subunits (T=1) and a minority probably built of 180 subunits (T=3). The structure of the small particles was determined by x-ray crystallography at 0.8 nm resolution helped by cryo-electron microscopy in order to understand their formation. Cubic crystals belonged to space group P213. Their self-rotation function showed the presence of an octahedral pseudo-symmetry similar to the one described previously by Agerbandje and co-workers for human parvovirus VLPs. The crystal structure could be solved starting from the published VP1 structure in the context of the T=3 viral capsid. In contrast to viral capsids, where the capsomers are interlocked by the exchange of the N-terminal arm (NTA) domain, this domain is disordered in the T=1 capsid of the VLPs. Furthermore it is prone to proteolytic cleavage. The relative orientation of P (protrusion) and S (shell) domains is alerted so as to fit VP1 to the smaller T=1 particle whereas the intermolecular contacts around 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold axes are conserved. By consequence the surface of the VLP is very similar compared to the viral capsid and suggests a similar antigenicity. The knowledge of the structure of the VLPs will help to improve their stability, in respect to a use for vaccination. PMID:25794153

  13. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew D; Cohn, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS. Molecular biologists traced the development of XMRV to a recombination event in a laboratory mouse that likely occurred circa 1993. The virus was propagated via cell lines derived from a tumor present in this mouse and spread through contamination of laboratory samples. Well-controlled experiments showed that detection of XMRV was due to contaminated samples and was not a marker of or a causal factor in prostate cancer or CFS. This paper traces the development of XMRV in the prostate and CFS scientific communities and explores the effect it had on the blood community. PMID:27358491

  14. Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Juliusson, Gunnar; Hough, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Leukemias are a group of life threatening malignant disorders of the blood and bone marrow. In the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population, the acute leukemias are most prevalent, with chronic myeloid leukemia being infrequently seen. Factors associated with more aggressive disease biology tend to increase in frequency with increasing age, whilst tolerability of treatment strategies decreases. There are also challenges regarding the effective delivery of therapy specific to the AYA group, consequences on the unique psychosocial needs of this age group, including compliance. This chapter reviews the current status of epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment strategies and outcomes of AYA leukemia, with a focus on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:27595359

  15. Identification of a new genotype of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Balić, Davor; Lojkić, Ivana; Periškić, Marin; Bedeković, Tomislav; Jungić, Andreja; Lemo, Nina; Roić, Besi; Cač, Zeljko; Barbić, Ljubo; Madić, Josip

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the degree of genetic variability of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) strains circulating in Croatia, 29 isolates from the six largest dairy farms were examined by PCR for a segment of the gp51 env gene, followed by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The nucleotide sequences were compared with other previously characterized BLV strains from different geographical areas, comprising all seven known BLV genotypes. The Croatian sequences showed six to eight nucleotide substitutions: six silent substitutions and two amino acid changes. Four of those substitutions were within epitopes. In comparison to the sequences of other BLV genotypes, our isolates showed the closest relationship to genotype 1 isolates PL-3252 (FJ808585) and AL-148 (FJ808573) from Argentina. The degree of variation between our sequences and those of genotype 1 was 0.2- 4.6 %. In phylogenetic trees based on 400-nt and 519-nt sequences, all of the Croatian sequences clustered separately from the other sequences, revealing a new genotype. PMID:22488472

  16. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery. PMID:25459347

  17. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  18. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a γ retrovirus that has been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and prostate cancer. The search for viral causes of these syndromes was reignited by the finding that RNase L activity was low in hereditary prostate cancer and some CFS patients. The six strains of XMRV that have been sequenced have greater than 99% identity, indicating a new human infection rather than laboratory contamination. DNA, RNA, and proteins from XMRV have been detected in 50% to 67% of CFS patients and in about 3.7% of healthy controls. XMRV infections could be transmitted to permissive cell lines from CFS plasma, suggesting the potential for communicable and blood-borne spread of the virus and potentially CFS. This troubling concept is currently under intense evaluation. The most important steps now are to independently confirm the initial findings; develop reliable assays of biomarkers; and to move on to investigations of XMRV pathophysiology and treatment in CFS, prostate cancer, and potentially other virus-related syndromes, if they exist. PMID:20425007

  19. Unstable resistance of G mouse fibroblasts to ecotropic murine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikura, H; Naito, Y; Moriwaki, K

    1979-01-01

    G mouse cells were resistant to N- and NB-tropic Friend leukemia viruses and to B-tropic WN 1802B. Though the cells were resistant to focus formation by the Moloney isolate of murine sarcoma virus, they were relatively sensitive to helper component murine leukemia virus. To amphotropic murine leukemia virus and to focus formation by amphotropic murine sarcoma virus, G mouse cells were fully permissive. When the cell lines were established starting from the individual embryos, most cell lines were not resistant to the murine leukemia viruses. Only one resistant line was established. Cloning of this cell line indicated that the resistant cells constantly segregated sensitive cells during the culture; i.e., the G mouse cell cultures were probably always mixtures of sensitive and resistant cells. Among the sensitive cell clones, some were devoid of Fv-1 restriction. Such dually permissive cells, and also feral mouse-derived SC-1 cells, retained glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 and apparently normal number 4 chromosomes. The loss of Fv-1 restriction in these mouse cells was not brought about by any gross structural changes in the vicinity of Fv-1 on number 4 chromosomes. Images PMID:221667

  20. Human adult T-cell leukemia virus: complete nucleotide sequence of the provirus genome integrated in leukemia cell DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Seiki, M; Hattori, S; Hirayama, Y; Yoshida, M

    1983-01-01

    Human retrovirus adult T-cell leukemia virus (ATLV) has been shown to be closely associated with human adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) [Yoshida, M., Miyoshi, I. & Hinuma, Y. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2031-2035]. The provirus of ATLV integrated in DNA of leukemia T cells from a patient with ATL was molecularly cloned and the complete nucleotide sequence of 9,032 bases of the proviral genome was determined. The provirus DNA contains two long terminal repeats (LTRs) consisting of 755 bases, one at each end, which are flanked by a 6-base direct repeat of the cellular DNA sequence. The nucleotides in the LTR could be arranged into a unique secondary structure, which could explain transcriptional termination within the 3' LTR but not in the 5' LTR. The nucleotide sequence of the provirus contains three large open reading frames, which are capable of coding for proteins of 48,000, 99,000, and 54,000 daltons. The three open frames are in this order from the 5' end of the viral genome and the predicted 48,000-dalton polypeptide is a precursor of gag proteins, because it has an identical amino acid sequence to that of the NH2 terminus of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) p24. The open frames coding for 99,000- and 54,000-dalton polypeptides are thought to be the pol and env genes, respectively. On the 3' side of these three open frames, the ATLV sequence has four smaller open frames in various phases; these frames may code for 10,000-, 11,000-, 12,000-, and 27,000-dalton polypeptides. Although one or some of these open frames could be the transforming gene of this virus, in preliminary analysis, DNA of this region has no homology with the normal human genome. PMID:6304725

  1. Functions, structure, and read-through alternative splicing of feline APOBEC3 genes

    PubMed Central

    Münk, Carsten; Beck, Thomas; Zielonka, Jörg; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Chareza, Sarah; Battenberg, Marion; Thielebein, Jens; Cichutek, Klaus; Bravo, Ignacio G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Lochelt, Martin; Yuhki, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the past years a variety of host restriction genes have been identified in human and mammals that modulate retrovirus infectivity, replication, assembly, and/or cross-species transmission. Among these host-encoded restriction factors, the APOBEC3 (A3; apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3) proteins are potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. While primates encode seven of these genes (A3A to A3H), rodents carry only a single A3 gene. Results Here we identified and characterized several A3 genes in the genome of domestic cat (Felis catus) by analyzing the genomic A3 locus. The cat genome presents one A3H gene and three very similar A3C genes (a-c), probably generated after two consecutive gene duplications. In addition to these four one-domain A3 proteins, a fifth A3, designated A3CH, is expressed by read-through alternative splicing. Specific feline A3 proteins selectively inactivated only defined genera of feline retroviruses: Bet-deficient feline foamy virus was mainly inactivated by feA3Ca, feA3Cb, and feA3Cc, while feA3H and feA3CH were only weakly active. The infectivity of Vif-deficient feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus was reduced only by feA3H and feA3CH, but not by any of the feA3Cs. Within Felidae, A3C sequences show significant adaptive selection, but unexpectedly, the A3H sequences present more sites that are under purifying selection. Conclusion Our data support a complex evolutionary history of expansion, divergence, selection and individual extinction of antiviral A3 genes that parallels the early evolution of Placentalia, becoming more intricate in taxa in which the arms race between host and retroviruses is harsher. PMID:18315870

  2. Suppression of NK cells and regulatory T lymphocytes in cats naturally infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Ben L; Devriendt, Bert; Olyslaegers, Dominique A; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Favoreel, Herman W; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-05-31

    A strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is thought to be indispensable for protection against infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) in cats. In this study, the role of natural killer (NK) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), central players in the innate and adaptive CMI respectively, was examined during natural FIPV infection. When quantified, both NK cells and Tregs were drastically depleted from the peripheral blood, mesenteric lymph node (LN) and spleen in FIP cats. In contrast, mesentery and kidney from FIP cats did not show any difference when compared to healthy non-infected control animals. In addition, other regulatory lymphocytes (CD4+CD25-Foxp3+ and CD3+CD8+Foxp3+) were found to be depleted from blood and LN as well. Phenotypic analysis of blood-derived NK cells in FIP cats revealed an upregulation of activation markers (CD16 and CD25) and migration markers (CD11b and CD62L) while LN-derived NK cells showed upregulation of only CD16 and CD62L. LN-derived NK cells from FIPV-infected cats were also significantly less cytotoxic when compared with healthy cats. This study reveals for the first time that FIPV infection is associated with severe suppression of NK cells and Tregs, which is reflected by cell depletion and lowered cell functionality (only NK cells). This will un-doubtfully lead to a reduced capacity of the innate immune system (NK cells) to battle FIPV infection and a decreased capacity (Tregs) to suppress the immunopathology typical for FIP. However, these results will also open possibilities for new therapies targeting specifically NK cells and Tregs to enhance their numbers and/or functionality during FIPV infection. PMID:23434014

  3. Structural and biochemical characterization of the inhibitor complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Matúz, Krisztina; Tözsér, Jozsef; Namwong, Sirilak; Goldfarb, Nathan E.; Dunn, Ben M.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-10-23

    Interactions between the protease (PR) encoded by the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and a number of potential inhibitors have been investigated by biochemical and structural techniques. It was observed that several inhibitors used clinically against HIV PR exhibit nanomolar or even subnanomolar values of K{sub i}, depending on the exact experimental conditions. Both TL-3, a universal inhibitor of retroviral PRs, and some inhibitors originally shown to inhibit plasmepsins were also quite potent, whereas inhibition by pepstatin A was considerably weaker. Crystal structures of the complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus PR with TL-3, amprenavir and pepstatin A were solved at high resolution and compared with the structures of complexes of these inhibitors with other retropepsins. Whereas TL-3 and amprenavir bound in a predictable manner, spanning the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, two molecules of pepstatin A bound simultaneously in an unprecedented manner, leaving the catalytic water molecule in place.

  4. No Evidence of Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Viruses in Live Attenuated Human Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Zheng, HaoQiang; Simmons, Graham; Zhou, Yanchen; Tang, Shaohua; Shankar, Anupama; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric L.; Heneine, Walid

    2011-01-01

    Background The association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome reported in previous studies remains controversial as these results have been questioned by recent data. Nonetheless, concerns have been raised regarding contamination of human vaccines as a possible source of introduction of XMRV and MLV into human populations. To address this possibility, we tested eight live attenuated human vaccines using generic PCR for XMRV and MLV sequences. Viral metagenomics using deep sequencing was also done to identify the possibility of other adventitious agents. Results All eight live attenuated vaccines, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (SA-14-14-2), varicella (Varivax), measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR-II), measles (Attenuvax), rubella (Meruvax-II), rotavirus (Rotateq and Rotarix), and yellow fever virus were negative for XMRV and highly related MLV sequences. However, residual hamster DNA, but not RNA, containing novel endogenous gammaretrovirus sequences was detected in the JEV vaccine using PCR. Metagenomics analysis did not detect any adventitious viral sequences of public health concern. Intracisternal A particle sequences closest to those present in Syrian hamsters and not mice were also detected in the JEV SA-14-14-2 vaccine. Combined, these results are consistent with the production of the JEV vaccine in Syrian hamster cells. Conclusions We found no evidence of XMRV and MLV in eight live attenuated human vaccines further supporting the safety of these vaccines. Our findings suggest that vaccines are an unlikely source of XMRV and MLV exposure in humans and are consistent with the mounting evidence on the absence of these viruses in humans. PMID:22216219

  5. In Vitro Assembly of Virus-Like Particles of a Gammaretrovirus, the Murine Leukemia Virus XMRV

    PubMed Central

    Hadravová, Romana; de Marco, Alex; Ulbrich, Pavel; Štokrová, Jitka; Doležal, Michal; Pichová, Iva; Ruml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Immature retroviral particles are assembled by self-association of the structural polyprotein precursor Gag. During maturation the Gag polyprotein is proteolytically cleaved, yielding mature structural proteins, matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC), that reassemble into a mature viral particle. Proteolytic cleavage causes the N terminus of CA to fold back to form a β-hairpin, anchored by an internal salt bridge between the N-terminal proline and the inner aspartate. Using an in vitro assembly system of capsid-nucleocapsid protein (CANC), we studied the formation of virus-like particles (VLP) of a gammaretrovirus, the xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV). We show here that, unlike other retroviruses, XMRV CA and CANC do not assemble tubular particles characteristic of mature assembly. The prevention of β-hairpin formation by the deletion of either the N-terminal proline or 10 initial amino acids enabled the assembly of ΔProCANC or Δ10CANC into immature-like spherical particles. Detailed three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of these particles revealed that below a disordered N-terminal CA layer, the C terminus of CA assembles a typical immature lattice, which is linked by rod-like densities with the RNP. PMID:22090120

  6. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu; Morishita, Ryo; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ryo, Akihide; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protease (PR) of XMR virus (XMRV) was successfully synthesized with cell-free system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface of XMRV PR with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), was identified with NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is induced for two PR protomers in the APV:PR = 1:2 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is transmitted even to distant regions from the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-range transmission of structural change may be utilized for drug discovery. -- Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially {sup 15}N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [{sup 1}H, {sup 15}N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) . A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR = 1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR has

  7. At-risk individuals in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus epidemiology: evidence from a multivariate approach in a natural population of domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed Central

    Courchamp, F.; Yoccoz, N. G.; Artois, M.; Pontier, D.

    1998-01-01

    Prevalence of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) infection was measured during 6 consecutive years in a natural rural population of domestic cats. Sex, age, weight, origin, group size and presence of antibodies to FIV were recorded for each sampled cat. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the influence of the recorded parameters on infection. FIV prevalence rates are as high as 19.6% in the total population, and do not statistically change between years, after controlling for changes in samples' age structure. FIV infection is characterized by risk factors linked to aggressive behaviour: old mature male adults having dispersed are more likely to be infected. A study of the cats group size and of the spatial distribution of infected individuals indicates the absence of infection clusters in males, and suggests the importance of roaming in the spreading of FIV. In conclusion, FIV infection spreads, with low contagiousness, mainly between particularly aggressive individuals, and the virus is endemic in this population. PMID:9747777

  8. Animals Models of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2016-03-31

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in a minority of infected individuals after long periods of viral persistence. The various stages of HTLV-I infection and leukemia development are studied by using several different animal models: (1) the rabbit (and mouse) model of persistent HTLV-I infection, (2) transgenic mice to model tumorigenesis by HTLV-I specific protein expression, (3) ATL cell transfers into immune-deficient mice, and (4) infection of humanized mice with HTLV-I. After infection, virus replicates without clinical disease in rabbits and to a lesser extent in mice. Transgenic expression of both the transactivator protein (Tax) and the HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ) protein have provided insight into factors important in leukemia/lymphoma development. To investigate factors relating to tumor spread and tissue invasion, a number of immune-deficient mice based on the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or non-obese diabetic/SCID background have been used. Inoculation of adult T cell leukemia cell (lines) leads to lymphoma with osteolytic bone lesions and to a lesser degree to leukemia development. These mice have been used extensively for the testing of anticancer drugs and virotherapy. A recent development is the use of so-called humanized mice, which, upon transfer of CD34(+)human umbilical cord stem cells, generate human lymphocytes. Infection with HTLV-I leads to leukemia/lymphoma development, thus providing an opportunity to investigate disease development with the aid of molecularly cloned viruses. However, further improvements of this mouse model, particularly in respect to the development of adaptive immune responses, are necessary. PMID:27034390

  9. Virus-Specific Messenger RNA and Nascent Polypeptides in Polyribosomes of Cells Replicating Murine Sarcoma-Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, G.; Tsuchida, N.; Shanmugam, G.; Green, M.

    1973-01-01

    We present evidence that virus-specific RNA is present in polyribosomes of transformed cells replicating the murine sarcoma-leukemia virus complex and that it serves as messenger RNA for the synthesis of viral-coded proteins. Both virus-specific RNA (detected by hybridization with the [3H]DNA product of the viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase) and nascent viral polypeptides (measured by precipitation with antiserum to purified virus) were found in membrane-bound and free polyribosomes. Membrane-bound polyribosomes contained a higher content of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides. From 60 to 70% of viral RNA sequences were released from polyribosomes with EDTA, consistent with a function as messenger RNA. Maximum amounts of both virus-specific RNA and nascent viral polypeptides were found in the polyribosome region sedimenting at about 350 S. PMID:4352969

  10. Expression of murine leukemia viruses in the highly lymphomatous BXH-2 recombinant inbred mouse strain.

    PubMed Central

    Bedigian, H G; Taylor, B A; Meier, H

    1981-01-01

    Among 12 recombinant inbred strains of mice derived from crossing two strains, C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ, which have a low incidence of neoplastic disease, one strain (BXH-2) has been found to have a high incidence of lymphoma, of non-T-cell origin, at an early age. The BXH-2 strain carries the Fv-1b allele and spontaneously expresses a B-tropic murine leukemia virus beginning at as early as 10 days of gestation and continuing throughout their life. No significant differences in ecotropic virus titers were observed at any age tested (16 to 17 days of gestation through 7 months), whereas xenotropic virus was first detected in lymphoid tissues of 2-month-old mice and virus titers increased with age. Dual tropic virus(es), which induced cytopathic changes on mink lung cells, was isolated from BXH-2 lymphomatous tissues. Unlike AKR mink lung focus-forming virus (N-tropic recombinant), BXH-2 dual tropic virus is B tropic and induces cytopathic changes in mouse fibroblast cultures as well. The BXH-2 mouse provides a model system for studying the role of replication-competent viruses in spontaneously occurring leukemias of non-T-cell lineage and neurological disease. Images PMID:6268848

  11. Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence Among Cattle Presented for Slaughter in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) results in economic loss due reduced productivity, especially the reduction of milk production and early culling. In the USA.,USA, previous studies in 1996, 1999 and 2007 showed BLV infections widespread, especially in the dairy herds. The goal of this stud...

  12. Characterization of feline glomerulonephritis associated with viral-induced hematopoietic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Glick, A D; Horn, R G; Holscher, M

    1978-08-01

    Light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy on tissues from 63 domestic cats revealed that glomerulonephritis occurred in almost one third of cats with hematopoietic neoplasms of the type linked with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Glomerular lesions were of the immune complex type with subepithelial, subendothelial, and mesangial dense deposits and reticular aggregates, similar to the nephropathy associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in humans. Evidence that the glomerular lesions may be viral-induced raises the possibility of similar pathogenetic mechanisms in human disease. PMID:677265

  13. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses. PMID:10945301

  14. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    PubMed

    Aranyos, Alek M; Roff, Shannon R; Pu, Ruiyu; Owen, Jennifer L; Coleman, James K; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2016-03-14

    The importance of vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in conferring protection with prototype and commercial FIV vaccines is still unclear. Current studies performed adoptive transfer of T cells from prototype FIV-vaccinated cats to partial-to-complete feline leukocyte antigen (FLA)-matched cats a day before either homologous FIVPet or heterologous-subtype pathogenic FIVFC1 challenge. Adoptive-transfer (A-T) conferred a protection rate of 87% (13 of 15, p < 0.001) against FIVPet using the FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 12 control cats were unprotected. Furthermore, A-T conferred protection rate of 50% (6 of 12, p<0.023) against FIVFC1 using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 8 control cats were unprotected. Transfer of FLA-matched T and B cells demonstrated that T cells are needed to confer A-T protection. In addition, complete FLA-matching and addition of T-cell numbers > 13 × 10(6) cells were required for A-T protection against FIVFC1 strain, reported to be a highly pathogenic virus resistant to vaccine-induced neutralizing-antibodies. The addition of FLA-matched B cells alone was not protective. The poor quality of the anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by the vaccine likely contributed to the lack of protection in an FLA-matched recipient against FIVFC1. The quality of the immune response was determined by the presence of high mRNA levels of cytolysin (perforin) and cytotoxins (granzymes A, B, and H) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFNγ] and IL2). Increased cytokine, cytolysin and cytotoxin production was detected in the donors which conferred protection in A-T studies. In addition, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and/or IFNγ responses to FIV p24 and reverse transcriptase increased with each year in cats receiving 1X-3X vaccine boosts over 4 years. These studies demonstrate that anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by vaccination with a dual-subtype FIV vaccine is essential for prophylactic protection against AIDS lentiviruses such as FIV and

  15. Diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats using saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that two immunochromatography point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) were able to correctly assign FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using whole blood as the diagnostic specimen. A third FIV antibody test kit, SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo (an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), was unable to differentiate antibodies produced in response to FIV vaccination from those incited by FIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if saliva is a suitable diagnostic specimen using the same well characterized feline cohort. FIV infection status of these cats had been determined previously using a combination of serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and virus isolation. This final assignment was then compared to results obtained using saliva as the diagnostic specimen utilizing the same three point-of-care FIV antibody test kits and commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR). In a population of cats where one third (117/356; 33%) were FIV-vaccinated, both immunochromatography test kits accurately diagnosed FIV infection using saliva via a centrifugation method, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. For FIV diagnosis using saliva, the specificity of Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness FeLV/FIV was 100%, while the sensitivity of these kits was 96% and 92% respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo had a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 44%, while FIV RealPCR testing had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 72% using saliva. A revised direct method of saliva testing was trialed on a subset of FIV-infected cats (n=14), resulting in 14, 7 and 0 FIV positive results using Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV, Witness FeLV/FIV and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, respectively. These results demonstrate that saliva can be used to diagnose FIV infection, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using either a centrifugation method (Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness

  16. Detection of virus-specific RNA in simian sarcoma-leukemia virus-infected cells in in situ hybridization to viral complementary DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, S L; Gallo, R C; Miller, N R

    1979-01-01

    An in situ molecular hybridization system which will detect retrovirus RNA in the cytoplasm of individual virus-infected cells has been developed. The technique was applied to cells infected with simian sarcoma-leukemia virus, where the virus-specific RNA was detected by hybridization to simian sarcoma-leukemia virus 3H-labeled complementary DNA. The system is useful for detecting viral RNA-containing cells in the presence of an excess of virus-negative cells and for determining which type of cell in a heterogenous population is expressing viral RNA. Images PMID:224220

  17. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Barez, Pierre-Yves; Hamaidia, Malik; Gazon, Hélène; de Brogniez, Alix; Perike, Srikanth; Gillet, Nicolas; Willems, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. PMID:26198240

  18. X-ray structure and inhibition of the feline infectious peritonitis virus 3C-like protease: Structural implications for drug design.

    PubMed

    St John, Sarah E; Therkelsen, Matthew D; Nyalapatla, Prasanth R; Osswald, Heather L; Ghosh, Arun K; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-11-15

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a deadly disease that effects both domestic and wild cats and is caused by a mutation in feline coronavirus (FCoV) that allows the virus to replicate in macrophages. Currently, there are no treatments or vaccines available for the treatment of FIP even though it kills approximately 5% of cats in multi-cat households per year. In an effort to develop small molecule drugs targeting FIP for the treatment of cats, we screened a small set of designed peptidomimetic inhibitors for inhibition of FIPV-3CL(pro), identifying two compounds with low to sub-micromolar inhibition, compound 6 (IC50=0.59±0.06 μM) and compound 7 (IC50=1.3±0.1 μM). We determined the first X-ray crystal structure of FIPV-3CL(pro) in complex with the best inhibitor identified, compound 6, to a resolution of 2.10 Å to better understand the structural basis for inhibitor specificity. Our study provides important insights into the structural requirements for the inhibition of FIPV-3CL(pro) by peptidomimetic inhibitors and expands the current structural knowledge of coronaviral 3CL(pro) architecture. PMID:26592814

  19. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL), therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate that mucosal immune

  20. Relevance of feline interferon omega for clinical improvement and reduction of concurrent viral excretion in retrovirus infected cats from a rescue shelter.

    PubMed

    Gil, Solange; Leal, Rodolfo O; Duarte, Ana; McGahie, David; Sepúlveda, Nuno; Siborro, Inês; Cravo, Joana; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Tavares, Luís M

    2013-06-01

    Feline Immnunodeficiency (FIV) and Feline Leukemia (FeLV) viruses are common infectious agents in stray cats and shelter environments. Recombinant feline interferon-ω (rFeIFNω) has shown an antiviral action not only against FIV and FeLV but also against herpesvirus (FHV-1) and calicivirus (FCV). Sixteen naturally infected FIV/FeLV cats were followed during rFeIFNω therapy in order to monitor clinical signs and to correlate with excretion of concomitant viruses (FCV, FHV-1, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and parvovirus (FPV)). Cats were submitted to clinical evaluations and concomitant virus excretion assessement. Comparing D0-D65, 10/16 cats improved clinical scores. Of the 10 cats positive for FHV-1 on D0, 4 were negative and 6 reduced viral loads. Of the 11 FCoV positive cats, 9 reduced viral loads. The 13 FCV positive cats and the FPV positive cat were negative on D65. In conclusion, rFeIFNω improves clinical signs and reduces concurrent viral excretion in naturally infected retroviral cats. PMID:23122808

  1. Genomic complexities of murine leukemia and sarcoma, reticuloendotheliosis, and visna viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Beemon, K L; Faras, A J; Hasse, A T; Duesberg, P H; Maisel, J E

    1976-01-01

    The genetic complexities of several ribodeoxyviruses were measured by quantitative analysis of unique RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides from 60-70S viral RNAs. Moloney murine leukemia virus was found to have an RNA complexity of 3.5 x 10(6) daltons, whereas Moloney murine sarcoma virus had a significantly smaller genome size of 2.3 x 10(6). Reticuleondotheliosis and visna virus RNAs had complexities of 3.9 x 10(6), respectively. Analysis of RNase A-resistant oligonucleotides of Rous sarcoma virus RNA gave a complexity of 3.6 x 10(6), similar to that previously obtained with RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides. Since each of these viruses was found to have a unique sequence genomic complexity near the molecular weight of a single 30-40S viral RNA subunit, it was concluded that ribodeoxyvirus genomes are at least largely polyploid. Images PMID:176429

  2. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  3. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals (e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice) or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan (Cy)), cortisone, and /sup 89/Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease.

  4. Generation of mink cell focus-forming viruses by Friend murine leukemia virus: recombination with specific endogenous proviral sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1984-01-01

    A family of recombinant mink cell focus-forming viruses (MCF) was derived by inoculation of NFS mice with a Friend murine leukemia virus, and their genomes were analyzed by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide fingerprinting. The viruses were obtained from the thymuses and spleens of preleukemic and leukemic animals and were evaluated for dualtropism and oncogenicity. All these isolates induced cytopathic foci on mink cells but could be classified into two groups based on their relative infectivities for SC-1 (mouse) or mink (ATCC CCL64) cells. One group of Friend MCFs (F-MCFs) (group I) exhibited approximately equal infectivities for SC-1 and mink cells, whereas a second group (group II) infected mink cells 1,000- to 10,000-fold more efficiently than SC-1 cells. Structural analyses of the F-MCFs revealed that group I and group II viruses correlated with recombination of Friend murine leukemia virus with two distinct, but closely related, endogenous NFS proviral sequences. No correlation was found between the type of F-MCF and the tissue of origin or the disease state of the animal. Furthermore, none of the F-MCF isolates were found to be oncogenic in NFS/N or AKR/J mice. F-MCFs of both groups underwent extensive substitution of ecotropic sequences, involving much of the gag and env genes of group I F-MCFs and most of the gag, pol, and env genes of group II F-MCFs. All F-MCF isolates retained the 3' terminal U3 region of Friend murine leukemia virus. Comparison of the RNAs of the F-MCFs with RNAs of MCFs derived from NFS.Akv-1 or NFS.Akv-2 mice indicated that the F-MCFs were derived from NFS proviral sequences which are distinct from the sequences contained in NFS.Akv MCF isolates. This result suggested that recombination with particular endogenous proviral sequences to generate MCFs may be highly specific for a given murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:6422051

  5. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  6. Quantitation, in vitro propagation, and characterization of preleukemic cells induced by radiation leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Yefenof, E.; Epszteyn, S.; Kotler, M. )

    1991-04-15

    Intrathymic (i.t.) inoculation of radiation leukemia virus into C57BL/6 mice induces a population of preleukemic (PL) cells that can progress into mature thymic lymphomas upon transfer into syngeneic recipients. A minimum of 10(3) PL thymic cells are required to induce lymphomas in the recipient. Most of the individual lymphomas developed in mice which were inoculated with cells of a single PL thymus, derived from different T-cell precursors. PL thymic cells could be grown in vitro on a feeder layer consisting of splenic stromal cells. Growth medium was supplemented with supernatant harvested from an established radiation leukemia virus-induced lymphoma cell line (SR4). The in vitro-grown PL cells were characterized as Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8- T-cells, most of which expressed radiation leukemia virus antigens. Cultured PL cells were found to be nontumorigenic, based on their inability to form s.c. tumors. However, these cells could develop into thymic lymphomas if inoculated i.t. into syngeneic recipients. A culture of PL cells, maintained for 2 mo, showed clonal T-cell receptor arrangement. Lymphomas which developed in several recipient mice upon injection with these PL cells were found to possess the same T-cell receptor arrangement. These results indicate that PL cells can be adapted for in vitro growth while maintaining their preleukemic character.

  7. Detection of bovine leukemia virus and identification of its genotype in Mongolian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Nishimori, Asami; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is globally distributed. However, no information regarding the disease and genetic diversity of the virus in the cattle of Mongolia is currently available. In this study, the prevalence of BLV was assessed using PCR, and the genetic diversity was analyzed through DNA sequencing. Of the 517 samples tested, 20 positives were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six, one, and four isolates were classified into genotype 4, 7, and 1, respectively. Most isolates were clustered with isolates from Eastern Europe and Russia. This study is the first to investigate the BLV genotype in Mongolia. PMID:26711456

  8. Purification of the Moloney and Rauscher Murine Leukemia Viruses by Use of Zonal Ultracentrifuge Systems

    PubMed Central

    Toplin, I.

    1967-01-01

    The B-IV and B-IX zonal ultracentrifuge rotors were applied to the concentration and purification of the Moloney and Rauscher murine leukemia viruses from large volumes of infected tissue culture fluids and animal materials. Potassium tartrate, potassium citrate and sucrose gradients were used to obtain viral concentrates from the density 1.16 to 1.18 zone. Proteolytic enzyme digestion of tissue culture preparations prior to zonal ultracentrifuge processing was effective in releasing virus from cell debris and producing highly purified, though nonleukemogenic, viral concentrates. Infected Rauscher mouse plasma was processed to give highly purified infectious virus fractions. A single centrifugation of crude Rauscher mouse spleen homogenates resulted in partially purified infectious concentrates with high virus particle counts. Images Fig. 4 PMID:6035050

  9. Preclinical activity of the novel B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 inhibitor PTC-209 in acute myeloid leukemia: Implications for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yuki; Maeda, Aya; Chachad, Dhruv; Ishizawa, Jo; Qiu, Yi Hua; Kornblau, Steven M; Kimura, Shinya; Andreeff, Michael; Kojima, Kensuke

    2015-12-01

    Curing patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. The polycomb complex protein B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI-1) is required for the self-renewal and maintenance of leukemia stem cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of BMI-1 in AML and the effects of a novel small molecule selective inhibitor of BMI-1, PTC-209. BMI-1 protein expression was determined in 511 newly diagnosed AML patients together with 207 other proteins using reverse-phase protein array technology. Patients with unfavorable cytogenetics according to Southwest Oncology Group criteria had higher levels of BMI-1 compared to those with favorable (P = 0.0006) or intermediate cytogenetics (P = 0.0061), and patients with higher levels of BMI-1 had worse overall survival (55.3 weeks vs. 42.8 weeks, P = 0.046). Treatment with PTC-209 reduced protein level of BMI-1 and its downstream target mono-ubiquitinated histone H2A and triggered several molecular events consistent with the induction of apoptosis, this is, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 cleavage, BAX activation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. PTC-209 induced apoptosis in patient-derived CD34(+)CD38(low/-) AML cells and, less prominently, in CD34(-) differentiated AML cells. BMI-1 reduction by PTC-209 directly correlated with apoptosis induction in CD34(+) primary AML cells (r = 0.71, P = 0.022). However, basal BMI-1 expression was not a determinant of AML sensitivity. BMI-1 inhibition, which targets a primitive AML cell population, might offer a novel therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:26450753

  10. Characterization of the stage(s) in the virus replication cycle at which the host-cell specificity of the feline parvovirus subgroup is regulated in canine cells.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, M; Ishiguro, N; Goto, H; Shinagawa, M

    1992-08-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV), mink enteritis virus (MEV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) are classified as a host-range variants. They show different host-range specificity in vivo and host-cell specificity in vitro. For instance, FPLV and MEV cannot grow or can grow only inefficiently in canine cell lines such as MDCK and the canine fibroma cell line A72. Here we have studied the mechanism(s) by which the different cell tropism is mediated in vitro. When FPLV or MEV was inoculated to A72 cells, viral DNA replicated slightly, few viral-antigen-positive cells were detected, and the culture fluid contained the threshold level of infectivity. On the other hand, when an infectious molecular clone of MEV (pMEV) was introduced into A72 cells, viral DNA replicated efficiently, and the culture fluid of pMEV-transfected cells contained much higher infectivities than that of MEV-infected cells. In spite of the restrictive growth in A72 cells, MEV could bind to A72 cells as efficiently as CPV. No detectable viral RNA was produced in MEV-infected A72 cells. In contrast, efficient viral transcription occurred in pMEV-transfected A72 cells. These results suggest that the restrictive infections of MEV and FPLV in A72 cells are not mediated by the attachment of the virus to the cells or by the events occurring after the viral transcription. It appears to be caused by the stage(s) in the virus replication cycle, which exists between a postadsorptional step required for virus penetration and the initiation of viral transcription. PMID:1322591

  11. Importance of the short cytoplasmic domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein for fusion activity and envelope glycoprotein incorporation into virions

    SciTech Connect

    Celma, Cristina C.P.; Paladino, Monica G.; Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Affranchino, Jose L.

    2007-09-30

    The mature form of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein of lentiviruses is a heterodimer composed of the surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) possesses a TM glycoprotein with a cytoplasmic tail of approximately 53 amino acids which is unusually short compared with that of the other lentiviral glycoproteins (more than 100 residues). To investigate the relevance of the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain to Env-mediated viral functions, we characterized the biological properties of a series of Env glycoproteins progressively shortened from the carboxyl terminus. All the mutant Env proteins were efficiently expressed in feline cells and processed into the SU and TM subunits. Deletion of 5 or 11 amino acids from the TM C-terminus did not significantly affect Env surface expression, fusogenic activity or Env incorporation into virions, whereas removal of 17 or 23 residues impaired Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Further truncation of the FIV TM by 29 residues resulted in an Env glycoprotein that was poorly expressed at the cell surface, exhibited only 20% of the wild-type Env fusogenic capacity and was inefficiently incorporated into virions. Remarkably, deletion of the TM C-terminal 35 or 41 amino acids restored or even enhanced Env biological functions. Indeed, these mutant Env glycoproteins bearing cytoplasmic domains of 18 or 12 amino acids were found to be significantly more fusogenic than the wild-type Env and were efficiently incorporated into virions. Interestingly, truncation of the TM cytoplasmic domain to only 6 amino acids did not affect Env incorporation into virions but abrogated Env fusogenicity. Finally, removal of the entire TM cytoplasmic tail or deletion of as many as 6 amino acids into the membrane-spanning domain led to a complete loss of Env functions. Our results demonstrate that despite its relatively short length, the FIV TM cytoplasmic domain plays an important role in modulating Env-mediated viral functions.

  12. Capsid is an important determinant for functional complementation of murine leukemia virus and spleen necrosis virus Gag proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Boyko, Vitaly; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2007-04-10

    In this report, we examined the abilities and requirements of heterologous Gag proteins to functionally complement each other to support viral replication. Two distantly related gammaretroviruses, murine leukemia virus (MLV) and spleen necrosis virus (SNV), were used as a model system because SNV proteins can support MLV vector replication. Using chimeric or mutant Gag proteins that could not efficiently support MLV vector replication, we determined that a homologous capsid (CA) domain was necessary for the functional complementation of MLV and SNV Gag proteins. Findings from the bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay revealed that MLV and SNV Gag proteins were capable of colocalizing and interacting in cells. Taken together, our results indicated that MLV and SNV Gag proteins can interact in cells; however, a homologous CA domain is needed for functional complementation of MLV and SNV Gag proteins to complete virus replication. This requirement of homologous Gag most likely occurs at a postassembly step(s) of the viral replication. PMID:17156810

  13. Identification of novel subgroup A variants with enhanced receptor binding and replicative capacity in primary isolates of anaemogenic strains of feline leukaemia virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of anaemia in feline leukaemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats is associated with the emergence of a novel viral subgroup, FeLV-C. FeLV-C arises from the subgroup that is transmitted, FeLV-A, through alterations in the amino acid sequence of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the envelope glycoprotein that result in a shift in the receptor usage and the cell tropism of the virus. The factors that influence the transition from subgroup A to subgroup C remain unclear, one possibility is that a selective pressure in the host drives the acquisition of mutations in the RBD, creating A/C intermediates with enhanced abilities to interact with the FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR. In order to understand further the emergence of FeLV-C in the infected cat, we examined primary isolates of FeLV-C for evidence of FeLV-A variants that bore mutations consistent with a gradual evolution from FeLV-A to FeLV-C. Results Within each isolate of FeLV-C, we identified variants that were ostensibly subgroup A by nucleic acid sequence comparisons, but which bore mutations in the RBD. One such mutation, N91D, was present in multiple isolates and when engineered into a molecular clone of the prototypic FeLV-A (Glasgow-1), enhanced replication was noted in feline cells. Expression of the N91D Env on murine leukaemia virus (MLV) pseudotypes enhanced viral entry mediated by the FeLV-A receptor THTR1 while soluble FeLV-A Env bearing the N91D mutation bound more efficiently to mouse or guinea pig cells bearing the FeLV-A and -C receptors. Long-term in vitro culture of variants bearing the N91D substitution in the presence of anti-FeLV gp70 antibodies did not result in the emergence of FeLV-C variants, suggesting that additional selective pressures in the infected cat may drive the subsequent evolution from subgroup A to subgroup C. Conclusions Our data support a model in which variants of FeLV-A, bearing subtle differences in the RBD of Env, may be predisposed towards enhanced

  14. In vitro transmission and propagation of the bovine leukemia virus in monolayer cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Graves, D C; Ferrer, J F

    1976-11-01

    This study demonstrates that the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) can infect in vitro cells of human, simian, bovine, canine, caprine, ovine, and bat origin. Cultures of these cells, cocultivated with BLV-infected cells or inoculated with cell-free BLV preparations, continuoously showed the presence of cells with the internal BLV antigen as well as BLV-induced syncytia. Virus replication was abundant and increased with passage in bat lung cells and was moderate but constant in fetal canine thymus cells. The amounts of virus released by the simian DBS-FRhL-1 and caprine S-743 cultures were low to moderate during the first 4 to 8 weeks and decreased thereafter. In the infected fetal lamb spleen cell cultures, virus production was low and declined further with passage. Bovine embryonic spleen and human diploid embryonic lung WI-38 cell cultures produced very small amounts of virus only during the first two passages after inoculation despite the fact that they remained infected, as determined by the continuous presence of cell BLV antigen and syncytia. Morphologically and antigenically, the virus particles released by the monolayer cell cultures were indistinguishable from those found in short-term and long-term cultures of BLV-infected bovine lymphoid cells. Repeated electron microscopic examinations and serological tests showed that all the BLV-infected cultures, including those from which the infecting inocula were obtained, were free of the foamy-like bovine syncytial virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and the maedi-like bovine R-29 virus. PMID:61801

  15. AIDS Vaccination Studies with an Ex Vivo Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model: Analysis of the Accessory ORF-A Protein and DNA as Protective Immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Pistello, Mauro; Bonci, Francesca; Flynn, J. Norman; Mazzetti, Paola; Isola, Patrizia; Zabogli, Elisa; Camerini, Valentina; Matteucci, Donatella; Freer, Giulia; Pelosi, Paolo; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Determining which antigen must be included in AIDS vaccines to confer maximum protection is of utmost importance. In primate models, vaccines consisting of or including accessory viral proteins have yielded conflicting results. We investigated the protective potential of the accessory protein ORF-A of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in cats. All three immunization strategies used (protein alone in alum adjuvant, DNA alone, or DNA prime-protein boost) clearly generated detectable immune responses. Upon challenge with ex vivo homologous FIV, ORF-A-immunized cats showed distinct enhancement of acute-phase infection relative to mock-immunized animals given alum or empty vector DNA. This effect was tentatively attributed to increased expression of the FIV receptor CD134 that was observed in the immunized cats. However, at subsequent sampling points that were continued for up to 10 months postchallenge, the average plasma viral loads of the ORF-A-immunized animals were slightly but consistently reduced relative to those of the control animals. In addition, CD4+ T lymphocytes in the circulation system declined more slowly in immunized animals than in control animals. These findings support the contention that immunization with lentiviral accessory proteins can improve the host's ability to control virus replication and slow down disease progression but also draw attention to the fact that even simple immunogens that eventually contribute to protective activity can transiently exacerbate subsequent lentiviral infections. PMID:16940498

  16. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV.

  17. Short communication: Relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibody and provirus in blood and milk of cows from a naturally infected herd.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Juan P; Porta, Natalia G; Gutierrez, Geronimo; Politzki, Romina P; Álvarez, Irene; Galarza, Roxana; Abdala, Alejandro; Calvinho, Luis; Trono, Karina G

    2016-07-01

    We explored the relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibodies and provirus load during natural infection. For that purpose, a set of 50 blood and milk paired samples were analyzed for the presence of bovine leukemia virus provirus and antibodies. Additionally, provirus load and antibody titers were measured and the relationship between these variables was investigated. Bovine leukemia provirus was detected in 59% of milk samples and a negative correlation was observed between the level of milk provirus load and milk antibody titers. By the consumption of raw milk, calves might be exposed to bovine leukemia virus favoring the perinatal transmission of this disease. PMID:27132093

  18. Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Bovine Leukemia Virus: Lessons for HTLV

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  19. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for bovine leukemia virus: lessons for HTLV.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-07-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  20. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  1. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  2. Efficient Expression and Rapid Purification of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Y. Shirley; Owen, Sherry M.; Lal, Renu B.; Ikeda, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncovirus that is clinically associated with adult T-cell leukemia. We report here the construction of a pET19-based expression clone containing HTLV-1 protease fused to a decahistidine-containing leader peptide. The recombinant protein is efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, and the fusion protein can be easily purified by affinity chromatography. Active mature protease in yields in excess of 3 mg/liter of culture can then be obtained by a novel two-step refolding and autoprocessing procedure. The purified enzyme exhibited Km and Kcat values of 0.3 mM and 0.143 sec−1 at pH 5.3 and was inhibited by pepstatin A. PMID:9525666

  3. Infectious complications of human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I infection.

    PubMed

    Marsh, B J

    1996-07-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) has been etiologically associated with two diseases: adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Increasing evidence suggests that HTLV-I infection may be associated with immunosuppression and, as a consequence, affect the risk and expression of several other infectious diseases, of which the best studied are strongyloidiasis, tuberculosis, and leprosy. In strongyloidiasis, coinfection with HTLV-I appears to result in a higher rate of chronic carriage, an increased parasite load, and a risk of more severe infection. In tuberculosis, a decrease in delayed-type hypersensitivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been established, but whether this decrease is clinically significant has yet to be determined. In leprosy, an increased risk of disease is suggested, but the published studies are all too poorly controlled to draw definite conclusions. PMID:8816143

  4. Design, fabrication, and characterization of polymeric bioMEMS for the detection of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Brian; Gadre, Anand; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    2007-02-01

    This project comprises the development of a novel polymeric BioMEMS device capable of rapidly detecting FIV in a minimally invasive manner. FIV severely inhibits the infected feline from mounting an immune response, and causes susceptibility to other types of diseases. Vaccines against FIV do exist, but have some strong limitations to their effectiveness; so early detection is the best method to combat the spread of the disease. Current testing methods look for antibodies to the FIV protein p24 in feline blood using established Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) protocols. The focus of this research is to design and construct a device that can detect antibodies to p24 in a salivary sample by non-intrusive electrochemical means. The device is constructed upon a silicon substrate with gold microelectrodes coated with polypyrrole (PPy), an electrically conducting and biocompatible polymer. In the current phase of the research, the PPy deposition process has been optimized with regards to film thickness, uniformity and conductivity. Microfluidic channels have been fabricated using SU-8, an epoxy based polymer that enables the test sample and other solutions to pass freely through the device. The PPy will be coated with anti-FIV p24 antibodies that can capture FIV p24 antigens present in a salivary sample. Future research will involve the analysis of PPy/antibody interaction and its effect on functionality. The capture of such antigens will interfere with a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in a subsequently added ionic solution. This interference will change the characteristic resistance of the solution yielding a qualitative test for the presence of the viral antigens in the sample and hence determining the occurrence of infection.

  5. Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Jang, Y J; Kanki, P J; Yu, Q C; Wang, J J; Montali, R J; Samuel, K P; Papas, T S

    1994-01-01

    Since the description of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and its simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised. Here, we report a new retrovirus, STLV-II, which we have identified in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps), a New World primate species. Initially, a recombinant HTLV-II envelope protein (RP-IIB) was used to identify anti-STLV-II antibodies in New World monkeys by Western blot (immunoblot) assays. Subsequently, the virus was characterized by Southern blot hybridization, which showed that STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but have different restriction enzyme patterns. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX-II region of STLV-II provirus revealed 3% variation with the corresponding region of HTLV-II. Electron micrographic studies revealed HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells. This study describes the first link between HTLV-II and a simian reservoir in the New World. Further molecular studies of STLV-II infection in different species of New World monkeys, especially from the wild, may provide valuable information about the origin and intragroup relationships of South American monkeys. Spider monkeys infected with STLV-II may serve as an important animal model for HTLV-II infection in humans. Images PMID:7507178

  6. Pseudotypes of human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2: neutralization by patients' sera.

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, P; Nagy, K; Weiss, R A

    1984-01-01

    Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) bearing envelope antigens of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 were prepared by propagating VSV in cells lines productively infected with HTLV. Plaque assays of VSV (HTLV) pseudotypes were employed to determine the presence of (i) HTLV receptors on cells and (ii) neutralizing antibodies in the serum of patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL). Cell surface receptors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were found on nonlymphoid cells of human and mammalian origin. Neutralizing antibodies specific to VSV(HTLV-1) were found in sera of ATLL patients in titers varying from 1:50 to 1:30,000 and did not correlate closely with antibody titers for internal viral antigens. Sera from ATLL patients in the United Kingdom (Caribbean immigrants), United States, and Japan completely neutralized VSV (HTLV-1), indicating that the HTLV isolates from these distinct geographic regions represent a single envelope serotype. Neutralization of VSV (HTLV-1) was more specific and more sensitive than assays of syncytium inhibition. No cross-neutralization was observed between bovine leukosis virus and HTLV, and only limited cross-reaction was found for envelope antigens of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. These studies show that VSV (HTLV) pseudotypes can be readily used to screen for neutralizing antibodies in patients' sera and to distinguish HTLV envelope serotypes. PMID:6326149

  7. Viral genome RNA serves as messenger early in the infectious cycle of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shurtz, R; Dolev, S; Aboud, M; Salzberg, S

    1979-01-01

    When NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were infected with the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus, part of the viral genome RNA molecules were detected in polyribosomes of the infected cells early in the infectious cycle. The binding appears to be specific, since we could demonstrate the release of viral RNA from polyribosomes with EDTA. Moreover, when infection occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, most viral RNA molecules were detected in the free cytoplasm. Size analysis on polyribosomal viral RNA molecules indicated that two size class molecules, 38S and 23S, are present in polyribosomes at 3 h after infection. Analysis of the polyriboadenylate [poly(rA)] content of viral RNA extracted from infected polyribosomes demonstrated that such molecules bind with greatest abundance at 3 h after infection, as has been detected with total viral RNA. No molecules lacking poly(rA) stretches could be detected in polyribosomes. Furthermore, when a similar analysis was performed on unbound molecules present in the free cytoplasm, identical results were obtained. We conclude that no selection towards poly(rA)-containing viral molecules is evident on binding to polyribosomes. These findings suggest that the incoming viral genome of the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus may serve as a messenger for the synthesis of one or more virus-specific proteins early after infection of mouse fibroblasts. PMID:117118

  8. A retrospective clinical and epidemiological study on feline coronavirus (FCoV) in cats in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tekelioglu, B K; Berriatua, E; Turan, N; Helps, C R; Kocak, M; Yilmaz, H

    2015-04-01

    The presence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), together with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen was investigated in 169 ill household and stray cats attending a veterinary surgery in Istanbul in 2009-14. The estimated FCoV and FIV seroprevalence (95% confidence intervals) were 37% (30-45%) and 11% (6-16%), respectively and FeLV prevalence was 1% (0-3%). FCoV seroprevalence increased until 2 years of age, was highest in 2014 and among household cats living with other cats and with outdoor access, and was lower in FIV seropositive compared to seronegative cats. Symptoms typically associated with wet feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) including ascites, abdominal distention or pleural effusion, coupled in many cases with non-antibiotic responsive fever, were observed in 19% (32/169) of cats, and 75% (24/32) of these cats were FCoV seropositive. FCoV seropositivity was also associated with a high white blood cell count, high plasma globulin, low plasma albumin and low blood urea nitrogen. The percentage of FCoV seropositive and seronegative cats that died in spite of supportive veterinary treatment was 33% (21/63) and 12% (13/106), respectively. These results indicate that FCoV is widespread and has a severe clinical impact in cats from Istanbul. Moreover, the incidence of FCoV infections could be rising, and in the absence of effective vaccination cat owners need to be made aware of ways to minimize the spread of this virus. PMID:25687627

  9. Feline dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Practical relevance: Dermatophytosis (ringworm) is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats that, depending on the geographic region and practice caseload, may be encountered uncommonly through to commonly. This is a self-curing disease in an immunocompetent cat. Global importance: Dermatophytosis is prevalent worldwide and is one of a number of zoonotic skin diseases that cat owners are at risk of contracting. Clinical challenges: Dermatophytosis causes non-specific signs of hair loss, erythema and scaling, making it a differential diagnosis for many skin diseases of cats. The fact that this disease is infectious and contagious, and does not have any one classic clinical presentation, makes knowledge of diagnostic tools important in detection. The veterinarian’s role is in early disease recognition and institution of appropriate therapy to hasten resolution of the disease. Aim: The focus of this article is to provide an update and review of the most pertinent aspects that may be helpful in the management of dermatophytosis in any single or multiple cat situation. Evidence base: Where appropriate, evidence from the literature is used to supplement a summary of the author’s clinical experience and research in feline dermatophytosis. PMID:24794038

  10. Fatal course of an autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection in a patient with leukemia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, S; Frickmann, H; Gabriel, M; Schmitz, N; Günther, S; Schmidt-Chanasit, J

    2012-08-01

    An acute infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 subtype c was diagnosed in a patient with chronic lymphatic B-cell leukemia 6 weeks after the infusion of donor lymphocytes. Despite intensive care the patient died 39 days after admission due to pericardial effusion that was related to acute liver failure. We suggest that diagnostic procedures for detection of HEV infection should be seriously considered for the immunocompromised patient with elevated liver enzymes in the absence of a travel history to HEV endemic countries. PMID:22086667

  11. Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas; Florins, Arnaud; Boxus, Mathieu; Burteau, Catherine; Nigro, Annamaria; Vandermeers, Fabian; Balon, Hervé; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Defoiche, Julien; Burny, Arsène; Reichert, Michal; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2007-01-01

    In 1871, the observation of yellowish nodules in the enlarged spleen of a cow was considered to be the first reported case of bovine leukemia. The etiological agent of this lymphoproliferative disease, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), belongs to the deltaretrovirus genus which also includes the related human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This review summarizes current knowledge of this viral system, which is important as a model for leukemogenesis. Recently, the BLV model has also cast light onto novel prospects for therapies of HTLV induced diseases, for which no satisfactory treatment exists so far. PMID:17362524

  12. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  13. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Köhler, K; Leukert, W; Reinacher, M

    2001-01-01

    Lymphatic tissues (spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus) from 24 cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cellularity, cellular composition, and degree of cellular turnover. Additionally, the formation of granulomatous lesions in lymphatic tissues in cats with FIP was examined. For comparison, tissues from 14 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats and seven cats infected with FIP virus (FIPV; as the result of long-term exposure) but free from FIP were examined. In cats with FIP, the precardial mediastinum (including site of the thymus) and mesenteric lymph node parenchyma were often affected by granulomatous-necrotizing processes. In general, lymphoid tissues showed T- and B-cell depletion, often including massive to complete thymic involution or atrophy. In some cases, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes was increased in lymphoid follicles as well as in T-cell zones. The number of macrophages was increased in the splenic red pulp. In contrast, the FIPV-exposed cats without FIP generally showed a distinct lymphoid hyperplasia. The findings indicated that the major difference in lymphatic tissues between FIPV-infected cats with FIP and those without FIP was the development of lymphocyte depletion in the first group and lymphocyte proliferation in the second. PMID:11578135

  14. Refrex-1, a Soluble Restriction Factor against Feline Endogenous and Exogenous Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jumpei; Watanabe, Shinya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Odahara, Yuka; Ochi, Haruyo; Kawamura, Maki

    2013-01-01

    The host defense against viral infection is acquired during the coevolution or symbiosis of the host and pathogen. Several cellular factors that restrict retroviral infection have been identified in the hosts. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is classified into several receptor interference groups, including a novel FeLV-subgroup D (FeLV-D) that we recently identified. FeLV-D is generated by transduction of the env gene of feline endogenous gammaretrovirus of the domestic cat (ERV-DCs) into FeLV. Some ERV-DCs are replication competent viruses which are present and hereditary in cats. We report here the determination of new viral receptor interference groups and the discovery of a soluble antiretroviral factor, termed Refrex-1. Detailed analysis of FeLV-D strains and ERV-DCs showed two receptor interference groups that are distinct from other FeLV subgroups, and Refrex-1 specifically inhibited one of them. Refrex-1 is characterized as a truncated envelope protein of ERV-DC and includes the N-terminal region of surface unit, which is a putative receptor-binding domain, but lacks the transmembrane region. Refrex-1 is efficiently secreted from the cells and appears to cause receptor interference extracellularly. Two variants of Refrex-1 encoded by provirus loci, ERV-DC7 and DC16, are expressed in a broad range of feline tissues. The host retains Refrex-1 as an antiretroviral factor, which may potentially prevent reemergence of the ERVs and the emergence of novel ERV-related viruses in cats. Refrex-1 may have been acquired during endogenization of ERV-DCs and may play an important role in retroviral restriction and antiviral defense in cats. PMID:23966402

  15. Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper.

    PubMed

    Asper, M; Hanrieder, T; Quellmalz, A; Mihranyan, A

    2015-11-01

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26328471

  16. [Typing of cattle leukemia virus circulating in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Limanskiĭ, A P; Geue, L; Limanskaia, O Iu; Beier, D

    2004-01-01

    Bovine leucosis virus (BLV), circulating in the Ukrainian territory, was characterized through the definition of its subspecies affiliation. The pro-viral BLV DNA was isolated from peripheral-blood lymphocytes of naturally-HIV-infected black-variegate animals taken from leucosis-affected farms in the Kharkov Region. The env-gene fragment of pro-viral DNA was amplified, sequenced and analyzed after the amplicon had been treated by three restriction enzymes, i.e. BamH I, Bcl I and Pvu II. According to the analysis of restriction-fragments' length polymorphism, the Ukrainian BLV isolate can be classified as belonging to the Australian subspecies, i.e. to one of the 3 known subspecies. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the env-gene fragment of BLV isolates from the EMBL database showed that evolutionally the Ukrainian isolate is distantly located from the isolates' clusters of the Belgian, Japanese and Australian subspecie and has the biggest quantity (4) of non-coinciding nucleotides for the analyzed highly conservative locus of the BLV env-gene with a length of 444 pair of nucleotides. PMID:15017853

  17. Episodic Diversifying Selection Shaped the Genomes of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus and Related Gammaretroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Niccolò; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Roca, Alfred L.; Xu, Wenqin; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are part of a larger group of pathogenic gammaretroviruses present across phylogenetically diverse host species of Australasian mammals. Despite the biomedical utility of GALVs as viral vectors and in cancer gene therapy, full genome sequences have not been determined for all of the five identified GALV strains, nor has a comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed. We therefore generated complete genomic sequences for each GALV strain using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing. The four strains of GALV isolated from gibbons formed a monophyletic clade that was closely related to the woolly monkey virus (WMV), which is a GALV strain that likely originated in a gibbon host. The GALV-WMV clade in turn formed a sister group to the koala retroviruses (KoRVs). Genomic signatures of episodic diversifying selection were detected among the gammaretroviruses with concentration in the env gene across the GALV strains that were particularly oncogenic and KoRV strains that were potentially exogenous, likely reflecting their adaptation to the host immune system. In vitro studies involving vectors chimeric between GALV and KoRV-B established that variable regions A and B of the surface unit of the envelope determine which receptor is used by a viral strain to enter host cells. IMPORTANCE The gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are among the most medically relevant retroviruses due to their use as viral vectors for gene transfer and in cancer gene therapy. Despite their importance, full genome sequences have not been determined for the majority of primate isolates, nor has comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed, despite evidence that the viruses are facing complex selective pressures associated with cross-species transmission. Using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, we report here the full genome sequences of all the GALV strains and demonstrate that diversifying selection is

  18. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Kohji; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection. PMID:24530149

  19. Molecular Detection, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Identification of Transcription Motifs in Feline Leukemia Virus from Naturally Infected Cats in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Siti Suri; Hassan, Latiffah; Zakaria, Zunita

    2014-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to determine the viral RNA and proviral DNA status of naturally infected cats. Selected samples that were FeLV-positive by PCR were subjected to sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and motifs search. Of the 39 samples that were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 87.2% (34/39) were confirmed positive with nested PCR. FeLV proviral DNA was detected in 38 (97.3%) of p27-antigen negative samples. Malaysian FeLV isolates are found to be highly similar with a homology of 91% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Malaysian FeLV isolates divided into two clusters, with a majority (86.2%) sharing similarity with FeLV-K01803 and fewer isolates (13.8%) with FeLV-GM1 strain. Different enhancer motifs including NF-GMa, Krox-20/WT1I-del2, BAF1, AP-2, TBP, TFIIF-beta, TRF, and TFIID are found to occur either in single, duplicate, triplicate, or sets of 5 in different positions within the U3-LTR-gag region. The present result confirms the occurrence of FeLV viral RNA and provirus DNA in naturally infected cats. Malaysian FeLV isolates are highly similar, and a majority of them are closely related to a UK isolate. This study provides the first molecular based information on FeLV in Malaysia. Additionally, different enhancer motifs likely associated with FeLV related pathogenesis have been identified. PMID:25506469

  20. Receptor choice determinants in the envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Battini, J L; Heard, J M; Danos, O

    1992-01-01

    The envelope glycoproteins (SU) of mammalian type C retroviruses possess an amino-terminal domain of about 200 residues, which is involved in binding a cell surface receptor. In this domain, highly conserved amino acid sequences are interrupted by two segments of variable length and sequence, VRA and VRB. We have studied the role of these variable regions in receptor recognition and binding by constructing chimeric molecules in which portions of the amino-terminal domains from amphotropic (4070A), xenotropic (NZB), and polytropic (MCF 247) murine leukemia virus SU proteins were permuted. These chimeras, which exchanged either one or two variable regions, were expressed at the surface of replication-defective viral particles by a pseudotyping assay. Wild-type or recombinant env genes were transfected into a cell line producing Moloney murine leukemia virus particles devoid of envelope glycoproteins in which a retrovirus vector genome carrying an Escherichia coli lacZ gene was packaged. The host range and sensitivity to interference of pseudotyped virions were assayed, and we observed which permutations resulted in receptor switch or loss of function. Our results indicate that the determinants of receptor choice are found within the just 120 amino acids of SU proteins. Downstream sequences contribute to the stabilization of the receptor-specific structure. PMID:1310758

  1. Chemoresistance to Valproate Treatment of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Sheep; Identification of Improved HDAC Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vandermeers, Fabian; de Brogniez, Alix; Florins, Arnaud; Nigro, Annamaria; François, Carole; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Verlaeten, Olivier; Stern, Eric; Lambert, Didier M.; Wouters, Johan; Willems, Luc

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved that a histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproate, VPA) decreases the number of leukemic cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. Here, we characterize the mechanisms initiated upon interruption of treatment. We observed that VPA treatment is followed by a decrease of the B cell counts and proviral loads (copies per blood volume). However, all sheep eventually relapsed after different periods of time and became refractory to further VPA treatment. Sheep remained persistently infected with BLV. B lymphocytes isolated throughout treatment and relapse were responsive to VPA-induced apoptosis in cell culture. B cell proliferation is only marginally affected by VPA ex vivo. Interestingly, in four out of five sheep, ex vivo viral expression was nearly undetectable at the time of relapse. In two sheep, a new tumoral clone arose, most likely revealing a selection process exerted by VPA in vivo. We conclude that the interruption of VPA treatment leads to the resurgence of the leukemia in BLV-infected sheep and hypothesize that resistance to further treatment might be due to the failure of viral expression induction. The development of more potent HDAC inhibitors and/or the combination with other compounds can overcome chemoresistance. These observations in the BLV model may be important for therapies against the related Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. PMID:25436765

  2. Bovine leukemia virus-induced clinical signs and morphological changes of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Levkut, M; Lesník, F; Bálent, P; Zajac, V; Korim, P; Sláviková, K

    1997-01-01

    Fourteen three-month-old rabbits spontaneously-infected with the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 were inoculated intravenously with lymphocytes (Ly) from seropositive bovine leukemia virus infected cattle (Ly/BLV) or with fetal lamb kidney cells infected with bovine fetal leukemia (FLK/BLV). Thirteen rabbits were seropositive to BLV at least for a period of three months. Six rabbits died of pulmonary lesions. Chronic inflammatory lesions of encephalitozoonosis were found in six rabbits killed between 454 and 548 days of the observation period. Five animals bore subcutaneous granulomas. Immunohistochemically, E. cuniculi was demonstrated in the inflammatory lesions of rabbits studied. Control animals also spontaneously infected with E. cuniculi did not show clinical signs of encephalitozoonosis. Morphological changes were found incidentally in the form of small glial foci and focal interstitial nephritis in these animals. The combined action of BLV-E. cuniculi on the bodies of rabbits is proposed as a suitable model for the study of encephalitozoonosis in man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. PMID:9437837

  3. Potential role of natural killer cells in controlling tumorigenesis by human T-cell leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, G; Stewart, S A; Baird, S M; Lee, F; Feuer, R; Chen, I S

    1995-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a malignancy of T lymphocytes that is characterized by a long latency period after virus exposure. Intraperitoneal inoculation of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with HTLV-transformed cell lines and ATL tumor cells was employed to investigate the tumorigenic potential of HTLV type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells. In contrast to inoculation of ATL (RV-ATL) cells into SCID mice, which resulted in the formation of lymphomas, inoculation of HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-transformed cell lines (SLB-I and JLB-II cells, respectively) did not result in tumor formation. Immunosuppression of SCID mice, either by whole-body irradiation or by treatment with an antiserum, anti-asialo GM1 (alpha-AGM1), which transiently abrogates natural killer cell activity in vivo, was necessary to establish the growth of tumors derived from HTLV-transformed cell lines. PCR and flow cytometric studies reveal that HTLV-I-transformed cells are eliminated from the peritoneal cavities of inoculated mice by 3 days postinoculation; in contrast, RV-ATL cells persist and are detected until the mice succumb to lymphoma development. The differing behaviors of HTLV-infected cell lines and ATL tumor cells in SCID mice suggest that ATL cells have a higher tumorigenic potential in vivo than do HTLV-infected cell lines because of their ability to evade natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis. PMID:7815516

  4. Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Olivier; Bardy, Peter; Kearney, Daniel; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is endemic to central Australia among Indigenous Australians. However, virologic and clinical aspects of infection remain poorly understood. No attempt has been made to control transmission to indigenous children. We report 3 fatal cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Australo-Melanesian subtype c. PMID:24047544

  5. Murine leukemia virus-based Tat-inducible long terminal repeat replacement vectors: a new system for anti-human immunodeficiency virus gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Cannon, P M; Kim, N; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-11-01

    We have constructed new murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors (TIN vectors) which, following integration, contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 U3 and R sequences in place of the MLV U3 and R regions. This provides, for the first time, single transcriptional unit retroviral vectors under the control of Tat. TIN vectors have several advantages for anti-HIV gene therapy applications. PMID:8892960

  6. Murine leukemia virus-based Tat-inducible long terminal repeat replacement vectors: a new system for anti-human immunodeficiency virus gene therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, P M; Kim, N; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1996-01-01

    We have constructed new murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors (TIN vectors) which, following integration, contain human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 U3 and R sequences in place of the MLV U3 and R regions. This provides, for the first time, single transcriptional unit retroviral vectors under the control of Tat. TIN vectors have several advantages for anti-HIV gene therapy applications. PMID:8892960

  7. Effect of internal genomic sequences of the Moloney murine leukemia virus on replication

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, I.K.; Lobanova, A.B.; Voitenok, N.N.

    1995-11-01

    Construction and use of retrovirus vectors derived from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) are described. These vectors, designated minimal vectors, contain the left and right long terminal repeats (LTRs), a binding site for proline tRNA, a polypurine tract (PPT), and a dominant marker for selective introduction of vectors into a packaging cell line, but lack the internal sequences of the virus genome. The experiments showed that the minimal vectors can be replicated and that their titer was approximately 1500-fold lower than that of wild-type vectors. The minimal vectors were shown to contain all the cis-acting sequences necessary for correct reverse transcription. One infectious virion, like wild-type viruses, produced only one provirus. Unlike the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), {Psi}{sup +} and {Psi}{sup {minus}} genomes of MoMuLV did not compete for virion proteins in the {Psi}2 packaging cell line. When an insert was introduced into a central part of the LTR U5 region, the titer of the minimal vector remained the same, while the titer of the wild-type vector decreased approximately 40-fold. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; García, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity. However, very little information is available regarding the antiviral role of PML against RNA viruses. Dengue virus (DENV) is an RNA emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen affecting millions of individuals each year by causing severe and potentially fatal syndromes. Since no licensed antiviral drug against DENV infection is currently available, it is of great importance to understand the factors mediating intrinsic immunity that may lead to the development of new pharmacological agents that can boost their potency and thereby lead to treatments for this viral disease. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antiviral role of PML in DENV-2 A549 infected cells. PMID:25962098

  9. Infectious Entry by Amphotropic as well as Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Viruses Occurs through an Endocytic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Katen, Louis J.; Januszeski, Michael M.; Anderson, W. French; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Evans, Leonard H.

    2001-01-01

    Infectious entry of enveloped viruses is thought to proceed by one of two mechanisms. pH-dependent viruses enter the cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and are inhibited by transient treatment with agents that prevent acidification of vesicles in the endocytic pathway, while pH-independent viruses are not inhibited by such agents and are thought to enter the cell by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. Nearly all retroviruses, including amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, are classified as pH independent. However, ecotropic MuLV is considered to be a pH-dependent virus. We have examined the infectious entry of ecotropic and amphotropic MuLVs and found that they were equally inhibited by NH4Cl and bafilomycin A. These agents inhibited both viruses only partially over the course of the experiments. Agents that block the acidification of endocytic vesicles also arrest vesicular trafficking. Thus, partial inhibition of the MuLVs could be the result of virus inactivation during arrest in this pathway. In support of this contention, we found that that the loss of infectivity of the MuLVs during treatment of target cells with the drugs closely corresponded to the loss of activity due to spontaneous inactivation at 37°C in the same period of time. Furthermore, the drugs had no effect on the efficiency of infection under conditions in which the duration of infection was held to a very short period to minimize the effects of spontaneous inactivation. These results indicate that the infectious processes of both ecotropic and amphotropic MuLVs were arrested rather than aborted by transient treatment of the cells with the drugs. We also found that infectious viruses were efficiently internalized during treatment. This indicated that the arrest occurred in an intracellular compartment and that the infectious process of both the amphotropic and ecotropic MuLVs very likely involved endocytosis. An important aspect of this study

  10. Genetic heterogeneity in human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type II.

    PubMed Central

    Dube, D K; Sherman, M P; Saksena, N K; Bryz-Gornia, V; Mendelson, J; Love, J; Arnold, C B; Spicer, T; Dube, S; Glaser, J B

    1993-01-01

    DNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 different individuals infected with human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II) was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primer pair SK110/SK111. This primer pair is conserved among the pol genes of all primate T-cell lymphoma viruses (PTLV) and flanks a 140-bp fragment of DNA which, when used in comparative analyses, reflects the relative degree of diversity among PTLV genomes. Cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic comparisons of these amplified 140-bp pol fragments indicated that there are at least two distinct genetic substrains of HTLV-II in the Western Hemisphere. These data were confirmed for selected isolates by performing PCR, cloning, and sequencing with to 10 additional primer pair-probe sets specific for different regions throughout the PTLV genome. HTLV-II isolates from Seminole, Guaymi, and Tobas Indians belong in the new substrain of HTLV-II, while the prototype MoT isolate defines the original substrain. There was greater diversity among HTLV-II New World strains than among HTLV-I New World strains. In fact, the heterogeneity among HTLV-II strains from the Western Hemisphere was similar to that observed in HTLV-I and simian T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I isolates from around the world, including Japan, Africa, and Papua New Guinea. Given these geographic and anthropological considerations and assuming similar mutation rates and selective forces among the PTLV, these data suggest either that HTLV-II has existed for a long time in the indigenous Amerindian population or that HTLV-II isolates introduced into the New World were more heterogeneous than the HTLV-I strains introduced into the New World. PMID:8437209

  11. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Qualley, Dominic F. Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  12. Characterization of mouse cellular deoxyribonucleic acid homologous to Abelson murine leukemia virus-specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, B; Ozanne, B

    1981-01-01

    The genome of Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) consists of sequences derived from both BALB/c mouse deoxyribonucleic acid and the genome of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Using deoxyribonucleic acid linear intermediates as a source of retroviral deoxyribonucleic acid, we isolated a recombinant plasmid which contained 1.9 kilobases of the 3.5-kilobase mouse-derived sequences found in A-MuLV (A-MuLV-specific sequences). We used this clone, designated pSA-17, as a probe restriction enzyme and Southern blot analyses to examine the arrangement of homologous sequences in BALB/c deoxyribonucleic acid (endogenous Abelson sequences). The endogenous Abelson sequences within the mouse genome were interrupted by noncoding regions, suggesting that a rearrangement of the cell sequences was required to produce the sequence found in the virus. Endogenous Abelson sequences were arranged similarly in mice that were susceptible to A-MuLV tumors and in mice that were resistant to A-MuLV tumors. An examination of three BALB/c plasmacytomas and a BALB/c early B-cell tumor likewise revealed no alteration in the arrangement of the endogenous Abelson sequences. Homology to pSA-17 was also observed in deoxyribonucleic acids prepared from rat, hamster, chicken, and human cells. An isolate of A-MuLV which encoded a 160,000-dalton transforming protein (P160) contained 700 more base pairs of mouse sequences than the standard A-MuLV isolate, which encoded a 120,000-dalton transforming protein (P120). Images PMID:9279386

  13. Free and integrated recombinant murine leukemia virus DNAs appear in preleukemic thymuses of AKR/J mice.

    PubMed Central

    Herr, W; Gilbert, W

    1984-01-01

    We studied the appearance and structure of murine leukemia viral genomes in preleukemic AKR/J mice by Southern hybridization. Up to an average of one to two copies per thymocyte of unintegrated murine leukemia virus DNA appears in the thymuses of preleukemic mice beginning at 4 to 5 months of age and disappears in leukemic thymuses. The free viral genomes are absent in the spleens, livers, and brains of preleukemic mice. Using a series of ecotropic and nonecotropic murine leukemia virus hybridization probes, we showed that the unintegrated viral genomes are structurally analogous to those of recombinant mink cell focus-forming viruses that appear as proviruses in leukemic AKR thymocytes, suggesting that these free viral DNAs are the direct precursors to the leukemia-specific proviruses. The mosaic of ecotropic and nonecotropic sequences within these unintegrated viral DNAs varies from one preleukemic thymus to another but often appears structurally homogeneous within individual thymuses, indicating that often each thymus was being infected by a unique mink cell focus-forming virus. Analysis of high-molecular-weight DNA shows that recombinant proviruses reside in the chromosomal DNA of thymocytes within the preleukemic thymus, with the number rising to an average of several copies per thymocyte, but we do not detect any preferred integration sites. These results suggest that, in general, before the development of thymic leukemias in AKR mice there is a massive infection by a unique mink cell focus-forming virus which then integrates into many different sites of individual thymocytes, one of which grows out to become a tumor. Images PMID:6321787

  14. Genomic stability of murine leukemia viruses containing insertions at the Env-3' untranslated region boundary.

    PubMed

    Logg, C R; Logg, A; Tai, C K; Cannon, P M; Kasahara, N

    2001-08-01

    Retroviruses containing inserts of exogenous sequences frequently eliminate the inserted sequences upon spread in susceptible cells. We have constructed replication-competent murine leukemia virus (MLV) vectors containing internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-transgene cassettes at the env-3' untranslated region boundary in order to examine the effects of insert sequence and size on the loss of inserts during viral replication. A virus containing an insertion of 1.6 kb replicated with greatly attenuated kinetics relative to wild-type virus and lost the inserted sequences in a single infection cycle. In contrast, MLVs containing inserts of 1.15 to 1.30 kb replicated with kinetics only slightly attenuated compared to wild-type MLV and exhibited much greater stability, maintaining their genomic integrity over multiple serial infection cycles. Eventually, multiple species of deletion mutants were detected simultaneously in later infection cycles; once detected, these variants rapidly dominated the population and thereafter appeared to be maintained at a relative equilibrium. Sequence analysis of these variants identified preferred sites of recombination in the parental viruses, including both short direct repeats and inverted repeats. One instance of insert deletion through recombination with an endogenous retrovirus was also observed. When specific sequences involved in these recombination events were eliminated, deletion variants still arose with the same kinetics upon virus passage and by apparently similar mechanisms, although at different locations in the vectors. Our results suggest that while lengthened, insert-containing genomes can be maintained over multiple replication cycles, preferential deletions resulting in loss of the inserted sequences confer a strong selective advantage. PMID:11435579

  15. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, José O.; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  16. Serum-dependent expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein suppresses propagation of influenza virus

    SciTech Connect

    Iki, Shigeo; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokosawa, Noriko; Nagata, Kyosuke; Fujii, Nobuhiro . E-mail: fujii@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-12-05

    The rate of propagation of influenza virus in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was found to negatively correlate with the concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. Virus replicated more rapidly at lower FBS concentrations (0 or 2%) than at higher concentrations (10 or 20%) during an early stage of infection. Basal and interferon (IFN)-induced levels of typical IFN-inducible anti-viral proteins, such as 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, dsRNA-activated protein kinase and MxA, were unaffected by variation in FBS concentrations. But promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was expressed in a serum-dependent manner. In particular, the 65 to 70 kDa isoform of PML was markedly upregulated following the addition of serum. In contrast, other isoforms were induced by IFN treatment, and weakly induced by FBS concentrations. Immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that PML was mainly formed nuclear bodies in Caco-2 cells at various FBS concentrations, and the levels of the PML-nuclear bodies were upregulated by FBS. Overexpression of PML isoform consisting of 560 or 633 amino acid residues by transfection of expression plasmid results in significantly delayed viral replication rate in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, downregulation of PML expression by RNAi enhanced viral replication. These results indicate that PML isoforms which are expressed in a serum-dependent manner suppress the propagation of influenza virus at an early stage of infection.

  17. The BET family of proteins targets Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus integration near transcription start sites

    PubMed Central

    De Rijck, Jan; de Kogel, Christine; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Vets, Sofie; Ashkar, Sara El; Malani, Nirav; Bushman, Frederic D; Landuyt, Bart; Husson, Steven J.; Busschots, Katrien; Gijsbers, Rik; Debyser, Zeger

    2014-01-01

    Summary A hallmark of retroviral replication is integration of the viral genome in the host cell DNA. This characteristic makes retrovirus-based vectors attractive delivery vehicles for gene therapy. However, adverse events in gene therapeutic trials, caused by activation of proto-oncogenes due to Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-derived vector integration, hamper their application. Here we show that bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4) and MLV integrase specifically interact and co-localize within the nucleus of the cell. Inhibition of the BET proteins chromatin interaction via specific bromodomain inhibitors blocks MLV virus replication at the integration step. MLV integration site distribution parallels the chromatin binding profile of BET proteins, and expression of an artificial fusion protein of the BET integrase binding domain with the chromatin interaction domain of the lentiviral targeting factor LEDGF/p75, retargets MLV integration away from TSS and into the body of actively transcribed genes, conform to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) integration pattern. Together these data validate BET proteins as MLV integration targeting factors. PMID:24183673

  18. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, José O; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  19. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review. PMID:20610824

  20. Targeting of a Nuclease to Murine Leukemia Virus Capsids Inhibits Viral Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsoulis, Georges; Seshaiah, Partha; Federspiel, Mark J.; Rein, Alan; Hughes, Stephen H.; Boeke, Jef D.

    1995-01-01

    Capsid-targeted viral inactivation is an antiviral strategy in which toxic fusion proteins are targeted to virions, where they inhibit viral multiplication by destroying viral components. These fusion proteins consist of a virion structural protein moiety and an enzymatic moiety such as a nuclease. Such fusion proteins can severely inhibit transposition of yeast retrotransposon Ty1, an element whose transposition mechanistically resembles retroviral multiplication. We demonstrate that expression of a murine retrovirus capsid-staphylococcal nuclease fusion protein inhibits multiplication of the corresponding murine leukemia virus by 30- to 100-fold. Staphylococcal nuclease is apparently inactive intracellularly and hence nontoxic to the host cell, but it is active extracellularly because of its requirement for high concentrations of Ca2+ ions. Virions assembled in and shed from cells expressing the fusion protein contain very small amounts of intact viral RNA, as would be predicted for nuclease-mediated inhibition of viral multiplication.

  1. The role of neighboring infected cattle in bovine leukemia virus transmission risk

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Sota; TSUTSUI, Toshiyuki; YAMAMOTO, Takehisa; HAYAMA, Yoko; MUROGA, Norihiko; KONISHI, Misako; KAMEYAMA, Ken-ichiro; MURAKAMI, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmission to uninfected cattle by adjacent infected cattle in 6 dairy farms. Animals were initially tested in 2010–2011 using a commercial ELISA kit. Uninfected cattle were repeatedly tested every 4 to 6 months until fall of 2012. The Cox proportional hazard model with frailty showed that uninfected cattle neighboring to infected cattle (n=53) had a significant higher risk of seroconversion than those without any infected neighbors (n=81) (hazard ratio: 12.4, P=0.001), implying that neighboring infected cattle were a significant risk factor for BLV transmission. This finding provides scientific support for animal health authorities and farmers to segregate infected cattle on farms to prevent spread of BLV. PMID:25754652

  2. Determination of the minimal fusion peptide of bovine leukemia virus gp30

    SciTech Connect

    Lorin, Aurelien; Lins, Laurence; Stroobant, Vincent; Brasseur, Robert . E-mail: brasseur.r@fsagx.ac.be; Charloteaux, Benoit

    2007-04-13

    In this study, we determined the minimal N-terminal fusion peptide of the gp30 of the bovine leukemia virus on the basis of the tilted peptide theory. We first used molecular modelling to predict that the gp30 minimal fusion peptide corresponds to the 15 first residues. Liposome lipid-mixing and leakage assays confirmed that the 15-residue long peptide induces fusion in vitro and that it is the shortest peptide inducing optimal fusion since longer peptides destabilize liposomes to the same extent but not shorter ones. The 15-residue long peptide can thus be considered as the minimal fusion peptide. The effect of mutations reported in the literature was also investigated. Interestingly, mutations related to glycoproteins unable to induce syncytia in cell-cell fusion assays correspond to peptides predicted as non-tilted. The relationship between obliquity and fusogenicity was also confirmed in vitro for one tilted and one non-tilted mutant peptide.

  3. Partial molecular characterization of different proviral strains of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Lendez, Pamela A; Gutierrez, Silvina E; Forletti, Agustina; Rensetti, Daniel E; Ceriani, Maria Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle were classified by their proviral load into low and high proviral load profiles (LPL and HPL, respectively). Blood from these animals was used to infect sheep to obtain multiple identical copies of integrated provirus. An env fragment of BLV was amplified from all infected sheep and sequenced. The sequences that were obtained were compared to already published BLV genome sequence, resulting in three clusters. Mutations could not be attributed to the passage of provirus from cattle to sheep and subsequent amplification and sequencing. The description of two different proviral load profiles, the association of the BoLA-DRB3.2 0902 allele with the LPL profile, the availability of complete BLV sequences, and the comparison of a variable region of the env gene from carefully characterized cattle are still not enough to explain the presence of animals in every herd that are resistant to BLV dissemination. PMID:22965577

  4. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-01-01

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  5. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  6. Intersubunit disulfide isomerization controls membrane fusion of human T-cell leukemia virus Env.

    PubMed

    Li, Kejun; Zhang, Shujing; Kronqvist, Malin; Wallin, Michael; Ekström, Maria; Derse, David; Garoff, Henrik

    2008-07-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) Env carries a typical disulfide isomerization motif, C(225)XXC, in the C-terminal domain SU. Here we have tested whether this motif is used for isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide of Env and whether this rearrangement is required for membrane fusion. We introduced the C225A and C228A mutations into Env and found that the former but not the latter mutant matured into covalently linked SU-TM complexes in transfected cells. Next, we constructed a secreted Env ectodomain and showed that it underwent incubation-dependent intersubunit disulfide isomerization on target cells. However, the rearrangement was blocked by the C225A mutation, suggesting that C(225) carried the isomerization-active thiol. Still, it was possible to reduce the intersubunit disulfide of the native C225A ectodomain mutant with dithiothreitol (DTT). The importance of the CXXC-mediated disulfide isomerization for infection was studied using murine leukemia virus vectors pseudotyped with wild-type or C225A HTLV-1 Env. We found that the mutant Env blocked infection, but this could be rescued with DTT. The fusion activity was tested in a fusion-from-within assay using a coculture of rat XC target and transfected BHK-21 effector cells. We found that the mutation blocked polykaryon formation, but this could be reversed with DTT. Similar DTT-reversible inhibition of infection and fusion was observed when a membrane-impermeable alkylator was present during the infection/fusion incubation. We conclude that the fusion activity of HTLV-1 Env is controlled by an SU CXXC-mediated isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide. Thus, this extends the applicability of the isomerization model from gammaretroviruses to deltaretroviruses. PMID:18480461

  7. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  8. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  9. CD123 redirected multiple virus-specific T cells for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Xin; Wang, Xingbing; Sun, Zimin; Song, Xiao-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been increasingly used as a curative treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, relapse rates after HSCT in complete remission (CR) are reported between 30% and 70%. In addition, numerous studies suggested that secondary viral infection from a variety of viruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus (Adv), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are among the most common causes of death post-HSCT. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based T cells have been developed to treat AML in clinical studies, while virus-specific cytotoxic T cells (VST) have been proven to be able to effectively prevent or treat viral infection after HSCT. Thus it would be desirable to develop T cells with the ability of simultaneously targeting AML relapse and viral infection. In this article, we now describe the generation of VST cells that are engineered to express CAR for a specific AML cell-surface antigen CD123 (CD123-CAR-VST). Using Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with EBV, Adv, and CMV peptides as sources of viral antigens, we generated VST from A2 donor peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC). VST were then transduced with retroviral vector encoding CD123-CAR to generate CD123-CAR-VST. We demonstrated that CD123-CAR-VST recognized EBV, Adv, and CMV epitopes and had HLA-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic effector function against EBV target. In addition, CD123-CAR-VST retained the specificity against CD123-positive AML cell lines such as MOLM13 and THP-1 in vitro. Thus our results suggested that CD123-CAR-VST might be a valuable candidate to simultaneously prevent or treat relapse and viral infection in AML HSCT recipients. PMID:26740053

  10. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. PMID:24139177

  11. Characterization of a novel murine leukemia virus-related subgroup within mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Tristem, M; Kabat, P; Lieberman, L; Linde, S; Karpas, A; Hill, F

    1996-01-01

    The murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related retroviruses are one of seven genera which together constitute the family Retroviridae. They are widespread as both endogenous and exogenous agents within vertebrates and have been associated with a variety of malignancies and other disorders. We isolated and characterized 12 endogenous representatives of this genus from a number of mammalian hosts. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed that the isolated viruses cluster into two clearly distinct groups. All of the exogenous MuLV-related retroviruses which have been isolated to date, as well as several endogenous examples, fall into the first group, whereas the second group is represented solely by endogenous representatives, including human endogenous retrovirus type E (HERV.E). The two groups are widespread within mammals, with both often present within one animal species. Despite this, there is no evidence to date that recombination between members of the different groups has occurred. Genetic distances and several other properties of the HERV.E genome suggest that if exogenous members of this subgroup exist, they are likely to have biological properties different from those of the other exogenous viruses of this genus. Several of these viruses are known to have been integrated within their hosts' genomes for a long period of time, and a most recent divergence date for the MuLV and HERV.E subgroups can thus be proposed. This date, approximately 30 million years ago, is the most recent date possible, and it is probable that the actual period of time since their divergence is significantly longer. PMID:8892961

  12. Characterization of an infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, T M; Robinson, M A; Bowers, F S; Kindt, T J

    1995-01-01

    An infectious molecular clone of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was derived from an HTLV-I-transformed rabbit T-cell line, RH/K30, obtained by coculture of rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the human HTLV-I-transformed cell line MT-2. The RH/K30 cell line contained two integrated proviruses, an intact HTLV-I genome and an apparently defective provirus with an in-frame stop codon in the env gene. A genomic DNA fragment containing the intact HTLV-I provirus was cloned into bacteriophage lambda (K30 phi) and subcloned into a plasmid vector (K30p). HTLV-I p24gag protein was detected in culture supernatants of human and rabbit T-cell and fibroblast lines transfected with these clones, at levels comparable to those of the parental cell line RH/K30. Persistent expression of virus was observed in one of these lines, RL-5/K30p, for more than 24 months. Biologic characterization of this cell line revealed the presence of integrated HTLV-I provirus, spliced and unspliced mRNA transcripts, and typical extracellular type C retrovirus particles. As expected, these virus particles contained HTLV-I RNA and reverse transcriptase activity. The transfected cells also expressed surface major histocompatibility complex class II, whereas no expression of this molecule was detected in the parental RL-5 cell line. Virus was passaged by cocultivation of irradiated RL-5/K30p cells with either rabbit PBMC or human cord blood mononuclear cells, demonstrating in vitro infectivity. The virus produced in these cells was also infectious in vivo, since rabbits injected with RL-5/K30p cells became productively infected, as evidenced by seroconversion, amplification of HTLV-I-specific sequences by PCR from PBMC DNA, and virus isolation from PBMC. Availability of infectious molecular clones will facilitate functional studies of HTLV-I genes and gene products. PMID:7884847

  13. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA. PMID:26158194

  14. Murine leukemia virus in organs of senescence-prone and -resistant mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Carp, R I; Meeker, H C; Chung, R; Kozak, C A; Hosokawa, M; Fujisawa, H

    2002-03-31

    A series of inbred strains of mice have been developed that are either prone (SAMP) or resistant (SAMR) to accelerated senescence. All of these strains originated from an inadvertent cross or crosses between the AKR/J mouse strain and an unknown strain(s). The characteristics of the nine senescence-prone lines differ, with all strains showing generalized aspects of accelerated aging but with each line having a specific aging-related change that is emphasized, e.g. learning and memory deficits, osteoporosis and senile amyloidosis. The senescence-resistant strains have normal patterns of aging and do not show the specific aging-related changes seen in SAMP strains. The fact that AKR mice have high levels of endogenous, ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) prompted an examination of the expression levels of MuLV in SAM strains. Analysis of brain, spleen and thymus samples revealed that seven of nine SAMP strains had high levels of MuLV and contained the Emv11 provirus (previously termed Akv1) that encodes the predominant MuLV found in AKR mice. In contrast, none of the SAMR strains had Emv11 or significant amounts of virus. The current findings represent an initial step in determining the role of MuLV in the accelerated senescence seen in SAMP strains. PMID:11850021

  15. Identification of an NF-kappa B binding site in the bovine leukemia virus promoter.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P A; Nyborg, J K; Cockerell, G L

    1995-10-01

    Although the mechanism by which bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces neoplastic transformation of the host B cells is unknown, it is likely that critical interactions between cellular DNA-binding proteins and the virus are involved. We have used DNase I protection (footprinting) assays to construct a map of protein-DNA interactions on the 5' long terminal repeat of BLV. In addition to the three cyclic AMP response elements previously reported, we have also found an NF-kappa B binding site between -118 and -70 nucleotides upstream of the RNA start site. This site binds several members of the kappa B family of proteins, including p49, p50, and p65, in both footprint and electrophoretic mobility shift assays and functions as an enhancer element when inserted upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. NF-kappa B may be a critical nuclear binding protein that regulates both viral replication and key cellular genes in BLV-infected B cells. PMID:7666505

  16. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-03-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A)/sup +/ RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses.

  17. Assembly and composition of intracellular particles formed by Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, M; Jelinek, L; Jones, R S; Stegeman-Olsen, J; Barklis, E

    1993-01-01

    Assembly of type C retroviruses such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) ordinarily occurs at the plasma membranes of infected cells and absolutely requires the particle core precursor protein, Pr65gag. Previously we have shown that Pr65gag is membrane associated and that at least a portion of intracellular Pr65gag protein appears to be routed to the plasma membrane by a vesicular transport pathway. Here we show that intracellular particle formation can occur in M-MuLV-infected cells. M-MuLV immature particles were observed by electron microscopy budding into and within rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and vacuolar compartments. Biochemical fractionation studies indicated that intracellular Pr65gag was present in nonionic detergent-resistant complexes of greater than 150S. Additionally, viral RNA and polymerase functions appeared to be associated with intracellular particles, as were Gag-beta-galactosidase fusion proteins which have the capacity to be incorporated into virions. Immature intracellular particles in postnuclear lysates could be proteolytically processed in vitro to mature forms, while extracellular immature M-MuLV particles remained immature as long as 10 h during incubations. The occurrence of M-MuLV-derived intracellular particles demonstrates that Pr65gag can associate with intracellular membranes and indicates that if a plasma membrane Pr65gag receptor exists, it also can be found in other membrane compartments. These results support the hypothesis that intracellular particles may serve as a virus reservoir during in vivo infections. Images PMID:8350394

  18. The Role of B Cells for in Vivo T Cell Responses to a Friend Virus-Induced Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Kirk R.; Klarnet, Jay P.; Gieni, Randall S.; Hayglass, Kent T.; Greenberg, Philip D.

    1990-08-01

    B cells can function as antigen-presenting cells and accessory cells for T cell responses. This study evaluated the role of B cells in the induction of protective T cell immunity to a Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced leukemia (FBL). B cell-deficient mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor-specific CD4^+ helper and CD8^+ cytotoxic T cell responses after priming with FBL or a recombinant vaccinia virus containing F-MuLV antigens. Moreover, these mice had diminished T cell responses to the vaccinia viral antigens. Tumor-primed T cells transferred into B cell-deficient mice effectively eradicated disseminated FBL. Thus, B cells appear necessary for efficient priming but not expression of tumor and viral T cell immunity.

  19. 9 CFR 113.315 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine. 113.315 Section 113.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.315...

  20. 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. 113.314 Section 113.314 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.314...

  1. [Sarcoidosis and leukemia/T-cell lymphoma associated with HTLV-1 virus infection in adults (apropos of a case)].

    PubMed

    Panelatti, G; Plumelle, Y; Arfi, S; Pascaline, N; Caplanne, D; Jean-Baptiste, G

    1992-01-01

    The HTLV-1 virus causes a disturbance of the immune system, the evaluation of which is often difficult. We report a case of sarcoidosis in a 49 year old woman of Martinique as evidenced by bilateral hilar adenopathy, hypercalcaemia, uveitis and granulomatous lesions on histological examination. Serological was positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Three years later she developed an adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. The relationships between the HTLV-1 retroviral infection and different pathologies observed are discussed. PMID:1287773

  2. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. PMID:27317318

  3. [Adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia associated with HTLV-I virus in Martinique: apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Plumelle, Y; Sanhadji, K; Barin, F; Gazzolo, L; Constant-Desportes, M; Pascaline, N; Diebold, J; De-Thé, G

    1986-01-01

    Two HTLV-I associated adult T cell leukemia cases were observed in patient from Martinique (French West Indies). These case are similar to the clinical entity, described by Takatsuki in 1977 in Japan and by Catovsky in Caribbean patients, characterized by a lymphadenopathy, skin lesions and visceral involvement, hypercalcemia, an aggressive course, and poor prognosis. The malignant cells with T4 phenotype and often suppressive function, were pleomorphic, mature, with prominent nuclear irregularities. Systematic research of HTLV-I virus or antibodies in patients with this clinical picture, to measure the influence of this virus in T cell lymphoproliferative diseases in France and in French West Indies is required. PMID:3016639

  4. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow. PMID:26025155

  5. AP-1-directed human T cell leukemia virus type 1 viral gene expression during monocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Christian; Jain, Pooja; Nonnemacher, Michael; Flaig, Katherine E; Irish, Bryan; Ahuja, Jaya; Alexaki, Aikaterini; Alefantis, Timothy; Wigdahl, Brian

    2006-09-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has previously been shown to infect antigen-presenting cells and their precursors in vivo. However, the role these important cell populations play in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis or adult T cell leukemia remains unresolved. To better understand how HTLV-1 infection of these important cell populations may potentially impact disease progression, the regulation of HTLV-1 viral gene expression in established monocytic cell lines was examined. U-937 promonocytic cells transiently transfected with a HTLV-1 long-terminal repeat (LTR) luciferase construct were treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to induce cellular differentiation. PMA-induced cellular differentiation resulted in activation of basal and Tax-mediated transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift analyses demonstrated that PMA-induced cellular differentiation induced DNA-binding activity of cellular transcription factors to Tax-responsive element 1 (TRE-1) repeat II. Supershift analyses revealed that factors belonging to the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family of basic region/leucine zipper proteins (Fra-1, Fra-2, JunB, and JunD) were induced to bind to TRE-1 repeat II during cellular differentiation. Inhibition of AP-1 DNA-binding activity by overexpression of a dominant-negative c-Fos mutant (A-Fos) in transient expression analyses resulted in severely decreased levels of HTLV-1 LTR activation in PMA-induced U-937 cells. These results have suggested that following infection of peripheral blood monocytes, HTLV-1 viral gene expression may become up-regulated by AP-1 during differentiation into macrophages or dendritic cells. PMID:16829632

  6. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hakju; Ogle, Louise; Benitez, Bobby; Bohuslav, Jan; Montano, Mauricio; Felsher, Dean W; Greene, Warner C

    2005-10-21

    Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology. PMID:16105841

  7. FELINE BRONCHOPULMONARY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the current state of knowledge of naturally occurring feline bronchopulmonary disease; using in-depth diagnostic evaluation and pulmonary function testing to emphasize the diversity of the clinical manifestations and pathophysiologic abnormalities of these ...

  8. Cloning and Characterization of the Antiviral Activity of Feline Tetherin/BST-2

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Aiko; Abe, Masumi; Morikawa, Yuko; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Yasuda, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Human Tetherin/BST-2 has recently been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. In this study, we cloned a cDNA fragment encoding a feline homolog of Tetherin/BST-2 and characterized the protein product. The degree of amino acid sequence identity between human Tetherin/BST-2 and the feline homolog was 44.4%. Similar to human Tetherin/BST-2, the expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 mRNA was inducible by type I interferon (IFN). Exogenous expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 efficiently inhibited the release of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114. The extracellular domain of feline Tetherin/BST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites, N79 and N119. Complete loss of N-linked glycosylation by introduction of mutations into both sites resulted in almost complete abolition of its antiviral activity. In addition, feline Tetherin/BST-2 was insensitive to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu, although the antiviral activity of human Tetherin/BST-2 was antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Our data suggest that feline Tetherin/BST-2 functions as a part of IFN-induced innate immunity against virus infection and that the induction of feline Tetherin/BST-2 in vivo may be effective as a novel antiviral strategy for viral infection. PMID:21479233

  9. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  10. Assembly of Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid in Promyelocytic Leukemia Nuclear Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Chung-Wen; Chang, Li-Kwan; Hung, Chen-Chia; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid contains a major capsid protein, VCA; two minor capsid proteins, BDLF1 and BORF1; and a small capsid protein, BFRF3. During the lytic cycle, these capsid proteins are synthesized and imported into the host nucleus for capsid assembly. This study finds that EBV capsid proteins colocalize with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) in P3HR1 cells during the viral lytic cycle, appearing as nuclear speckles under a confocal laser scanning microscope. In a glutathione S-transferase pulldown study, we show that BORF1 interacts with PML-NBs in vitro. BORF1 also colocalizes with PML-NBs in EBV-negative Akata cells after transfection and is responsible for bringing VCA and the VCA-BFRF3 complex from the cytoplasm to PML-NBs in the nucleus. Furthermore, BDLF1 is dispersed throughout the cell when expressed alone but colocalizes with PML-NBs when BORF1 is also present in the cell. In addition, this study finds that knockdown of PML expression by short hairpin RNA does not influence the intracellular levels of capsid proteins but reduces the number of viral particles produced by P3HR1 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that BORF1 plays a critical role in bringing capsid proteins to PML-NBs, which may likely be the assembly sites of EBV capsids. The mechanisms elucidated in this study are critical to understanding the process of EBV capsid assembly. IMPORTANCE Capsid assembly is an important event during the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle, as this process is required for the production of virions. In this study, confocal microscopy revealed that the EBV capsid protein BORF1 interacts with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) in the host nucleus and is responsible for transporting the other EBV capsid proteins, including VCA, BDLF1, and BFRF3, to these subnuclear locations prior to initiation of capsid assembly. This study also found that knockdown of PML expression by short hairpin RNA

  11. Construction and characterization of the recombinant Moloney murine leukemia viruses bearing the mouse Fv-4 env gene.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, M; Yoshikura, H

    1990-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence of the mouse Fv-4 env gene was completed. Structural comparison revealed a close relationship of Fv-4 to the ecotropic Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus isolated from a wild mouse in southern California. Various portions of the env gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus were replaced by the corresponding Fv-4 env sequence to construct recombinant murine leukemia virus clones. Infectivity of these recombinants was checked by the S+L- cell focus induction assay and the XC cell syncytium formation assay. Recombinants bearing the following Fv-4 env sequence retained ecotropic infectivity; the AccI-BamHI and BamHI-BalI regions coding for the N- and C-terminal halves of Fv-4 gp70SU, respectively; and the BalI-NcoI region encoding the cleavage site between gp70SU and p15(E)TM of the Fv-4 env. However, when the Fv-4 sequence was substituted for the p15(E)TM-coding NcoI-EcoRV region or the AccI-EcoRV region covering almost the entire env gene, infectivity was undetectable in our assays. The recombinant clone containing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region, i.e., almost the entire Fv-4 env sequence, was introduced with pSV2neo into NIH 3T3 cells, and a G418r cell line named NIH(Fv4)-2 was isolated. The NIH(Fv4)-2 cell released viral particles that contained reverse transcriptase, Fv-4 env molecules as well as the other viral proteins, and viral genomic RNA. However, proviral DNA synthesis was not detected upon inoculation of this virus in NIH 3T3 cells. The loss of infectivity of the recombinant virus bearing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region appeared to be caused by failure in an early step of replication. Images PMID:2304138

  12. Immunovirotherapy with vesicular stomatitis virus and PD-L1 blockade enhances therapeutic outcome in murine acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weiwei; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Ruiz, Autumn; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2016-03-17

    Patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have limited therapeutic options. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-interferon β (IFNβ)-sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is an oncolytic VSV encoding IFNβ and the NIS reporter. Syngeneic AML C1498 tumors responded to IV therapy with VSV-murine IFNβ (mIFNβ)-NIS in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging for NIS expression showed robust virus infection within the tumors. Virus infection did not increase programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells. Combining VSV-mIFNβ-NIS with anti-PD-L1 antibody (Ab) therapy enhanced antitumor activity compared with treatment with virus alone or Ab alone; this enhancement was not significant at higher VSV-mIFNβ-NIS doses. Systemic VSV therapy reduced systemic C1498-green fluorescent protein (GFP) tumor burden in the blood, bone marrow, spleen, and liver of mice with AML. Combination VSV-mIFNβ-NIS and anti-PD-L1 Ab therapy significantly enhanced the survival of these mice with no evidence of toxicity, compared with isotype control, anti-PD-L1, or virus alone. There was an increase in tumor-infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells. Single-agent VSV-mIFNβ-NIS virotherapy induced both VSV-specific and GFP-specific CD8 T cells as determined by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot, pentamer, and intracellular IFN-γ staining assays. Both of these responses were further enhanced by addition of anti-PD-L1 Ab. Depletion of CD8 or natural killer cells, but not CD4 cells, resulted in loss of antitumor activity in the VSV/anti-PD-L1 group. Clinical samples from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and acute myelomonocytic leukemia appear to be especially susceptible to VSV. Overall, our studies show that oncolytic virotherapy combined with immune checkpoint blockade is a promising approach to AML therapy. PMID:26712908

  13. Exposure to Bovine Leukemia Virus Is Associated with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Buehring, Gertrude Case; Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Jin, Diana L.; Hudes, Mark; Block, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Background Age, reproductive history, hormones, genetics, and lifestyle are known risk factors for breast cancer, but the agents that initiate cellular changes from normal to malignant are not understood. We previously detected bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a common oncogenic virus of cattle, in the breast epithelium of humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of BLV DNA in human mammary epithelium is associated with breast cancer. Methods This was a case-control study of archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded breast tissues from 239 donors, received 2002–2008 from the Cooperative Human Tissue Network. Case definition as breast cancer versus normal (women with no history of breast cancer) was established through medical records and examination of tissues by an anatomical pathologist. Breast exposure to BLV was determined by in situ-PCR detection of a biomarker, BLV DNA, localized within mammary epithelium. Results The frequency of BLV DNA in mammary epithelium from women with breast cancer (59%) was significantly higher than in normal controls (29%) (multiply- adjusted odds ratio = 3.07, confidence interval = 1.66–5.69, p = .0004, attributable risk = 37%). In women with premalignant breast changes the frequency of BLV DNA was intermediate (38%) between that of women with breast cancer and normal controls (p for trend < .001). Conclusions Among the specimens in this study, the presence of amplified BLV DNA was significantly associated with breast cancer. The odds ratio magnitude was comparable to those of well-established breast cancer risk factors related to reproductive history, hormones, and lifestyle and was exceeded only by risk factors related to genetics (familial breast cancer), high dose ionizing radiation, and age. These findings have the potential for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26332838

  14. Crystal Structure of the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNase H Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Lim,D.; Gregorio, G.; Bingman, C.; Martinez-Hackert, E.; Hendrickson, W.; Goff, S.

    2006-01-01

    A crystallographic study of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) RNase H domain was performed to provide information about its structure and mechanism of action. These efforts resulted in the crystallization of a mutant Mo-MLV RNase H lacking the putative helix C ({Delta}C). The 1.6-{angstrom} resolution structure resembles the known structures of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Escherichia coli RNase H. The structure revealed the coordination of a magnesium ion within the catalytic core comprised of the highly conserved acidic residues D524, E562, and D583. Surface charge mapping of the Mo-MLV structure revealed a high density of basic charges on one side of the enzyme. Using a model of the Mo-MLV structure superimposed upon a structure of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase bound to an RNA/DNA hybrid substrate, Mo-MLV RNase H secondary structures and individual amino acids were examined for their potential roles in binding substrate. Identified regions included Mo-MLV RNase H {beta}1-{beta}2, {alpha}A, and {alpha}B and residues from {alpha}B to {alpha}D and its following loop. Most of the identified substrate-binding residues corresponded with residues directly binding nucleotides in an RNase H from Bacillus halodurans as observed in a cocrystal structure with RNA/DNA. Finally, superimposition of RNases H of Mo-MLV, E. coli, and HIV-1 revealed that a loop of the HIV-1 connection domain resides within the same region of the Mo-MLV and E. coli C-helix. The HIV-1 connection domain may serve to recognize and bind the RNA/DNA substrate major groove.

  15. Genetic evidence for a product of the Fv-1 locus that transfers resistance to mouse leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, R W; Schluter, B; Myer, F E; Otten, J A; Yang, W K; Brown, A

    1976-01-01

    Extracts of mouse cells have been shown to transfer to N- or B-trophic host range types of mouse leukemia viruses. The genetic specificity of the inhibition was tested in two ways: (i) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of a number of mouse strains with the restriction-transferring activity of extracts of the respective embryo cell cultures, and (ii) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of BLC3F2 (C57BL/6 female [Fv-1bb] by C3H male [Fv-1nn] parental strains) mouse embryos, which segregate the Fv-1 alleles in a 12:1 ratio, with the inhibitor activity of extracts of the cells from each embryo. Five independent matings, totaling 45 individual embryos, were tested. Each embryo was cultured, and the Fv-1 genotype was determined independently by titration of N- and B-tropic viruses; the extracts of replicate secondary cultures were tested for their effect on infection of permissive cells by N- and B-tropic viruses. The specific-restriction-transferring activity of the embryos was found to segregate with the appropriate Fv-1 genotype. These res-lts confirm the suggestion that the inhibitor of the leukemia virus host range types in the cellular extracts is a product of the Fv-1 locus. PMID:186636

  16. Functional dissection of the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein gp70.

    PubMed

    Bae, Y; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-03-01

    The envelope protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) is a complex glycoprotein that mediates receptor binding and entry via fusion with cell membranes. By using a series of substitution mutations and truncations in the Mo-MLV external envelope surface protein gp70, we have identified regions important for these processes. Firstly, truncations of gp70 revealed that the minimal continuous receptor-binding region is amino acids 9 to 230, in broad agreement with other studies. Secondly, within this region there are two key basic amino acids, Arg-83 and Arg-95, that are essential for receptor binding and may interact with a negatively charged residue(s) or with the pi electrons of the aromatic ring on a hydrophobic residue(s) in the basic amino acid transporter protein that is the Mo-MLV ecotropic receptor. Finally, we showed that outside the minimal receptor-binding region at amino acids 2 to 8, there is a region that is essential for postbinding fusion events. PMID:9032341

  17. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag▿

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of ∼7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed. PMID:21917964

  18. Imbalance of tumor necrosis factor receptors during progression in bovine leukemia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Konnai, Satoru . E-mail: konnai@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ikeda, Manabu; Kohara, Junko; Hirata, Toh-ichi; Okada, Kosuke; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-09-01

    Previously, we found an up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-{alpha} and an imbalance of TNF receptors in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In order to investigate the different TNF-{alpha}-induced responses, in this study we examined the TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferative response and the expression levels of two distinct TNF receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from BLV-uninfected cattle and BLV-infected cattle that were aleukemic (AL) or had persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The proliferative response of PBMC isolated from those cattle with PL in the presence of recombinant bovine TNF-{alpha} (rTNF-{alpha}) was significantly higher than those from AL cattle and uninfected cattle and the cells from PL cattle expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of TNF receptor type II (TNF-RII) than those from AL and BLV-uninfected cattle. No difference was found in TNF-RI mRNA levels. Most cells expressing TNF-RII in PL cattle were CD5{sup +} or sIgM{sup +} cells and these cells showed resistance to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in provirus load and TNF-RII mRNA levels, and TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferation and TNF-RII mRNA levels. These data suggest that imbalance in the expression of TNF receptors could at least in part contribute to the progression of lymphocytosis in BLV infection.

  19. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27023592

  20. Fv-1 restriction and its effects on murine leukemia virus integration in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Pryciak, P M; Varmus, H E

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms by which alleles at the mouse Fv-1 locus restrict replication of murine leukemia viruses. Inhibition of productive infection is closely paralleled by reduced accumulation of integrated proviral DNA as well as by reduced levels of linear viral DNA in a cytoplasmic fraction. Nevertheless, viral DNA is present at nearly normal levels in a nuclear fraction, and total amounts of viral DNA are only mildly affected in restrictive infections, suggesting a block in integration to account for reduced levels of proviral DNA. However, integrase (IN)-dependent trimming of 3' ends of viral DNA occurs normally in vivo during restrictive infections, demonstrating that not all IN-mediated events are prevented in vivo. Furthermore, viral integration complexes present in nuclear extracts of infected restrictive cells are fully competent to integrate their DNA into a heterologous target in vitro. Thus, the Fv-1-dependent activity that restricts integration in vivo may be lost in vitro; alternatively, Fv-1 restriction may prevent a step required for integration in vivo that is bypassed in vitro. Images PMID:1326652

  1. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2012-05-09

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of {approx}7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

  2. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  3. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  4. Structure of glycosylated and unglycosylated gag polyproteins of Rauscher murine leukemia virus: carbohydrate attachment sites.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, A M; Lockhart, S M; Rabin, E M; Oroszlan, S

    1981-01-01

    The structural relationships among the gag polyproteins Pr65gag, Pr75gag, and gPr80gag of Rauscher murine leukemia virus were studied by endoglycosidase H digestion and formic acid cleavage. Fragments were identified by precipitation with specific antisera to constituent virion structural proteins followed by one-dimensional mapping. Endoglycosidase H reduced the size of gPr80gag to that of Pr75gag. By comparing fragments of gPr80gag and the apoprotein Pr75gag, the former was shown to contain two mannose-rich oligosaccharide units. By comparing fragments of Pr65gag and Pr75gag, the latter was shown to differ from Pr65gag at the amino terminus by the presence of a leader peptide approximately 7,000 daltons in size. The internal and carboxyl-terminal peptides of the two unglycosylated polyproteins were not detectably different. The location of the two N-linked carbohydrate chains in gPr80gag has been specified. One occurs in the carboxyl-terminal half of the polyprotein at asparagine177 of the p30 sequence and the other is found in a 23,000-dalton fragment located in the amino-terminal region of gPr80gag and containing the additional amino acid sequences not found in Pr65gag plus a substantial portion of p15. Images PMID:7241663

  5. Even transcriptionally competent proviruses are silent in bovine leukemia virus-induced sheep tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Broeke, A; Cleuter, Y; Chen, G; Portetelle, D; Mammerickx, M; Zagury, D; Fouchard, M; Coulombel, L; Kettmann, R; Burny, A

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the role of proviral integration and expression in cellular transformation induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV), three BLV-induced tumors harboring a single proviral copy were selected upon restriction and hybridization analysis. Tumors 344 and 395 were shown to contain a full-size proviral copy, whereas in tumor 1345 the provirus appeared to be heavily deleted. RNA gel blot hybridization with an antisense RNA probe showed no transcription of the viral sequences in the fresh tumors or in sheep tumor cells growing in vitro. The proviruses were cloned and transfected in mammalian cell lines. Transient-expression experiments revealed that the complete proviruses were still able to express the trans-activating protein (Tat) as well as structural proteins, demonstrating that the nonexpression of a provirus in a tumor cell does not necessarily imply a structural alteration of the viral information. In contrast, sequence analysis of the provirus with a large deletion and transient-expression assays proved that this truncated provirus, isolated from a tumor, was unable to code for viral proteins. These data indicate that expression of viral genes, including tat, is not required for the maintenance of the transformed state. Images PMID:2848258

  6. A detailed molecular analysis of complete bovine leukemia virus genomes isolated from B-cell lymphosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Moratorio, Gonzalo; Fischer, Sabrina; Bianchi, Sergio; Tomé, Lorena; Rama, Gonzalo; Obal, Gonzalo; Carrión, Federico; Pritsch, Otto; Cristina, Juan

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the majority of cancers result from multiple cellular events leading to malignancy after a prolonged period of clinical latency, and that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of cancer progression. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic member of the Retroviridae family. Complete genomic sequences of BLV strains isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle have been previously reported. However, a detailed characterization of the complete genome of BLV strains directly isolated from bovine tumors is much needed in order to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by BLV in cattle. In this study, we performed a molecular characterization of BLV complete genomes from bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma isolates. A nucleotide substitution was found in the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) site of the 5' long terminal repeat (5'LTR) of the BLV isolates. All amino acid substitutions in Tax previously found to be related to stimulate high transcriptional activity of 5'LTR were not found in these studies. Amino acid substitutions were found in the nucleocapsid, gp51 and G4 proteins. Premature stop-codons in R3 were observed. Few mutations or amino acid substitutions may be needed to allow BLV provirus to achieve silencing. Substitutions that favor suppression of viral expression in malignant B cells might be a strategy to circumvent effective immune attack. PMID:23506507

  7. Bimodal high-affinity association of Brd4 with murine leukemia virus integrase and mononucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Larue, Ross C; Plumb, Matthew R; Crowe, Brandon L; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Sharma, Amit; DiFiore, Julia; Malani, Nirav; Aiyer, Sriram S; Roth, Monica J; Bushman, Frederic D; Foster, Mark P; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2014-04-01

    The importance of understanding the molecular mechanisms of murine leukemia virus (MLV) integration into host chromatin is highlighted by the development of MLV-based vectors for human gene-therapy. We have recently identified BET proteins (Brd2, 3 and 4) as the main cellular binding partners of MLV integrase (IN) and demonstrated their significance for effective MLV integration at transcription start sites. Here we show that recombinant Brd4, a representative of the three BET proteins, establishes complementary high-affinity interactions with MLV IN and mononucleosomes (MNs). Brd4(1-720) but not its N- or C-terminal fragments effectively stimulate MLV IN strand transfer activities in vitro. Mass spectrometry- and NMR-based approaches have enabled us to map key interacting interfaces between the C-terminal domain of BRD4 and the C-terminal tail of MLV IN. Additionally, the N-terminal fragment of Brd4 binds to both DNA and acetylated histone peptides, allowing it to bind tightly to MNs. Comparative analyses of the distributions of various histone marks along chromatin revealed significant positive correlations between H3- and H4-acetylated histones, BET protein-binding sites and MLV-integration sites. Our findings reveal a bimodal mechanism for BET protein-mediated MLV integration into select chromatin locations. PMID:24520112

  8. Mutational analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 Tax.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, T M; Minella, A C; Fang, Z Y; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1997-01-01

    A mutational analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) Tax (Tax-2) was performed to identify regions within Tax-2 important for activation of promoters through the CREB/ATF or NF-kappaB/Rel signaling pathway. Tax-2 mutations within the putative zinc-binding region as well as mutations at the carboxy terminus disrupted CREB/ATF transactivation. A single mutation within the central proline-rich region of Tax-2 disrupted the transactivation of the NF-kappaB/Rel pathway. Surprisingly, this mutation, which is thought to be in a separate activation domain, was suppressed by mutations within or around the putative zinc-binding region, suggesting an interaction between these two regions. These analyses indicate that the functional regions or domains important for transactivation through the CREB/ATF or NF-kappaB/Rel signaling pathway are similar, but not identical, in Tax-1 and Tax-2. Identification of these distinct Tax-2 mutants should facilitate comparative biological studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 and ultimately lead to the determination of the functional importance of Tax trans-acting capacities in T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV. PMID:9343258

  9. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  10. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  11. Horizontal transmission and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia virus in two districts of Miyazaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MEKATA, Hirohisa; SEKIGUCHI, Satoshi; KONNAI, Satoru; KIRINO, Yumi; HORII, Yoichiro; NORIMINE, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transmission is recognized as a major infection route for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and cattle with high viral loads are considered to be a major infectious source in a herd. However, a correlation between viral loads and the risk of infection has been insufficient to use as a foundation for BLV control strategies. In this report, we examined the epidemiology of BLV infection and the infectious source in a local area. In 2013–2014, BLV infection was investigated in 1,823 cattle from 117 farms in two adjacent districts, Miyazaki, Japan. Seropositive samples for BLV were detected with 88 cattle and in 14 farms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 94% of the isolates clustered into genotype I and the remaining isolate into genotype III. Among genotype I, genetically distinct strains were spread at each farm, and cattle infected with less than 3 copies/100 cells did not transmit BLV to other cattle for more than thirty months. This is the first report of concrete data of viral load in relation to viral horizontal transmission under the field condition. The data facilitate farmers and veterinarians understanding the status of BLV infected cattle. This research contributes to BLV infection control and the development of effective BLV eradication programs. PMID:25892699

  12. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag–Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins. PMID:27329342

  13. Mutational Analysis of Bovine Leukemia Virus Rex: Identification of a Dominant-Negative Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-A; Hope, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rex proteins of the delta-retroviruses act to facilitate the export of intron-containing viral RNAs. The Rex of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is poorly characterized. To gain a better understanding of BLV Rex, we generated a reporter assay to measure BLV Rex function and used it to screen a series of point and deletion mutations. Using this approach, we were able to identify the nuclear export signal of BLV Rex. Further, we identified a dominant-negative form of BLV Rex. Protein localization analysis revealed that wild-type BLV Rex had a punctate nuclear localization and was associated with nuclear pores. In contrast, the dominant-negative BLV Rex mutation had a diffuse nuclear localization and no nuclear pore association. Overexpression of the dominant-negative BLV Rex altered the localization of the wild-type protein. This dominant-negative derivative of BLV Rex could be a useful tool to test the concept of intracellular immunization against viral infection in a large animal model. PMID:15890956

  14. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24.26% (148/610) black yaks and 19.10% (186/974) white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.73, P < 0.05), the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks. PMID:27340671

  15. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  16. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L; Bowler, Matthew W; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J Robert; Goff, Stephen P; Song, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins. PMID:27329342

  17. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27023592

  18. Ribozyme cleaves rex/tax mRNA and inhibits bovine leukemia virus expression.

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, G H; McElwain, T F; Birkebak, T A; Palmer, G H

    1993-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) encodes at least two regulatory proteins, Rex and Tax. Tax, the transactivating protein, stimulates the long terminal repeat to promote viral transcription and may be involved in tumorigenesis. Rex is involved in the transition from early expression of regulatory proteins to later expression of viral structural proteins. We have targeted ribozymes against the mRNA encoding Rex and Tax. The ribozymes consist of the hammer-head catalytic motif flanked by antisense sequences that hybridize with the complementary rex/tax mRNA. To evaluate cleavage in a cell-free system, we transcribed portions of rex/tax mRNA and incubated them with synthetic RNA ribozymes. A ribozyme was identified that cleaves > 80% of the target RNA. Synthetic DNA encoding this ribozyme was cloned into the expression vector pRc/RSV and transfected into BLV-infected bat lung cells. Intracellular cleavage of rex/tax mRNA was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR. In cells expressing the ribozyme, viral expression was markedly inhibited. Expression of the BLV core protein p24 was inhibited by 61%, and reverse transcriptase activity in supernatant was inhibited by 92%. Ribozyme inhibition of BLV expression suggests that cattle expressing these sequences may be able to control BLV replication. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7504287

  19. Detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G F; Haggard, D L; Weber, A F; Meiske, J C

    1991-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely distributed in U.S. cattle herds. It infects B lymphocytes and causes neoplastic disease in 5-10% of infected animals. Direct economic losses are incurred as a result of death, reduced milk production and condemnation at slaughter. Thus the identification of cattle infected with BLV is of significant concern to the U.S. cattle industry. For this reason, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to examine seropositive and seronegative cattle for the presence of BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an amplification protocol able to detect 1 viral genome in 100,000 cells, BLV was not detected in 7 seronegative cattle in an infected herd. BLV sequences were detected in 13 of 18 seropositive animals with various levels of infection as determined by in vitro lymphocyte culture and electron microscopy. An active infection was demonstrated in one animal, based on the presence of viral RNA. These findings indicate that PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of BLV in cattle and provides new information regarding the dynamics of the infection. PMID:1658030

  20. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

  1. Horizontal transmission and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia virus in two districts of Miyazaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Kirino, Yumi; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal transmission is recognized as a major infection route for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and cattle with high viral loads are considered to be a major infectious source in a herd. However, a correlation between viral loads and the risk of infection has been insufficient to use as a foundation for BLV control strategies. In this report, we examined the epidemiology of BLV infection and the infectious source in a local area. In 2013-2014, BLV infection was investigated in 1,823 cattle from 117 farms in two adjacent districts, Miyazaki, Japan. Seropositive samples for BLV were detected with 88 cattle and in 14 farms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 94% of the isolates clustered into genotype I and the remaining isolate into genotype III. Among genotype I, genetically distinct strains were spread at each farm, and cattle infected with less than 3 copies/100 cells did not transmit BLV to other cattle for more than thirty months. This is the first report of concrete data of viral load in relation to viral horizontal transmission under the field condition. The data facilitate farmers and veterinarians understanding the status of BLV infected cattle. This research contributes to BLV infection control and the development of effective BLV eradication programs. PMID:25892699

  2. Sequence-specific binding of DNA by the Moloney murine leukemia virus integrase protein.

    PubMed Central

    Krogstad, P A; Champoux, J J

    1990-01-01

    Genetic studies have indicated that integration of retroviral DNA into the host genome depends on the presence of the inverted repeats at the free termini of the long terminal repeats on the unintegrated DNA and on the product of the 3' end of the pol gene (the integrase [IN] protein). While the precise function of the Moloney murine leukemia virus IN protein is uncertain, others have shown that it is a DNA-binding protein and functions in the processing of the inverted repeats prior to integration. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we cloned and expressed the IN protein in Escherichia coli. Crude extracts of total cellular protein were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose filters, denatured in guanidine, renatured, and incubated with oligonucleotide probes. Single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides corresponding to the termini of unintegrated linear viral DNA were specifically bound by the IN protein in this assay. These data suggest that the role of the Moloney IN protein in the early steps of integration involves sequence-specific recognition of the DNA sequences found at the ends of the long terminal repeats. Images PMID:2186176

  3. Mutagenesis analysis of the murine leukemia virus matrix protein: identification of regions important for membrane localization and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Soneoka, Y; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J

    1997-07-01

    We have created two sets of substitution mutations in the Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) matrix protein in order to identify domains involved in association with the plasma membrane and in incorporation of the viral envelope glycoproteins into virus particles. The first set of mutations was targeted at putative membrane-associating regions similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein, which include a polybasic region at the N terminus of the Mo-MuLV matrix protein and two regions predicted to form beta strands. The second set of mutations was created within hydrophobic residues to test for the production of virus particles lacking envelope proteins, with the speculation of an involvement of the membrane-spanning region of the envelope protein in incorporation into virus particles. We have found that mutation of the N-terminal polybasic region redirected virus assembly to the cytoplasm, and we show that tryptophan residues may also play a significant role in the intracellular transport of the matrix protein. In total, 21 mutants of the Mo-MuLV matrix protein were produced, but we did not observe any mutant virus particles lacking the envelope glycoproteins, suggesting that a direct interaction between the Mo-MuLV matrix protein and envelope proteins either may not exist or may occur through multiple redundant interactions. PMID:9188629

  4. Amplification and analysis of specific DNA and RNA sequences of bovine leukemia virus from infected cows by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, M P; Ehrlich, G D; Ferrer, J F; Sninsky, J J; Zandomeni, R; Dock, N L; Poiesz, B

    1992-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiologic agent of leukemia in cattle and is believed to cause decreases in milk productivity, fertility, and life span in infected cows. BLV is a type C retrovirus in the Oncovirinae subfamily. It is most closely related to human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II). Since the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides rapid and efficient amplification of DNA sequences, primers were designed to amplify regions of the polymerase (pol) and pX genes specific for BLV targets. These sets of primers consistently amplified as few as 10 copies of BLV DNA contained in a plasmid in the background of 1 microgram of either human or bovine chromosomal DNA. In addition, no amplification products were detected from cell lines infected with HTLV-I, HTLV-II, or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or 2 by the BLV PCR systems. Samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 18 cows, previously determined to be serologically positive or negative, were correctly identified in a blind study as containing proviral DNA by use of the BLV primers and probes. Cloning and sequencing of amplified products revealed finite sequence variations among a previously cloned BLV isolate, the wild-type virus, and the published genome. Reverse transcriptase-directed PCR with the primers for both BLV pol and BLV pX was performed on plasma from a BLV-infected cow and detected in vivo BLV RNA expression. In summary, we have developed a specific and sensitive assay using PCR for the detection and identification of BLV infections; this assay can now be applied to clinical and basic research questions in veterinary medicine. Images PMID:1370847

  5. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case. PMID:25425600

  6. Applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E

    1996-10-15

    Recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. Amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) The engineering of the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. When applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in Europe and raccoons in the United States, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) A fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion and hemagglutinin glycoproteins has been shown to protect commercial broiler chickens for their lifetime when the vaccine was administered at 1 day of age, even in the presence of maternal immunity against either the Newcastle disease virus or the pox vector. (iii) Recombinants of canarypox virus, which is restricted for replication to avian species, have provided protection against rabies virus challenge in cats and dogs, against canine distemper virus, feline leukemia virus, and equine influenza virus disease. In humans, canarypox virus-based recombinants expressing antigens from rabies virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and HIV have been shown to be safe and immunogenic. (iv) A highly attenuated vaccinia derivative, NYVAC, has been engineered to express antigens from both animal and human pathogens. Safety and immunogenicity of NYVAC-based recombinants expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, a polyprotein from Japanese encephalitis virus, and seven antigens from Plasmodium falciparum have been demonstrated to be safe and immunogenic in early human vaccine studies. PMID:8876138

  7. Epstein - Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 suppresses reporter activity through modulation of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) has been shown to increase the expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and the immunofluorescent intensity of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs). PML NBs have been implicated in the modulation of transcription and the association of reporter plasmids with PML NBs has been implicated in repression of reporter activity. Additionally, repression of various reporters in the presence of LMP1 has been noted. This study demonstrates that LMP1 suppresses expression of reporter activity in a dose responsive manner and corresponds with the LMP1 induced increase in PML NB intensity. Disruption of PML NBs with arsenic trioxide or a PML siRNA restores reporter activity. These data offer an explanation for previously conflicting data on LMP1 signaling and calls attention to the possibility of false-positives and false-negatives when using reporter assays as a research tool in cells expressing LMP1. PMID:21975125

  8. Efficient induction of human T-cell leukemia virus-1-specific CTL by chimeric particle without adjuvant as a prophylactic for adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kozako, Tomohiro; Fukada, Katsuhiko; Hirata, Shinya; White, Yohann; Harao, Michiko; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Kino, Youichiro; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi; Lemonnier, François; Sonoda, Shunro; Arima, Naomichi

    2009-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm that develops after long-term infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in suppressing proliferation of HTLV-1-infected or transformed T-cells in vitro. Efficient induction of antigen-specific CTLs is important for immunologic suppression of oncogenesis, but has evaded strategies utilizing poorly immunogenic free synthetic peptides. In the present study, we examined the efficient induction of HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell response by an HTLV-1/hepatitis B virus core (HBc) chimeric particle incorporating the HLA-A*0201-restricted HTLV-1 Tax-epitope. The immunization of HLA-A*0201-transgenic mice with the chimeric particle induced antigen-specific gamma-interferon reaction, whereas immunization with epitope peptide only induced no reaction as assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Immunization with the chimeric particle also induced HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cells in spleen and inguinal lymph nodes. Furthermore, upon exposure of dendritic cells from HLA-A*0201-transgenic mice to the chimeric particle, the expression of CD86, HLA-A02, TLR4 and MHC class II was increased. Additionally, our results show that HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cells can be induced by peptide with HTLV-1/HBc particle from ATL patient, but not by peptide only and these HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T-cells were able to lyse cells presenting the peptide. These results suggest that HTLV-1/HBc chimeric particle is capable of inducing strong cellular immune responses without adjuvants via effective maturation of dendritic cells and is potentially useful as an effective carrier for therapeutic vaccines in tumors, or in infectious diseases by substituting the epitope peptide. PMID:19889459

  9. Feline infectious peritonitis: still an enigma?

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Meli, M L

    2014-03-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the most important fatal infectious diseases of cats, the pathogenesis of which has not yet been fully revealed. The present review focuses on the biology of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection and the pathogenesis and pathological features of FIP. Recent studies have revealed functions of many viral proteins, differing receptor specificity for type I and type II FCoV, and genomic differences between feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs) and FIP viruses (FIPVs). FECV and FIP also exhibit functional differences, since FECVs replicate mainly in intestinal epithelium and are shed in feces, and FIPVs replicate efficiently in monocytes and induce systemic disease. Thus, key events in the pathogenesis of FIP are systemic infection with FIPV, effective and sustainable viral replication in monocytes, and activation of infected monocytes. The host's genetics and immune system also play important roles. It is the activation of monocytes and macrophages that directly leads to the pathologic features of FIP, including vasculitis, body cavity effusions, and fibrinous and granulomatous inflammatory lesions. Advances have been made in the clinical diagnosis of FIP, based on the clinical pathologic findings, serologic testing, and detection of virus using molecular (polymerase chain reaction) or antibody-based methods. Nevertheless, the clinical diagnosis remains challenging in particular in the dry form of FIP, which is partly due to the incomplete understanding of infection biology and pathogenesis in FIP. So, while much progress has been made, many aspects of FIP pathogenesis still remain an enigma. PMID:24569616

  10. In vitro host range of feline morbillivirus

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGUCHI, Shoichi; KOIDE, Rie; MIYAZAWA, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) is an emerging virus in cats, which is associated with tubulointerstitial nephritis. To study the in vitro host range of FmoPV, we inoculated FmoPV strain SS1 to 32 cell lines originated from 13 species and cultured for 2 weeks, followed by RNA extraction and reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction for FmoPV detection. As a result, only cell lines derived from cats and African green monkeys were susceptible to FmoPV. FmoPV infects diverse feline cell lines: epithelial, fibroblastic, lymphoid and glial cells. These results indicate that the receptor (s) for FmoPV are ubiquitously expressed in cats. No infectivity of FmoPV was observed in human cell lines, which suggests least threatening of cross-species transmission of FmoPV from cats to humans. PMID:26027844

  11. Nucleotide sequence of the 3' region of an infectious human T-cell leukemia virus type II genome.

    PubMed Central

    Shimotohno, K; Wachsman, W; Takahashi, Y; Golde, D W; Miwa, M; Sugimura, T; Chen, I S

    1984-01-01

    The nucleic acid sequence of the 3' region of human T-cell leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II) proviral DNA was determined using a HTLV-II proviral clone that could be recovered as infectious, transforming virus. The sequence data indicate a region of unknown function of approximately equal to 1.6 kilobase pairs in the 3' region, analogous to the X region previously identified in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). Three overlapping open reading frames are present in the X region of HTLV-II. One of these open reading frames, Xc, is most likely to encode a protein product, because it has greater predicted amino acid sequence homology (78%) with the X-IV region of HTLV-I and a greater percentage of its base differences with X-IV at the third nucleotide position of codons than do the other open reading frames. Sequences of the X-region that include the open reading frames are conserved in two deletion mutants of HTLV-II, which are associated with a subline of Mo cells with a decreased dependence on fetal bovine serum. Images PMID:6093110

  12. Identification of homeodomain proteins, PBX1 and PREP1, involved in the transcription of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheng-Hao; Walker, John R; Chanda, Sumit K; Gray, Nathanael S; Caldwell, Jeremy S

    2003-02-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) have been shown to block human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus. It is hypothesized that CDKIs block viral replication by inhibiting transcription of specific cellular genes. Here we find that three CDKIs, flavopiridol, purvalanol A, and methoxy-roscovitine, block Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcription events. Using gene expression microarray technology to examine the inhibitory effects of CDKIs, we observed a cellular gene, the pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 1 (Pbx1) gene, down-regulated by CDKI treatment. The PBX consensus element (PCE), TGATTGAC, is conserved in the long terminal repeats of several murine retroviruses, including Moloney MLV. Mutations in the PCE completely inhibited viral transcription whereas overexpression of PBX1 and a PBX1-associated protein, PREP1, enhanced viral transcription. The interaction between the PCE and PBX1-PREP1 proteins was confirmed by gel shift experiments. Blocking PBX1 protein synthesis resulted in a significant decrease in viral transcription. Collectively, our results represent the first work demonstrating that the homeodomain proteins PBX1 and PREP1 are cellular factors involved in Moloney MLV transcription regulation. PMID:12529389

  13. Expression of murine leukemia viruses in RFM mice with host versus graft disease after perinatal inoculation of (T6 X RFM)F1 lymphohemopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, S S; Brede, G; Tucker, H S; Maloney, M; Montour, J L; Hard, R C

    1983-01-01

    Host versus graft disease is the fatal syndrome of altered immunity that follows the perinatal inoculation of related F1 hybrid spleen cells to susceptible strains of inbred mice. The allogenic reaction results in severe depletion of T-lymphocytes, but causes hyperplasia and hypersecretion of B-cells. Among the long-term survivors of acute host versus graft reactions, there is a high incidence of nonthymic lymphomas associated with ecotropic murine leukemia virus that may be of donor F1 origin. The present studies were done to determine whether ecotropic murine leukemia virus played any role in the pathogenesis of acute host versus graft disease in RFM mice perinatally inoculated with (T6 X RFM)F1 spleen cells. In RFM/(T6 X RFM)F1 chimeras, N-tropic murine leukemia virus can be detected as early as 3 days. The progression of the disease was accompanied by increasing viral expression. The inoculation of N-tropic virus of F1 donor origin into RFM neonates failed to induce disease, although the virus proliferated. Detection of progressively rising titers of antibody to murine leukemia virus linked the virus to the development of hyperimmunoglobulinemia by virtue of its ability to serve as a replicating source of antigens. These and other studies provided evidence that the seemingly paradoxical appearance of hyperimmunoglobulinemia in T-cell-deficient mice with the host versus graft syndrome is due, at least in part, to the stimulation of presensitized F1 donor B-cells, which are not destroyed in the allogenic reaction, as are the T-cells. Another unusual finding was the detection of polytropic murine leukemia virus in 25-day-old RFM/(T6 X RFM)F1 chimeras. It is suggested that the allogenic host versus graft reaction favored the formation of recombinants. PMID:6135664

  14. Establishment of feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures for the propagation and study of feline enteric coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Vermeulen, Ben L; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is the most feared infectious cause of death in cats, induced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). This coronavirus is a virulent mutant of the harmless, ubiquitous feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). To date, feline coronavirus (FCoV) research has been hampered by the lack of susceptible cell lines for the propagation of serotype I FCoVs. In this study, long-term feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures were established from primary ileocytes and colonocytes by simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen- and human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-induced immortalization. Subsequently, these cultures were evaluated for their usability in FCoV research. Firstly, the replication capacity of the serotype II strains WSU 79-1683 and WSU 79-1146 was studied in the continuous cultures as was done for the primary cultures. In accordance with the results obtained in primary cultures, FCoV WSU 79-1683 still replicated significantly more efficient compared to FCoV WSU 79-1146 in both continuous cultures. In addition, the cultures were inoculated with faecal suspensions from healthy cats and with faecal or tissue suspensions from FIP cats. The cultures were susceptible to infection with different serotype I enteric strains and two of these strains were further propagated. No infection was seen in cultures inoculated with FIPV tissue homogenates. In conclusion, a new reliable model for FCoV investigation and growth of enteric field strains was established. In contrast to FIPV strains, FECVs showed a clear tropism for intestinal epithelial cells, giving an explanation for the observation that FECV is the main pathotype circulating among cats. PMID:23964891

  15. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes.

    PubMed

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), 5' leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3' LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5' LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3' LTR. There is a 5' splice site in the 5' leader sequence and a 3' splice site at the 3' end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax dysregulates beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Mariko; Kikuchi, Akira; Akiyama, Tetsu; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Mori, Naoki

    2006-11-01

    Dysregulation of beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in the malignant transformation of cells. However, the role of beta-catenin in the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-induced transformation of T cells is unknown. Here we found that beta-catenin protein was overexpressed in the nucleus and that beta-catenin-dependent transcription was significantly enhanced in Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines compared to that in Tax-negative HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Transfection with beta-catenin-specific small interfering RNA inhibited the growth of the Tax-positive HTLV-1-infected T-cell line HUT-102. Transient transfection of Tax appeared to enhance beta-catenin-dependent transcription by stabilizing the beta-catenin protein via activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein. HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines overexpressing beta-catenin also showed increased Akt activity via Tax activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein, resulting in the phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, which phosphorylates beta-catenin for ubiquitination. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 reduced beta-catenin expression in Tax-positive T-cell lines, and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta by lithium chloride restored beta-catenin expression in Tax-negative T-cell lines. Finally, we showed that dominant-negative Akt inhibited Tax-induced beta-catenin-dependent transcription. These results indicate that Tax activates beta-catenin through the Akt signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that activation of beta-catenin by Tax may be important in the transformation of T cells by HTLV-1 infection. PMID:16920823

  17. Prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in the northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Shalaleh; Haghparast, Alireza; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Tabatabaeizadeh, Seyed-Elias

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in Khorasan Razavi and Khorasan Shomali provinces which are the main provinces located in the northeast of Iran. Total number of 429 blood samples were collected from industrial dairy herds. The samples were categorized based on province, age (2-3, 4-6, and 7-10 years old), calving (≤ 2, 3-5, and > 5) and herd size (≤ 100, 101-250, and > 250) and examined by indirect ELISA. The results of this study showed that 109 (25.4%) out of 429 serum samples were BLV seropositive. The BLV prevalence among cattle of dairy herds of Khorasan Razavi and Khorasan Shomali provinces were 29.8% and 1.5%, respectively. The results showed that the number of seropositive animals was increased significantly with the age (p < 0.05). The infection rate in animals 2-3, 4-6 and 7-10 years old were 12.1%, 26.7% and 45.6%, respectively. It was shown that BLV prevalence according to calving ≤ 2, 3-5 and > 5 was 15.5%, 33.0% and 42.9%, respectively, with a significant difference between calving ≤ 2 and > 5 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of BLV among herd size of ≤ 100, 101-250 and > 250 was 19.7%, 14.3% and 42.1%, respectively, which was significantly higher in herds with more than 250 cattle (p < 0.05). This study revealed that BLV infection in dairy herds of northeast of Iran was influenced by geographical location (province), age, calving and herd size. PMID:25568707

  18. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection. PMID:22621175

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle.

    PubMed

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population. PMID:25399399

  20. Preparation and characterization of the RNase H domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kosaku; Yokokawa, Kanta; Hisayoshi, Tetsuro; Fukatsu, Kosuke; Kuze, Ikumi; Konishi, Atsushi; Mikami, Bunzo; Kojima, Kenji; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) contains fingers, palm, thumb, and connection subdomains as well as an RNase H domain. The DNA polymerase active site resides in the palm subdomain, and the RNase H active site is located in the RNase H domain. The RNase H domain contains a positively charged α-helix called the C helix (H(594)GEIYRRR(601)), that is thought to be involved in substrate recognition. In this study, we expressed three versions of the RNase H domain in Escherichia coli, the wild-type domain (WT) (residues Ile498-Leu671) and two variants that lack the regions containing the C helix (Ile593-Leu603 and Gly595-Thr605, which we called ΔC1 and ΔC2, respectively) with a strep-tag at the N-terminus and a deca-histidine tag at the C-terminus. These peptides were purified from the cells by anion-exchange, Ni(2+) affinity, and Strep-Tactin affinity column chromatography, and then the tags were removed by proteolysis. In an RNase H assay using a 25-bp RNA-DNA heteroduplex, WT, ΔC1, and ΔC2 produced RNA fragments ranging from 7 to 16 nucleotides (nt) whereas the full-length MMLV RT (Thr24-Leu671) produced 14-20-nt RNA fragments, suggesting that elimination of the fingers, palm, thumb, and connection subdomains affects the binding of the RNase H domain to the RNA-DNA heteroduplex. The activity levels of WT, ΔC1, and ΔC2 were estimated to be 1%, 0.01%, and 0.01% of full-length MMLV RT activity, indicating that the C helix is important, but not critical, for the activity of the isolated RNase H domain. PMID:25959458

  1. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR), 5′ leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3′ LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5′ LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3′ LTR. There is a 5′ splice site in the 5′ leader sequence and a 3′ splice site at the 3′ end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  2. Basis for receptor specificity of nonecotropic murine leukemia virus surface glycoprotein gp70SU.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, D; Rein, A

    1992-01-01

    Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) initiate infection of NIH 3T3 cells by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a cell surface receptor. Interference assays have shown that MuLVs can be divided into four groups, each using a distinct receptor: ecotropic, polytropic, amphotropic, and 10A1. In this study, we have attempted to map the determinants within viral Env proteins by constructing chimeric env genes. Chimeras were made in all six pairwise combinations between Moloney MCF (a polytropic MuLV), amphotropic MuLV, and 10A1, using a conserved EcoRI site in the middle of the Env coding region. The receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity seems to map to the N-terminal portion of surface glycoprotein gp70SU. The difference between amphotropic and 10A1 receptor specificity can be attributed to one or more of only six amino acid differences in this region. Nearly all other cases showed evidence of interaction between Env domains in the generation of receptor specificity. Thus, a chimera composed exclusively of MCF and amphotropic sequences was found to exhibit 10A1 receptor specificity. None of the chimeras were able to infect cells by using the MCF receptor; however, two chimeras containing the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU could bind to this receptor, while they were able to infect cells via the amphotropic receptor. This result raises the possibility that receptor binding maps to the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU but requires MCF N-terminal sequences for a functional interaction with the MCF receptor. Images PMID:1321266

  3. Physical properties of moloney murine leukemia virus high-molecular-weight RNA: a two subunit structure.

    PubMed Central

    Riggin, C H; Bondurant, M; Mitchell, W M

    1975-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight RNA of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) was analyzed by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation. Molecular weights of 7.2 x 10(6) and 3.4 x 10(6) were found for the native and subunit forms, respectively, indicating that the native structure is a dimer. S20,w and frictional coefficients were determined for MuLV RNA by analytical velocity centrifugation as a function of ionic strength. The apparent S20,w of native MuLV RNA was 47.3, 57.4, and 66.5 in 0.01, 0.1, and 0.20 M Na+, respectively; the corresponding frictional coefficients were 5.44, 4.48, and 3.87. Native RNA was estimated by circular dichroism to be 85% helical, whereas denatured RNA was 54% helical. Thermal denaturation profiles were obtained from uv absorbance scans. Melting temperatures of 57 and 68 C were obtained for high-molecular-weight RNA in 0.01 M Na+ and 0.122 M Na+, 1mM Mg2+, respectively. van't Hoff plots of the thermal denaturation data gave enthalpies for the helix-coil transition of 21,600 cal (ca. 90,500 J) per mol of cooperatively melting unit in high salt and 19,600 cal (ca. 82,100 J) per mol in low salt, consistent with both base stacking and pairing. The melting of Mu LV RNA occurred over a broad temprange and van't Hoff plots were linear over most of the melting range, indicating a noncooperative process of helix stabilization. PMID:1202247

  4. Analysis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Particles by Using Cryo-Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Sheng; Maldonado, José O.; Grigsby, Iwen F.

    2014-01-01

    The particle structure of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is poorly characterized. Here, we have used cryo-electron tomography to analyze HTLV-1 particle morphology. Particles produced from MT-2 cells were polymorphic, roughly spherical, and varied in size. Capsid cores, when present, were typically poorly defined polyhedral structures with at least one curved region contacting the inner face of the viral membrane. Most of the particles observed lacked a defined capsid core, which likely impacts HTLV-1 particle infectivity. PMID:25473052

  5. An immunofluorescence diagnostic test for feline viral rhinotracheitis.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J H; Scott, F W

    1978-03-01

    Hyperimmune serum against feline viral rhinotracheitis was produced in a goat and conjugated with a fluorescent dye. Cell cultures infected with rhinotracheitis virus had positive immunofluorescence. Cell cultures infected with other feline viruses and herpesviruses of other species did not fluoresce. In cats experimentally infected with rhinotracheitis virus, the virus was isolated from nasal and conjunctival swabs 1 to 9 days after inoculation. Nasal smears stained with the conjugated antiserum fluoresced 1 to 9 days after inoculation when clinical disease was most apparent. Conjunctival smears had positive immunofluorescence 1 to 6 days, but not 9 days, after inoculation. On postinoculation day 23, rhinotracheitis virus was not isolated from nasal or conjunctival swabs and nasal and conjunctival smears did not fluoresce. Rhinotracheitis virus or feline calicivirus was isolated from naturally infected cats with upper respiratory tract disease. Nasal and conjunctival smears from rhinotracheitis virus-infected cats had positive immunofluorescence in all cast showing clinical illness. Smears from 1 clinically normal cat from which rhinotracheitis virus was isolated did not fluoresce. Nasal and conjunctival smears from calicivirus-infected cats did not fluoresce. PMID:205147

  6. Viral causes of feline lymphoma: retroviruses and beyond.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The most widely recognised cause of feline lymphoma is the gammaretrovirus feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). Research into the mechanisms of cellular transformation employed by FeLV and other oncogenic retroviruses has provided as much information on the regulation of eukaryotic cell growth and differentiation as it has about cancer. The recognition that a cancer has a viral cause opens up the possibility of novel treatments that spare the host from cytotoxic side-effects by specifically targeting the virus, or the host's immune response to it. The ultimate prize for viral-associated cancers is their prevention. Vaccination and changes in management practices have seen the global prevalence of FeLV infection fall and, with it, the incidence of FeLV-related cancers. Remarkably, in the face of this success, the prevalence of feline lymphoma remains high. At least one other virus, the lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), accounts for some of these cases. Transformation by FIV involves incompletely understood mechanisms that are distinct from those employed by FeLV. This review will focus on the current understanding of FeLV-associated and FIV-associated lymphoma and consider whether yet more viral aetiologies could be waiting to be discovered. PMID:24928422

  7. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  8. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  9. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  10. 9 CFR 113.304 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... virus, each of two feline panleukopenia susceptible cats, as determined by the criteria prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, shall be injected subcutaneously with the equivalent of one cat dose each and the cats observed each day for 21 days. If either or both cats show signs of disease or...

  11. Ancestral Mutations Acquired in Refrex-1, a Restriction Factor against Feline Retroviruses, during its Cooption and Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Kawasaki, Junna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections of germ cells. Retroviral endogenization is an adaptation process for the host genome, and ERVs are gradually attenuated or inactivated by mutation. However, some ERVs that have been “domesticated” by their hosts eventually gain physiological functions, such as placentation or viral resistance. We previously reported the discovery of Refrex-1, a soluble antiretroviral factor in domestic cats that specifically inhibits infection by feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), a chimeric virus of FeLV, and a feline ERV, ERV-DC. Refrex-1 is a truncated envelope protein (Env) encoded by both ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 proviral loci. Here, we reconstituted ancestral and functional Env from ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 envelope genes (env) by inducing reverse mutations. Unexpectedly, ERV-DC7 and ERV-DC16 full-length Env (ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl), reconstructed by removing stop codons, did not produce infectious viral particles. ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl were highly expressed in cells but were not cleaved into surface subunits (SU) and transmembrane subunits, nor were they incorporated into virions. G407R/N427I-A429T and Y431D substitutions within the SU C-terminal domain of ERV-DC7 fl and ERV-DC16 fl, respectively, caused these dysfunctions. The residues glycine 407 and tyrosine 431 are relatively conserved among infectious gammaretroviruses, and their substitution causes the same dysfunctions as the tested retroviruses. Our results reveal that specific mutations within the SU C-terminal domain suppressed Env cleavage and incorporation into virions and indicate that these mutations contributed to the domestication of Refrex-1 through multistep events that occurred in the postintegration period. IMPORTANCE Domestic cats are colonized with various exogenous retroviruses (exRVs), such as feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and their genomes contain numerous ERVs, some of which are replication

  12. Atomic resolution structure of Moloney murine leukemia virus matrix protein and its relationship to other retroviral matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Nico; Harlos, Karl; Iourin, Oleg; Rao, Zihe; Kingsman, Alan; Stuart, David; Fry, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Matrix proteins associated with the viral membrane are important in the formation of the viral particle and in virus maturation. The 1.0 A crystal structure of the ecotropic Gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) matrix protein reveals the conserved topology of other retroviral matrix proteins, despite undetectable sequence similarity. The N terminus (normally myristylated) is exposed and adjacent to a basic surface patch, features likely to contribute to membrane binding. The four proteins in the asymmetric unit make varied contacts. The M-MuLV matrix structure is intermediate, between those of the lentiviruses and other retroviruses. The protein fold appears to be maintained, in part, by the conservation of side chain packing, which may provide a useful tool for searching for weak distant similarities in proteins. PMID:12467570

  13. Intracellular Distribution of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Gag Proteins Is Independent of Interaction with Intracellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Isabelle; Blot, Vincent; Bouchaert, Isabelle; Salamero, Jean; Goud, Bruno; Rosenberg, Arielle R.; Dokhélar, Marie-Christine

    2002-01-01

    Retrovirus Gag proteins are synthesized on free ribosomes, and are sufficient to govern the assembly and release of virus particles. Like type C retroviruses, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) assembles and buds at the plasma membrane. After immunofluorescence staining, HTLV-1 Gag proteins appear as punctuated intracellular clusters, which suggests that they are associated either with intracellular membranes or with the plasma membrane. However, colocalization experiments using a panel of markers demonstrated that Gag proteins were not associated with the membranes involved in the secretory or endocytosis pathway. Small amounts of Gag proteins were detected at the plasma membrane and colocalized with the envelope glycoproteins. Moreover, Gag proteins were excluded from streptolysin-O permeabilized cells and in this respect behaved like cytoplasmic proteins. This suggests that the trafficking of HTLV-1 Gag proteins through the cytoplasm of the host cell is independent of any cell membrane system. PMID:11752179

  14. Subnuclear localization of the trans-activating protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I

    SciTech Connect

    Slamon, D.J.; Keith, D.E.; Golde, D.W. ); Boyle, W.J. ); Press, M.F. ); Souza, L.M. )

    1988-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I is associated with human lymphoid malignancies. The p40{sup xI} protein encoded by the x gene of this virus is believed to play some role in virally mediated transformation. This gene is known to encode a transcriptional trans activator which previous studies have shown to be a nuclear protein. Further characterization of the intracellular kinetics of this protein showed that it migrated into the nucleus very soon after synthesis. Within the nucleus, p40{sup xI} was distributed almost equally between the nucleoplasm and the nuclear matrix. Given the proposed role of the nuclear matrix in RNA transcription, the association of p40{sup xI} with the matrix places it in an appropriate cellular compartment to exercise an effect on transcription.

  15. Subnuclear localization of the trans-activating protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Slamon, D J; Boyle, W J; Keith, D E; Press, M F; Golde, D W; Souza, L M

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I is associated with human lymphoid malignancies. The p40xI protein encoded by the x gene of this virus is believed to play some role in virally mediated transformation. This gene is known to encode a transcriptional trans activator which previous studies have shown to be a nuclear protein. Further characterization of the intracellular kinetics of this protein showed that it migrated into the nucleus very soon after synthesis. Within the nucleus, p40xI was distributed almost equally between the nucleoplasm and the nuclear matrix. Given the proposed role of the nuclear matrix in RNA transcription, the association of p40xI with the matrix places it in an appropriate cellular compartment to exercise an effect on transcription. Images PMID:2828664

  16. Retrovirus gene expression during the cell cycle. I. Virus production, synthesis, and expression of viral proteins in Rauscher murine leukemia virus-infected mouse cells.

    PubMed Central

    Balazs, I; Caldarella, J

    1981-01-01

    Synchronized mouse cells (JLS-V9) chronically infected with Rauscher murine leukemia virus were used to study virus production, the synthesis of gag and env precursor proteins, and the expression of env protein on the cell surface during the cell cycle. The amount of virus released into the medium by synchronized cells during a 30-min interval was determined by using the XC plaque assay and by measuring reverse transcriptase activity. The results show that virus production occurs during mitosis. Labeling of the cell surface of synchronized cells with 125I or with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum shows that the amount of gp 70env on the cell surface parallels cellular growth. Therefore, the cell cycle-dependent release of virus is not accompanied by similar variations in the amount of viral envelope protein on the cell surface. Immunoprecipitation of cells labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was used to measure viral protein synthesis during the cell cycle. The rate of synthesis of gag precursor proteins show three maximums corresponding to the G1, middle S, and late S to G2 phases of the cell cycle. The rate of synthesis of env precursor proteins does not change, suggesting that in these cells the synthesis of these two gene products is controlled separately. Images PMID:7288918

  17. Mutation of a Single Envelope N-Linked Glycosylation Site Enhances the Pathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bouzar, Amel Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock; Cosse, Jean-Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; Callebaut, Isabelle; Reichert, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have coevolved with their host to ensure efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system in which lymphoproliferative disorders develop in ruminants after latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly but fortunately, such a hyperpathogenic BLV strain was never observed in the field or designed in vitro. In this study, we sought to understand the role of envelope N-linked glycosylation with the hypothesis that this posttranslational modification could either favor BLV infection by allowing viral entry or allow immune escape by using glycans as a shield. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site (N230) that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Indeed, mutation N230E unexpectedly leads to enhanced fusogenicity and protein stability. IMPORTANCE Infection by retroviruses requires the interaction of the viral envelope protein (SU) with a membrane-associated receptor allowing fusion and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cell. We show that N-linked glycosylation of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) SU protein is, as expected, essential for cell infection in vitro. Consistently, mutation of all glycosylation sites of a BLV provirus destroys infectivity in vivo. However, single mutations do not significantly modify replication in vivo. Instead, a particular mutation at SU codon 230 increases replication and accelerates pathogenesis. This unexpected observation has important consequences in terms of disease control and managing. PMID:26085161

  18. Murine leukemia virus mutant with a frameshift in the reverse transcriptase coding region: implications for pol gene structure.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, J G; Hu, S C; Rein, A; Messer, L I; Gerwin, B I

    1984-01-01

    The molecular defect in the nonconditional B-tropic MuLV pol mutant, clone 23 (Gerwin et al., J. Virol. 31:741-751, 1979), has been characterized by recombinant DNA technology. The entire mutant genome was cloned from an EcoRI digest of integrated cellular DNA into bacteriophage lambda Charon 4A and then subcloned at the EcoRI site of pBR322. NIH-3T3 cells transfected with the plasmid clone, termed pRTM (RTM, reverse transcriptase mutant), reproduced the properties of clone 23 virus-infected cells. In vivo ligation experiments involving cotransfection of subclones of pRTM and wild-type murine leukemia virus localized the defect in the clone 23 genome to an approximately 400-base-pair region in the pol gene between the SalI and XhoI sites. Sequence analysis of this region in the wild-type and mutant genomes revealed that the mutant has one additional C residue located 231 bases downstream of the last base of the SalI recognition site. This 1-base insertion brings three TGA termination codons into phase. Thus, the mutation in clone 23 leads to premature termination of translation, explaining the presence in clone 23 virions of a truncated polymerase with low levels of enzymatic activity. It was previously shown that the gag precursor is cleaved normally in clone 23-infected cells; therefore, if a virus-coded protease is involved in this cleavage, it must be encoded by sequences upstream of the reverse transcriptase region of the pol gene. This consideration, coupled with the observed molecular weight of the mutant polymerase and our precise determination of its C terminus, have led to a proposal for the genetic organization of the murine leukemia virus pol gene. Images PMID:6205170

  19. Resistance of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 to APOBEC3G restriction is mediated by elements in nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Derse, David; Hill, Shawn A.; Princler, Gerald; Lloyd, Patricia; Heidecker, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has evolved a remarkable strategy to thwart the antiviral effects of the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (hA3G). HTLV-1 infects T lymphocytes in vivo, where, like HIV-1, it is likely to encounter hA3G. HIV-1 counteracts the innate antiviral activity of hA3G by producing an accessory protein, Vif, which hastens the degradation of hA3G. In contrast, HTLV-1 does not encode a Vif homologue; instead, HTLV-1 has evolved a cis-acting mechanism to prevent hA3G restriction. We demonstrate here that a peptide motif in the C terminus of the HTLV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) domain inhibits hA3G packaging into nascent virions. Mutation of amino acids within this region resulted in increased levels of hA3G incorporation into virions and increased susceptibility to hA3G restriction. Elements within the C-terminal extension of the NC domain are highly conserved among the primate T cell leukemia viruses, but this extension is absent in all other retroviral NC proteins. PMID:17299050

  20. Analysis of the S3 and S3' subsite specificities of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease: development of a broad-based protease inhibitor efficacious against FIV, SIV, and HIV in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, T; Laco, G S; Torbett, B E; Fox, H S; Lerner, D L; Elder, J H; Wong, C H

    1998-02-01

    The S3 and S3' subsite binding specificities of HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus proteases (FIV) proteases (PRs) have been explored by using C2-symmetric competitive inhibitors. The inhibitors evaluated contained (1S, 2R, 3R, 4S)-1,4-diamino-1, 4-dibenzyl-2,3-diol as P1 and P1' units, Val as P2 and P2' residues, and a variety of amino acids at the P3 and P3' positions. All inhibitors showed very high potency against HIV PR in vitro, and their Ki values ranged between 1.1 and 2.6 nM. In contrast to the low restriction of P3 and P3' residues observed in HIV PR, FIV PR exhibited strong preference for small hydrophobic groups at the S3 and S3' subsites. Within this series, the most effective inhibitor against FIV PR contained Ala at P3 and P3'. Its Ki of 41 nM was 415- and 170-fold lower than those of the inhibitors without the P3 and P3' moieties or with the Phe at these positions, respectively. In addition, these compounds were tested against mutant FIV PRs, which contain amino acid substitutions corresponding to those in native HIV PR at homologous sites, and their efficacy of inhibition progressively increased up to 5-fold. The most potent FIV PR inhibitor was selected for examination of its effectiveness in tissue culture, and it was able to block nearly 100% of virus production in an acute infection at 1 microg/ml (1.1 microM) against HIV, FIV, and simian immunodeficiency virus. Furthermore, it was not toxic to cells, and even after 2 months of culture there was no sign of resistance development by virus. The findings suggest that inhibitors with small P3 residue may be efficacious against a broad range of HIV variants as well as interspecies PRs. PMID:9448264

  1. Monoclonal antibody to the amino-terminal L sequence of murine leukemia virus glycosylated gag polyproteins demonstrates their unusual orientation in the cell membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, E A; Kooistra, D A; Witte, O N; Weissman, I L

    1986-01-01

    To analyze cell surface murine leukemia virus gag protein expression, we have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the spontaneous AKR T lymphoma KKT-2. One of these antibodies, 43-13, detects an AKR-specific viral p12 determinant. A second monoclonal antibody, 43-17, detects a novel murine leukemia virus-related antigen found on glycosylated gag polyproteins (gp95gag, gp85gag, and gp55gag) on the surface of cells infected with and producing ecotropic endogenous viruses, but does not detect antigens within these virions. The 43-17 antibody immunoprecipitates the precursor of the cell surface gag protein whether in its glycosylated or unglycosylated state, but does not detect the cytoplasmic precursor of the virion gag proteins (Pr65gag). Based on these findings, we have localized the 43-17 determinant to the unique amino-terminal part of the glycosylated gag polyprotein (the L domain). We have determined that gp95gag contains L-p15-p12-p30-p10 determinants, whereas gp85gag lacks the carboxyterminal p10 determinant, and gp55gag lacks both p30 and p10 carboxy terminal determinants. Analysis of cell surface gag expression with the 43-17 antibody leads us to propose that the L domain plays a crucial role in (i) the insertion and orientation of murine leukemia virus gag polyproteins in the cell membrane and (ii) the relative abundance of expression of AKR leukemia virus versus Moloney murine leukemia virus glycosylated gag polyproteins in infected cells. Images PMID:2418213

  2. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  3. The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, T M; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-mediated transformation and induction of malignancy is unknown; however, several studies have implicated the viral gene product, Tax. Conclusive evidence for the role of Tax in the HTLV malignant process has been impeded by the inability to mutate tax in the context of an infectious virus and dissociate viral replication from cellular transformation. To circumvent this problem we constructed a mutant of HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2) that replicates by a Tax-independent mechanism. For these studies, the Tax response element in the viral long terminal repeat was replaced with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter enhancer (C-enh). Transcription of the chimeric HTLV-2 (HTLVC-enh) was efficiently directed by this heterologous promoter. Also, the chimeric virus transformed primary human T lymphocytes with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HTLV-2. A tax-knockout virus, termed HTLVC-enhDeltaTax, was constructed to directly assess the importance of Tax in cellular transformation. Transfection and infection studies indicated that HTLVC-enhDeltaTax was replication competent; however, HTLVC-enhDeltaTax failed to transform primary human T lymphocytes. We conclude that Tax is essential for HTLV-mediated transformation of human T lymphocytes. Furthermore, this chimeric HTLV, that replicates in the absence of Tax, should facilitate studies to determine the precise mechanism of T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV. PMID:8764028

  4. Selection of functional tRNA primers and primer binding site sequences from a retroviral combinatorial library: identification of new functional tRNA primers in murine leukemia virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Anders H.; Duch, Mogens; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2000-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcription is initiated from a cellular tRNA molecule and all known exogenous isolates of murine leukemia virus utilise a tRNAPro molecule. While several studies suggest flexibility in murine leukemia virus primer utilisation, studies on human immunodeficiency virus and avian retroviruses have revealed evidence of molecular adaptation towards the specific tRNA isoacceptor used as replication primer. In this study, murine leukemia virus tRNA utilisation is investigated by in vivo screening of a retroviral vector combinatorial library with randomised primer binding sites. While most of the selected primer binding sites are complementary to the 3′-end of tRNAPro, we also retrieved PBS sequences matching four other tRNA molecules and demonstrate that Akv murine leukemia virus vectors may efficiently replicate using tRNAArg(CCU), tRNAPhe(GAA) and a hitherto unknown human tRNASer(CGA). PMID:10637332

  5. Late Assembly Motifs of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 and Their Relative Roles in Particle Release

    PubMed Central

    Heidecker, Gisela; Lloyd, Patricia A.; Fox, Kristi; Nagashima, Kunio; Derse, David

    2004-01-01

    Three late assembly domain consensus motifs, namely PTAP, PPPY, and LYPXL, have been identified in different retroviruses. They have been shown to interact with the cellular proteins TSG101, Nedd4, and AP2 or AIP, respectively. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a PPPY and a PTAP motif, separated by two amino acids, located at the end of MA, but only the PPPY motif is conserved in the deltaretrovirus group. Like other retroviral peptides carrying the late motif, MA is mono- or di-ubiquitinated. A mutational analysis showed that 90% of PPPY mutant particles were retained in the cell compared to 15% for the wild-type virus. Mutations of the PTAP motif resulted in a 20% decrease in particle release. In single-cycle infectivity assays, the infectious titers of late motif mutants correlated with the amounts of released virus, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed binding of MA to the WW domains of the Nedd4 family member WWP1 but not to the amino-terminal ubiquitin E2 variant domain of TSG101 in mammalian two-hybrid analyses. The binding to WWP1 was eliminated when the PPPY motif was mutated. However, MA showed binding to TSG101 in the yeast two-hybrid system that was dependent on an intact PTAP motif. A dominant-negative (DN) mutant of WWP1 could inhibit budding of the intact HTLV-1 virus. In contrast, DN TSG101 only affected the release of virus-like particles encoded by Gag expression plasmids. Electron and fluorescent microscopy showed that Gag accumulates in large patches in the membranes of cells expressing viruses with PPPY mutations. Very few tethered immature particles could be detected in these samples, suggesting that budding is impaired at an earlier step than in other retroviruses. PMID:15163754

  6. Phenotypic characterization in mice of thymus target cells susceptible to productive infection by the radiation leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Boniver, J.; Decleve, A.; Honsik, C.; Libermann, M.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-11-01

    The spread of virus repliction was studied by electron microscopy in the thymuses of inbred C57BL/Ka mice after intrathymic inoculation of the radiation leukemia virus (RadLV). The first type C-budding virus particles appeared in scarce blast cells of the subcapsular zone. Most of these blast cells were ''X-cells,'' i.e., the thymus lymphoid cells most actively engaged in DNA synthesis. Virus replication spread to the entire cortical blast cell population and, from day 7 on, to the small cortical lymphocytes. The first virus-producing cells were derived from a very few target cells (approx. =0.001-0.003% of thymocytes) susceptible to RadLV infection. For determination of the phenotypes of these target cells, various thymocyte subpopulations obtained through a battery of cell separation methods were tested for their ability to support the replication of RadLV/VL/sub 3/ virus in short-term culture. Most of these target cells were sensitive to the lytic effect of hydrocortisone and migrated in the fastest fraction of a 1Xg sedimentation gradient, together with the majority of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporating blast cells. They exhibited an intermediate density and expressed H-2 and Thy 1.2 cell surface antigens, although they were not found preferentially among the high Thy 1.2 population to which most of the cortical blast cells belonged. The spread of RadLV within the thymus and the surface phenotype characteristics of target cells indicate that these cells correspond to a thymocyte subset at the earliest stage of thymic lymphopoiesis and may be transitional between the prothymocytes and the subcapsular blast cell population.

  7. Massive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites during Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas A.; Renotte, Nathalie; Alvarez, Irene; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed

  8. Sequences in Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Envelope That Confer Sensitivity to HIV-1 Accessory Protein Vpu▿†

    PubMed Central

    Janaka, Sanath Kumar; Lucas, Tiffany M.; Johnson, Marc C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 efficiently forms pseudotyped particles with many gammaretrovirus glycoproteins, such as Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) Env, but not with the related gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) Env or with a chimeric F-MLV Env with a GaLV cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). This incompatibility is modulated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Because the GaLV Env CTD does not resemble tetherin or CD4, the well-studied targets of Vpu, we sought to characterize the modular sequence in the GaLV Env CTD required for this restriction in the presence of Vpu. Using a systematic mutagenesis scan, we determined that the motif that makes GaLV Env sensitive to Vpu is INxxIxxVKxxVxRxK. This region in the CTD of GaLV Env is predicted to form a helix. Mutations in the CTD that would break this helix abolish sensitivity to Vpu. Although many of these positions can be replaced with amino acids with similar biophysical properties without disrupting the Vpu sensitivity, the final lysine residue is required. This Vpu sensitivity sequence appears to be modular, as the unrelated Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Env can be made Vpu sensitive by replacing its CTD with the GaLV Env CTD. In addition, F-MLV Env can be made Vpu sensitive by mutating two amino acids in its cytoplasmic tail to make it resemble more closely the Vpu sensitivity motif. Surprisingly, the core components of this Vpu sensitivity sequence are also present in the host surface protein CD4, which is also targeted by Vpu through its CTD. PMID:21917962

  9. Activation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene by retrovirus insertion and chromosomal rearrangement in a Moloney leukemia virus-induced T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, J N; Smith-White, B; Sisson, B; Parker, D; Blair, D G; Schultz, A; Kozak, C; Lunsford, R D; Askew, D; Weinstein, Y

    1989-01-01

    A rearrangement of the c-H-ras locus was detected in a T-cell line (DA-2) established from a Moloney leukemia virus-induced tumor. This rearrangement was associated with the high-level expression of H-ras RNA and the H-ras gene product, p21. DNA from DA-2 cells transformed fibroblasts in DNA transfection experiments, and the transformed fibroblasts contained the rearranged H-ras locus. The rearrangement involved one allele and was present in tissue from the primary tumor from which the cell line was isolated. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged allele and comparison with the normal allele demonstrated that the rearrangement was complex and probably resulted from the integration of a retrovirus in the H-ras locus between a 5' noncoding exon and the first coding exon and a subsequent homologous recombination between this provirus and another newly acquired provirus also located on chromosome 7. These events resulted in the translocation of the coding exons of the H-ras locus away from the 5' noncoding exon region to a new genomic site on chromosome 7. Sequencing of the coding regions of the gene failed to detect mutations in the 12th, 13th, 59th, or 61st codons. The possible reasons for the complexity of the rearrangement and the significance of the activation of the H-ras locus to T-cell transformation are discussed. Images PMID:2542606

  10. Peptidylproline cis-trans-Isomerase Pin1 Interacts with Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax and Modulates Its Activation of NF-κB▿

    PubMed Central

    Peloponese, Jean-Marie; Yasunaga, Junichiro; Kinjo, Takao; Watashi, Koichi; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2009-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus etiologically causal of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The virus encodes a Tax oncoprotein that functions in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, and transformation. ATL is a highly virulent cancer that is resistant to chemotherapeutic treatments. To understand this disease better, it is important to comprehend how HTLV-1 promotes cellular growth and survival. Tax activation of NF-κB is important for the proliferation and transformation of virus-infected cells. We show here that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is over expressed in HTLV-1 cell lines; Pin1 binds Tax and regulates Tax-induced NF-κB activation. PMID:19158244

  11. Comparative restriction endonuclease maps of proviral DNA of the primate type C simian sarcoma-associated virus and gibbon ape leukemia virus group.

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, C D; Wong-Staal, F; Reitz, M S

    1982-01-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA was purified from canine thymus cells acutely infected with different strains of infectious primate type C viruses of the woolly monkey (simian) sarcoma helper virus and gibbon ape leukemia virus group. All DNA preparations contained linear proviral molecules of 9.1 to 9.2 kilobases, at least some of which represent complete infectious proviral DNA. Cells infected with a replication-defective fibroblast-transforming sarcoma virus and its helper, a replication-competent nontransforming helper virus, also contained a 6.6- to 6.7-kilobase DNA. These proviral DNA molecules were digested with different restriction endonucleases, and the resultant fragments were oriented to the viral RNA by a combination of partial digestions, codigestion with more than one endonuclease, digestion of integrated proviral DNA, and hybridization with 3'- and 5'-specific viral probes. The 3'- and 5'-specific probes each hybridized to fragments from both ends of proviral DNA, indicating that, in common with those of other retroviruses, these proviruses contain a large terminal redundancy at both ends, each of which consists of sequences derived from both the 3' and 5' regions of the viral RNA. The proviral sequences are organized 3',5'-unique-3',5'. Four restriction enzymes (KpnI, SmaI, PstI, and SstI) recognized sites within the large terminal redundancies, and these sites were conserved within all the isolates tested. This suggests that both the 3' and 5' ends of the genomic RNA of these viruses are extremely closely related. In contrast, the restriction sites within the unique portion of the provirus were not strongly conserved within this group of viruses, even though they were related along most of their genomes. Whereas the 5' 60 to 70% of the RNA of these viruses was more closely related by liquid hybridization experiments than was the 3' 30 to 40%, restriction sites within this region were not preferentially conserved, suggesting that small sequence differences or

  12. Purification and characterization of the DNA polymerase and RNase H activities in Moloney murine sarcoma-leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, G F; Grandgenett, D P

    1975-01-01

    Two RNase H (RNA-DNA hybrid ribonucleotidohydrolase, EC 3.1.4.34) activities separable by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration were identified in lysates of Moloney murine sarcoma-leukemia virus (MSV). The larger enzyme, which we have called RNase H-I, represented about 10% of the RNase H activity in the virion. RNase H-I (i) copurified with RNA-directed DNA polymerase from the virus, (ii) had a sedimentation coefficient of 4.4S (corresponds to an apparent mol wt of 70,000), (iii) required Mn-2+ (2 mM optimum) for activity with a [3-h]poly(A)-poly(dT) substrate, (iv) eluted from phosphocellulose at 0.2 M KC1, and (v) degraded [3-H]poly(A)-poly(dT) and [3-H]poly(C)-poly(dG) at approximately equal rates. The smaller enzyme, designated RNase H-II, which represented the majority of the RNase H activity in the virus preparation, was shown to be different since it (i) had no detectable, associated DNA polymerase activity, (ii) had a sedmimentation coefficient of 2.6S (corresponds to an apparent mol wt of 30,000), (iii) preferred Mg-2+ (10 to 15 mM optimum) over Mn-2+ (5 to 10 mM optimum) 2.5-fold for the degradation of [3-H]poly(A)-poly(dT), and (iv) degraded [3-H]poly(A)-poly(dT) 6 and 60 times faster than [3-H]poly(C)-poly(dG) in the presence of Mn-2+ and Mg-2+, respectively. Moloney MSV DNA polymerase (RNase H-I), purified by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration followed by phosphocellulose, poly(A)-oligo(dT)-cellulose, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography, transcribed heteropolymeric regions of avian myeloblastosis virus 70S RNA at a rate comparable to avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase purified by the same procedure. PMID:46924

  13. Vaccination of adult and newborn mice of a resistant strain (C57BL/6J) against challenge with leukemias induced by Moloney murine leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Adult or newborn C57BL/6J mice were immunized with isogenic Moloney strain MuLV-induced leukemia cells irradiated with 10,000 rads or treated with low concentrations of formalin. Groups of immunized and control mice were challenged with a range of doses of viable leukemia cells, and tumor deaths were recorded for 90 days after challenge. Then, the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths were calculated for immunized and control mice. The logarithm of their ratio quantified the degree of protection provided by immunization. For adult C57BL/6J mice, a single immunization with MuLV-induced leukemia cells was not effective; either cells plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin or Corynebacterium parvum, or else two immunizations with irradiated leukemia cells were needed to produce statistically significant increases in the values of the doses of challenge cells which produced 50% tumor deaths. Cross-protection was obtained by immunization with other isogenic MuLV-induced leukemias, but not by immunization with isogenic carcinogen-induced tumors or with an isogenic spontaneous leukemia. For newborn mice, a single injection of irradiated leukemia cells provided 1.3 to 1.5 logs of protection, and admixture of B. Calmette-Guerin or C. parvum increased this protection to 2.4 to 2.7 logs. Since irradiated and frozen-thawed MuLV-induced leukemia cells contained viable MuLV, leukemia cells treated with 0.5 or 1.0% formalin were tested as an alternative. A single injection of formalin-treated isogenic leukemia cells admixed with C. parvum provided between 1.7 and 2.8 logs of protection. These results demonstrate that a single vaccination of newborn animals against a highly antigenic virally induced leukemia produces strong protection against a subsequent challenge with viable leukemia cells.

  14. Feline upper respiratory tract lymphoma: site, cyto-histology, phenotype, FeLV expression, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, S F; Mortellaro, C M; Boracchi, P; Avallone, G; Caniatti, M; Forlani, A; Roccabianca, P

    2015-03-01

    Lymphoma is the most common feline upper respiratory tract (URT) tumor. Primary nasal and nasopharyngeal lymphomas have been evaluated as distinct pathological entities; however, data on their differing clinical behavior are missing. A total of 164 endoscopic- guided URT pinch biopsies were formalin fixed and routinely processed. Imprint cytological specimens were stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa. Immunohistochemistry for anti-CD20, CD3, FeLVp27, and FeLVgp70 was performed. Prognostic significance of clinicopathological variables was investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 39 cats (24%). Most cats with lymphoma were domestic shorthair (32 [82%]), were male (F/M = 0.56), and had a mean age of 10.3 years (range, 1-16 years). Lymphomas were primary nasal in 26 cats (67%), nasopharyngeal in 6 (15%), and in both locations (combined lymphomas) in 7 cats (18%). Neoplastic growth pattern was diffuse in 35 cases (90%) and nodular in 4 (10%). Epitheliotropism was observed in 10 cases (26%). Tumor cells were large in 15 cases, were small and medium in 11 cases each, and 2 had mixed cell size. Submucosal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 23 cases (59%). Cytology was diagnostic for lymphoma in 12 of 25 cases (48%). A B-cell origin prevailed (34 [87%]). Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27 or gp70 antigen was detected in 21 lymphomas (54%). URT lymphomas were aggressive, with survival varying from 0 to 301 days (mean, 53 days). Epitheliotropism in 8 B-cell lymphomas (80%) and in 2 T-cell lymphomas (20%) correlated with prolonged survival. Age younger or older than 10 years had a negative prognostic value. Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and FeLV infection may represent favoring factors for URT lymphoma development. PMID:24903757

  15. Safety testing for replication-competent retrovirus associated with gibbon ape leukemia virus-pseudotyped retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Reeves, L; Cornetta, K

    2001-01-01

    The potential pathogenicity of replication-competent retroviruses (RCR) requires vigilant testing to exclude inadvertent contamination of clinical gene therapy vector products with RCR. Pseudotyped vectors using the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) envelope have entered into clinical trials but specific recommendations regarding methods for screening of vector product and analysis of clinical samples have not been set forth. Unfortunately, current screening assays used for detecting amphotropic RCR are not suitable for GALV-pseudotyped RCR. We modified the extended S+/L- assay for RCR detection by using human 293 cells for virus amplification. Of five cell lines tested, 293 cells were selected because they combined a high transduction efficiency and an ability to generate RCR at high titer. After optimizing the amplification assay, a dilution of GALV virus could consistently be detected at a dilution of 10(-6). In coculture experiments, one GALV-infected cell could be consistently detected in 10(6) uninfected cells. A PCR-based assay was developed that was capable of detecting 100 copies of a GALV envelope containing plasmid diluted in 1 microg of DNA obtained from uninfected cells. PCR was also able to detect one GALV-infected cell in 10(6) uninfected cells. These assays will be suitable for testing of vector preparations and for monitoring of clinical samples from patients treated in clinical gene therapy protocols. The assays developed are similar in methodology and sensitivity to those currently used for certification of amphotropic retroviral vectors. PMID:11177543

  16. Multiparameter analyses of spontaneous nonthymic lymphomas occurring in NFS/N mice congenic for ecotropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T. N.; Morse, H. C.; Yetter, R. A.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Pattengale, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse strains congenic for ecotropic retrovirus genes have a much higher frequency of spontaneous lymphomas than the background NFS/N strain. In this study, most of these lymphomas have been identified as B-cell in origin by morphologic features, identification of immunoglobulin class, and cell-surface antigens. The classification suggested by Pattengale and Taylor proved to be applicable to the lymphomas studied. Most were of large follicular center cells and are considered typical of the type formerly designated as "reticulum cell sarcoma, type B." Many lymphomas contained a large proportion of nonneoplastic cells which partially obscured their neoplastic component. The role of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses as etiologic agents for B-cell lymphomas remains equivocal. However, because the only difference between the NFS/N and congenic mice is the expression of viruses in the latter, it appears that these viruses are somehow involved in induction of B-cell lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2998195

  17. Tandemization of a Subregion of the Enhancer Sequences from SRS 19-6 Murine Leukemia Virus Associated with T-Lymphoid but Not Other Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Steven W.; Bundy, Linda M.; Fan, Hung

    1999-01-01

    Most simple retroviruses induce tumors of a single cell type when infected into susceptible hosts. The SRS 19-6 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), which originated in mainland China, induces leukemias of multiple cellular origins. Indeed, infected mice often harbor more than one tumor type. Since the enhancers of many MuLVs are major determinants of tumor specificity, we tested the role of the SRS 19-6 MuLV enhancers in its broad disease specificity. The enhancer elements of the Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) were replaced by the 170-bp enhancers of SRS 19-6 MuLV, yielding the recombinants ΔMo+SRS+ and ΔMo+SRS− M-MuLV. M-MuLV normally induces T-lymphoid tumors in all infected mice. Surprisingly, when neonatal mice were inoculated with ΔMo+SRS+ or ΔMo+SRS− M-MuLV, all tumors were of T-lymphoid origin, typical of M-MuLV rather than SRS 19-6 MuLV. Thus, the SRS 19-6 MuLV enhancers did not confer the broad disease specificity of SRS 19-6 MuLV to M-MuLV. However, all tumors contained ΔMo+SRS M-MuLV proviruses with common enhancer alterations. These alterations consisted of tandem multimerization of a subregion of the SRS 19-6 enhancers, encompassing the conserved LVb and core sites and adjacent sequences. Moreover, when tumors induced by the parental SRS 19-6 MuLV were analyzed, most of the T-lymphoid tumors had similar enhancer alterations in the same region whereas tumors of other lineages retained the parental SRS 19-6 MuLV enhancers. These results emphasize the importance of a subregion of the SRS 19-6 MuLV enhancer in induction of T-cell lymphoma. The relevant sequences were consistent with crucial sequences for T-cell lymphomagenesis identified for other MuLVs such as M-MuLV and SL3-3 MuLV. These results also suggest that other regions of the SRS 19-6 MuLV genome contribute to its broad leukemogenic spectrum. PMID:10438804

  18. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 antisense-encoded gene, Hbz, promotes T-lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Joshua; Zimmerman, Bevin; Li, Min; Lairmore, Michael D; Green, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is dispensable for HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation in cell culture, but is required for efficient viral infectivity and persistence in rabbits. In most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, Tax oncoprotein expression is typically low or undetectable, whereas Hbz gene expression is maintained, suggesting that Hbz expression may support infected cell survival and, ultimately, leukemogenesis. Emerging data indicate that HBZ protein can interact with cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and Jun family members, altering transcription factor binding and transactivation of both viral and cellular promoters. Herein, lentiviral vectors that express Hbz-specific short hairpin (sh)-RNA effectively decreased both Hbz mRNA and HBZ protein expression in transduced HTLV-1-transformed SLB-1 T cells. Hbz knockdown correlated with a significant decrease in T-cell proliferation in culture. Both SLB-1 and SLB-1-Hbz knockdown cells engrafted into inoculated NOD/SCID(gammachain-/-) mice to form solid tumors that also infiltrated multiple tissues. However, tumor formation and organ infiltration were significantly decreased in animals challenged with SLB-1-Hbz knockdown cells. Our data indicate that Hbz expression enhances the proliferative capacity of HTLV-1-infected T cells, playing a critical role in cell survival and ultimately HTLV-1 tumorigenesis in the infected host. PMID:18689544

  19. Preferential selection of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 provirus lacking the 5' long terminal repeat during oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Maki; Yasunaga, Jun-Ichirou; Taniguchi, Yuko; Tamiya, Sadahiro; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2007-06-01

    In adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, a defective human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) provirus lacking the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), designated type 2 defective provirus, is frequently observed. To investigate the mechanism underlying the generation of the defective provirus, we sequenced HTLV-1 provirus integration sites from cases of ATL. In HTLV-1 proviruses retaining both LTRs, 6-bp repeat sequences were adjacent to the 5' and 3' LTRs. In 8 of 12 cases with type 2 defective provirus, 6-bp repeats were identified at both ends. In five of these cases, a short repeat was bound to CA dinucleotides of the pol and env genes at the 5' end, suggesting that these type 2 defective proviruses were formed before integration. In four cases lacking the 6-bp repeat, short (6- to 26-bp) deletions in the host genome were identified, indicating that these defective proviruses were generated after integration. Quantification indicated frequencies of type 2 defective provirus of less than 3.9% for two carriers, which are much lower than those seen for ATL cases (27.8%). In type 2 defective proviruses, the second exons of the tax, rex, and p30 genes were frequently deleted, leaving Tax unable to activate NF-kappaB and CREB pathways. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor gene, located on the minus strand, is expressed in ATL cells with this defective provirus, and its coding sequences are intact, suggesting its significance in oncogenesis. PMID:17344291

  20. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax attenuates the ATM-mediated cellular DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Chandhasin, Chandtip; Ducu, Razvan I; Berkovich, Elijahu; Kastan, Michael B; Marriott, Susan J

    2008-07-01

    Genomic instability, a hallmark of leukemic cells, is associated with malfunctioning cellular responses to DNA damage caused by defective cell cycle checkpoints and/or DNA repair. Adult T-cell leukemia, which can result from infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), is associated with extensive genomic instability that has been attributed to the viral oncoprotein Tax. How Tax influences cellular responses to DNA damage to mediate genomic instability, however, remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Tax on cellular pathways involved in recognition and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Premature attenuation of ATM kinase activity and reduced association of MDC1 with repair foci were observed in Tax-expressing cells. Following ionizing radiation-induced S-phase checkpoint activation, Tax-expressing cells progressed more rapidly than non-Tax-expressing cells toward DNA replication. These results demonstrate that Tax expression may allow premature DNA replication in the presence of genomic lesions. Attempts to replicate in the presence of these lesions would result in gradual accumulation of mutations, leading to genome instability and cellular transformation. PMID:18434398

  1. LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases negatively regulate human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Treatment options are limited and prophylactic agents are not available. We have previously demonstrated an essential role for CREB-regulating transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) in HTLV-1 transcription. Results In this study we report on the negative regulatory role of LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) in the activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) by the oncoprotein Tax. Activation of LKB1 and SIKs effectively blunted Tax activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas compromising these kinases, but not AMP-dependent protein kinases, augmented Tax function. Activated LKB1 and SIKs associated with Tax and suppressed Tax-induced LTR activation by counteracting CRTCs and CREB. Enforced expression of LKB1 or SIK1 in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clone pX1MT repressed proviral transcription. On the contrary, depletion of LKB1 in pX1MT-transfected cells and in HTLV-1-transformed T cells boosted the expression of Tax. Treatment of HTLV-1 transformed cells with metformin led to LKB1/SIK1 activation, reduction in Tax expression, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings revealed a new function of LKB1 and SIKs as negative regulators of HTLV-1 transcription. Pharmaceutical activation of LKB1 and SIKs might be considered as a new strategy in anti-HTLV-1 and anti-ATL therapy. PMID:23577667

  2. Evaluation of infectivity and reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of xenotropic murine leukemia virus used in virus clearance validation.

    PubMed

    Anwaruzzaman, Mohammad; Wang, Wensheng; Wang, Eunice; Erfe, Lolita; Lee, Janice; Liu, Shengjiang

    2015-07-01

    Infectivity and reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays have been optimized and validated for xenotropic murine leukemia virus (X-MuLV) detection. We have evaluated the assays systematically with regard to specificity, linearity, lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), and precision. Both assays are specific for X-MuLV detection, with a linear detection range of 0.6-5.6 log(10) TCID(50)/mL for the infectivity assay, and 1.4-6.5 log(10) particles/mL for the qRT-PCR assay. The LLOD and LLOQ of the infectivity and the qRT-PCR assays are determined as 0.5 and 1.0 log(10)/mL, and 1.4 and 2.2 log(10)/mL. The inter-assay repeatability of qRT-PCR assay (4.2% coefficient of variation [CV]) is higher than the infectivity assay (7.9% CV). We have shown that both assays are closely correlated (r = 0.85, P < 0.05, n = 22). The particle/infectivity ratio is determined as 66. Both assays were applied to evaluate virus removal using virus clearance samples of chromatographic and filtration processes. Here, we have demonstrated that the qRT-PCR assay is much faster in testing and is approximately 8-fold more sensitive than the infectivity assay. Therefore, the qRT-PCR assay can replace the infectivity assay in many cases, but both assays are complementary in elucidating the mechanism of virus inactivation and removal in virus clearance validation. PMID:25997567

  3. Myosins 1 and 6, myosin light chain kinase, actin and microtubules cooperate during antibody-mediated internalisation and trafficking of membrane-expressed viral antigens in feline infectious peritonitis virus infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dewerchin, Hannah L; Desmarets, Lowiese M; Noppe, Ytse; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. Upon binding of antibodies, these proteins are quickly internalised through a new clathrin- and caveolae-independent internalisation pathway. By doing so, the infected monocytes can escape antibody-dependent cell lysis. In the present study, we investigated which kinases and cytoskeletal proteins are of importance during internalisation and subsequent intracellular transport. The experiments showed that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin 1 are crucial for the initiation of the internalisation. With co-localisation stainings, it was found that MLCK and myosin 1 co-localise with antigens even before internalisation started. Myosin 6 co-localised with the internalising complexes during passage through the cortical actin, were it might play a role in moving or disintegrating actin filaments, to overcome the actin barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30 min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV. PMID:24517254

  4. Processing, fusogenicity, virion incorporation and CXCR4-binding activity of a feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein lacking the two conserved N-glycosylation sites at the C-terminus of the V3 domain.

    PubMed

    González, Silvia A; Affranchino, José L

    2016-07-01

    The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) entry into its target cells is initiated by the association of the surface (SU) subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with the cellular receptors CD134 and CXCR4. This event is followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which is mediated by the transmembrane (TM) subunit of Env. We and others have previously demonstrated that the V3 domain of the SU subunit of Env is essential for CXCR4 binding. Of note, there are two contiguous and highly conserved potential N-glycosylation sites ((418)NST(420) and (422)NLT(424)) located at the C-terminal side of the V3 domain. We therefore decided to study the relevance for Env functions of these N-glycosylation motifs and found that disruption of both of them by introducing the N418Q/N422Q double amino acid substitution drastically impairs Env processing into the SU and TM subunits. Moreover, the simultaneous mutation of these N-glycosylation sites prevents Env incorporation into virions and Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Notably, a recombinant soluble version of the SU glycoprotein carrying the double amino acid replacement N418Q/N422Q at the V3 C-terminal side binds to CXCR4 with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type SU. PMID:27020572

  5. Expression of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNase H Rescues the Growth Defect of an Escherichia coli Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    A 157-amino-acid fragment of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase encoding RNase H is shown to rescue the growth-defective phenotype of an Escherichia coli mutant. In vitro assays of the recombinant wild-type protein purified from the conditionally defective mutant confirm that it is catalytically active. Mutagenesis of one of the presumptive RNase H-catalytic residues results in production of a protein variant incapable of rescue and which lacks activity in vitro. Analyses of additional active site mutants demonstrate that their encoded variant proteins lack robust activity yet are able to rescue the bacterial mutant. These results suggest that genetic complementation may be useful for in vivo screening of mutant viral RNase H gene fragments and in evaluating their function under conditions that more closely mimic physiological conditions. The rescue system may also be useful in verifying the functional outcomes of mutations based on protein structural predictions and modeling. PMID:11390625

  6. Bovine Leukemia Virus Small Noncoding RNAs Are Functional Elements That Regulate Replication and Contribute to Oncogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hamaidia, Malik; de Brogniez, Alix; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Renotte, Nathalie; Reichert, Michal; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity. We further demonstrate that BLV miRNAs are essential to induce B-cell tumors in an experimental model and to promote efficient viral replication in the natural host. PMID:27123579

  7. Bovine Leukemia Virus Small Noncoding RNAs Are Functional Elements That Regulate Replication and Contribute to Oncogenesis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Hamaidia, Malik; de Brogniez, Alix; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Renotte, Nathalie; Reichert, Michal; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity. We further demonstrate that BLV miRNAs are essential to induce B-cell tumors in an experimental model and to promote efficient viral replication in the natural host. PMID:27123579

  8. Structure of glycosylated and unglycosylated gag and gag-pol precursor proteins of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Saris, C J; van Eenbergen, J; Liskamp, R M; Bloemers, H P

    1983-01-01

    Precursor polyproteins containing translational products of the gag gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus were purified by gel electrophoresis and cleaved into large fragments by hydroxylamine, mild acid hydrolysis, or cyanogen bromide. The hydroxylamine cleavage method (specific for asparagine-glycine bonds) was adapted especially for this study. The electrophoretic mobility and antigenicity of the fragments and, in some cases, the presence or absence of [35S]methionine revealed detailed information on the structure of Pr65gag, gPr80gag, and Pr75gag (the unglycosylated variant of gPr80gag formed in vivo in the presence of tunicamycin or in vitro in a reticulocyte cell-free system). When compared with Pr65gag, gPr80gag contains 7,000 daltons of additional amino acids, presumably as, or as part of, a leader sequence at or very close to its N terminus. We present evidence that this leader may have replaced part of the p15 sequence. Furthermore, gPr80gag contains three separate carbohydrate groups. One is attached to the presumed leader sequence or to the p15 domain, and two are attached to the p30 domain. Each of the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag precursor proteins Pr65gag, gPr80gag, and Pr75gag corresponds with a read-through product into the pol gene. We designated these products Pr180gag-pol, gPr200gag-pol, and Pr190gag-pol (the unglycosylated variant of gPr200gag-pol), respectively. gPr200gag-pol contains all of the extra amino acids and carbohydrate groups present in gPr80gag and at least one carbohydrate group in its pol sequences. Images PMID:6602220

  9. APOBEC3G generates nonsense mutations in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 proviral genomes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Ma, Guangyong; Nosaka, Kisato; Tanabe, Junko; Satou, Yorifumi; Koito, Atsushi; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Matsuoka, Masao

    2010-07-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) induces cell proliferation after infection, leading to efficient transmission by cell-to-cell contact. After a long latent period, a fraction of carriers develop adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Genetic changes in the tax gene in ATL cells were reported in about 10% of ATL cases. To determine genetic changes that may occur throughout the provirus, we determined the entire sequence of the HTLV-1 provirus in 60 ATL cases. Abortive genetic changes, including deletions, insertions, and nonsense mutations, were frequent in all viral genes except the HBZ gene, which is transcribed from the minus strand of the virus. G-to-A base substitutions were the most frequent mutations in ATL cells. The sequence context of G-to-A mutations was in accordance with the preferred target sequence of human APOBEC3G (hA3G). The target sequences of hA3G were less frequent in the plus strand of the HBZ coding region than in other coding regions of the HTLV-1 provirus. Nonsense mutations in viral genes including tax were also observed in proviruses from asymptomatic carriers, indicating that these mutations were generated during reverse transcription and prior to oncogenesis. The fact that hA3G targets the minus strand during reverse transcription explains why the HBZ gene is not susceptible to such nonsense mutations. HTLV-1-infected cells likely take advantage of hA3G to escape from the host immune system by losing expression of viral proteins. PMID:20463074

  10. No Evidence for Xenotropic Murine Leukemia-Related Virus Infection in Sweden Using Internally Controlled Multiepitope Suspension Array Serology

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Elfaitouri, Amal; Hessel, Sanna; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Öhrmalm, Christina; Jobs, Magnus; Pipkorn, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Many syndromes have a large number of differential diagnoses, a situation which calls for multiplex diagnostic systems. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also named chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), is a common disease of unknown etiology. A mouse retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), was found in ME/CFS patients and blood donors, but this was not corroborated. However, the paucity of serological investigations on XMRV in humans prompted us to develop a serological assay which cover many aspects of XMRV antigenicity. It is a novel suspension array method, using a multiplex IgG assay with nine recombinant proteins from the env and gag genes of XMRV and 38 peptides based on known epitopes of vertebrate gammaretroviruses. IgG antibodies were sought in 520 blood donors and 85 ME/CFS patients and in positive- and negative-control sera from animals. We found no differences in seroreactivity between blood donors and ME/CFS patients for any of the antigens. This did not support an association between ME/CFS and XMRV infection. The multiplex serological system had several advantages: (i) biotinylated protein G allowed us to run both human and animal sera, which is essential because of a lack of XMRV-positive humans; (ii) a novel quality control was a pan-peptide positive-control rabbit serum; and (iii) synthetic XMRV Gag peptides with degenerate positions covering most of the variation of murine leukemia-like viruses did not give higher background than nondegenerate analogs. The principle may be used for creation of variant tolerant peptide serologies. Thus, our system allows rational large-scale serological assays with built-in quality control. PMID:22787191

  11. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  12. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Catherine S.; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  13. Role of sialic acids in feline enteric coronavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Acar, Delphine D; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    To initiate infections, many coronaviruses use sialic acids, either as receptor determinants or as attachment factors helping the virus find its receptor underneath the heavily glycosylated mucus layer. In the present study, the role of sialic acids in serotype I feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infections was studied in feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase (NA) enhanced infection efficiency, showing that terminal sialic acid residues on the cell surface were not receptor determinants and even hampered efficient virus-receptor engagement. Knowing that NA treatment of coronaviruses can unmask viral sialic acid binding activity, replication of untreated and NA-treated viruses was compared, showing that NA treatment of the virus enhanced infectivity in untreated cells, but was detrimental in NA-treated cells. By using sialylated compounds as competitive inhibitors, it was demonstrated that sialyllactose (2,6-α-linked over 2,3-α-linked) notably reduced infectivity of NA-treated viruses, whereas bovine submaxillary mucin inhibited both treated and untreated viruses. In desialylated cells, however, viruses were less prone to competitive inhibition with sialylated compounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FECV had a sialic acid binding capacity, which was partially masked by virus-associated sialic acids, and that attachment to sialylated compounds could facilitate enterocyte infections. However, sialic acid binding was not a prerequisite for the initiation of infection and virus-receptor engagement was even more efficient after desialylation of cells, indicating that FECV requires sialidases for efficient enterocyte infections. PMID:24876305

  14. Broad-Spectrum Inhibitors against 3C-Like Proteases of Feline Coronaviruses and Feline Caliciviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Vinay; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Prior, Allan M.; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H.; Kankanamalage, Anushka C. Galasiti; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feline infectious peritonitis and virulent, systemic calicivirus infection are caused by certain types of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) and feline caliciviruses (FCVs), respectively, and are important infectious diseases with high fatality rates in members of the Felidae family. While FCoV and FCV belong to two distinct virus families, the Coronaviridae and the Caliciviridae, respectively, they share a dependence on viral 3C-like protease (3CLpro) for their replication. Since 3CLpro is functionally and structurally conserved among these viruses and essential for viral replication, 3CLpro is considered a potential target for the design of antiviral drugs with broad-spectrum activities against these distinct and highly important viral infections. However, small-molecule inhibitors against the 3CLpro enzymes of FCoV and FCV have not been previously identified. In this study, derivatives of peptidyl compounds targeting 3CLpro were synthesized and evaluated for their activities against FCoV and FCV. The structures of compounds that showed potent dual antiviral activities with a wide margin of safety were identified and are discussed. Furthermore, the in vivo efficacy of 3CLpro inhibitors was evaluated using a mouse model of coronavirus infection. Intraperitoneal administration of two 3CLpro inhibitors in mice infected with murine hepatitis virus A59, a hepatotropic coronavirus, resulted in significant reductions in virus titers and pathological lesions in the liver compared to the findings for the controls. These results suggest that the series of 3CLpro inhibitors described here may have the potential to be further developed as therapeutic agents against these important viruses in domestic and wild cats. This study provides important insights into the structure and function relationships of 3CLpro for the design of antiviral drugs with broader antiviral activities. IMPORTANCE Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is the leading cause of death in young cats

  15. [Biochemical characteristics of a calf leukemia virus in chronically infected cells].

    PubMed

    Argirova, R

    1979-01-01

    Studied were the conditions of cultivation of FLK cells chronically infected with a calf leucosis virus. The gradient values of density were compared to those of the murine sarcoma virus--1.14--1.15 vs, 1.17--1.18/cm3. Established were the parameters of the reverse transcriptase reaction for the calf leukosis virus (Magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase). Data showed that the calf leucosis virus may not resolutely be referred either to the B- or the the C-type of retroviruses. PMID:92095

  16. Broad host range of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 demonstrated with an improved pseudotyping system.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R E; Littman, D R

    1996-01-01

    Studies of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) have been hampered by the difficulty of achieving high cell-free and cell-associated infectious titers. Current retroviral pseudotyping systems using the HTLV-1 envelope generate titers of less than 200 infectious particles per ml. We describe here an improved system for pseudotyping using a defective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 genome in combination with HTLV-1 env in 293T producer cells. Introduction of additional copies of rev and treatment of cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a cell-associated titer of 10(5)/ml and cell-free titers of greater than 10(4)/ml . By using this system, we found that the host range of HTLV-1 is even greater than previously suspected. Earlier studies which assigned a chromosomal location for the HTLV-1 receptor may therefore reflect cell-to-cell variation in receptor number rather than the absolute presence or absence of a receptor. The generation of higher-titer HIV(HTLV-1) may facilitate identification of the cellular receptor and investigations of the pathophysiology of HTLV-1 infection. PMID:8794391

  17. Iron and Ferritin Levels in the Serum and Milk of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Star A.; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kakinuma, Seiichi; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Orino, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Iron metabolism was examined in 15 bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected dairy cows (2.6–7.8 years old). BLV infection was detected by measuring serum antibody titer against BLV virus antigen (gp51). The anti-BLV antibody titers of the BLV-infected cows were significantly higher in serum than in milk; a single serum-positive animal lacked detectable anti-BLV antibodies in its milk. Iron and ferritin concentrations also were significantly higher in serum than in milk. Although most of the BLV-infected dairy cows had past or present anamneses (such as inflammatory diseases, including intramammary infection), the milk ferritin concentrations of the infected cows were significantly lower than those of normal cows; serum ferritin concentrations did not differ significantly between these two groups. The anti-BLV antibody titers in milk samples showed significant correlation with serum iron concentrations. These results suggest that BLV infection affects iron homeostasis through iron metabolism in the dairy cow mammary gland. PMID:26664941

  18. Atomic force microscopy investigation of fibroblasts infected with wild-type and mutant murine leukemia virus (MuLV).

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Yurii G; Datta, Shoibal; Kothari, Natantara H; Greenwood, Aaron; Fan, Hung; McPherson, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    NIH 3T3 cells were infected in culture with the oncogenic retrovirus, mouse leukemia virus (MuLV), and studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cells fixed with glutaraldehyde alone, and those postfixed with osmium tetroxide, were imaged under ethanol according to procedures that largely preserved their structures. With glutaraldehyde fixation alone, the lipid bilayer was removed and maturing virions were seen emerging from the cytoskeletal matrix. With osmium tetroxide postfixation, the lipid bilayer was maintained and virions were observable still attached to the cell surfaces. The virions on the cell surfaces were imaged at high resolution and considerable detail of the arrangement of protein assemblies on their surfaces was evident. Infected cells were also labeled with primary antibodies against the virus env surface protein, followed by secondary antibodies conjugated with colloidal gold particles. Other 3T3 cells in culture were infected with MuLV containing a mutation in the gPr80(gag) gene. Those cells were observed by AFM not to produce normal MuLV on their surfaces, or at best, only at very low levels. The cell surfaces, however, became covered with tubelike structures that appear to result from a failure of the virions to properly undergo morphogenesis, and to fail in budding completely from the cell's surfaces. PMID:12496133

  19. Differentiation between cutaneous form of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and cutaneous T cell lymphoma by in situ hybridization using a human T cell leukemia virus-1 DNA probe.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, E.; Chow, K. C.; Li, C. Y.; Tokunaga, M.; Katayama, I.

    1994-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) shares overlapping clinicopathological features with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), requiring detection of monoclonal integration of proviral DNA of type 1 human T cell leukemia virus for its differential diagnosis from the latter. We applied in situ hybridization (ISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to paraffin sections from 63 Japanese autopsy cases that had been diagnosed as CTCL in earlier years when ATLL was still not widely known. Eleven and two cases with confirmed diagnoses of ATLL and CTCL served as positive and negative controls, respectively. It was found that ISH was positive in 7 of 63 test cases and 10 of 11 positive controls, whereas PCR was positive in none of the test cases and eight of the positive control cases. Two negative controls were negative for both ISH and PCR. We conclude that ISH is superior to PCR for detecting type 1 human T cell leukemia virus proviral DNA on paraffin sections and that the ISH method is useful for differentiating CTCL from the cutaneous form of ATLL. Images Figure 1 PMID:8291605

  20. Serologic and PCR testing of persons with chronic fatigue syndrome in the United States shows no association with xenotropic or polytropic murine leukemia virus-related viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a newly discovered human retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related virus (XMRV), was reported by Lombardi et al. in 67% of persons from the US with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by PCR detection of gag sequences. Although six subsequent studies have been negative for XMRV, CFS was defined more broadly using only the CDC or Oxford criteria and samples from the US were limited in geographic diversity, both potentially reducing the chances of identifying XMRV positive CFS cases. A seventh study recently found polytropic MuLV sequences, but not XMRV, in a high proportion of persons with CFS. Here we tested blood specimens from 45 CFS cases and 42 persons without CFS from over 20 states in the United States for both XMRV and MuLV. The CFS patients all had a minimum of 6 months of post-exertional malaise and a high degree of disability, the same key symptoms described in the Lombardi et al. study. Using highly sensitive and generic DNA and RNA PCR tests, and a new Western blot assay employing purified whole XMRV as antigen, we found no evidence of XMRV or MuLV in all 45 CFS cases and in the 42 persons without CFS. Our findings, together with previous negative reports, do not suggest an association of XMRV or MuLV in the majority of CFS cases. PMID:21342521

  1. Seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, bovine leukemia virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus in maritime Canada dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P; Tremblay, R; Power, C; Wichtel, J J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the seroprevalence of infection with the agents of production-limiting diseases in dairy cattle in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. In 30 randomly selected herds per province, 30 cattle per herd were randomly selected and tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis), while 5 unvaccinated cattle over 6 months of age were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). For BLV, 20.8% (15.8% to 27.0%) of cows were positive, and 70.0% (60.3% to 79.7%) of herds had at least one positive cow. In BLV-positive herds, the average BLV prevalence was 30.9% (24.8% to 37.2%). For M. paratuberculosis, 2.6% (1.8% to 3.9%) of cows were positive, and 16.7% (8.8% to 24.5%) of herds had at least 2 M. paratuberculosis-positive cows. In M. paratuberculosis-positive herds, the average M. paratuberculosis prevalence was 8.5% (6.9% to 10.1%). For BVDV, 46.1% (35.5% to 56.7%) of herds had at least 1 BVDV-positive animal with a titer greater than or equal to 1:64. PMID:11265187

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and to human T cell leukemia virus type I in transfused sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Saxinger, C; Barnes, S; Alexander, S; Flagg, R; Frederick, W

    1990-09-01

    The prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody and the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) antibody was examined in 116 adults with sickle cell disease. Eighty-eight of them had received a mean of 18.6 transfusions of red blood cells between 1978 and 1985, and none was positive for the HIV antibody. Of 116 patients, 9 (7.8%) tested positive for HTLV-I antibodies. HTLV-I-positive patients were similar to those without HTLV-I antibody with respect to age, number of transfusions, and proportion of patients with greater than 40 transfusions. However, 3 of the 9 HTLV-I-positive patients came from West Africa or from the Caribbean, whereas this proportion was much lower (7/107) in the HTLV-I-negative group (x2, 7.564; P less than .01). Our analysis suggests that the risk of HIV infection in transfused sickle cell disease patients is low. Although HTLV-I antibodies in these patients may not be related to blood transfusions, it seems prudent to screen blood donors for HTLV-I infection. PMID:2387998