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Sample records for female ever-smoking education

  1. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  2. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  3. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  4. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  5. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  6. Role of Distance Education in the Expansion of Female Education Higher Level in Pakistan: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana K.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigated the role of distance education in the expansion of educational facilities for females at higher levels of education in Pakistan. The findings of the study report that distance education is playing a vital role in the expansion of female education at higher level as such females who, due to some personal or social…

  7. The Spiritual Journey: Black Female Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Tinner, LaShanta Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the experience of Black female adult learners and how spirituality influenced their academic journeys. Research concerning Black female adult learners in higher education is ostensibly partial. These data offered an extended understanding of Black female adult learners' academic experiences, while also investigating common…

  8. Female Faculty in Higher Education. "The Politics of Hope"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPan, Chantell; Hodge, Camilla; Peroff, Deidre; Henderson, Karla A.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in higher education is growing. Yet, challenges exist for female faculty in the academy. The purpose of this study is to examine the strategies used by female faculty in parks, recreation, sport, tourism,and leisure programs as they negotiate their careers in higher education. Data were collected using an online survey that was…

  9. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors. PMID:22686394

  10. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  11. Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Mayra Alayon

    2010-01-01

    The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

  12. Career and Technical Education Secondary Female Teachers: Leadership Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tedra H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leadership attributes, professional characteristics, and personal characteristics of secondary female teachers in career and technical education program areas of agriculture, business, family and consumer sciences, healthcare science, marketing, and technology. This study included 179 female secondary…

  13. Correctional Education Experiences of Female Offenders with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not…

  14. Familial and Institutional Factors: Job Satisfaction for Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Albritton, Carrie; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction based on familial and institutional factors was explored for 157 female counselor educators. Results indicate that female associate professors had lower levels of intrinsic rewards domain after controlling for institutional type. Parental responsibility and partnership status were equivocal, with significant interaction effects…

  15. Vocational Education Enrollment Patterns of Females with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beaver, Suzan M.; Kohler, Paula D.; Chadsey, Janis G.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the enrollment of students with and without disabilities in grades 9 through 12 in Illinois in vocational education (VocEd) courses and nontraditional (NT) vocational education programs. Females with disabilities represented the smallest proportion of students enrolled in VocEd and were the smallest proportion of NT enrollees.…

  16. Higher Education in Europe: A Comparative Female Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piussi, Anna Maria; Arnaus, Remei

    2010-01-01

    The recognition of women's growing quantitative participation in higher education worldwide has to date been rarely accompanied by analysis of the quality of this participation. In Europe, the national and transnational policies of the past few decades have promoted female inclusion in higher education, through positive action aimed at bridging…

  17. The Lived Experiences of Female Educational Leadership Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Welton, Anjale; Lee, Pei-Ling; Young, Michelle D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a meager body of research addressing the role educational leadership preparation programs in colleges and universities play in preparing women leaders. Also educational leadership preparation research has yet to explore ways in which mentorship provides additional capital for female graduate students. This study seeks to…

  18. Female Nontraditional Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Julianna

    2010-01-01

    Current enrollment trends indicate that women now outnumber men in college enrollment among all racial/ethnic populations (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2002b, 2007), and that a large portion of these students are nontraditional (NT). Today, more than 73% of all students in undergraduate institutions are described as different…

  19. Saudi Female Attitudes toward Distance Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyadah, Suliman M. I.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to determine the essential aspects of both enthusiastic and reluctant Saudi female faculty, administrators, and graduate assistants that encourage or prevent them from participating in online education settings in five government universities across Saudi Arabia. The second intent of this study was to evaluate the…

  20. Advice from the Field in Educational Leadership for Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Polnick, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The number of female school principals in the United States continues to grow each year, and many of these women are evolving into outstanding educational leaders. Cultural and gender barriers, however, continue to limit their leadership effectiveness despite their overall achievements. Many of these women have not maximized their leadership…

  1. Contemplation, Artful Writing: Research with Internationally Educated Female Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author experiments with artful writing as a means of contemplating research with internationally educated female teachers. In doing so, she sits with, listens to, writes from particular moments of the research process. The author also composes found poems from words and phrases in the transcripts. Her intention is to dwell…

  2. Adolescent Females with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence: Educators' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…

  3. Education/Work Policy for Females in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter-Gehrie, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    Women today receive more education, marry later in life, have fewer children, and pursue longer careers than in the past. Undergraduate schools must expand educational studies for women beyond teacher training to include skills in social services, recreation, administration of senior citizens' programs, and adult education. Available from: College…

  4. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  5. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  6. The effect of female education on fertility: a simple explanation.

    PubMed

    Jain, A K

    1981-11-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the relationship between female education and fertility. It is based on data published in First Country Reports of the World Fertility Surveys for eleven countries--Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Panama, Fiji, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Indonesia. The cumulative marital fertility of educated women is shown to be similar in different settings. A lack of uniformity in the education and fertility relationship including the curvilinear nature of this relationship observed across countries is shown to be attributable to marked differences between countries in the average fertility of women with no education rather than to the presumed differences in the average fertility of the educated women. The structure of the relationship is shown to be similar across several developing countries. This analysis suggests that advancement in female education can be expected to influence fertility behavior even without simultaneous changes in other factors such as increasing opportunity for participation in the paid labor force in the modern sector. PMID:7308537

  7. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  8. Toward Educating Minority Female Offenders: Institutional Orientations, Academic and Vocational Stereotyping. Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jacqueline

    A female inmate profile was compiled as the first phase of a three-part model for developing an educational and vocational program for female prison inmates. A 67-item questionnaire addressed demographics, education, educational programs, employment, behavior and attitude, and personal relationships; it was administered to the female population at…

  9. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG. PMID:24018006

  10. Physical Education and Female Participation: A Case Study of Teachers' Perspectives and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Brooke; Dionigi, Rylee A.; Litchfield, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    We argue that gender issues in physical education (PE) remain in some schools, despite advances in PE research and curricula aimed at engaging females in PE. We interviewed five Australian PE teachers (1 male and 4 females) at a co-educational, regional high school about the factors affecting female participation in PE and the strategies they used…

  11. The Significance of Student Voice: Female Students' Interpretations of Failure in Tanzanian Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna; Lehtomäki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the national examinations are used as the primary tools for selection and transition from lower to upper secondary education. Female students are more likely to fail in the national exams and to drop out from education. This article examines the perspectives of female students concerning their advancement in secondary education. Two…

  12. Factors Affecting Female Participation in Education in Seven Developing Countries. Second Edition. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin; Cammish, Nadine

    Factors affecting female participation in education in seven developing countries were examined through field visits to the following countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, India, Jamaica, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, and Vanuatu. In each country, researchers interviewed key personnel, consulted local documentation, and conducted two empirical surveys…

  13. Female Executives in Higher Education: Their Strategies for Success in Attaining the Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Jocelyn Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies female college presidents/chancellors use to attain their executive positions in higher education. A second purpose of this study was to identify the barriers females in executive positions in higher education experienced and how they overcame the barriers. The final…

  14. Gender, "Symbolic Domination", and Female Work: The Case of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillabough, Jo-Anne

    2005-01-01

    In this article I explore the part played by liberal democratic ideology in the regulation of female work, in particular, the work of women teacher educators and contract researchers in British and Canadian teacher education departments. My goal is to examine the relationship between symbolic notions of female domesticity and service as they have…

  15. African American Adolescent Female Identification with Engineering and Participation in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Shayla L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…

  16. Female Education as a Determinant of Economic Growth: The Case Study of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Goher

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of female education has been very important in the GDP growth of the country, but this very sector has been ignored by the Government. This paper focuses on the importance of female education and highlights its significance for national development. It also brings out some impediments, obstacles and barriers confronting female…

  17. Usefulness of Educational, Behavior Modification, and Vocational Programs as Perceived by Female Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Joseph R.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the perceptions of female prison inmates, who ranked the importance of educational, behavior modification, and vocational programs. Programs ranked most critical were general education equivalency, adult basic education, parenting programs, life skills/cognitive self change, HIV/AIDS education, and religion. (JPS)

  18. Attitudes toward Physical Education of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson-Smith, Andrea; Dorwart, Catherine E.; Linder, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of female high school students toward PE in selected North Carolina schools. The high schools were conveniently selected to include the Northeast Piedmont urban region of North Carolina. Participants consisted of 102 female students aged 14 to 18 years old who were enrolled in ninth to 12th…

  19. Educational Histories of a Selected Group of Female Academic Biologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholer, Anne-Marie

    The number of women pursuing the sciences has improved since the 1970's. However, the attrition rate of females from college and graduate study of science still exceeds that of their male peers. This project uses qualitative methodology to explore the supports and coping methods which have enabled a selected group of female biologists to complete…

  20. Male/Female Salary Disparity for Professors of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, Diana G.

    The earnings gap between male and female workers across all occupational groups has been well documented; full-time women workers earn, on average, approximately 65 percent of men's salaries. Although male/female salary disparity is largest across occupational groups, salary disparity within occupational groups still prevails. For example, the…

  1. Adolescent Females and Body Image: Eating Disorders and Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…

  2. The "Mission" of Nuns in Female Education in Ireland, c.1850-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a review and critique of scholarship on female education in Ireland, arguing that researchers have provided a consensual narrative in which women religious (nuns) played a central role in providing academic education to girls and higher education to women. The tendency has been to claim the activities of women religious as…

  3. A Tale of Two Schools: Educating Catholic Female Deaf Children in Ireland, 1846-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Noel Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of the Dominican Sisters and Sisters of Mercy in running schools for female deaf children in Ireland during the period 1846 to 1946. The schools were established as part of an attempt to educate Catholics in the Catholic faith and provide literacy to female deaf children. In assuming the challenge of…

  4. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  5. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  6. Maria Edgeworth: Nineteenth Century Irish Female Pioneer of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Murphy, Collette

    2009-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth was a nineteenth century novelist, primarily remembered for her adult and children's novels. Yet her book, "Letters for literary ladies" discussed the importance of science education for girls and in conjunction with her father, Richard Edgeworth, she wrote several treatises on education. Their book "Practical education" advocates…

  7. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health. PMID:22763460

  8. Adjusting Educational Practice To Increase Female Persistence in the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Michelle S.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Interviews and roundtable discussions with 32 junior and senior female students majoring in math, science, and engineering (MSE) identified factors contributing to MSE retention and graduation, including: (1) support networks and university acclimation; (2) faculty associations; (3) financial assistance; and (4) university support programs that…

  9. Examining Female Life Events: Implications for Counselors and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwiebert, Valerie; Alston, Anne; Bradford, Caroline; Sealander, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the impact of female life events (menarche, "the sex talk", and loss of virginity) on women. Fifty-one women from 2 universities responded to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative items. Discussion and implications for counseling girls and women are presented. (Contains 2…

  10. Male-Female Earnings Differentials among the Highly Educated Egyptians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, G. Reza

    2000-01-01

    Estimates male-female earnings differentials for a 1979 sample of employed university graduates in Egypt. Just over 25 percent of the gross earnings differential between men and women remains "unexplained." This differential, usually attributed to discrimination, is small compared with results obtained from other countries. (Contains 46…

  11. Profiling Female Teachers of Agricultural Education at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Billye

    2003-01-01

    Of 1,694 female middle and secondary school agriculture teachers surveyed, 962 responded. Results indicated that women comprise 15% of the agriculture teacher population; a high percentage have fewer than 10 years experience; most have families and work 51.8 hours per week; 81% are very satisfied but 61.7% experienced some gender-related barriers.…

  12. The Impact of Education on Attitudes of Female Government Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metle, Mesh'al Kh.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the relationship between educational level and field on the job satisfaction of 774 Kuwaiti women government employees found that higher educational attainment was associated with lower satisfaction with job, pay, security, supervision, and promotion. Job satisfaction was not associated with field of study. (Contains 55 references.)…

  13. Ratio of Female:Male Characters and Stereotyping in Educational Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell W.; And Others

    Television programming has long been recognized as an effective method of educating children. This paper investigated the degree of exposure an educational children's program, Sesame Street, gave to female and male characters and the extent to which these characters were stereotypically portrayed. Children's Television Workshop produces 110…

  14. Exercise and Education: Facilities for the Young Female Body in Scotland, 1930-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Eilidh H. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses testimony gathered from oral history interviews and contemporary physical education sources to explore the schooling of the young female body in Scotland between 1930 and 1960. It looks at the ways in which girls were educated about their own bodies and their physical capabilities at school, taking into account official…

  15. An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

  16. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  17. "Doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment…

  18. Cost of Health Education to Increase STD Awareness in Female Garment Workers in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rianon, Nahid; Selwyn, Beatrice; Shahidullah, S. M.; Swint, J. Michael; Franzini, Luisa; Rasu, Rafia

    2009-01-01

    Risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the need for health education in the female garment workers in Bangladesh have been emphasized in the past. Interventions were more acceptable when considered cost-effective. This preliminary study reported on the cost-effectiveness of a health education program that successfully improved knowledge…

  19. Labor Market Participation, Returns to Education, and Male-Female Wage Differences in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.

    Based on a human capital model, this paper uses household survey data from Peru to estimate differences between males and females in labor-market participation, productivity (measured in wages), and economic returns to education. The focus is on human capital, especially education, as a determinant of labor participation and productivity. The…

  20. Perceived Leadership Behavior of Male and Female Exceptional Student Education Directors in the State of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkerne, Suzanne M.; Mulkerne, Donald J. D., Jr.

    A study was conducted to determine if differences exist between the leadership behaviors of men and women in special education administrative positions in Florida. Participants consisted of 28 exceptional student education directors--14 male and 14 female--along with all 28 of their respective superintendents and two staff members, one male and…

  1. More Educated and More Equal? A Comparative Analysis of Female Education and Employment in Japan, China and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha Mukherjee, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the connections between expanding female education and the participation of women in paid employment in Japan, China and India, three of Asia's largest economies. Analysis based on existing data and literature shows that despite the large expansion in educational access in these countries in the last half century,…

  2. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  3. Career Guidance and Counseling in Educating Female Scientists Of a Developing Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olorode, D. O.; Olorode, G. T.

    2009-05-01

    The study area is Nigeria as a developing nation. A nation that must be developed must devote a high percentage of her resources to support the education of her women. To educate a woman is to educate a nation. This paper seeks to understand the problems of women scientists from the high school level. Three high schools were chosen, two of them are females only while one is a mixed school. Observations reveal that the problems encountered in Nigeria, by females in science education has a lot of link with lack of Career Guidance Counselors at the high school level. Where they have, female students are not advised properly in the sciences, hence majority of the girls end up with the arts and humanities. It is concluded therefore that every high school in a developing nation must have Departments of Guidance and Counseling for Science and Arts Faculties.

  4. Male Dance Educators in a Female-Dominated Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Golden

    2013-01-01

    Problems in gender equity exist in dance education just as they do in other professions. There is a need for strategic recruitment efforts and research on how to attract more males into the dance profession.

  5. Effects of the Age–Education Structure of Female Workers on Male Earnings in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Almeida, Mariana Eugenio; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Gonçalves; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is the impact that an increase in female participation within the labor force has on the earnings of males in Brazil. Previous research considered these transitions for male workers, but did not include female workers when estimating various effects on earnings. The 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000 Brazilian Demographic Censuses were used for this analysis. Results suggest a significant negative impact on male earnings in 1970 as a result of the share of female workers. This effect has been decreasing over time, as the coefficients from more recent years are positive. Changes in age and educational composition make a substantial difference on the estimation of male earnings in Brazil. The method developed in this study is not infallible, but it improves previous estimates by including the relationship among compositional changes, female labor force participation, and earnings, thus going beyond the direct impact of age and education. PMID:26594305

  6. Tribal Colleges and Universities in the 21st Century: Native American Female Leadership in Tribal Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitting Crow, Karen Paetz

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of Native American female leadership is becoming a more prevalent topic in the scholarly literature as more educated Native American women become visible in tribal higher education. This qualitative case study explored Native American female leadership, as a growing number of Native American women enter higher education and earn…

  7. Young Female Citizens in Education: Emotions, Resources and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Tuula; Holland, Janet; Lahelma, Elina; Thomson, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    In this article we are concerned with how young women's subjectivities are constructed within relations of power, particularly in the context of schooling and the transition to adulthood. We focus on the possibilities and limitations for agency to be exercised by women in the education system and more generally, the resources that they can draw…

  8. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  9. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  10. Females in Vocational Education: Reflections of the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard; Pritchard, Alice M.

    1991-01-01

    The fact that gender desegregation of vocational programs has not yet been achieved might be related to labor force occupational segregation by gender. Social theorists view schooling inequities as mirrors of social structure, whereby schools track students to maintain social stratification. Mirroring the labor market, education has segregated…

  11. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  12. Women and girls in science education: Female teachers' and students' perspectives on gender and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotty, Ann

    Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and

  13. Interpreting Letters and Reading Script: Evidence for Female Education and Literacy in Tudor England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daybell, James

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to write the history of female education are hampered by the relative informality of teaching provision for women in early modern England. Since most women were excluded from male centres of learning--the grammar schools, universities and Inns of Court--historians are deprived of institutional records, which so well elucidate the…

  14. Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance of Correctional Education for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Johnica; McFadden, Cheryl; Colaric, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study conducted to investigate factors influencing the organizational design, establishment, administration, and governance of correctional education for females. The research involved interviews with correctional and community college administrators and practitioners representing North Carolina female…

  15. Training to Teach Physical Education in a Grammar School for Boys: Female Narratives and Mentor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidder, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the school-based training experiences of a female trainee teacher of physical education (Emily) at a grammar school for boys. The purpose of this research is to consider whether the sex of the trainee teacher either inhibits or advances the professional development of trainee teachers in an opposite-sex school. Emily…

  16. Therapeutic Massage Impacts Quality of Life for University Female Faculty in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Clarine

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a part of everyone's life. Depending on the level of stress, it may affect people's health and lives. Stress in the workplace may come from many different sources, however for the purpose of this study, the focus was on female faculty working in a Teacher Education program at a small north central, North Dakota university. Stress is…

  17. Status Report on Female Completers in New Jersey Vocational Education 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Life Skills Center.

    The New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee's statistics for average annual predicted job openings for program year 1989 are given in this report, along with the New Jersey Division of Vocational Education completers' statistics for the 1988-89 school year. The numbers of male and female completers of secondary programs for each…

  18. Status Report on Female Enrollment in New Jersey Vocational Education 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Life Skills Center.

    The New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee's statistics for average annual predicted job openings for 1984-87 are presented, along with the New Jersey Division of Vocational Education's enrollment statistics for the same period. The number of males and females enrolled in secondary programs for each of the 29 job categories…

  19. Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study. World Bank Discussion Papers 194.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbarao, K.; Raney, Laura

    This paper on the social gains from female education is part of a series, prepared by the World Bank, on the benefits of improving opportunities for women. The paper suggests that expanding women's opportunities enhances their productivity and earning potential and thus contributes to better economic performance and poverty alleviation. Education…

  20. The Role of Health Education on Breast Cancer Awareness among University of Calabar Female Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asuquo, I. M.; Olajide, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to determine the role of health education on breast cancer awareness among University of Calabar female undergraduates. To achieve the purpose of the study, three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed, while a survey research design was adopted for the study. Appropriately develop and…

  1. Marketing and Early Intervention Strategies To Increase Female Enrollment in Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehrlein, Joyce J.

    A series of marketing and early intervention strategies were developed to increase female enrollment in technology education (TE) in a New Jersey township with residents of all social classes/income levels. Among the main project activities were the following: (1) development of a comprehensive curriculum intervention called Technology Education…

  2. Female Representation in the Higher Education of Geography in Hungary. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Judit; Jelenszkyne, Ildiko Fabian

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts the changing female representation in the higher education of geography, connecting it with the faltering development of feminist geography in Hungary. The transition from socialism to capitalism has compounded gender inequalities while many of the relevant statistical data display gender blindness. Gender issues fail to form a…

  3. The First Female Academics in Programs of Educational Administration in Canada: Riding Waves of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janice; Wallin, Dawn; Viczko, Melody; Anderson, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Our research situates, contextualizes, and analyzes the lived experiences of ten female academics who were among the first women in the academic discipline of educational administration in seven of the ten provinces in Canada. Using institutional ethnography and life history to inform our analysis, this article explores three of the themes that…

  4. Providing Educational Support for Female Ex-Inmates: Project PROVE as a Model for Social Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David; Sarri, Rosemary; Phillips, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The number of female prisoners continues to grow in the United States, yet most examinations of how to increase reintegration and reduce recidivation focus on the needs of the predominantly male prisoner population. As a result, prison education programs and post-release environments often leave women unprepared and facing special risks. This…

  5. Mentoring, Leadership Behaviors, and Career Success, of African American Female Faculty and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Aderemi D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between the variables of career mentoring, leadership behaviors, and career success of African American female faculty and administrators in higher education positions. The aim is to determine whether mentoring is related to leadership behavior and career success of African…

  6. Gender and Higher Education in Different National Spaces: Female Palestinian Students Attending Israeli and Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab; Arar, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the higher education experience among Palestinian Arab females in two national spaces and seeks to determine whether studying at an Arab institution of higher learning in a nearby Arab country can alleviate the emotional and economic difficulties that affect Palestinian women at Israeli universities. What can institutions of…

  7. Perceptions and Barriers of Four Female Agricultural Educators across Generations: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Linda; Stephens, Carrie; Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to discover the perceptions and barriers of four female agriculture educators across generations in a non-traditional field of agriculture. The United States Department of Labor (2006b) defined a non-traditional job as any occupation where one gender comprises 25% or less of the total employment. Four…

  8. Recommendations for Improving the Recruitment of Male Early Childhood Education Professionals: The Female Viewpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Cynthia; Hovingh, Lori; Nezwek, Michele; Pryor-Bayard, Deborah; Schmoldt, Jill; Stevens, James; Sturrus, Wendy; Wabeke, Susan; Weaver, Lorie

    Based on the view that more male role models are needed for young children and that there would be pedagogical benefits to having greater numbers of male early childhood teachers, this study examined female teachers' perceptions of barriers to men entering early childhood education (ECE) and their recommendations for recruiting males into ECE…

  9. Exploratory Study of Asian Pacific American Female Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, Hazel Roca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the model minority myth prevents "Asian Pacific American" ("APA") women from achieving the president or chancellor position in higher education institutions. This study explored the experiences of APA female leaders who are presidents and chancellors to discover…

  10. Voices of Women in the Field--Obtaining a Higher Education Faculty Position: The Critical Role Mentoring Plays for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This instrumental case study outlines the critical role a graduate female faculty member played in mentoring a female doctoral student in obtaining a graduate faculty position in higher education. For the female mentee, mentoring behaviors of "championing, acceptance and confirmation" (Levesque, 2005, p. 6) were valuable in increasing professional…

  11. FEMALE EDUCATION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CHANGES IN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOUR: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

    2015-09-01

    Education is a crucial factor in influencing the pattern and timing of marriage for women, and the changes in levels of female literacy will also change the dynamics of family formation. India has experienced consistent improvement in levels of female literacy; therefore, this study examined the association of women's education with the changes in their demographic behaviour in the Indian context. The central idea of the paper is to examine the differences in age at marriage and first birth, choice of marriage partner and the number of children ever born based on educational attainment of women. In addition, the study examined incongruence in years of schooling and discontinuation from school, for children based on education of the mother. The study utilized data from the third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey. The sample constituted 344,164 ever-married women aged 35 years and above with surviving children aged 5-20 years. The results imply that women with higher education are more likely to marry late and have fewer children compared with less educated women. Accordingly, increase in education of women also increases the probability of marrying men with better education than themselves. The study further observed that education of wife has a greater association with the number of children ever born than the education of husband. At the same time, incongruence in years of schooling and drop-out from school are both high for children of uneducated women. The study also found that the children from urban areas are more likely to drop out than their rural counterparts. In addition to education of the mother, number and composition of children in the family and economic condition of the household are some other factors that influence the educational attainment of children. PMID:25299670

  12. Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734

  13. The Piano Plague: The Nineteenth-Century Medical Critique of Female Musical Education*

    PubMed Central

    Kennaway, James

    2014-01-01

    The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls’ education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music’s effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain. PMID:22303771

  14. The piano plague: the nineteenth-century medical critique of female musical education.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, James

    2011-01-01

    The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls' education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music's effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain. PMID:22303771

  15. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  16. Strategies for Female Education in the Middle East and North Africa. Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rihani, May; Prather, Cynthia J.

    This paper is designed to assist education planners and policymakers in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to identify a range of strategic options to increase the access and retention of girls in the education system. It provides a review of materials relating to the status of female education in the MENA region, statistical data on…

  17. Evaluation of Transtheoretical Model-Based Family Education Among Females of Zahedan (Southeast of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Kamalikhah, Tahereh; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Gholian Avval, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: It cannot be denied that many improvements in female and child health have been achieved worldwide through international family planning programs. More than half of the females (57%) with unintended pregnancy admitted that they had not used birth control the month before conception. Objectives: The aim of this study was to promote family planning practice among females of Zahedan (southeast of Iran) through the transtheoretical model (TTM). Patients and Methods: The current quasi-experimental study was conducted on 96 eligible females, who were allocated either to the case or the control group and were selected from homes in the border of Zahedan city (southeast of Iran) during 2010. Convenience sampling by door-to-door visits was used for finding eligible cases. A TTM-based self-administrated family planning questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants in the intervention group received education in two groups, based on their stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and all groups were followed for three months. Results: The result of the chi-square test did not show any significant difference in the stage of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance before education between the control and intervention groups (P = 0.55). After education, subjects in the intervention group moved forward through stage of change and got at least one step closer to the family planning behavior., with this change being significant (P < 0.001), while the movement of participants through stage of change not being significant in control group (P = 1). The results of statistical tests illustrated that the mean knowledge of the intervention group was 7.5 ± 7.1 versus 0.5 ± 4 for the control group (P < 0.001), mean of attitude of the intervention group was 5.5 ± 5.41 versus 0.09 ± 2.04 for the control group (P < 0.001), and practicing family planning methods (P < 0.007) in the intervention

  18. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  19. "doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-11-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment framework to analyse the interplay between the three. State policies to Islamise the universities during the 1980-1983 Cultural Revolution determined the "gender appropriateness" of each specialisation and led to the exclusion of women from "masculine" fields of study during the early years of the revolution. Despite such discriminatory measures, women today represent the majority of students in all fields, except engineering. Women, however, remain underrepresented at graduate levels of education and as faculty members. An important challenge is to understand why men are not entering different specialisations and whether there is a possibility of "re-doing gender" - this time in addressing male inequality and disempowerment at undergraduate levels.

  20. Perceptions of International Female Students toward E-Learning in Resolving High Education and Family Role Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibelloh, Mboni; Bao, Yukun

    2014-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for many mature female international students enrolled in high education overseas to experience strain from managing conflicting roles of student and family, and difficulties of cross-cultural adjustment. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and behavioral intentions of international female students toward…

  1. The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-Historical Analysis of Girls' Education in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Catherina

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a historical perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…

  2. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  3. Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students' Attitudes towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mehrak; Yadollahi, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students' attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled…

  4. Examination of the Effectiveness of Male and Female Educational Leaders Who Made Use of the Invitational Leadership Style of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gwen; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the effectiveness of male and female educational leaders who made use of the invitational leadership style of leadership in their k-12 school settings. Study participants consisted of 14 principals (7 female and 7 male) and 164 teachers. While quantitative findings revealed a statistically significant…

  5. Female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions regarding sexual health education in Iranian schools: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Javadnoori, Mojgan; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite so many unmet sexual health education (SHE) needs of adolescents, socio-cultural challenges have caused this issue to be ignored in different scoieties. This study investigated Iranian female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions with respect to SHE that they received at schools, and what they really needed, expected, and preferred. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus group discussions (44 adolescents) and 13 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents aged 14-18 in Mashhad and Ahvaz, Iran, to explore adolescents’ experiences and perceptions towards SHE in Iranian schools. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analyzing adolescents’ perspectives and experiences revealed their great dissatisfaction with SHE in schools. Emerged categories included: lack of obligation and priority for SHE, sexual reticence and evading, making adolescents frightened of sexual issues, inconsistency of SHE with adolescents’ needs, unqualified educators, and lack of appropriate educational materials. Conclusion: This study found some similarities between expectations of Iranian adolescents and those of adolescents from other cultures about an SHE program. Adolescents showed great abilities to appraise health services delivered for them, and so any program for sexual health promotion in adolescents ought to address adolescents’ needs, demands, and aspirations. Their contribution can provide insights for tailoring SHE programs for adolescents. PMID:23922603

  6. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice among school teachers in Abha female educational district, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1%) primary-, 89 (23.2%) intermediate- and 49 (12.8%) high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31%) started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3%) participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44%) and 148 (38.5%) of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6%) had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68%) indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such findings, if

  7. Promoting Gender Equality in the Context of Nigerian Cultural and Religious Expression: Beyond Increasing Female Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Para-Mallam, Funmi J.

    2010-01-01

    National education policies in Nigeria aim at addressing female disprivilege by improving girl-child enrolment in schools in line with Millennium Development Goal targets. In addition, the National Gender Policy and its Strategic Implementation Framework stress the importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives within the education sector by…

  8. Voices from Caribbean Classrooms: The Academic and Lived Experience of Jamaican Nontraditional Female Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Chen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    One of the most notable trends in the last two decades has been the dramatic increase in continuing education among nontraditional-aged females. This study examined the academic and lived experience of women in Jamaica, specifically women who returned to college to further their education. Emphasis was placed on investigating reasons for…

  9. The Relationship of Parental Education and Maternal Work and Occupational Status to Occupational Aspiration in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of parental education and maternal work and occupational status to the occupational aspirations of adolescent females. Significant association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status (traditional or…

  10. The Impact of Custom and Tradition in Educating the Female-Child in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Banahene, Nana Opoku

    This paper seeks to draw attention to examples of negative customary practice and obsolete traditions that thwart female access to education, female emancipation, and their ultimate empowerment. The information is organized in five sections. Sections 1 and 2 present an historical review of female education in Sub-Saharan Africa and the status of…

  11. The Supply of Female Scientists Conundrum: An International Study Exploring the Predictors of Females' Intentions to Major in Science Postsecondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, Susan E.

    The goal of this study was to perform an exploratory analysis of a comprehensive list of independent variables identified from literature to determine which, if any, are effective predictors in forecasting a female's intention to study science postsecondary. This is likely to be indicative of interest to study science when pursing higher education as well as choice of major and possible career. The postulated model guiding this analysis, which was based on prior research, recognized that factors pertaining to students, parents, schools, and peers are all important. This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings of this study suggest that external factors, such as those considered from the environment, are indeed important in determining a female's intention to study science postsecondary. The findings of this study provided further refinement by demonstrating that for the 15 countries included in this analysis from the Oceania, Latin America, European, and Asian regions there were some overarching and consistent factors that are positively associated with females' intentions to study science postsecondary. These findings essentially paint a portrait of females who intend to study science postsecondary, which are used to suggest additional research as well as interventions to help mitigate the female scientist conundrum observed worldwide.

  12. Educators' Perspectives on Female Students' Enrollment in Computer Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibeau, Wendy

    The purpose of this case study was to inquire into educators' perspectives on female students' enrollment in computer science and engineering (CSE) courses. At a high school in New England, girls are significantly underrepresented in CSE courses, a problem that is reflected in schools throughout the United States. As a result, these careers are lacking in input from women, even as the number of CSE professions is increasing. Research questions in this study addressed what teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors think about this growing problem and what changes, if any, they are willing to make to help close this gender gap. Individual interviews and a focus group were used to gather data from 7 participants. The theoretical framework was based on brain research and social theories. Data were then analyzed and coded for themes based on the framework. The results indicated that educators are cognizant of the underrepresentation within their school and have tried individually, but unsuccessfully, to make changes to increase the numbers of girls in CSE courses. In response to these findings, a professional development project was developed that outlines ways for educators to communicate and collaborate to increase girls' representation in CSE courses. Girls, schools, and industry can benefit from the results of this study. If educators can encourage more girls to take CSE courses and provide support for them to be confident and successful, then more girls will go on to major in CSE, which will then lead to an increase in the number of women working in these fields.

  13. Female and male Hispanic students majoring in science or engineering: Their stories describing their educational journeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring

  14. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  15. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  16. Effects of an Educational Intervention on Female Biomedical Scientists’ Research Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Lori L.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Gundermann, Dawn M.; Ward, Earlise C.; Slattery, Angela; King, Andrea; Scott, Denise; Taylor, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Women and people of color continue to be underrepresented among biomedical researchers to an alarming degree. Research interest and subsequent productivity have been shown to be affected by the research training environment through the mediating effects of research self-efficacy. This article presents the findings of a study to determine whether a short-term research training program coupled with an efficacy enhancing intervention for novice female biomedical scientists of diverse racial backgrounds would increase their research self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-three female biomedical scientists were randomized into a control or intervention group and 15 men participated as a control group. Research self-efficacy significantly increased for women who participated in the self-efficacy intervention workshop. Research self-efficacy within each group also significantly increased following the short-term research training program, but cross-group comparisons were not significant. These findings suggest that educational interventions that target sources of self-efficacy and provide domain-specific learning experiences are effective at increasing research self-efficacy for women and men. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal outcomes of this effort. PMID:19774477

  17. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    PubMed Central

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  18. Exploiting the Margins in Higher Education: A Collaborative Autoethnography of Three Foreign-Born Female Faculty of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Kathy-Ann C.; Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura; Chang, Heewon

    2015-01-01

    In a collaborative autoethnographic process, we, three foreign-born female professors from the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, Kenya, and Korea explore how our personal status as immigrant women of color and social-institutional factors in US higher education affect our experiences in the academy. Based on experiences as graduate students and…

  19. The Effect of a Female Physical Educator's Physical Appearance on Physical Fitness Knowledge and Attitudes of Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Melony Blair; Adams, Thomas M., II; Comeau, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if a female physical educator's appearance of body fatness affects 1) the cognitive performance of junior high school students on a test of health-related fitness knowledge, and 2) student attitudes toward the instructor. Ninety-three seventh through ninth grade students from two schools, participated in a…

  20. Female Students of Color in Special Education: Classroom Behaviors and Perceptions in Single-Gender and Coeducational Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer C.

    This qualitative research examined classroom behaviors and school perceptions of female students of color (Latina and African American) in single-gender and coeducational secondary-level special education placements for students with mild to moderate learning disabilities. Classroom observations and interviews were conducted with eight female…

  1. Effects of Mothers' Assets on Expectations and Children's Educational Achievement in Female-Headed Households. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael

    This study examined the effects of mothers' assets (i.e., home ownership and savings) on their expectations and their children's educational achievement in female-headed households. The study used data from the National Survey of Families and Households, which involved interviews with a national sample of 13,017 respondents (including 3,374 blacks…

  2. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  3. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  4. The Degree of Satisfaction with Institutional Climate as Perceived by Female Students in Teacher Education: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Mary; Sorgman, Margo

    A study compared perceptions of institutional climate among four categories of female education students at the University of Utah: traditional age students (age 24 and under) who are Latter Day Saints (Mormons) or non-Latter Day Saints (non-LDS); and older students (age 25 and over) who are LDS or non-LDS. It was hypothesized that older students…

  5. "A Girl Never Finishes Her Journey": Mixing Methods to Understand Female Experiences of Education in Contemporary Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…

  6. Changing the Culture of Silence: The Potential of an Online Educational Sexual Health and Female Cancer Prevention Intervention in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahe, Mariliis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the effectiveness of a customized educational health intervention on sexual health and female cancer prevention among young women in Pakistan and evaluates the applicability of the integrated model of behavior prevention (IM) when predicting three health behaviors among this population. The study used randomized…

  7. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  8. The Effect of Continuing Education Participation on Outcomes of Male and Female Agricultural Workers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Anita Alves

    2015-01-01

    Job training and employment assistance programs aim to assist migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their dependents locate steady employment and develop job skills. This study investigates effects of educational programs on wages, annual time allocations, and poverty of male and female farmworkers and their families using regression analysis in…

  9. Talkin' in the Company of My Sistas: The Counterlanguages and Deliberate Silences of Black Female Students in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddix, Marcelle M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on critical race theory to examine Black female preservice teachers' perspectives on their racial identity in relation to how they are positioned inside and outside the context of a traditional teacher education program in the United States. The author shares findings generated from a year-long ethnographic and…

  10. Family History of Education Predicts Eating Disorders across Multiple Generations among 2 Million Swedish Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Anna; Heshmati, Amy; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate which facets of parent and grandparent socio-economic position (SEP) are associated with eating disorders (ED), and how this varies by ED subtype and over time. Methods Total-population cohort study of 1,040,165 females and 1,098,188 males born 1973–1998 in Sweden, and followed for inpatient or outpatient ED diagnoses until 2010. Proportional hazards models estimated associations with parental education, income and social class, and with grandparental education and income. Results 15,747 females and 1051 males in our sample received an ED diagnosis, with rates increasing in both sexes over time. ED incidence in females was independently predicted by greater educational level among the father, mother and maternal grandparents, but parent social class and parental income showed little or no independent effect. The associations with education were equally strong for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED not-otherwise-specified, and had increased over time. Among males, an apparently similar pattern was seen with respect to anorexia nervosa, but non-anorexia ED showed no association with parental education and an inverse association with parental income. Conclusions Family history of education predicts ED in gender- and disorder-specific ways, and in females the effect is observed across multiple generations. Particularly given that these effects may have grown stronger in more recent cohorts, these findings highlight the need for further research to clarify the underlying mechanisms and identify promising targets for prevention. Speculatively, one such mechanism may involve greater internal and external demands for academic success in highly educated families. PMID:25162402

  11. From High School Jocks to College Grads: Assessing the Long-Term Effects of High School Sport Participation on Females' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Kelly P.; Dufur, Mikaela J.

    2007-01-01

    Various studies show that interscholastic sport participants, and specifically female athletes, enjoy numerous educational benefits at the high school level. Because of the influx in the number of females engaging in high school sport that has occurred during the past 30 years, few studies have been able to adequately assess whether females'…

  12. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  13. Assessment of Classroom Verbal Interaction and Attitudes toward School for Female Students in Single-Gender and Mixed-Gender Residential Special Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcik-Mc Closkey, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    The education of students with special needs is an area which continues to evolve as teachers and administrators strive to provide the most appropriate learning environment for children. A paucity of information exists regarding the needs of female students in special education. This study compared female students with special needs at two…

  14. The Role of Physical Education and Other Formative Experiences of Three Generations of Female Football Fans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Stacey; Kirk, David

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of female sports fans have been largely marginalised in academic research to date and little research has examined the formative sporting experiences of female spectators. This article draws on 51 semi-structured interviews with three generations of female fans of one (men's) professional football club (Leicester City), to…

  15. Anemia, parasitic infections and some risk factors among physical education female students in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    El-Sahn, Fikrat F; El-Masry, Abdel-Ghanny M; El-Sahn, Amel A

    2003-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional one, carried out to estimate the percentages of anemia and parasites among students of Faculty of Physical Education for girls and some of their related factors. A predesigned questionnaire was completed by the researchers through face-to-face meetings to collect data concerning age, menstruation history and some dietary habits. Blood samples were taken by finger pricks to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) concentration level (gm/dl). Stool samples were collected and examined for the presence of intestinal parasites using formol ether concentration technique. Mild anemia was found among 12.4% of the studied female students. Mean Hb level was 13.3 g/dl (SD +/- 1.03). Anemia increased in those drinking tea immediately after meals and in those not drinking tea indicating poor iron reserves. Also taking iron supplements, having a history of anemia, increased amount and duration of menstruation were associated with anemia. Percentage of girls infected with parasites was 27.2%. A higher percentage of, anemia was found among students with no parasites (13.1% vs. 9.7%). The difference was statistically insignificant. Parasitic infections were insignificantly associated with anemia which was found in only 12.5% of girls infected with Giardia lamblia, in 10% of those with Ascaris lumbricoides, and in 7.4% of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cases. PMID:17265613

  16. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  17. How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.

    2006-12-01

    Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of 50 students (26 females and 24 males), drawn from two classes of a high school, took part in the study. Students were randomly paired, and there were three research groups: mixed-gender dyads (MG), female-female dyads (FF) and male-male dyads (MM). Analysis of students' pre- and post-test performances revealed that female students in the single-gender condition solved physics problems more effectively than did those in the mixed-gender condition, while the same was not the case for male students. We further explored the differences between female and male communication styles, and content among the three research groups. It showed that the females' interaction content and problem-solving processes were more sensitive to partner gender than were those for males. This might explain why mixed-gender cooperation in physics disadvantages females in high schools.

  18. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia. PMID:27413350

  19. A Study of Current and Desired State of Physics Education in Iranian Female Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaghatdar, Mohammad J.; Soltani, Asghar; Shojaei, Rashin; Siadat, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the characteristics of physics teachers, their professional competences, supplies of equipments and technologies, appropriate textbooks and motivational factors in students' learning of physics from female physics teacher's points of view. The population included all female physics teachers in Isfahan city and a total of 88…

  20. Key Competencies in Higher Education: A Comparison of Two Historically Female Colleges in Hampden, MA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matosky Szmyt, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This research study solicited the competencies that leaders self-identify as critical to their success within their current college and to the survival of two historically female-centric colleges. These two colleges made decisions that allowed them to continue to exist as colleges: albeit one female and one co-ed. There is relatively limited…

  1. Benefits of Peer Mentoring to Mentors, Female Mentees and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Faber, Stine Thidemann

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a study of a pilot mentoring program for early career female researchers at a university that addressed the under-representation of female researchers in senior academic positions. Embracing a grounded theory approach, we draw on a design comprising an ex-ante and an ex-post evaluation. We disclose that development…

  2. How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of…

  3. Engineering education research: Impacts of an international network of female engineers on the persistence of Liberian undergraduate women studying engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya; Cotel, Aline

    2015-11-01

    As international efforts to educate and empower women continue to rise, engineering educators are in a unique position to be a part of these efforts by encouraging and supporting women across the world at the university level through STEM education and outreach. For the past two years, the University of Michigan has been a part of a grassroots effort to encourage and support the persistence of engineering female students at University of Liberia. This effort has led to the implementation of a leadership camp this past August for Liberian engineering undergraduate women, meant to: (i) to empower engineering students with the skills, support, and inspiration necessary to become successful and well-rounded engineering professionals in a global engineering market; and (ii) to strengthen the community of Liberian female engineers by building cross-cultural partnerships among students resulting in a international network of women engineers. This session will present qualitative research findings on the impact of this grassroots effort on Liberian female students? persistence in engineering, and the future directions of this work.

  4. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2014-08-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  5. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2015-06-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  6. Toward Wholesome Nurture: Challenges in the Religious Education of Asian North American Female Christians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Greer Anne Wenh-In

    1996-01-01

    Considers the special religious needs of Asian North American female Christians. Questions the effectiveness of programs and resources designed for mainstream Christians. Addresses specific areas of cultural images, interreligious self-dialogs and the impact of role models. (MJP)

  7. Factors That Female Higher Education Faculty in Select Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields Perceive as Being Influential to Their Success and Persistence in Their Chosen Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opare, Phyllis Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors female higher education faculty in select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields perceived as influential to their success and persistence in their chosen professions. Females are underrepresented in STEM professions including academia, despite the fact that female…

  8. Botany and the Taming of Female Passion: Rousseau and Contemporary Educational Concepts of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinau, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…

  9. Gender Disparities in Educational Trajectories in India: Do Females Become More Robust at Higher Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Zakir; Sarkar, Swagata

    2011-01-01

    Studies on educational attainments have tended to focus on attainments at a specific level of education. The change in disparities in attainment over the educational life cycle, however, has been neglected in literature--in India, for instance, the only exceptions are Vaid (2004) and Desai and Kulkarni (2008). This paper uses unit level National…

  10. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  11. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  12. A Lab of Her Own?: Portrayals of Female Characters on Children's Educational Science Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinke, Jocelyn; Long, Marilee

    Television teaches children gender-specific behaviors, attitudes, characteristics, and personality traits. Research indicates that by observing male and female characters on television, children learn to label certain characteristics and behaviors as masculine or feminine and to assign traditional sex-role stereotypes to careers. Content studies…

  13. Inventing Ourselves: An Informed Essay for Black Female Scholars in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Black women and men often work in academic spaces that were not made for them, where they are often viewed as outsiders and in many cases where they find little support for their efforts. But being a Black female professor in a predominantly white institution can sometimes be especially challenging. The purpose of this essay is to provide a brief…

  14. Choice of College Major: An Exploration of Appalachian Female Choice of an Early Childhood Education Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannoe, Lisa N.

    2013-01-01

    First generation Appalachian female students are exposed to gender differences in roles and career choices that are modeled in the family. A case study approach was used to obtain qualitative data from five students at Eastern Kentucky University and their mothers regarding why these students chose to major in child development and early childhood…

  15. Salaries of Recent Male and Female College Graduates: Educational and Labor Market Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Lois

    2003-01-01

    Estimating salary regressions on data from the 1993-94 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study showed that gender differences in total college credits accounted for more of the male-female salary gap than majors, grades, or institutions. Gender differences in job sector, industry, and hours worked had the largest effect on the gap. However, as…

  16. Gifted Adolescent Females' Attitudes toward Gender Equality in Educational and Intergender Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Linda; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Gifted adolescent females (N=122) in a seminar on careers and intellectual opportunities for women were surveyed for attitudes toward gender equality. Although 75 percent of the sample strongly agreed that women should expect equality in professional and academic domains, belief in equality in dating, marriage, and etiquette was far more variable.…

  17. Cultivating the Rosebuds: The Education of Women at the Cherokee Female Seminary, 1851-1909.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihesuah, Devon A.

    This book traces the history of the Cherokee Female Seminary, established by the Cherokee Nation in 1851 near Tahlequah (Oklahoma). Unusual among Indian schools because it was founded by neither the federal government nor missionaries, the school offered a rigorous curriculum from elementary grades through high school, patterned after that of…

  18. Dieting and Nutrition Patterns of College Females: Implications for College Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snelling, Anastasia M.; Schaeffer, Marc; Lehrhoff, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the dieting frequency and nutritional patterns of college females in allied health and health science at a large urban university. Data from the Black Health and Habits History Questionnaire and measures of body mass index indicated that 73 percent of the respondents had dieted at least one time, though 61 percent were at normal weight.…

  19. Philosophy of Music Education and the Burnout Syndrome: Female Viewpoints on a Male School World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Burnout is a risk for many music teachers, particularly the highly successful and effective teachers. Burnout is more than a personal feeling of discomfort or fatigue. It is an attack on professional efficiency and personal integrity. Burnout is affecting male and female music teachers in different ways, because women tend to react to stress in…

  20. Essentials of Female Management: Women's Ways of Working in the Education Market Place?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane; Ball, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that gendered identities are in context more fluid and shifting than depicted in feminist leadership texts, drawing on a small case study of female (British) headteachers. Femininities are varied and shaped by the roles women undertake, the leadership context, and the amount of power women have access to. (Contains 65 references.) (MLH)

  1. Career Patterns of Female Professors in West Berlin Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Beverly B.

    The career patterns of 30 women professors in West Berlin were studied to compare the pace of progress of American female academics and to raise the consciousness of women for each other and for the situation of women in West Berlin universities. The data revealed that the West Berlin universities are male-dominated and resistant to change. Women…

  2. Entering the Professions: Women Library Educators and the Placement of Female Students, 1887-1912.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passet, Joanne

    1991-01-01

    Discusses methods developed to facilitate women's entry into the library profession. Uses historical excerpts to document library school directors' efforts to place female graduates between 1887 and 1912. Includes tables identifying directors and backgrounds of women directors of the period. Describes the difficulty of establishing the profession…

  3. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  4. The Cultural Inertia of the Habitus: Gendered Narrations of Agency amongst Educated Female Palestinians in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alayan, Samira; Yair, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Key experiences are short and intense instructional episodes that students remember to have had a decisive effect on their lives and are usually equated with a sense of self-direction and empowerment. This study analyzes gender differences in the narrations of key educational experiences of Palestinian Israeli students--an educated segment in…

  5. Educational Attitudes and Science as Impediments to Female Sport and Socialization during the Victorian Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Ruskin

    Although women have made remarkable gains during the present century in terms of voting rights, education, and recreational and employment opportunities, the fact remains that their metamorphosis from "fair sex" to "full persons" is still an ongoing process. This paper examines certain historic educational and scientific attitudes which have been…

  6. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  7. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  8. The Broken Pipeline for Female Midlevel Administrators in Higher Education: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Personal Identities on Professional Experiences and Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany E.

    2013-01-01

    Women's roles in higher education have increased; however, women remain underrepresented in upper-level administrative positions. This qualitative study examined how personal identities are related to self-efficacy, and subsequently, the professional experiences and aspirations of female midlevel higher education administrators. Midlevel…

  9. The Role of Condom Motivation Education in the Reduction of New and Reinfection Rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Inner-City Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. B.; Weinman, M. L.; Parrilli, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of small group condom motivation education in reducing new and reinfection rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among urban female teenagers was evaluated. Teens (N=205) were followed for six months. Findings are presented and health education opportunities are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  10. Family Fortunes: Female Students' Perceptions and Expectations of Higher Education and an Examination of How They, and their Parents, See the Benefits of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a case study undertaken in 2011 which examined a small group of female students', and their parents', perceptions of the purpose of a university education. The research is underpinned by a review of the literature examining the views held by academics and politicians as to the benefits of higher education and of research in the…

  11. "They Didn't Consider Me and No-One Even Took Me into Account": Female School Principals in the Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The study of women's management and leadership in education has become a central research topic and the copious work published in many countries encompasses various issues relating to gender and educational leadership. The study of female school principals from the Arab minority in Israel has only recently begun. This is a minority that lives…

  12. Poorer prognosis in Taiwanese female ever smokers with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who were readministered a tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Hung, Jen-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Ming; Lee, Jui-Ying; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Liu, Ta-Chih; Shen, Mei-Chiou; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chong, Inn-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Readministering a second epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with lung adenocarcinoma with acquired resistance to an initial EGFR TKI is a common treatment strategy. However, the prognostic factors for the second EGFR TKI are still uncertain. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, we enrolled patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed between June 2009 and October 2013 at two university-affiliated hospitals in Taiwan. Basic characteristics including age, sex, smoking status, performance status, EGFR mutation status, tumor response, and progression-free survival (PFS) of the second EGFR TKI (PFS2) were recorded. Results A total of 72 patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma with susceptible EGFR gene mutations who had been treated with a second EGFR TKI were enrolled. Survival analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test showed a significant difference in PFS2 when classifying the patients according to smoking history and sex (P=0.0179). When stratifying the patients by sex, a significant difference was found in PFS2 between ever smokers and never smokers in the female (1.87 vs 4.87 months, P=0.0081) but not in the male (2.83 vs 2.9 months, P=0.9605) patients. A reduced multivariate model developed using the backward variable selection method showed that only ever smoking remained an independent poor prognostic factor for PFS2, and that sex and ever smoking remained independent poor prognostic factors for PFS2 in the female patients (hazard ratio [HR] =3.386, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.015–11.298, P=0.0473). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that female ever smokers have a poorer PFS if they have acquired resistance to an initial EGFR TKI and receive a second EGFR TKI. Further large-scale studies are urgently needed to elucidate the mechanism. PMID:27042119

  13. The perceptions and readiness toward interprofessional education among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alderaa, Asma; AlSayyad, Arwa; AlHosawi, Fatimah; AlAmoudi, Shahad; AlTaib, Sara; Mahmoud, Sara; AlGhanim, Tarfah; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important academic approach for preparing health-care professionals to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. This study aimed to measure the perceptions and readiness toward IPE among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University (KSU). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study carried out using a survey in the form of an electronic questionnaire: The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The questionnaire was distributed to the students via e-mail and social media networks. [Results] The RIPLS was completed by 296 female health-care students at KSU who valued the importance of IPE. The differences between health-care disciplines in the perceptions and readiness toward IPE were statistically significant, but there were no differences between students of different years of study in their perception and readiness toward IPE. [Conclusion] Administering a course of interprofessional teamwork in the health-care curriculum is a major challenge for the clinical education community. IPE offers an opportunity to address the multi-disciplinary concept in hospitals. Our findings indicate that undergraduate health-care students have high perception and readiness toward IPE. PMID:27190442

  14. The perceptions and readiness toward interprofessional education among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alderaa, Asma; AlSayyad, Arwa; AlHosawi, Fatimah; AlAmoudi, Shahad; AlTaib, Sara; Mahmoud, Sara; AlGhanim, Tarfah; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important academic approach for preparing health-care professionals to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. This study aimed to measure the perceptions and readiness toward IPE among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University (KSU). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study carried out using a survey in the form of an electronic questionnaire: The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The questionnaire was distributed to the students via e-mail and social media networks. [Results] The RIPLS was completed by 296 female health-care students at KSU who valued the importance of IPE. The differences between health-care disciplines in the perceptions and readiness toward IPE were statistically significant, but there were no differences between students of different years of study in their perception and readiness toward IPE. [Conclusion] Administering a course of interprofessional teamwork in the health-care curriculum is a major challenge for the clinical education community. IPE offers an opportunity to address the multi-disciplinary concept in hospitals. Our findings indicate that undergraduate health-care students have high perception and readiness toward IPE. PMID:27190442

  15. Sabotaging Our Sisters: Perceptions of Female Relational Aggression in Higher Education among Female Faculty and Administrators at Three Western U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyborg, Deborah G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and understand relational workplace aggression among female faculty and administrators at three western U.S. universities. This study was designed to address the gap in empirical knowledge of the phenomenon by elucidating how workplace relational aggression affects the lives of female university faculty and…

  16. STEM Education-An Exploration of Its Impact on Female Academic Success in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ybarra, Michael E.

    The 21st century presents many new career opportunities and choices for women today. However, over the past decade, there has been a growing concern that there will not be enough students trained in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) to fill jobs in the United States. Current research reveals that there will be a need for highly skilled workers in the STEM industries, along with the opportunities to earn higher wages. With these opportunities ahead, it is paramount that secondary schools prepare not only their male students, but also their female students for these lucrative STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what degree female high school students enrolled in a STEM academy, and who may play sports, experience academic differences in college preparatory math and science courses, and in the math and science portions of the California Standards Test. Academic differences shall be defined as differences in grade point averages. A comparison will be made of female students who take similar classes and play sports, but who are not enrolled in a STEM academy program. This comparison will then incorporate a quantitative non-experimental research design, along with a chi-square test.

  17. Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) in Higher Education from the Perspective of Female Students: An Institutional Ethnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, Laura J.

    A persistent disadvantage for females is systemically embedded in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in postsecondary institutions. As a result, undergraduate women majoring in STEM fields face a uniquely difficult path; yet, for the most part, recommendations made and supported in the literature have focused on recruitment of women to STEM fields or on ways to make women more successful and comfortable in their STEM major. These recommendations have so far proved to be insufficient to remedy a gender gap and serve to replicate the existing male hierarchy. In order to truly make the STEM classroom one in which women are welcome and comfortable and to challenge the existing social and scientific systems, it is necessary to explore and understand the social and political implications embedded within teaching and learning choices. This institutional ethnography addresses that gap. The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the institutional practices of STEM education at a Midwest research university (MRU) from the standpoint of female undergraduate students. Using the framework of feminist standpoint theory, this study explored the everyday "work" of female undergraduate STEM students to provide a unique perspective on the STEM education teaching and learning environment. Data collection began with in-depth interviews with female undergraduate math and physics students. As the institutional processes shaping undergraduate participant experiences were identified, subsequent data collection included classroom observations, additional interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of the texts that mediate these processes (e.g., syllabi and student handbooks). Data analysis followed Carspecken's process of ethnographic data analysis that began with low-level coding, followed by high-level coding, and concluded by pulling codes together through the creation of themes. Analysis of data led to three key findings. First, undergraduate

  18. Female Students' Perceptions about Gender-Role Stereotypes and Their Influence on Attitude toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Manson, Mara; Silverman, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Why girls' participation in physical education (PE) dramatically changes once girls reach middle school has been of interest to many researchers. Studying how middle school girls perceive things at this age helps ensure a greater understanding of how to better meet girls' needs. The purpose of this study was to determine how middle school girls…

  19. Employability and Higher Education: Contextualising Female Students' Workplace Experiences to Enhance Understanding of Employability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Current political and economic discourses position employability as a responsibility of higher education, which deploys mechanisms such as supervised work experience (SWE) to embed employability skills development into the undergraduate curriculum. However, workplaces are socially constructed complex arenas of embodied knowledge that are gendered.…

  20. The Empress Frederick and Female Education in the Late Nineteenth Century: Germany, England and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-time Prussian/German Crown Princess Victoria (1840-1901), known after her husband's death as the Empress Frederick, played an important role as patroness of and advocate for many forms of academic and vocational education for girls and women. This article examines her work for various institutions in Berlin as well as her homeland. It…

  1. The ETS Gender Study: How Females and Males Perform in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nancy S.

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) Gender Study is the result of 4 years of work by several researchers using data from more than 400 tests and other measures from more than 1,500 data sets involving millions of students. The study focuses on nationally representative samples that cut across grades (ages), academic subjects, and years in order…

  2. Career Development and the Needs of Young College-Educated Females in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    This interpretive study examined the lived experiences of young college-educated Taiwanese women employed as clerical workers. Using hermeneutic phenomenology as the research methodology, the study explored the meanings of the participants' lived experiences. Systematic text analysis of the data revealed various experiences and expectations.…

  3. Woman as Artifact: Sexual Scripts and a Female Education from the Reformation to Monique Wittig.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, Patricia T.

    1996-01-01

    Postulates that the construction of women's gendered identity in Western societies has assumed a conscious, systematic, and therefore educational form over the last 500 years. Analyzes historical processes in the development of a "sexual script" and addresses radical feminist positions that seek to rewrite the script. (83 citations) (MAB)

  4. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  5. Leadership Effectiveness in Jordanian Educational Institutions: A Comparison of Jordanian Female and Male leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Senior leadership positions in Jordanian Ministry of Education are held predominantly by men. Women are teachers and/or school principals. This under-representation of women is primarily due to culturally derived stereotypes that see women as teachers or school principals, but not as superintendents. The purpose of this study was to investigate,…

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Educational Support Systems of Female G.E.D. Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Delight E.

    Structured interviews and case analyses were used to assess the support systems of 20 women enrolled in General Educational Development (GED) preparation classes in Connecticut. None was found to have a complete system of support--that is, one lacking in neither sources nor types of support as defined by the researchers--for their educational…

  7. Developing and Testing a Sex Education Program for the Female Clients of Health Centers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Chinichian, Maryam; Ramenzankhani, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2007-01-01

    In this study a matched intervention-control site design in 14 urban health centers with random selection of 160 participants (80 in each of intervention and control) was used to evaluate a sex education program in Iran. Qualitative methods were used in a needs assessment that also set the content and method of delivery of the program. The…

  8. Does Educational Expansion Encourage Female Workforce Participation? A Study of the 1968 Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wehn-Jyuan; Liu, Jin-Tan; Chou, Shin-Yi; Thornton, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1973 the Taiwanese government undertook the most extensive expansion on record of the public junior high school system in Taiwan. This study analyzes the effects of the 1968 education reform and subsequent high school expansion on gender disparities in employment generally, as well in different sectors and classes of employment.…

  9. Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2000-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a sample of women studied from birth to 21 years. Findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among women who become pregnant. (Author/JDM)

  10. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  11. Male and Female Photographic Representation in 50 Years of "Music Educators Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Adam J.; Giebelhausen, Robin; Shouldice, Heather N.; Ramsey, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the potential for stereotypes to shape professional expectations, the four researchers in this study investigated photographic representation of adult men and women in implied positions of authority in 50 years (1962-2011) of issues of "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ"). Data included every photograph (N = 7,288) of…

  12. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  13. Improving Breast Cancer Preventive Behavior among Female Medical Staff: The Use of Educational Intervention based on Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    TORBAGHAN, Ameneh Eskandari-; FARMANFARMA, Khadijah Kalan-; MOGHADDAM, Alireza Ansari-; ZAREI, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer prevalent among women worldwide. Preventive behaviors such as early diagnosis through screening tests play an important role in prevention and control of the disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational intervention using a health belief model on breast cancer preventive behaviors. Methods: This interventional study was conducted on 130 female employees of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire, made and validated by the researcher, was completed before and one month after training by the study subjects. Data were analysed using regression analysis, independent sample T-test, chi-square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient using the SPSS software 18. Results: There were significant changes in the training group, following educational intervention in the awareness construct and in some constructs of the model including perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers, as well as in practice compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, perceived barriers remained as the only predictor in the model, such that for every unit increase in this variable, the behavior score increased by 18%. Conclusion: The use of educational intervention based on Health Belief Model had positive effect on knowledge of breast cancer preventive behaviors among participants. PMID:25977633

  14. Breaking into the All-Male Club: Female Professors of Educational Administration. SUNY Series in Women in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…

  15. The Challenge for Female Educational Leaders: An Examination of the Problem and Proposed Solutions through Educational and Social Change Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brathwaite, Frank

    Despite the current need for strong leadership skills to facilitate task achievement, individual development, and social action in an increasingly complex society, women are failing to make significant headway in educational administration. Lack of leadership opportunities for women limits both individual and organizational potential. The problem…

  16. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  17. Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

    2006-10-01

    The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the children are of the opinion that both boys and girls are given equal right to SMT education (ii) social forces play an important role in determining people's attitude to SMT (iii) though, parents and stakeholders perceptions about girls' participation in some professions is changing, however, socio-cultural and economic factors still determine which sex to encourage to read SMT.

  18. Integrating health education and physical activity programming for cardiovascular health promotion among female inmates: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N

    2016-05-01

    Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. PMID:27020419

  19. The Educational Function of an Astronomy Research Experience for Undergraduates Program as Described by Female Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women in the field of astronomy. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. Four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants’ knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self,” were limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained relationships with mentors were particularly transformational. These findings motivate an ongoing research agenda

  20. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  1. Technological Learning after School: A Study of the Communication Dimensions of Technological Literacy in Three Informal Education Programs for Female and Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carolyn Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation asks how the communication dimensions of technological literacy are understood in three informal education programs in Texas that aim to bridge the digital divide for female and low-income minority youth. Technological literacy is a prerequisite for economic, political, and cultural equality, yet different rationales for…

  2. School-to-Work Transition Performance of "Male", "Female" and "Neutral" Vocational Streams: A Gender Balance Sheet for Vocational Education Graduates in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis; Rousseas, Panagiotis; Vretakou, Vassilia

    2003-01-01

    The issue of gender-related differences in the transition of secondary vocational education graduates from school-to-work is discussed, relative to "male", "female" and "neutral" curriculum choices, using findings from a national survey of graduates. The discussion explores this issue using matched employment and earnings as critical indicators.…

  3. Uganda's Universal Secondary Education Policy and Its Effect on "Empowered" Women: How Reduced Income and Moonlighting Activities Differentially Impact Male and Female Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007 Uganda embarked on a strategy to implement a nationwide Universal Secondary Education (USE) policy. This article investigates how gender differences in Uganda's informal and formal teaching markets, that went unexamined during the implementation process of USE, differentially affected male and female teachers' incomes. In…

  4. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  5. The "Black Girl Turn" in Research on Gender and Science Education: Toward Exploring and Understanding the Early Experiences of Black Females. A Literature Review Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2008-01-01

    For the pat 40 years, educators and researchers have largely discussed sex equity issues, particularly in the K-12 settings. However, within the last few years gender equity issues have become a hotly debated area of research. One may contend that sex is biologically determined maleness and femaleness; whereas, gender is influenced by cultural,…

  6. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…

  7. Investigating the Effect of Educating Philosophy in the Children on the Spiritual Development of Female Students with 12-14 Years Old in the City of Isfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abaspour, Nafiseh; Nowrozi, Reza Ali; Latifi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of educating philosophy curriculum in the children on the spiritual development of female students with 12-14 years old in the city of Isfahan. The present study is a semi-experiment research. The research design is pretest-posttest research with experiment and control group. In order to select…

  8. Barriers to and Facilitators of Female Deans' Career Advancement in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    Although the slow progress of female academics compared to their male colleagues and the challenges that female academic leaders have to face in taking leadership roles have been well-documented, very little is known about female academic leaders and managers' career advancement in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper reports on an…

  9. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  10. Association of higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades with risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in females: the Uppsala birth cohort multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie; Silverwood, Richard; Klinteberg, Britt Af; Koupil, Ilona

    2009-09-01

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden among young women. This study investigated associations of social characteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position, and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. The authors studied Swedish females born in 1952-1989 (n = 13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsala in 1915-1929. Data on grandparental and parental social characteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations, emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages. Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders were studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted for age and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization for eating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with more highly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higher risk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher education relative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent of family social characteristics, women with the highest school grades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared with low grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus, higher parental and grandparental education and higher school grades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disorders in female offspring, possibly because of high internal and external demands. PMID:19589840

  11. Differential HIV Risk for Racial/Ethnic Minority Trans*female Youths and Socioeconomic Disparities in Housing, Residential Stability, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of 282 trans*female youths aged 16 to 24 years participating in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, SHINE study from 2012 to 2013 to determine differences between racial/ethnic minority and White youths. Methods. We conducted the χ2 test to determine distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and White participants in sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors, and syndemic factors. Results. Of the trans*female youths, 4.8% were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and White trans*female youths differed significantly in gender identity and sexual orientation. Racial/ethnic minority youths also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to have lived with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse than were Whites. Conclusions. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple-minority stress on racial/minority trans*female youths are needed imminently, and prevention efforts must address macrolevel disparities for trans*female youths, especially those from racial/ethnic minority groups, to reduce these disparities and prevent incident cases of HIV. PMID:25905826

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  13. Navigating the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline: How social capital impacts the educational attainment of college-bound female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies provided by the University of Southern California's Math, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program, as well as the relationships and experiences that contributed to the success of underrepresented female high school students in the STEM pipeline. A social capital framework provided the backdrop to the study. This qualitative study takes an ethnographic approach, incorporating 11 interviews, 42 hours of observation, and document analysis to address the research questions: How does involvement in the MESA program impact female students' decisions to pursue a mathematics or science major in college? What is the role of significant others in supporting and encouraging student success? The findings revealed a continuous cycle of support for these students. The cycle started in the home environment, where parents were integral in the early influence on the students' decisions to pursue higher education. Relationships with teachers, counselors, and peers provided critical networks of support in helping these students to achieve their academic goals. Participation in the MESA program empowered the students and provided additional connections to knowledge-based resources. This study highlights the interplay among family, school, and the MESA program in the overall support of underrepresented female students in the STEM pipeline.

  14. Trends in Female Authorships, Editorial Board Memberships, and Editorships in Educational Psychology Journals from 2003 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Carlton J.; Yoo, Julia H.; Jones, Sara J.; Torres, Laura G.; Decker, Mark Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan ("Contemporary Educational Psychology," 23, 331-343, 1998) reported that women were underrepresented in terms of authorships, editorial board memberships, and editorships in the field of educational psychology based on membership trends. More recently, Evans, Hsieh, and Robinson ("Educational Psychology Review,"…

  15. Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

    2006-01-01

    The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the…

  16. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  17. Cognitive Testing with Female Nutrition and Education Assistance Program Participants Informs Validity of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the validity of a self-report measure of eating competence with low-income women. Methods: Twenty-five females (18-49 years old) recruited from low-income venues in Pennsylvania completed cognitive testing through an iterative interview process. Respondents' oral responses were compared to researchers' intended meaning of…

  18. The Experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean Women in STEM: Voices to Inform Work with Black Females in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…

  19. Inside versus outside the Science Classroom: Examining the Positionality of Two Female Science Teachers at the Boundaries of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2015-01-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of "positionality," which I define here as a…

  20. Recruitment and Retention of Female Accounting Students at a Denomination-Affiliate's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Beth Trimble

    2012-01-01

    In the past, women students who attended higher education institutions affiliated with Pentecostal religious denominations selected major areas of study that were perceived as women oriented, such as preparation for careers in education, social sciences, practical ministry, and general business. Few women students focused on major subjects…

  1. A Comparison of 9th Grade Male and Female Physical Education Activities Preferences and Support for Coeducational Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Cleven, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district, to identify which activities students felt should be offered in coeducation or gender separate formats, and to determine whether physical education is one of their favorite classes. Results…

  2. The Health Education for Lupus Patients Study: A Randomized Controlled Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Adjustment and Quality of Life in Adolescent Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald T.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Anthony, Kelly K.; Kral, Mary C.; Maxson, Bonnie; Mee, Laura; Bonner, Melanie J.; Vogler, Larry B.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Connelly, Mark A.; Wagner, Janelle L.; Silver, Richard M.; Nietert, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine in a randomize controlled feasibility clinical trial the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to manage pain, enhance disease adjustment and adaptation, and improve quality of life among female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Female adolescents (N = 53) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years were randomized to one of three groups including a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an education-only arm, and a no-contact control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at three-and six-month intervals following completion of the intervention. Results No significant differences were revealed among the three treatment arms for any of the dependent measures at any of the assessment points. For the mediator variables, a post-hoc secondary analysis did reveal increases in coping skills from baseline to post-intervention among the participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention group compared to both the no-contact control group and the education-only group. Conclusion Although no differences were detected in the primary outcome, a possible effect on female SLE adolescent coping was detected in this feasibility study. Whether the impact of training in the area of coping was of sufficient magnitude to generalize to other areas of functioning, such as adjustment and adaptation, is unclear. Future Phase III randomized trials will be needed to assess additional coping models, and to evaluate the dose of training and its influence on pain management, adjustment, and health-related quality of life. PMID:22996139

  3. Female Military Spouses Who Are Nontraditional Students: Why They Leave Higher Education and What Supports and Services Would Assist Them in Returning to Complete Their Higher Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Linn L.

    2010-01-01

    The American College Testing Program (ACT) reported that approximately 48% of students who enroll in college depart after their first year. Nontraditional students have a higher departure rate than traditional students. One such nontraditional group of students consists of female spouses of military personnel. These spouses are frequently involved…

  4. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  5. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  6. The Female Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudron, Shari

    1999-01-01

    Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)

  7. Aboriginal Female Children in Kanyashrams of Orissa, India: A Critical Assessment of the Processes of Educational Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behera, Deepak Kumar; Nath, Nibedita

    2005-01-01

    In India, the Constitution now includes special educational safeguards for aboriginals (Mohanty, 2003). Aboriginal communities, commonly denoted as "tribal," constitute roughly 8 percent of the total Indian population. In 1960, the Scheduled Area and Scheduled Tribes Commission was established with the aim of integrating the aboriginal people into…

  8. Female Arab Students' Experience of Acculturation and Cultural Diversity upon Accessing Higher Education in the Northern Galilee-Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the issue of the cultural transition of Arab women who for the first time leave their secluded villages and traditional society in the Northern Galilee to access Western-style Israeli institutions of higher education located in the region in which they will study in Hebrew, their second language. This study uses…

  9. The "Healthy Teen Girls Project": Comparison of Health Education and STD Risk Reduction Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…

  10. Male and Female EFL Learners' Self-Perceived Strategy Use across Various Educational Levels: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahriri, Abdorreza; Divsar, Hoda

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to explore the role of language learning strategies (LLSs) in Iran as an EFL context. The major objective was to find out the strategy use of Iranian EFL learners and the possible influence of their educational level and gender on their reported strategy use. Ninety-seven EFL undergraduates studying at Payame Noor University of…

  11. A Comparison of the Personal and Professional Characteristics of Male and Female Leaders in Vocational Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronk, Carol G.

    A survey was made of 203 leaders in vocational education to allow a profile and comparison of leader characteristics, and determination of the extent to which selected characteristics relate to professionalism. Data analysis by several sub-programs showed (1) a mean score on the Professionalism Scale similar to that for other groups (54.58); (2)…

  12. Educating the Female Citizen in a Post-war World: Competing Ideologies for American Women, 1945-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2002-01-01

    In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…

  13. Does Teaching-Experience Matters? A Study on Female Teachers Involved in Engineering-Education through ODL Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Rajarshi; Paira, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Irrespective of discipline and trade-boundaries, pedagogy of Engineering-Education demands specialty in most of the cases. Teachers' style of assisting in the process of students' learning accords influence of sequel of factors and variables some of which may be clubbed under "psychopedagogical attributes". Among the many other…

  14. Study of anemia in adolescents female and effect information, education and communication in rural area of central Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K C; Ghimire, H P; Panta, P P

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change and opportunities. It is a coming up of age as children grow into young adults. It constitutes 10-19 yrs of age. In Nepal 23% of the population are adolescents. Across-sectional community based study was carried out in 3 schools in Jhaukhel (Bhaktapur) to determine the prevalence of anemia and the effect of IEC in female adolescents. Does IEC effect improve anemia rapidly. Two hundred four female school children were screened for Hemoglobin estimation by Simple Random Sampling method. Physical examination and nutritional assessment was also done. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Cynomethemoglobin method in their respective schools. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO guidelines. IEC was given to all adolescents girls thrice in 1 month and again the effect of IEC was studied by estimating hemoglobin. Out of 204, 72 (35.3%) had anemia. Forty (34.2%) had anemia in the age group of 13-15 yrs, followed by 19 in age group 10-12 yrs and mild anemia was found in the age group 16-19 yrs. The adolescents girls whose parents were farmers and labourers were more anemic than others. Twelve (44.4%) maximum anemic girls were observed in those whose parental income was between NPRs 12000-16000. Out of 204 girls only 157 attained menarche. All girls 52 (33.1%) who attained menarche upto 13 yrs had more anemia than others of above 13 yrs of age group. The mean age at menarche was 13.05 yrs. The subjects exhibited increase in Hb significantly P value 0.000. Mean Hb before IEC was 12.26 (SD 1.43) and after IEC it was 12.81 (SD +/- 1.05). The Mean increase in percentage after IEC was 4.48 (SD +/- 9.68) in females. The Range was 20 to 41.18%. The Coefficient of relationship (Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation) between two Hb levels before and after giving IEC was 0.719, which is statistically significant with positive correlation (p = .000) and r2 = 0.516. It is represented as scattered diagram. PMID:24696933

  15. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  17. Effects of voice training and voice hygiene education on acoustic and perceptual speech parameters and self-reported vocal well-being in female teachers.

    PubMed

    Ilomaki, Irma; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Leppanen, Kirsti; Vilkman, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Voice education programs may help in optimizing teachers' voice use. This study compared effects of voice training (VT) and voice hygiene lecture (VHL) in 60 randomly assigned female teachers. All 60 attended the lecture, and 30 completed a short training course in addition. Text reading was recorded in working environments and analyzed for fundamental frequency (F0), equivalent sound level (Leq), alpha ratio, jitter, shimmer, and perceptual quality. Self-reports of vocal well-being were registered. In the VHL group, increased F0 and difficulty of phonation and in the VT group decreased perturbation, increased alpha ratio, easier phonation, and improved perceptual and self-reported voice quality were found. Both groups equally self-reported increase of voice care knowledge. Results seem to indicate improved vocal well-being after training. PMID:18569647

  18. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID

  19. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID:27274106

  20. Registration of cancer in girls remains lower than expected in countries with low/middle incomes and low female education rates

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, S S; Mann, K D; Pearce, M S

    2012-01-01

    Background: A decade ago it was reported that childhood cancer incidence was higher in boys than girls in many countries, particularly those with low gross domestic product (GDP) and high infant mortality rate. Research suggests that socio-economic and cultural factors are likely to be responsible. This study aimed to investigate the association between cancer registration rate sex ratios and economic, social and healthcare-related factors using recent data (1998–2002). Methods: For 62 countries, childhood (0–15 years) cancer registration rate sex ratios were calculated from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol IX, and economic, social and healthcare indicator data were collated. Results: Increased age standardised cancer registration rate sex ratio (M : F) was significantly associated with decreasing life expectancy (P=0.05), physician density (P=0.05), per capita health expenditure (P=0.05), GDP (P=0.01), education sex ratios (primary school enrolment sex ratio (P<0.01); secondary school enrolment sex ratio (P<0.01); adult literacy sex ratio (P<0.01)) and increasing proportion living on less than Int$1 per day (P=0.03). Conclusion: The previously described cancer registration sex disparity remains, particularly, in countries with poor health system indicators and low female education rates. We suggest that girls with cancer continue to go undiagnosed and that incidence data, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, should continue to be interpreted with caution. PMID:22576590

  1. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  2. Why It Might Be More Important to Teach Young Females Embroidery than More Conventional Art Practices as Part of Their Core Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that art history and art criticism have not met the needs and aspirations of female students. Maintains that teaching embroidery can help teach about a history of female oppression. Describes how this approach is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  3. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  4. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.

    2009-05-01

    Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars

  6. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  7. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students’ motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE. PMID:26157404

  8. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-19

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  9. A qualitative study of science education in nursing school: Narratives of Hispanic female nurses' sense of identity and participation in science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensemer, Patricia S.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn from Hispanic nursing students regarding their experiences as participants in science learning. The participants were four female nursing students of Hispanic origin attending a small, rural community college in a southeastern state. The overarching question of this study was "In what ways does being Hispanic mediate the science-related learning and practices of nursing students?" The following questions more specifically provided focal points for the research: (1) In what ways do students perceive being Hispanic as relevant to their science education experiences? (a) What does it mean to be Hispanic in the participants' home community? (b) What has it meant to be Hispanic in the science classroom? (2) In what ways might students' everyday knowledge (at home) relate to the knowledge or ways of knowing they practice in the nursing school community? The study took place in Alabama, which offered a rural context where Hispanic populations are rapidly increasing. A series of four interviews was conducted with each participant, followed by one focus group interview session. Results of the study were re presented in terms of portrayals of participant's narratives of identity and science learning, and then as a thematic interpretation collectively woven across the individuals' narratives. Portraitures of each participant draw upon the individual experiences of the four nursing students involved in this study in order to provide a beginning point towards exploring "community" as both personal and social aspects of science practices. Themes explored broader interpretations of communities of practice in relation to guiding questions of the study. Three themes emerged through the study, which included the following: Importance of Science to Nurses, Crossing with a Nurturing and Caring Identity, and Different Modes of Participation. Implications were discussed with regard to participation in a community of practice and

  10. Female condom becomes available nationwide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1993 and August 1994, only family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics had the female condom available. The manufacturer is using a print and educational campaign to market the female condom. The print campaigns provide a toll-free number for consumers and health care providers. The educational component consists of community outreach programs for public health, family planning clinics, and university health centers. The single-use soft polyurethane sheath has a flexible ring at the closed end, which is used to insert the condom and holds it over the cervix. A flexible ring is at the outer end; it holds the condom over the labia. The female condom is prelubricated and comes with a bottle of lubricant. Adding extra lubricant on the penis or the inside of the condom can prevent invagination of the outer ring, the penis entering the vagina instead of the condom, or the condom riding the penis. The 1-year failure rate is 25% for average use and 5.1% for perfect use. Correct and consistent use determines the female condom's ability to protect against STDs and HIV. The female condom helps women protect themselves against pregnancy and STDs/HIV when their male partner refuses to use a latex condom. Since it is visible outside the vagina, some women might still find it difficult to negotiate its use. Drawbacks of the female condom are that it is cumbersome and challenges our traditional gender roles and ideas about sexuality. Education addressing how women feel about themselves, their sexuality, and their relationships is needed to increase female condom use and acceptance. Some couples prefer the female condom over the male condom because it is roomier and because the polyurethane creates a better sensation than latex. PMID:12288570

  11. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer Corporation

    2012-06-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.

  12. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. Educational Aspirations of Male and Female Adolescents from Single-Parent and Two Biological Parent Families: A Comparison of Influential Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…

  14. School Behavior Problems of Mentally Retarded and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Douglas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Female elementary, middle, and high school students (N=146) identified as educable mentally retarded were rated on the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist by their teachers. Normal females were also rated for comparison. Analyses indicated that mentally retarded females exceeded normal females on the Conduct Disorder, Personality Problem, and…

  15. The Resilience of Women in Higher Education in Afghanistan. Study No 1: Obstacles and Opportunities in Women's Enrollment and Graduation; Study No. 2: The Human, Social and Institutional Resilience of Female Doctors and Postgraduate Residency Programs. Resilience in Education Settings (RES)-Research Studies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosha, Afifa; Oriya, Spozhmay; Nabi, Tahira; Halim, Sabera; Hofyani, Sohaila; Liwal, Abida; Safi, Najibullah; Sahak, Mohamad Nadir; Noormal, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Female access to higher education in Afghanistan has been and continues to be limited. At the basic education level, the country has made great advances since 2000; it increased access from 900,000 students in 2000, almost all boys, to 6.7 million students in 2009, and girl's enrollment increased from 5,000 under the Taliban to 2.4 million in the…

  16. Female Studies: The Elective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemer, Linda

    1975-01-01

    Ten elective courses are outlined with objectives, implementation suggestions, and evaluation devices to raise the consciousness of both males and females in secondary schools. Courses include sex education, women in American history, child studies, women in other societies, economics, law, marriage and alternative life styles, and child rearing.…

  17. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  18. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  19. "I'm too used to it": a longitudinal qualitative study of third year female medical students' experiences of gendered encounters in medical education.

    PubMed

    Babaria, Palav; Abedin, Sakena; Berg, David; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2012-04-01

    Although the number of women entering medical school has been steadily rising in the U.S.A., female medical students continue to report instances of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. The full spectrum of such experiences and their effect on the professional identity formation of female students over time remains largely unknown. To investigate these experiences, we interviewed 12 third year female medical students at a private New England medical school over several points during the 2006-2007 academic year. Using theoretical frameworks of gender performance and the centrality of student-patient and student-supervisor relationships, we were better able to understand how female medical students interpret the role of 'woman doctor' and the effect of negative and positive gendered interactions on the evolution of their professional identity. We found that participants quickly learned how to confront and respond to inappropriate behavior from male patients and found interactions with female patients and supervisors particularly rewarding. However, they did not feel equipped to respond to the unprofessional behavior of male supervisors, resulting in feelings of guilt and resignation over time that such events would be a part of their professional identity. The rapid acculturation to unprofessional behavior and resignation described by participants has implications for not only professional identity formation of female students but specialty choices and issues of future physician workforce. PMID:22341202

  20. Emma Willard's Idea Put to the Test: The Consequences of State Support of Female Education in New York, 1819-67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadie, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    Describes the role of Emma Willard in encouraging the New York State legislature to provide state support for women's education. Discusses political and social issues in the mid-1800s and Willard's vision of a separate system of higher education for women. Outlines establishment of teacher education programs. (CFR)

  1. Selected Resources for Encouraging Females in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lynda R.

    2001-01-01

    Offers selected resources that educators can use to increase their knowledge of ways to help girls and young women succeed in mathematics, integrate information into classroom instruction, and bring self-help opportunities to their female students' awareness. (KHR)

  2. Individualized Development Plan for Female Electronic Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Helena; D'Anna, Lee

    1991-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, 17 female electronic technicians participated in an individual development plan involving mentoring, basic education, and technical training. Four have been promoted, six are pursuing associate or bachelor's degrees, and two are pursuing certification. (SK)

  3. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  4. Woman's Profession and Female Role--The Development of Sex-specific Structures of Education and of the Labor Market before the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Vera

    1989-01-01

    Examines the intrusion of female employees into the traditionally male domain of office work from 1860 to 1914. Shows that sex-specific segregation was supported by a lack of training facilities for girls and by fact that these facilities supported the dominant sex-role structure. Focuses on the development of vocational schools for girls.…

  5. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  6. The Females Against Cancer Educational Series: A Qualitative Evaluation of Mother/ Daughter Knowledge and Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus and Its Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Louis-Nance, Tasha R.; Flournoy, Minnjuan W.; Clinton, Karen S.; Hightower, Krystle; Sebastian, Neethu; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Glover, Saundra H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge, perceptions, and effectiveness of an human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer education/prevention program. Methods Approximately 50 middle and high school girls and their mothers participated in the 7-part educational series. Qualitative pre-evaluations and postevaluations were completed for every session, followed by culminating focus groups with mothers and daughters separately. Results Common themes included lack of basic knowledge about HPV and its related cancers. Additionally, mothers and daughters expressed difficulty in communicating with one another about healthy relationships; however, during the focus groups, both mothers and daughters discussed how they had utilized effective communication tools to discuss sensitive topics and make informed decisions together. Conclusions Despite recent HPV prevention campaigns, more innovative strategies must be implemented to educate more mothers and daughters of HPV and its dangers. Additionally, in educating communities about HPV and associated cancers, more innovative strategies should be mobilized to trigger discussions regarding protective behaviors against HPV. PMID:22774387

  7. A Snake in the Nest or in a Snake's Nest: What Counts as Peer Review for a Female Science Educator in a Chemistry Department?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the process and the cultural and social capital garnered through external funding of research projects and publications. Ponders questions on who should be considered a peer for a feminist science educator. (DDR)

  8. Problems of Female School Teachers in District Kulgam (J&K)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Ruhee; Maharashi, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the problems of employed female school teachers in district Kulgam. Sample of 100 employed women are selected from different education institutions as 20 Rehaber e Taleem (ReT) female teachers, 40 female teachers, 20 female masters and 20 female lecturers using stratified random sampling. In this study we use…

  9. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  10. Hockey Concussion Education Project, Part 1: Susceptibility-weighted imaging study in male and female ice hockey players over a single season

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, Karl G.; Pasternak, Ofer; Fredman, Eli; Preciado, Ronny I.; Koerte, Inga K.; Sasaki, Takeshi; Mayinger, Michael; Johnson, Andrew M.; Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Forwell, Lorie; Skopelja, Elaine N.; Shenton, Martha E.; Echlin, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Object Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is a commonly occurring sports-related injury, especially in contact sports such as hockey. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), which are small, hypointense lesions on T2*-weighted images, can result from TBI. The authors use susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) to automatically detect small hypointensities that may be subtle signs of chronic and acute damage due to both subconcussive and concussive injury. The goal was to investigate how the burden of these hypointensities change over time, over a playing season, and postconcussion, compared with subjects who did not suffer a medically observed and diagnosed concussion. Methods Images were obtained in 45 university-level adult male and female ice hockey players before and after a single Canadian Interuniversity Sports season. In addition, 11 subjects (5 men and 6 women) underwent imaging at 72 hours, 2 weeks, and 2 months after concussion. To identify subtle changes in brain tissue and potential CMBs, nonvessel clusters of hypointensities on SWI were automatically identified and a hypointensity burden index was calculated for all subjects at the beginning of the season (BOS) and the end of the season (EOS), in addition to postconcussion time points (where applicable). Results A statistically significant increase in the hypointensity burden, relative to the BOS, was observed for male subjects at the 2-week postconcussion time point. A smaller, nonsignificant rise in the burden for all female subjects was also observed within the same time period. The difference in hypointensity burden was also statistically significant for men with concussions between the 2-week time point and the BOS. There were no significant changes in burden for nonconcussed subjects of either sex between the BOS and EOS time points. However, there was a statistically significant difference in the burden between male and female subjects in the nonconcussed group at both the BOS and EOS time

  11. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intent and Uptake among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Divya A.; Zochowski, Melissa; Peterman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Ernst, Susan; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine intent and the effect of an educational intervention on vaccine uptake among female college students. Participants: Females aged 18 to 26 attending a university health service gynecology clinic (n = 256). Methods: Participants were randomized to receive either HPV-specific education with a…

  12. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  13. Navigating the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Pipeline: How Social Capital Impacts the Educational Attainment of College-Bound Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies…

  14. The Female Predominance of a Vocational and Scientific Education Programme for High School Students in Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Isabela Cabral Felix; Braga, Cristiane Nogueira; Frutuoso, Telma de Mello; Ferreira, Cristina Araripe; Vargas, Diego da Silva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how students view their volunteer choices to take part in a specific scientific education programme while they attend high school. This programme is called (Provoc) located at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Brazil. Historically, this programme has been characterised by a significant predominance of…

  15. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  16. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  17. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  18. Why Are There So Few Female Physicists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Laura Ann

    2006-03-01

    It is 1962 and an adolescent female is trying to decide what classes to take; the principal asserts, "a girl has no need for physics."2 School counselors or administrators may no longer make statements like this; however, the perception that shaped the principal's comment may be part of hidden and subtle discriminatory attitudes still active in today's schools. The point of this paper is to reveal and assess current attitudes toward female participation in physics education and suggest practices to ensure a fair environment for both males and females.

  19. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  20. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  1. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  2. Myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (<35 years old), native, employed, educated to at least secondary level, and rarely involved in criminality. Compared with their male counterparts, female terrorists were equivalent in age, immigration profile, and role played in terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement. PMID:22545582

  3. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  4. Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. V.; Withington, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a downward trend in geoscience education. Lobbying for geoscience education should be encouraged. Among the year's developments were the publishing of textbooks on historical geology and geomorphology. (BB)

  5. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  6. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  7. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  8. Circular protecting female students, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988 the Ministry of Education of Benin issued a Circular designed to protect female students from sexual advances from male students and teachers. Teachers who are suspected of having sexual relations with a student are to receive a note in their file or can be suspended for a month. Teachers who have raped a student or are responsible for a student's pregnancy are to be suspended for three months if the student was not in their class, and six months if she was. Teachers who have incited their sexual partner to have an abortion are subject to demotion. Teachers who are repeat offenders or whose actions have led to an abortion resulting in death are to be fired. Students who have made a female student pregnant are to be suspended from school until delivery of the child and then are to be enrolled in a different school. The directors of schools are asked to put an end to the provocative clothes, make-up, and hairstyles of female students. PMID:12289212

  9. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  10. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  11. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  12. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  13. Pathways to Teaching: An Examination of Black Females' Pursuits of Careers as K-12 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinde, Abiola A.; LeBlanc, Jennifer K.; Otten, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    White, female, middle-class teachers dominate the education field. As a result, Black female teachers are underrepresented in the teaching field. Statistically, Black female teachers represent 7.7% of the United States teaching force, while White female teachers make up over 60% of the American teaching workforce. With the aim of diversifying the…

  14. Career Patterns of Female Administrators in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandall, Katherine Wendt; Reed, Donald B.

    Women's representation in educational administration positions is inconsistent with the extent of their employment in education (and in management positions elsewhere.) Recent research by F. I. Ortiz reveals two distinct types of career patterns for female educational administrators: the specialist, supervisor, and elementary principalship path…

  15. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  16. Initiation of Sexual Activity among Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata T.; Heaton, Tim B.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III, reveals that a stable, structured environment decreased the occurrence of first intercourse for females between the age of 12 and 19. Such an environment is characterized by family stability, Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church…

  17. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  18. The female athlete triad: a case series and narrative overview

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779

  19. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  20. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2009-01-01

    Education is people's most powerful tool for social progress and economic recovery. But inadequate access, due to financial constraints and lack of preparation, is hampering the efficacy of the postsecondary sector to advance economic and social progress. There are, however, signs of change. Ramping up investment in education is a pillar of U.S.…

  1. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    This book will be an original and indispensable resource for all who believe in the importance of art in the wider educational realm. Framing the recent "educational turn" in the arts within a broad historical and social context, this anthology raises fundamental questions about how and what should be taught in an era of distributive rather than…

  2. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  3. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  4. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  5. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Hair loss in female pattern baldness is permanent, if not treated. In most cases, hair loss ... expensive. However, the results are often excellent and permanent. OTHER SOLUTIONS Hair weaving, hairpieces, or a change ...

  6. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  7. "Commendable Progress": Acculturation at the Cherokee Female Seminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Devon

    1987-01-01

    Details the role of the Cherokee Female Seminary, established in 1851, in facilitating Cherokee acculturation. Describes educational philosophy and influence of A. Florence Wilson, principal for 26 years. Discusses curriculum, daily schedule, discipline, social events, religious influence. (NEC)

  8. Leadership and Strategic Choices: Female Professors in Australia and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkanli, Ozlem; White, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study explores leadership styles and gender in higher education (HE) by examining representation of female professors in Australian and Turkish universities and identifying barriers to achieving seniority. The paper explores factors, including leadership styles, which explain the higher representation of female professors in Turkey, despite…

  9. Female Superintendents, Barriers, and the Struggle for Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Carolyn

    This report examines the status of female superintendents in the United States. Women comprise 70 percent of all teachers in the United States, but men continue to dominate educational administration, particularly the superintendency. A 1999 survey revealed that females hold 20 percent of top school-executive positions and that there remain many…

  10. Phenotypic Involvement in Females with the FMR1 Gene Mutation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, J. E.; Cheema, A.; Sobesky, W. E.; Gardner, S. C.; Taylor, A. K.; Pennington, B. F.; Hagerman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated phenotypic effects seen in 114 females with premutation and 41 females (ages 18-58) with full Fragile X mental retardation gene mutation. Those with the full mutation had a greater incidence of hand-flapping, eye contact problems, special education help for reading and math, and grade retention. (Author/CR)

  11. Preferences of Male and Female Students for TSA Competitive Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III

    2010-01-01

    Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…

  12. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  13. Postadolescent acne in females.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  14. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  15. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  16. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  17. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  18. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  19. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein, L A; Thein, J M

    1996-02-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete. PMID:8808516

  20. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  1. Psychotherapeutic interventions for treating female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Leiblum, Sandra R; Wiegel, Markus

    2002-06-01

    A review of the current approach to the assessment and treatment of female sexual disorders from a sex therapy perspective is described. The importance of a comprehensive evaluation of both the woman and her partner, prior to formalizing a treatment plan, is stressed. Certain interventions are common in the treatment of all female sexual difficulties, for example, education and information about female sexuality generally, communication training, non-demand pleasuring, and permission to engage in self-pleasuring. Specific interventions are also described for such issues as past sexual or physical trauma. The overall goal of treatment is increased pleasure and satisfaction, rather than perfect genital response. Finally, the factors associated with treatment success are noted along with the observation that these factors are the same factors that contribute to a successful outcome in any psychotherapeutic endeavor. PMID:12107544

  2. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  3. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  4. The Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

  5. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  6. Female circumcision: obstetric issues.

    PubMed

    Baker, C A; Gilson, G J; Vill, M D; Curet, L B

    1993-12-01

    Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists. We present a case illustrative of the unique management problems posed by these patients during labor. A method of releasing the anterior vulvar scar tissue to allow vaginal delivery is described. Sensitivity and a nonjudgmental approach as to what is culturally appropriate care for these women are of paramount importance. PMID:8267074

  7. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  8. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  9. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  10. Factors Affecting Mathematically Talented Females' Enrollment in High School Calculus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy G.; Conaway, Betty J.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,244 eighth-grade females who were high achievers in algebra, investigated characteristics of those who ended up taking calculus (n=474). Results showed differences between the two groups in mother's education, socioeconomic status, and educational aspirations. However, when applying all factors together, they did not predict…

  11. Constructing Occupational Identities: How Female Preschool Teachers Develop Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how female teachers construct their occupational identities as teachers within early childhood education (ECE) settings. The combination of feminist scholarship and the use of teacher life history method allow these women to describe themselves as professionally trained and educated teachers who love teaching and children even…

  12. Shining Lonely Stars? Career Patterns of Rural Texas Female Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Dawn C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper stems from research that examined the impact of the rural context upon the career patterns of women educational administrators in rural public school districts in the state of Texas. The study examined two pertinent issues for women in rural education: (a) the nature of rural communities and its relationship to female career paths in…

  13. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  14. Physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, A P

    1994-08-01

    Non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction is represented by rehabilitation in urogynecology. Since Kegel, in 1948, who proposed the concept of functional restoration of the perineal muscles, no specific term has actually been established. Owing to the number of specialists involved in the management of female pelvic floor disorders (such as gynecologists, urologists, coloproctologists, and neurologists) and the different types of health care providers concerned (such as physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and midwives), it is difficult to make the proper choice between 'physical therapy for pelvic floor', 'pelvic floor rehabilitation', 'pelvic muscle re-education', and 'pelvic floor training'. Because muscle re-education is under the control of physical therapists, we have chosen the term of physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders. Muscle re-education has an important role in the primary treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. A multidisciplinary collaboration may be of particular interest, and a thorough evaluation is useful for a proper selection of patients. PMID:7742496

  15. Moi bans female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Nakalema, R

    1990-06-01

    A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move. PMID:12293761

  16. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  17. An Exploratory Study of Female Master of Divinity Students in a Conservative West Coast Evangelical Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemen, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Issues surrounding female participation in graduate theological education are complex and multifaceted. One important problem concerning female theological students is the lack of research exploring the experiences and unique challenges faced by conservative evangelical female Master of Divinity (M. Div.) students as they pursue academic and…

  18. Female Community College Presidents: Sharing Stories of First-Year Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nibbelink Struck, Darla A.

    2013-01-01

    As more females enter administrative positions in the field of education, the significance of females assuming presidency positions increases. With many administrators nearing retirement in the community college system, leadership opportunities for females will become more readily available. The purpose of this qualitative study was to share the…

  19. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  20. Effect of Female Labor Force Participation on Female Suicide Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact of female participation in the labor force (FPLF) on female suicide attitudes using a national sample of 5,559 women. Significant bivariate relationship is indicated, though when controls are added for covariates, FPLF is not related to female suicide attitudes. Relates findings to the role conflict and role expansionist theory…

  1. The Lived Experiences of Female University Presidents in Texas: Stories from a Feminist Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson-Adams, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to illustrate the ways in which female university presidents navigate the male-dominated world of higher education. The pathways female university presidents followed in order to reach the upper tiers of higher education administration were explored through interviews with presidents of 4-year…

  2. The Female Experience in America: Development, Counseling and Career Issues. A Learning/Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Sharon B.; And Others

    This guide is one of a four-book series on female development designed to provide a model for a sex-fair graduate training program in counseling, educational psychology, and career education. It focuses on the female experience in America, especially developmental, psychological, counseling and career/life style issues. This book is divided into…

  3. "The Road Less Traveled": The Female's Journey to the State Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Anderson, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have emerged over the past several decades attempting to pinpoint potential factors for occupational inequity and inequality for prospective and current female educational leaders. Although women are increasingly obtaining leadership positions in the field, one position remains elusive to the aspiring female educational leader:…

  4. Career Pathways of Female High School Principals in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tiffany Harris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the career pathways of female high school principals for women pursuing a career in educational leadership and female leaders interested in obtaining executive level leadership positions. Despite increased enrollment and of women in educational leadership programs, leadership certification programs, and…

  5. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the ...

  6. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  7. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    PubMed

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy. PMID

  8. Professional Female Athletes. Financial Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie

    1987-01-01

    Female professional athletes are earning more than ever before and projections suggest opportunities will continue to increase. Salary differentials between male and female tennis and golf professionals are made. Product endorsement income is discussed. Steps coaches, parents, counselors, and colleges should take in guiding females toward…

  9. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  10. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  11. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  12. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters. PMID:20421257

  13. Adult Female Human Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Fran; Erickson, Mildred

    This handbook is intended as an informal guide for mature women returning to college or starting late. Chapter 1 describes the life patterns of women. Chapter 2 provides statistical information on working mothers, ages of women workers, educational achievement, jobs by sex, and women in labor unions and the labor force. Costs and benefits of jobs…

  14. Courting Female Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strout, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Women are expected to own half the wealth in the United States by 2010. They also account for 58 percent of undergraduates at colleges today. Those statistics should loom large for higher-education fund raisers at a time when almost every institution is either in the middle of its largest fund-raising campaign ever or planning to announce one. But…

  15. Female genital mutilation: the road to success in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hussein, A

    1993-01-01

    An aggressive national educational campaign has been influential in reducing the incidence of female genital mutilation in Egypt. The Cairo Family Planning Association (CFPA), with long experience in addressing taboo social issues, has been in the forefront of this movement. In 1979, the CFPA commissioned a survey that revealed a female circumcision rate of at least 80% of rural and urban Egyptian women. Survey findings were discussed at a seminar entitled Bodily Mutilation of Young Females; emerging from this seminar was a communication program targeted at those directly involved in the perpetuation of this damaging custom including nurses, midwives, doctors, and parents. In 1992, 228 nurses, 51 doctors, 284 social workers, 197 television personnel, 228 radio broadcasters, 228 public health officials, and 261 nursery supervisors received intensive training on this topic. Also reached with education on female circumcision were 1845 university students, 600 nursing students, and 200 youth camp members. In 1992, the Female Circumcision Project of the CFPA became an autonomous organization, the Egyptian Society for the Prevention of Traditional Practices Harmful to Women and Children. Program evaluation has revealed a positive association between female education and the rejection of female circumcision. Only 35% of Egyptian girls with more than a secondary school education are circumcised, compared to 89% of those with a primary education. Discouraging, however, has been an unintended effect of a Ministry of Health decree confirming the procedure to partial excision of restricting its performance to doctors--an increase in both the number of clandestine procedures done under unhygienic conditions by traditional practitioners and in the proportion of Egyptian doctors participating in this lucrative business from 15% in 1986 to 20% in 1991. PMID:12345372

  16. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas. PMID:26726839

  17. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  18. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  19. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  20. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority…

  1. XY Needs in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neidlinger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This project examined the unique needs of boys in education. Biologically and physically, male students' developmental needs differ from their female counterparts. As a result, their educational needs are typically underserved and misunderstood in the standard co-educational classroom. This misunderstanding has led to a gap in educational…

  2. Female orgasmic disorder.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. PMID:22005203

  3. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  4. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  5. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  6. DESCRIBING LYMPHEDEMA IN FEMALES WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Rothbauer, J; Driver, S; Callender, L

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition affecting an estimated 1 in 2,500 girls where the second X chromosome is missing, or partially formed. This abnormality affects multiple body systems and can lead to short stature, cardiac, neural, and renal abnormalities. Due to the chronic, non-life threatening nature of lymphedema in comparison to other symptoms of TS, it is often ignored by girls and women with TS and their physicians. Consequently, little is known about how lymphedema affects girls and women with TS across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the study was to deliver an online survey for females with TS and caregivers in the US, UK, and Canada to provide a worldwide perspective on their current experience with lymphedema within the spectrum of TS. There were 219 participants who completed the survey, and we were able to identify incidence and characteristics of lymphedema across the lifespan. In addition, we found that females with 45,X karyotyping were more likely to report lymphedema symptoms. Lymphedema is not the most significant concern of females with TS, but education, physician evaluation, and assistance with referrals for treatment and management would improve the ease of managing lymphedema in girls and women with TS. PMID:26939161

  7. The historical response to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John; Schwenkhagen, Anneliese

    2009-06-20

    In the past, medical attitudes to female sexuality were grotesque, reflecting the anxiety and hypocrisy of the times. In the medieval world, the population feared hunger, the devil, and women, being particularly outraged and threatened by normal female sexuality. The 19th century attitude was no better as academics confirmed the lower intellectual status of women, particularly if they ventured into education. The medical contribution to this prejudice was shocking, with gynaecologists and psychiatrists leading the way designing operations for the cure of the apparently serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynaecologist, Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873), and the distinguished endocrinologist, Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-1867, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with "a past" survives to the end. The wheel has turned full circle and in the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided a greater understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment. PMID:19487089

  8. Adolescent female murderers: characteristics and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique

    2007-07-01

    This study examines individual and family characteristics of a population of 29 adolescent females charged with homicide or attempted homicide in the juvenile justice system. The purpose of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about adolescent females charged with homicide. Data were collected including the MAYSI-2, a risk classification instrument, and social, educational and family histories. Findings include high rates of reported substance use, delinquent peers, early indicators of mental health problems, and limited control and supervision by parents. The most common weapon used was a car and the most common victim was a known person. A comparison was conducted on girls charged with homicide during the commission of another crime or committed during a conflict. The conflict group was found to victimize friends and family significantly more often than the crime group. The crime group showed higher use of alcohol and drugs, used a gun more and had co-offenders at a higher rate. A profile was developed to describe the typical adolescent female homicide offender found in this study. Treatment recommendations and future research were discussed. PMID:17696677

  9. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  10. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  11. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  12. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  13. Sudanese female doctors in paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed B.; Abdullah, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Though the number of female medical graduates has increased throughout the world, their postgraduate professional achievements are said to be suboptimal. Our aim is to look into the achievements of Sudanese female pediatricians and compare them with their male counterparts. A cross sectional study was undertaken using a questionnaire involving pediatricians working in the universities and Ministry of Health, Sudan. Ninety five (65.1%) out of 146 pediatricians responded; 73 (76.8%) were females and 22 (23.2%) were males. Thirty (41%) Of the females were in the academic career. Only 2 (8.3%) out of 24 assistant professors were promoted to associate professors and non of the four associate professors managed to become a professor compared to 68% and 25% among males, respectively. Twenty three (76.6%) of females compared to 31% of males had no publications. Nineteen out of 21 females (90.4%) who have been offered training opportunities abroad declined the offer for family reasons. Fifty four (93%) female pediatricians declined to work outside the capital state. No nursery facilities were available at work place. The main reasons for inadequate achievements included family issues, cultural obstacles, lack of mentorships and unsatisfying work environment and facilities. Suggestions were put forward to improve on these problems. Though female doctors are the majority of undergraduate and graduate students in Sudan, their professional and academic achievements after specialization are not optimal mainly for socio-cultural reasons and these need to be addressed.

  14. Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

  15. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  16. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  17. Subordinates' Reactions to Female Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Forsyth, Nancy M.

    Although recent reviews of the effectiveness of male versus female leaders reveal little evidence of male superiority, evaluative and perceptual biases (beliefs about what constitutes good leadership, and stereotyped beliefs about men and women) among group members persist. To examine attributional biases against female leaders, 85 college…

  18. Women and Education. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane S., Ed.; McLaren, Arlene Tigar, Ed.

    This collection of studies argues that education cannot be understood unless it is examined from a gendered perspective. This overview of women and education, which emphasizes the Canadian experience, explores questions raised by female educational experiences to introduce new ways of thinking about education in general. The feminist perspective…

  19. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  20. Teaching Then and Now: Black Female Scholars and the Mission to Move beyond Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Baptiste, Shewanee; Harris, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the historical and contemporary struggles of Black female scholars who overcame multiple forms of resistance in higher education. In addition to a review of some of the most recent literature on the subject and our personal reflections of our sojourns in higher education, we also examined the educational journeys of Sadie Tanner…

  1. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  2. Computer Use and the Demand for Female Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Current Population Survey data were used to demonstrate that increases in computer use (and thus decreases in demand for physical skills) account for one-half of the growth in demand for female workers. The greatest effect was for blue-collar workers and those with less than college education. (SK)

  3. A review of knee pain in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Rachel; John, Rita Marie

    2015-07-15

    Primary care practitioners are in a position to educate patients and parents about the risk factors that may increase the incidence of knee pain in adolescent females. This article highlights patellofemoral pain syndrome, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and meniscal tears. PMID:26016939

  4. Examining Entrepreneurial Attributes of Latin American Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasana, Marcia; Alcaraz-Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of women engaging in entrepreneurship is expanding and becoming acknowledged as a valuable resource that must be institutionally and socially supported. Through entrepreneurship education, female students, as potential entrepreneurs, can develop and strengthen those skills and behaviours identified as characteristic of successful…

  5. Females with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Unique Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Darcy; And Others

    This paper offers profiles of females with behavioral/emotional disorders and suggests that these young women have unique needs. The paper discusses selected characteristics and assessment considerations and offers recommendations that will facilitate more responsive social, correctional, and educational programming. Characteristics of these young…

  6. Girls, Girls, Girls: Gender Composition and Female School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimuller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible…

  7. Meeting the Reproductive Needs of Female Adolescents With Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell; Camune, Barbara D

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of caring for female adolescents with neurodisabilities often overshadows normal biological changes. These young women may require additional or individualized support as they adapt to normal puberty and sexual maturation. Many choices are available to assist in managing menstrual problems, hygiene issues, and contraception. Special considerations regarding contraceptive methods, sexual education, and improving service accessibility are explored for clinicians. PMID:26016680

  8. First Aid for Female Casualties of the Information Highway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Petrea

    2006-01-01

    Females are under-represented in education, training and employment in the area of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Research shows that girls are tuning out to ICTs in school and they have a low participation rate in ICT related tertiary study and employment. The Tech Savvy report by the American Association of University Women (2000)…

  9. Unit: Males and Females, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of an Australian Science Education Project unit entitled Males and Females. Materials provided consist of a teacher's edition of the written materials, a student record book, and seven large black and white photographs showing various stages in the dissection of a pregnant rat. This unit has been written to help…

  10. Developing Female Middle-Managers in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Marchant, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Universities should be developing female middle-managers for reasons of gender balance (Aitkin in "The Last Boilerhouse Address," Canberra University 2001), the skills shortage, pending mass retirements (Chesterman in "Not doable jobs? Exploring senior women's attitudes to leadership roles in universities." Women's Higher Education Network…

  11. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  12. Voices from the Present: Tracking the Female Administrative Aspirant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edson, Sakre K.

    1987-01-01

    Strategies that allow female managers to have occupational success must be investigated. Career women in educational administration were tracked for ten years to ascertain their organizational situation, career path, attitudes, and goals. Although women have made minimal gains, they are optimistic and will continue to test traditional occupational…

  13. Female Leadership and the Ethic of Care: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropiewnicki, Mary I.; Shapiro, Joan P.

    A study explored the ethical framework of care as a leadership attribute in three female principals at an elementary school, a junior high school, and a high school in northeast Pennsylvania. Recent studies of educational administrators reveal that new leadership models and attributes, identified as the ethic of care, are emerging among both male…

  14. Motivations, interests and retention of female minority engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Naila

    In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.

  15. To “Bee or Not to Bee” Male or Female? An Educational Primer for Use with “The Am-tra2 Gene Is an Essential Regulator of Female Splice Regulation at Two Levels of the Sex Determination Hierarchy of the Honeybee”

    PubMed Central

    Schurko, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    An article by Nissen et al. in the November 2012 issue of GENETICS emphasizes the importance of alternative splicing in the sex determination cascade of the honeybee Apis mellifera. This study demonstrates the application of reverse transcriptase PCR and RNA interference screens as genetic tools to better understand the regulation of transcription and splicing. It also provides the opportunity to explore the evolutionary origins of genes by considering the functions of orthologs and paralogs in different species. This Primer article provides background information and explanations of the concepts and findings of Nissen et al. and offers discussion questions for use in the classroom. Related article in GENETICS: Nissen, I., M. Müller, and M. Beye, 2012 The Am-tra2 gene is an essential regulator of female splice regulation at two levels of the sex determination hierarchy of the honeybee. Genetics 192: 1015–1026. PMID:23547163

  16. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce. PMID:23857065

  17. The Gender Differences: Hispanic Females and Males Majoring in Science or Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    Documented by national statistics, female Hispanic students are not eagerly rushing to major in science or engineering. Using Seidman's in-depth interviewing method, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, majoring in science or engineering were interviewed. Besides the themes that emerged with all 22 Hispanic students, there were definite differences between the female and male Hispanic students: role and ethnic identity confusion, greater college preparation, mentoring needed, and the increased participation in enriched additional education programs by the female Hispanic students. Listening to these stories from successful female Hispanic students majoring in science and engineering, educators can make changes in our school learning environments that will encourage and enable more female Hispanic students to choose science or engineering careers.

  18. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  19. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  20. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  1. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  2. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  3. Bibliotherapeutic Influence on Nigerian Female University Students: Self-Report on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwilagwe, Oshiotse Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of self-prescribed literature on sex education of female students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The sample population consists of 303 married, engaged, those in love and those yet to fall in love female students. The analysis of data reveals that they read books specifically on friendship, love, marriage…

  4. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  5. Having Many Irons in the Fire--"Finnish Female Leaders' School Memories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Education and school years impact leadership development, but this development has still been little studied. This study contributes Finnish female leaders' narratives to the discussion. The purpose was to analyze how female leaders describe their school years and themselves as learners and how these elements have shaped their careers. The…

  6. Female Superintendents: A Qualitative Study of the Journey to the Role of Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stacey M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…

  7. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  8. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  9. Who Benefits from a GED? Evidence for Females from "High School and Beyond."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Examines labor-market value of the General Educational Development (GED) credential for females. Finds that among females who dropped out of high school with weak basic math skills, those with a GED have accumulated more work experience and have higher labor-market earning in their mid-20s than have observationally similar dropouts lacking the GED…

  10. Tempered Radicals and Servant Leaders: Black Females Persevering in the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Judy A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the small numbers of Black female superintendents and the overwhelming obstacles of the position, Black women who serve as public school superintendents continue to meet the challenges of educational leadership and are flourishing in their jobs. As noted in previous research on Black women in the superintendency and Black female leaders in…

  11. Over-Education of Recent Higher Education Graduates: New Australian Panel Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David; Tani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the incidence of over-education amongst recent Australian bachelor degree graduates and its effect on their earnings. We find that between 24% and 37% of graduates were over-educated shortly after course completion, with over-education most common amongst young females and least common amongst older females. Over-education…

  12. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  13. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404

  14. Time-series growth in the female labor force.

    PubMed

    Smith, J P; Ward, M P

    1985-01-01

    This paper investigates the reasons for the growth in the female labor force in the US during the 20th century. Female labor force participation rates increased by 50% from 1950 to 1970. Real wages have played a significant but hardly exclusive role both in the long term growth in female employment and in the more accelerated growth after 1950. At the beginning of this century, fewer than 1 woman in 5 was a member of the labor force; by 1981 more than 6 in 10 were. Increases in female participation were slightly larger among younger women during the 1970s; for the next 20 years the age shape tilted toward older women. For US women 25-34 years old, labor force participation rates have been rising by more than 2 percentage points per year. Closely intertwined with decisions regarding women's work are those involving marriage and family formation. 2 demographic factors that would play a part in subsequent developments are: nuclearization of the US family and urbanization. Time-series trends in education are observed because schooling affects female labor supply independently of any influence through wages; increased years of schooling across birth cohorts shows that an increase of 1.33 years of schooling increased labor participation by 6.9 percentage points during the pre-World War II era. The swing in marriage rates also affects timing, especially for younger women. Based on disaggregated time series data across the period 1950-1981, mean values at single years of age of labor supply, education, work experience, weekly wages, and fertility are determined. Profiles indicate that female labor supply varies considerably not only across cohorts but also over life cycles within birth cohorts. Results show that: 1) relative female wages defined over the work force were lower in 1980 than in 1950, 2) children, especially when young, reduce labor supply, 3) large negative elasticities are linked to female wages, and 4) with all fertility induced effects included, real wage

  15. Chicanas in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Maria A.; And Others

    Problem areas for the Mexican American female (Chicana) in higher education were investigated and compared to those of the Mexican American male (Chicano). A specific objective was to document the heterogeneity and complexity of the Chicana population and the corresponding variation in educational experiences. An executive summary and full report…

  16. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  17. The academically gifted female student in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paula R.

    The protocol of this study was designed to investigate the factors three gifted, young women perceived as influencing their successful transition from an accelerated science high school program to three accelerated university science programs. The research design was a mixed methods study involving three gifted women as they maneuvered through a high school magnet program for science and matriculated into separate university honors programs for science majors. As high school graduates, these women also achieved honors and citations for academic excellence. During their initial years of college, these students maintained outstanding grades in rigorous programs for science majors. These criteria yielded three, gifted female students who proved to be resilient and committed to meeting the demands of an academic program of science. In an attempt to understand the influential factors in the academic lives of these students, a narrative inquiry as well as a quantitative component comprised of three inventories for descriptive data were selected. The impetus for this research resided in the need to better understand the factors contributing to the shaping of the self-identity of the gifted female student as she achieved academic success in the typically, male dominated science classrooms; subsequently, the guidance by parents and educators may prove influential in developing the achievement orientation within the self-identity of the young woman.

  18. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  19. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  20. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  1. Educational Expansion and the Returns to Education: Evidence from Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriades, Euripides L.; Psacharopoulos, George

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared returns to education in the government controlled area of Cyprus as measured in 1974 and again in 1984 after considerable educational expansion. Average salary per year of school is reported for males and females. Overall returns to education decreased during this decade. (CH)

  2. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  3. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  4. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice

    PubMed Central

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  5. The female athlete triad. A growing health concern.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Michelle L Cameron

    2003-01-01

    The number of female athletes participating at the high school, collegiate, and elite levels has increased nearly 10-fold since the passage of Title IX. President Nixon signed title IX into law in 1972. It required that all schools receiving federal funding provide equal opportunities for men and women. With this large increase in high-level female athletes comes a special set of medical and orthopaedic issues. One of the most important is the female athlete triad. The triad consists of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and premature osteoporosis. Currently, this problem is largely unrecognized. The purpose of this article is to help to educate orthopaedic nurses about this important issue so that we can detect the triad early and help address this growing national health issue. PMID:14595991

  6. Technology and Distance Education: Sharing Experience in Sindh, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panhwar, Farzana

    Female literacy in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world. In 1981, the literacy rate was 16 percent for females, and 7.3 percent for rural women. Distance education can effect many social changes. Females would be the main beneficiaries because it is not socially acceptable for girls to leave home for education; parents do not like…

  7. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Petroczi, Andrea; Quested, Eleanor

    2007-01-01

    Background The study aimed to i) assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT) syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii) to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively) and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively). 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad. PMID:17900347

  8. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  9. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  10. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors. PMID:27618372

  11. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  12. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  13. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  14. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  15. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  16. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  17. Personality Variables in Female Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Lee

    Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…

  18. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  19. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  20. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  1. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  2. Female physicians: trends and likely impacts on healthcare in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female physicians have become an increasing proportion of the medical workforce in Israel. This study investigates this trend and discusses its likely impact on the quantity and quality of medical care available. Method Data on licensed physicians and new licenses issued to physicians were taken from a Ministry of Health database, and analyzed by gender, age, academic origin (Israeli graduates, immigrants, Israeli-born who studied abroad), and specialty for the years 1999–2011. Data on employed physicians, their population group, and work hours were taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) annual Labour Force Survey for the years 2009–2011. Results The proportion of women amongst physicians aged under 65 rose from 38% in 1999 to 42% in 2011, and was even higher for younger physicians. The highest proportion of females is found amongst new immigrant physicians who studied abroad. The corresponding proportion has been rising steadily amongst Israeli-educated physicians, and is lowest amongst Israeli-born physicians who studied abroad. Similarly, among newly licensed physicians, the proportion of females has traditionally been highest among immigrants who studied abroad and lowest among Israeli-born graduates who studied abroad. Among newly-licensed physicians who studied in Israel, the proportion of females has historically been intermediate between the other two groups, but it has recently risen to 54% and now parallels the proportion of females among immigrants who studied abroad. In recent years, the mix of academic origins among newly licensed physicians has changed dramatically, with important implications for the proportion of women among newly licensed physicians. The highest percentage of females was found in family medicine followed by oncology, pediatrics and psychiatry. The greatest increase over the years in this percentage was for gynecology and internal medicine. Female physicians worked shorter hours than males, particularly at

  3. Mothers' perceptions of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ahanonu, E L; Victor, O

    2014-08-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test was used to test for association between variables. Findings showed that the mothers held ambivalent beliefs about the practice. Although over half of the respondents (56.8%) perceived the practice of FGM as not being beneficial, 44.2% thought that uncircumcised girls will become promiscuous. Nearly a third (30.5%) believed that FGM promotes a woman's faithfulness to her husband. About a quarter (26.3%) reported that women who have undergone FGM are not at any risk of gynaecological complications. There was a significant relationship between the educational background of the mothers and the perception that uncircumcised girls will be promiscuous. These perceptions about FGM show that government at all levels should continue with educational efforts aimed at eradicating this practice. PMID:24412809

  4. Does Female Schooling Reduce Fertility? Evidence from Nigeria. NBER Working Paper No. 13070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osili, Una Okonkwo; Long, Bridget Terry

    2007-01-01

    The literature generally points to a negative relationship between female education and fertility. Citing this pattern, policymakers have advocated educating girls and young women as a means to reduce population growth and foster sustained economic and social welfare in developing countries. This paper tests whether the relationship between…

  5. Male and Female Superintendents: A Comparison of Differences in Salaries, Interview Experiences, and Contract Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparison of differences in salary, interview experiences, and contract negotiations for male and female superintendents. Other variables of interest include educational attainment and educational experiences. The study participants (N = 161) consisted of practicing superintendents from four regions of the…

  6. Fitting In: Community College Female Executive Leaders Share Their Experiences--A Study in West Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Kristina; Jones, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Women who move into and work within administration in higher education face many struggles. Both the traits that are specific to most females and their leadership style can impede their rise into and within administrative ranks. In addition, higher education has traditionally been a hierarchical and patriarchal system that makes it more difficult…

  7. A Feminist Postcolonial Examination of Female Principals' Experiences in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Schmidt, Michele

    2012-01-01

    A central theme that dominates most studies on gender and leadership in education is the emerging tendency towards mitigating pervasive forms of discrimination against females. Yet, women still remain, for the most part, a minority within leadership positions in education. Despite policy initiatives emphasising gender equity, discrimination,…

  8. I Am a Chameleon in Pearls: How Three Select Female Superintendents Perceive Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Catherine Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The public school superintendent is the least progressive position in education at integrating women and balancing the scales of equitable representation. Statistical data indicates there are far fewer females than males serving as superintendents. Current statistics show women make up: 1) over 70 percent of all public school educators; 2) nearly…

  9. Female Leadership in Islamic Schools in the United States of America: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world, and the status of Muslim women is even more misinterpreted. There have been relatively few studies of Islamic educational leaders and even fewer specifically addressing female Islamic educational leadership. Although women have made tremendous progress in the labor force, the proportion of…

  10. First-Generation Female College Students' Financial Literacy: Real and Perceived Barriers to Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…

  11. Distance Education and Women Empowerment: The Women Who Dared at Distance Learning Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okunuga, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the African female child had always been denied formal education due to various cultural and social prejudices. Distance education has been employed by numerous women, who had earlier thus been deprived, to bridge the educational gap between males and females in the country. These are mature females, of which the majority (54%) are…

  12. The views and experiences of female GPs on professional practice and career support.

    PubMed

    Wedderburn, Clare; Scallan, Samantha; Whittle, Clare; Curtis, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    National GP demographic data demonstrate an increasing 'feminisation' of the workforce. With female GP specialty trainees continuing to outnumber males, this trend is set to continue. The changing composition of the workforce presents challenges in terms of how best to support the long-term career and educational development needs of this sector of the workforce in an evolving healthcare context. The aim of this work was to capture female GPs' experiences of working in general practice and their expectations concerning their career and educational development. Participants were surveyed and completed a semi-structured questionnaire, which generated qualitative and quantitative data. The sample comprised GP registrars, principals and sessionals. This study has generated an important dataset on working patterns, educational experiences and long-term career intentions of female GPs. Despite increased representation in the GP workforce, female GPs (particularly those with young children) appear less likely to be involved in education and training than their male counterparts, and even less likely to be involved in roles linked to primary care trusts, medico-political issues, hospital service delivery, special clinical interests or deanery education management. younger GPs reported significantly more difficulties in managing their childcare needs than older colleagues. Marital status, number of children and employment status did not moderate the effect of these difficulties. Female GPs reported working more hours with increasing age, but were not necessarily represented in a range of educational and/or training posts as a consequence. PMID:24041096

  13. Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, O A

    1991-01-01

    In Somalia, a demographer analyzed urban data obtained from the Family Health Survey to examine the effect female circumcision has on child mortality and the mechanism of that effect. Girls undergo female circumcision between 5-12 years old in Somalia. Since sunni circumcision (removal of the clitoral prepuce and tip of the clitoris) and clitoridectomy (removal of the entire clitoris) did not affect child mortality, he used them as the reference group. Infibulation (entire removal of the clitoris and of the labia minora and majora with the remains of the labia majora being sewn together allowing only a small opening for passage of urine) did affect child mortality. Female children who underwent infibulation and whose mothers most likely also underwent infibulation experienced higher mortality (13-72%) than those from other circumcised mothers. Female mortality exceeded male mortality indicating possible son preference. Mothers with clitoridectomy or infibulation had significantly higher infant mortality than those with sunni circumcision with the strongest effects during the neonatal period (95% and 42% higher mortality, respectively; p=.01). The effect of female circumcision on child mortality decreased with increased child's age. This higher than expected mortality among women with clitoridectomy may have been because women with infibulation had more stillbirths which were not counted as births. The exposed vagina of clitoridectomized women is more likely to be infected resulting in high risk of stillbirths and premature births than the closed vagina of infibulated women. The researcher suggested that the policies promoting education and consciousness raising may eventually eradicate female circumcision. This longterm campaign should use mass media, senior women of high status, and respected religious leaders. Legislation prohibiting this practice would only drive it underground under unsanitary conditions. Demographers should no longer ignore female circumcision

  14. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  15. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative…

  16. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  17. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health. PMID:19129342

  18. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  19. Recidivism among female child molesters.

    PubMed

    Bader, Shannon M; Welsh, Robert; Scalora, Mario J

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, research about female sexual offender recidivism rates using official criminal justice records has increased. Although informative, rearrest or conviction rates may be insufficient for this population. This study examines two potential outcome measures for accurately studying recidivism among 57 female sexual offenders; a criminal recidivism measure based on formal legal charges and a reported recidivism measure based on child welfare reports. Based on the criminal recidivism outcome measure, 10(17.5%) women were charged for a subsequent sexual crime. The broader reported recidivism measure identified six additional women with subsequent contact with police or child welfare agencies for sexually inappropriate behaviors. There were no significant differences found between the 41 nonrecidivists and the 16 recidivists. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20565006

  20. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  1. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  2. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  3. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

  4. The Pattern of Female Nuptiality in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. Mazharul; Dorvlo, Atsu S.; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine Omani patterns of female nuptiality, including the timing of marriage and determinants of age at a woman’s first marriage. Methods: The study utilised data from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods, including logistic regression analysis, were used for data analysis. Results: One of the most important aspects of the marriage pattern in Oman is the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, as more than half (52%) of the total marriages in Oman are consanguineous. First cousin unions are the most common type of consanguineous unions, constituting 39% of all marriages and 75% of all consanguineous marriages. About 11% of the marriages are polygynous. Early and universal marriage is still highly prevalent in Oman. Three-quarters (75%) of married women respondents aged 20–44 years were married by age 20, with their median age at their first wedding being 16 years. However, women’s average age upon marriage is gradually increasing. The change is especially apparent in more recent marriages or among younger cohorts of women, and for certain socio-cultural groups. Multivariate analysis identified female education, age cohort, residential status, region of residence, types of marriage, and employment as strong predictors of Omani women’s age at marriage. Conclusion: The growing number of young adults, accompanied by their tendency to delay marriage, may have serious demographic, social, economic, and political ramifications for Oman, highlighting the need to understand the new situation of youth, their unique characteristics, and their interests and demands. Culturally appropriate policies need to be implemented to address the issues and challenges of unmarried young adults. PMID:23573380

  5. Education and Women's Labour Market Outcomes in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi; Unni, Jeemol

    2001-01-01

    A study to determine association between level of female education and gender wage differentials in India finds that while gender-based wage discrimination exits, level of female education is not a significant factor. Finds return on investment rises with education level for both sexes. (Contains 37 references.) (PKP)

  6. Impact of a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E) program in preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking in fifth- and sixth-grade students.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nasar U.; Ahmed, Noushin S.; Bennett, C. Ray; Hinds, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    An alarmingly high number of children become addicted to tobacco use. To teach children the skills to resist the influences surrounding the initiation of tobacco and other drug use, a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (D.A.R.E.) program is being implemented in three fourths of the schools in the United States. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of this program in preventing smoking. A survey was conducted among 236 fifth and sixth graders in Nashville, Tennessee. Of the students included in the survey, 88% graduated from D.A.R.E. Approximately 11.6% of respondents had ever smoked cigarettes; 86% of them continued to smoke. The D.A.R.E. group had a significantly lower rate of smoking compared with their non-D.A.R.E. counterparts (8.7% vs. 28.0%; p = 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis shows that the D.A.R.E. group was five times (odds 4.9; p = 0.003; 95% CI: 1.7, 14.0) less likely to initiate smoking compared with the non-D.A.R.E. group. The D.A.R.E. group had a significantly (p = 0.002) higher knowledge score on the risk of smoking. The knowledge score has strong opposite correlation to smoking behavior (p = 0.00001). Students with top-quartile knowledge scores had a substantially lower rates of smoking (1.4% vs. 14.4%; p = 0.001). This finding is consistent for both African-American (0% vs. 19.6%; p = 0.001) and white children (1.9% vs. 13%; p = 0.001). The D.A.R.E. program may have an impact in preventing the initiation of smoking behavior. PMID:11991337

  7. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  8. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  9. [Current status of the female condom in Africa].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1997-01-01

    The female condom was developed in the 1980s. It is a contraceptive device used by women that protects against both pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV infection. Two studies have investigated the contraceptive effectiveness of the female condom, and it was found to be as effective as other barrier methods. It has been shown to be effective against STD and HIV transmission in vitro but there is only limited evidence of its efficacy in vivo. No serious local side effects or allergies have been reported and the female condom can be used with any type of lubricant, spermicidal cream or foam. The female condom is the only device other than the male condom that has been shown to prevent HIV transmission. The female condom has been marketed in 13 countries since the summer of 1996. Most of these countries are industrialized and the selling price in these countries is too high for developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has very high prevalence rates for HIV infection, at least 30% of the general population in Eastern and Central regions. The epidemic is also spreading fast in some parts of the Western region. In Ivory Coast for example, 12 to 15% of pregnant women are infected. African women are subordinate to men in many aspects of their lives, politically, educationally, socially and sexually. This sexual inequality makes them highly vulnerable to STDs, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies. This paper reviews 10 of the 15 studies carried out in sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 1996 and compiled by the World Health Organization. Recruitment methods, education of subjects, methodology and assessment of acceptability differed between studies. Despite these limitations, most studies concluded that the women who participated in the trials generally found the female condom acceptable. Acceptability was established quicker among prostitutes than among other women and men found the female condom less acceptable than did women

  10. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  11. Thoughts on the socialization of the female population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W

    1995-01-01

    In China in 1990 70% of illiterates were women, and in 1988 82% of school-age children who were not enrolled were girls. Educational attainment has increased however since 1949, but the effects are still not sufficiently widespread or at high enough levels, particularly in rural areas. Female employment since the mid-1970s increased at an annual rate of about 4.3%. Female employment in 1992 was 38% of total employment. Types of occupations engaging women have broadened somewhat. Women are over 50% of those employed by hygiene, sports, and social welfare occupations and 45% of those employed by public and commercial occupations. Over 1 million women are engaged in privately owned businesses out of a total of over 2 million. 40 million women are engaged in township enterprises out of a total of over 100 million township enterprises. A gap in female labor force participation is the lower number of women engaged in the tertiary sector jobs requiring a higher education. Women are still encouraged to be only homemakers, and many women still prefer to remain at home. Women do not actively seek employment outside the home. Women are assured of protection in the labor market or with social security. Women are treated as commodities. Chinese women in this largely agricultural society are not valued highly and are valued for their sexual functions, particularly in producing sons. Women are forced into a secluded environment. Rural women's social exchanges are limited to blood relatives and regional location and are usually among women only. Social exchanges are limited to chattiness about personal affairs and are constricted by time factors. Tradition determines family responsibilities and the range of behavior. Female social development is inhibited by women's personal attributes such as dependency and social factors such as gender discrimination and family and productivity constraints. Female socialization and modernization can bring out changes in marriage quality, family

  12. Female labour force participation and fertility: an aggregate analysis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V

    1991-01-01

    After a general discussion of 3 views of the relationship between fertility and female labor force participation (FLFP), the data from the 1971 and 81 Canadian Census for 2 of same areal units (CMAs) and methods are presented. 5 hypotheses are discussed which reflect reciprocity between fertility and FLFP. The higher the female educational level, the higher the FLFP and the fewer children even born. The higher the male median income, the lower the FLFP of married women, and the higher the female median income, the greater the number of FLFP of married women. The higher the % of Roman Catholics, the lower the FLFP and the greater the number of children ever born. The greater the proportion of foreign born, the fewer children ever born. The higher the proportion of owner occupied dwellings, the greater the number of children ever born. 2 stage least squares were used in the analysis in a reduced form of equation by regressing the dependent variables on the predictor variables, and then the reduced form vs substituted for each department variable and estimated by ordinary least squares. Analyses were performed for 1971, 81, and the change between years, which uses residualized change scores of both the dependent and independent variables to express change. The results indicate that between 1971 and 81 the greatest change was in FLFP which increased 14%. Zero order correlations confirmed that the predictor variables for higher FLFP were higher education, higher female income, lower male income, and lower proportion of Roman Catholics. Significant correlates with FLFP in 1971 were proportion of foreign born, Roman Catholic, and children ever born. Correlates of children ever born in 1971 were proportion of Roman Catholic and foreign born, and by 1981 all predictors except male income and owner occupied dwellings. FLFP and children ever born are strongly and negatively related to each other. Multivariate analyses reveal multicollinearity among education and female income

  13. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  14. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  15. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  16. Recognition Memory for Male and Female Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmey, A. Daniel

    Sex differences in memory for human faces is reviewed. It is found that research evidence to date is not conclusive, but where differences exist they favor female superiority over males in facial memory. In particular, evidence is cited to suggest that females are reliably superior to males in their recognition memory for other females. This is…

  17. Perceived Parental Acceptance and Female Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    Studied adolescent females at a state training school and at a high school, measuring perceived parental acceptance. Demonstrated that incarcerated females viewed their mothers and fathers more negatively than did nonincarcerated females. Indicated more ambivalent results in the mother-daughter than the father-daughter relationship. Discusses…

  18. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  20. Seeking and Selecting Hispanic Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    Among the 1,000 females who lead school districts in the United States, some 25 to 30 are Hispanic. Ways in which Hispanic females are sought and selected for the superintendency of a district are explored in this paper. The report is based on an analysis of 12 Hispanic female superintendents and how they were hired. Two of the women in the sample…

  1. The Minority Voice in Educational Reform: An Analysis by Minority and Women College of Education Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castenell, Louis A., Ed.; Tarule, Jill M., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the issue of minority and female deans in colleges of education, offering the current thinking by a group of minority and female deans of education. Part 1, "Changing Leadership: Tensions within Academic and Social Roles," presents the first four chapters: (1) "Surviving the Middle Passage: The Absent Legacy of…

  2. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  3. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  4. Assessed Perceptions of Female Materials Science and Engineering Graduates on Academic Advising, Student Support Services and Retention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Renita Linette

    2013-01-01

    Females currently undertaking STEM-related programs can benefit from knowing about how other females who had been in a similar position as them were able to persevere through the challenges of higher education with the help of advisement and student support services that aim to increasing student retention. While there have been a depth of studies…

  5. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  6. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  7. STEM for Females goes from a Ripple to a Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rita

    2015-11-01

    At the 2015 World Conference of Science Journalists in Seoul on June 9, 2015 Nobel Prize Winner Sir Tim Hunt gave a speech with remarks which offended females in science around the world. Following the social media reaction several STEM education foundation for girls received justified attention. Programs are being supported for the education of girls and women around the world and they are gaining media attention. I will discuss the growing popularity and availability of all-girl science programs. These eager-to-learn young females are preparing themselves for serious careers in the hopes that their generation will close the gender gap. I will present a statistical analysis of workplace gender equality in professional STEM environments, including a focus on select fluid dynamics corporations, which will show that there is room for improvement across the industry. The goal of this presentation is to endorse and promote the ever-growing wave of qualified female applicants to graduate programs and industrial job placements.

  8. Metallic hairpin inhalation: a healthcare problem facing young Muslim females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To perform an epidemiological assessment of metallic hairpin inhalation in young Muslim females and highlight the need for a health education program in this population. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of females with a history of metallic hairpin inhalation presenting to the Otolaryngology and Cardiothoracic Surgery Departments at Mansoura University Hospitals from January 2000 to October 2006. Results A total of 83 patients were identified with metallic hairpin inhalation, of which 2 were excluded as they were coughed and expelled by the patient. Ages ranged from 7 to 19 years. A history of inhaled foreign body (FB) was found in all cases but the majority of patients were asymptomatic, with only 6 patients (7%) presenting with cough. Chest x-rays confirmed the presence of metallic hairpin inhalation in all cases. The metallic hairpins were present in the trachea in 7 patients (9%), in the left bronchial tree in 43 patients (53%) and in the right bronchial tree in 31 patients (38%). Rigid bronchoscopy was performed in all patients with a retrieval rate of 80%. Repeat bronchoscopy was performed in 16 patients (20%), which was successful in 11 patients (14%). The remaining 5 patients required thoracotomy for removal of the metallic hairpin (6%). Conclusion The significant number of inhaled metallic hairpins in young Muslim females highlights the need for a health education program in this population. Rigid bronchoscopy remains the primary tool for retrieval of these inhaled foreign bodies. However, when repeat broncoscopy is necessitated, a thoracotomy may be required. PMID:25085592

  9. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  10. Easily forgotten: elderly female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Women form a growing minority within the worldwide prison population and have special needs and distinct characteristics. Within this group exists a smaller sub-group: elderly female prisoners (EFPs) who require tailored social and health interventions that address their unique needs. Data collected from two prisons in Switzerland housing women prisoners were studied. Overall 26 medical records were analyzed, 13 from EFPs (50+ years) and for comparison 13 from young female prisoners (YFPs, 49 years and younger). Additionally, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with EFPs. Using the layer model of vulnerability, three layers of vulnerability were identified: the "prisoner" layer; followed by the layer of "woman"; both of which are encompassed by the layer of "old age." The analysis of these layers resulted in three main areas where EFPs are particularly vulnerable: their status of "double-minority," health and health-care access, and their social relations. Prison administration and policy-makers need to be more sensitive to gender and age related issues in order to remedy these vulnerabilities. PMID:25661851

  11. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin. PMID:12233709

  12. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  13. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  14. Female labor force behavior and fertility in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, E; Nerlove, M

    1986-01-01

    This article critically reviews the literature on fertility and female labor force behavior in the US, with particular emphasis on recent quantitative research by economists, demographers, and sociologists. It examines the empirical evidence regarding the influence on fertility and female employment of certain key variables, i.e., the value of female time, husband's income, and relative economic status; addresses the issue of whether there is direct causality between fertility and female labor supply; reviews simultaneous equations models and a new approach to the study of causality; discusses decisionmaking models; considers factors that may mediate the fertility-labor nexus, including child care arrangements, husband's income, wife's education, and the convenience of employment; and concludes with consideration of changes over time in the association between fertility and female employment. Economic theory suggests that an increase in the opportunity cost of children should be associated with a decrease in family size. For the US, the fact that the mother's education and other measures of the value of female time have a negative impact on fertility has been interpreted in this was and confirmed with many bodies of data. Most studies find also that indicators of the value of female time affect employment positively. Coefficients associated with measures of husband's income on female employment. In sum, the evidence suggests that at least part of the negative relationship between fertility and female employment may be traced to the fact that that these variables are influenced in opposite directions by changes in the value of female time and relative economic status. Whether changes in husband's income contribute to the negative association is less clear at this time. In 1950, the labor force participation rate for married women with children under 6 years of age was 11.9%; it was 28.3% for those with children 6-17 years of age. By 1960, the figures had risen

  15. [How EPMEWSE* worked with supporting programs for female scientists in STEM** fields in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-09-01

    In gender equality, Japan is still lagging behind other developed nations. The ratio of female to male researchers is only at 14% in 2012, the lowest among developed countries. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan has started the programs to support the female researchers and to develop their leadership activities. Our survey revealed that there are too few women in higher positions who can help younger women with career enhancement. Also, male scientists have unconscious bias when they evaluate their female colleagues. At the same time, female scientists often underestimate their ability when seeking leadership roles. The MEXT programs will only exert a long-term effect on the ratio and roles of women in science if the academic climate and leadership changes in Japan. In Japan, a long-term strategy with support by government and universities is essential to overcome the gender gap and maximize the potential of female scientists. PMID:24066391

  16. Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention. PMID:23354139

  17. Female Condom Use among Female University Students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Behavioral Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Hoffman, Susie; Beksinska, Mags; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Stein, Zena A.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few interventions have tested the efficacy of female condom promotion either alone or in combination with other barrier methods. We evaluated the efficacy of a two-session (enhanced) cognitive-behavioral intervention (EI) (n=147) against aone-session control (minimal) educational intervention (MI) (n=149) to promote female condom (FC) use among female students aged 18-28 at a South African university. We assessed change from baseline to 2.5 and 5 months in number of vaginal intercourse occasions unprotected by male or female condoms in EI vs. MI using generalized linear models with a log link function and GEE. Both groups reported significant reductions in number of unprotected vaginal intercourse occasions from baseline to each follow-up, with no significant difference between the two-session and single-session intervention. Introduction of a brief group-based MI FC promotion intervention with FC access holds promise for delivery in clinics and other community venues. PMID:25092513

  18. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice. PMID:27194237

  19. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest. PMID:23695382

  20. Chance, choice and opportunity: Life history study of two exemplary female elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Kathleen Milligan

    The purpose of this two-year study was to investigate why two female elementary teachers became exemplary science teachers, despite conditions which do not promote such achievement. Each teachers' progress was examined using life history methodology. The study's theoretical grounding included females' academic and attitudinal success in science education. Purposeful sampling of peers, administrators, and college professors produced two research participants. Both teachers participated in interviews, observations, and member checks lasting over one year. Data were analyzed inductively, resulting in two life histories. Comparing the life stories using confluence theory (Feldman, 1986) indicated four major categories for consideration: risk-taking; life-long learning; gender equity; and mentors. Risk-taking is necessary for female elementary teachers because of their often poor educational background. Few female role models support efforts for achievement. Life-long learning, including extensive reading and graduate-level classes, supports female teachers' personal and professional growth. Exposure to new ideas and teacher practices encourages curricular change and refinement in science education. Gender inequity and the male-packaging of science is an issue to be resolved by female elementary teachers. Mentors can provide interaction and feedback to refine science instructional practices. Professors, peers, and mentor teachers support instructional and content knowledge efforts. Recommendations for science education in classroom practices, preservice teacher education and continuing professional development include female-friendly approaches to science instruction. Decreased competitive practices through cooperative learning and gender inclusive language encourages female participation and achievement in classrooms. Hands-on, inquiry-based instruction and verbalization encourages female students' achievement in science education. Preservice teachers must receive