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Sample records for female interstitial cystitis

  1. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  2. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the National Institutes of Health. Articles and Book Chapters Keay SK, Warren JW. Is interstitial cystitis ... Incontinence. Paris: Health Publication Ltd.; 2009: 1459–1518. Books and Booklets Moldwin RM. Interstitial Cystitis Survival Guide: ...

  3. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  4. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline. PMID:20679058

  5. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Alis Kolter

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, painful bladder syndrome primarily found in women. Although the direct cause(s) of IC are unknown, several theories exist. Common symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, and pain. Treatment options include behavioral therapies, use of pharmacologic agents, and surgery. Patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatments. Important clinical features of IC in women including the pathology, common symptoms, and recommended evaluation and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:17390922

  6. Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

  7. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807488

  8. [Suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient : a case report].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahisa; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kato, Taiki; Furuse, Hiroshi; Ozono, Seiichiro

    2014-11-01

    We report a suicide attempt by an interstitial cystitis patient. A 68-year-old woman consulted several clinics with complaints of urinary frequency and bladder pain, but her symptoms did not improve. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Hydrodistention was performed, and the urethral catheter removed one day after surgery. The next day, the patient was afraid that her symptoms had not improved and, due to this physical and mental distress, cut her wrist with a razor. Vascular anastomosis and neuroanastomosis were performed accordingly. Eighteen months after hydrodistention, the patient's symptoms of interstitial cystitis have much improved. PMID:25511944

  9. Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. Results The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. Conclusion The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:22974186

  10. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  11. Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: Endometriosis or Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome share similar symptoms. Interstitial cystitis was once considered rare, but it is now recognized as more common than previously thought. This review examines evidence that patients presenting with symptoms typically attributed to endometriosis or with unresolved pelvic pain after treatment for endometriosis may, in fact, have interstitial cystitis, and suggests approaches for appropriate diagnosis. Methods: A MedLine search using “chronic pelvic pain,” “endometriosis,” “interstitial cystitis,” and “bladder origin pain” as key words was performed for the most recent English-language articles. Additional references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each publication. Discussion: The symptoms of endometriosis and inter-stitial cystitis frequently overlap, and these 2 conditions may even coexist in the same patient. In cases of unresolved endometriosis and persistent pelvic pain, patients may have interstitial cystitis. A variety of tools are available to aid in identifying interstitial cystitis. Conclusion: Gynecologists should be alert to the possible presence of interstitial cystitis in patients who present with chronic pelvic pain typical of endometriosis. PMID:17761077

  12. Distinctive ultrastructural pathology of nonulcerative interstitial cystitis: new observations and their potential significance in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Elbadawi, A E; Light, J K

    1996-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of the bladder in interstitial cystitis has, so far, been limited, mainly to the urothelium. The present study was conducted first to study in detail the ultrastructural features of all tissue components of the bladder wall in nonulcerative interstitial cystitis and second to derive clues from the observed changes to pathogenesis of the disease. Endoscopic biopsies of urothelium with attached suburothelium, and muscularis, were obtained from both lesional and nonlesional areas in 5 female patients with unequivocal clinical diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. The specimens were processed for electron microscopic study by standard methods and subjected to comprehensive ultrastructural study of urothelium, suburothelium, detrusor muscle cells, intrinsic blood vessels, and intrinsic nerves. A distinctive combination of peculiar muscle cell profiles, injury of intrinsic vessels and nerves in muscularis and suburothelium, and discohesive urothelium was observed in lesional and less markedly in nonlesional samples of all specimens. Marked edema of various tissue elements and cells appeared to be a common denominator of many observed changes. Edema of muscle cells resulted in characteristic querciphylloid profiles, so designated because of peripheral bosselation of cell sarcoplasm with a lobed perimeter resembling that of an oak leaf. Urothelial changes disrupted the true permeability barrier, consisting of asymmetric unit membrane and triple epithelial junctions of surface (umbrella) cells. Vascular lesions included endothelial cell injury and suggested sluggishness of intrinsic microcirculation. Neural changes included a combination of degenerative and regenerative features, some expressing neural plasticity. The observed ultrastructural changes appear to be sufficiently distinctive to be diagnostic in specimens submitted for pathologic confirmation of nonulcerative interstitial cystitis. The changes do not support a primary pathogenetic role of

  13. Interstitial Cystitis and Endometriosis in Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: The “Evil Twins” Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Rosemary P.; Gordon, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of interstitial cystitis and endometriosis in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Methods: A prospective analysis was conducted in 178 women with CPP who presented with bladder base/anterior vaginal wall and/or uterine tenderness, with or without irritative voiding symptoms. The Potassium Sensitivity Test was used to assess bladder epithelial dysfunction. Patients were evaluated with concurrent laparoscopy and cystoscopy with hydrodistention. Results: Laparoscopic findings among the 178 patients with chronic pelvic pain supported a diagnosis of endometriosis in 134 (75%) patients, and cystoscopy confirmed a diagnosis of interstitial cystitis in 159 (89%) patients. Both interstitial cystitis and endometriosis were diagnosed in 115 patients (65%). The Potassium Sensitivity Test was positive in 146 (82%) patients, with 140 (96%) of these patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis and 105 (72%) with endometriosis. Conclusions: Results of this prospective study show that interstitial cystitis and endometriosis may frequently coexist in patients with chronic pelvic pain. A positive Potassium Sensitivity Test accurately predicted the presence of interstitial cystitis in 96% of these patients with chronic pelvic pain, as confirmed by cystoscopic hydrodistention. It is necessary to consider the diagnosis of endometriosis and interstitial cystitis concurrently in the evaluation of patients with chronic pelvic pain to avoid unnecessary delay in identifying either condition. PMID:15791965

  14. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options. PMID:27218442

  15. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  16. Current guidelines in the management of interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a heterogeneous chronic disease of unknown etiology that impacts a very large number of women. Symptoms are highly variable: patients may suffer from pelvic pain that is exacerbated by bladder filling, and can be associated with a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms including frequency and urgency. Given the varying presentations and severities of corresponding treatment must be tailored to each specific patient. Current American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines separate the IC treatment recommendations into six tiers of increasing invasive therapies. These treatment guidelines begin with education and lifestyle modifications and progress through levels of physical, pharmacological, and ultimately surgical therapies for those that fail the less invasive therapies. The purpose of this review is to outline the recommendations for the treatment of IC and the evidence from which these recommendations arise. Furthermore, we examine the most up to date literature so that we may recognize future directions in the treatment of IC. PMID:26816869

  17. Similarities between interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and vulvodynia: implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Moldwin, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and vulvodynia are chronic pain syndromes that appear to be intertwined from the perspectives of embryology, pathology and epidemiology. These associations may account for similar responses to various therapies. PMID:26816866

  18. Uroplakin Peptide-Specific Autoimmunity Initiates Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Izgi, Kenan; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Bicer, Fuat; Ozer, Ahmet; Sakalar, Cagri; Li, Xiaoxia; Tuohy, Vincent K.; Daneshgari, Firouz

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiology of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is enigmatic. Autoimmunity and impaired urothelium might lead the underlying pathology. A major shortcoming in IC/PBS research has been the lack of an appropriate animal model. In this study, we show that the bladder specific uroplakin 3A-derived immunogenic peptide UPK3A 65–84, which contains the binding motif for IAd MHC class II molecules expressed in BALB/c mice, is capable of inducing experimental autoimmune cystitis in female mice of that strain. A highly antigen-specific recall proliferative response of lymph node cells to UPK3A 65–84 was observed, characterized by selectively activated CD4+ T cells with a proinflammatory Th1-like phenotype, including enhanced production of interferon γ and interleukin-2. T cell infiltration of the bladder and bladder-specific increased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines were observed. Either active immunization with UPK3A 65–84 or adoptive transfer of peptide-activated CD4+ T cells induced all of the predominant IC/PBS phenotypic characteristics, including increased micturition frequency, decreased urine output per micturition, and increased pelvic pain responses to stimulation with von Frey filaments. Our study demonstrates the creation of a more specific experimental autoimmune cystitis model that is the first inducible model for IC/PBS that manifests all of the major symptoms of this debilitating condition. PMID:23977210

  19. Mucosal Muscarinic Receptors Enhance Bladder Activity in Cats With Feline Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Birder, L.; Buffington, C.; Roppolo, J.; Kanai, A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial cystitis is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome of which the origin and mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study Ca2+ transients in the bladder wall of domestic cats diagnosed with naturally occurring feline interstitial cystitis were examined. Materials and Methods Cross-sections of full-thickness bladder strips from normal cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis were examined by optically mapping Ca2+ transients and recording tension. Responses of Ca2+ activity and detrusor contractions to pharmacological interventions were compared. In addition, pharmacological responses were compared in mucosa denuded preparations. Results Optical mapping showed that feline interstitial cystitis bladders had significantly more spontaneous Ca2+ transients in the mucosal layer than control bladders. Optical mapping also demonstrated that feline interstitial cystitis bladders were hypersensitive to a low dose (50 nM) of the muscarinic receptor agonist arecaidine when the mucosal layer was intact. This hypersensitivity was markedly decreased in mucosa denuded bladder strips. Conclusions In feline interstitial cystitis cat bladders there is increased Ca2+ activity and sensitivity of muscarinic receptors in the mucosal layer, which can enhance smooth muscle spontaneous contractions. PMID:19157447

  20. [Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David A; Perucchini, Daniele; Fink, Daniel; Betschart, Cornelia

    2015-08-19

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is still an etiologically poorly understood chronic pain syndrome. BPS is a clinical diagnosis. The current treatment modalities are aimed at symptom relief because no cure is possible. Analgesics may be used at any point in treatment but preferably for short-term relief for flares or bladder pain. AUA has issued clinical practice guidelines with a stepwise approach. The first-line therapy begins with self-care and behavior modification. Physical therapy and oral medications such as amitriptyline, PPS, or antihistamines belong to the second-line therapy. Third-line therapy requires cystoscopy and hydrodistension, treatment of Hunner lesions, or intravesical use of e.g. DMSO. Neuromodulation is considered a fourth-line therapy in patients who have failed third-line treatments. Fifth-line therapies consist of intravesical injection of BoNT or oral cyclosporin A. Cystectomy is the sixth-line therapy and the treatment of last resort. PMID:26286495

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yoost, J L; Hertweck, S P; Loveless, M

    2012-06-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), or painful bladder syndrome, is characterized by irritative voiding symptoms and can be a challenging problem that affects children and adolescents. Diagnosis and management in children and adolescents is challenging because of strict diagnostic criteria and the paucity of investigations focusing on this age group, which often can lead to delayed or missed diagnosis. Clinical features suggestive of IC include bladder pain, urgency, frequency, nocturia, and pressure. Symptoms may wax and wane and often are exacerbated by menstruation, intercourse, dietary triggers, and stress. Diagnosis can be made by history, physical exam findings such as suprapubic tenderness, voiding diaries, and exclusion of other etiologies. Some diagnostic tests such as the potassium sensitivity test and cystoscopy are invasive and often impractical in younger patients. Treatment of IC consists of a multimodal approach that should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient. Therapies for younger patients include oral medication, intravesical therapy, cystoscopy with hydrodistention, and conservative measures such as dietary modification. This review of the literature focuses on diagnosing IC in younger patients and on what treatment modalities are appropriate and effective for this age group. PMID:21600805

  2. Botulinum Toxin A for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Bin; Tai, Huai-Ching; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Birder, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A), derived from Clostridium botulinum, has been used clinically for several diseases or syndrome including chronic migraine, spasticity, focal dystonia and other neuropathic pain. Chronic pelvic or bladder pain is the one of the core symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC). However, in the field of urology, chronic bladder or pelvic pain is often difficult to eradicate by oral medications or bladder instillation therapy. We are looking for new treatment modality to improve bladder pain or associated urinary symptoms such as frequency and urgency for patients with BPS/IC. Recent studies investigating the mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of BoNT A suggest that it can inhibit the release of peripheral neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators from sensory nerves. In this review, we will examine the evidence supporting the use of BoNTs in bladder pain from basic science models and review the clinical studies on therapeutic applications of BoNT for BPS/IC. PMID:27376330

  3. Nursing Care of Women With Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    MacMullen, Nancy J; Dulski, Laura A; Martin, Patricia B; Blobaum, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a chronic condition affecting approximately 3.3 million women in the United States. It is defined by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases as "urinary pain that can't be attributed to other causes such as infection or urinary stones." Because of the intimate nature of the symptoms, women are often reluctant to seek treatment. When they do, they require a care provider with specialized nursing skills. Nursing practice based on carefully reviewed literature will result in the provision of comprehensive and compassionate nursing care for women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. PMID:27067933

  4. Eosinophilic cystitis in a female German wire-haired pointer

    PubMed Central

    Evason, Michelle D.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2007-01-01

    A 7-month-old, intact female, German wire-haired pointer presented with a 3-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and dysuria that was nonresponsive to antibiotics. Two prior episodes of dysuria-stranguria appeared to respond to antibiotic therapy. Bladder wall biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis and the dog responded well to medical management. PMID:17542370

  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain: the Occurrence of Interstitial Cystitis in a Gynecological Population

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine what relationship exists between interstitial cystitis and chronic pelvic pain in patients. Methods: A prospective study of 35 women with a complaint of chronic pelvic pain was performed between August 2002 and September 2003. These patients underwent a workup to exclude other causes of pelvic pain and underwent a laparoscopy and a cystoscopy with hydro-distention at 80 cm of hydrostatic water pressure. Results were obtained and quantified. Results: Twenty-eight patients (80%) were diagnosed with interstitial cystitis, 28 were diagnosed with endometriosis (80%), 24 had both disease entities simultaneously (69%), and 32 (91%) had endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, or both. Three patients (9%) had neither and were diagnosed with other pathologies. Conclusions: Chronic pelvic pain is a major concern for many women in the United States. Patients with chronic pelvic pain have traditionally been difficult to manage. A large percentage of women presenting with chronic pelvic pain have been shown to have endometriosis, interstitial cystitis, or both. Therefore, an appropriate workup for those individuals with chronic pelvic pain involves not only obtaining a good history and performing a good physical examination, but the possibility of a cystoscopy being performed when a laparoscopy has been deemed necessary for diagnosis of the pain. These procedures can serve as both a means for diagnosis and short-term treatment of these problems when encountered. PMID:16381360

  6. Effects of interstitial cystitis on the acoustic startle reflex in cats

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Devon W.; Stella, Judi L.; Tony Buffington, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare acoustic startle reflexes (ASRs) of healthy cats and cats with interstitial cystitis (IC). Animals 28 healthy cats (11 males and 17 females) and 20 cats with IC (13 males and 7 females). Procedures To evaluate the effect of neutering on ASRs, ASRs in neutered and unneutered healthy cats were measured. To evaluate the effect of housing facility acclimation on ASRs in cats with IC, ASRs were measured in cats with IC within 1 month after arrival at the housing facility and again 2 to 3 months after arrival. To evaluate the effect of the environment on ASRs, ASRs were evaluated in all cats with and without IC after acclimation but before and then after environmental enrichment. Results Neutering led to a significant decrease in overall ASR in the healthy cats. Habituation to the housing facility resulted in a significant decrease in overall ASR of female but not male cats with IC. Environmental enrichment led to a significant decrease in ASR in cats with IC but not in healthy cats. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The magnitude of the ASR appeared to be sensitive to environmental conditions and affected by sex, both in healthy cats and cats with IC. It was also higher in cats with IC versus healthy cats, except when cats were housed in a highly enriched environment. Impact for Human Medicine Treatment approaches that include reduction of a patient’s perception of environmental unpredictability may benefit humans with IC. PMID:23270359

  7. [Cystitis].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Richard O; Mansi, Alessandro

    2003-10-31

    Bacterial cystitis is a common condition characterised by a high incidence, an easy diagnosis and a simple treatment. Three subsets should be distinguished: simple cystitis, occurring in young women, requires no bacteriologic work-up and is best treated by a single dose or a three-day regimen consisting of a common antibiotic, complicated cystitis, occurring in patients with diabetes, an urologic history or immunosuppression; it requires a seven-day treatment course, the choice of which is guided by antibiotic sensitivity tests; recurrent cystitis is defined by, at least, four yearly flares; such recurrences warrant thorough vulvo-vaginal examination seeking a local lesion; if none is found, protracted treatment using an inhibitory rather than a bactericidal antibiotic dosage is an efficient prophylactic regimen. PMID:14702819

  8. Potential therapeutic effect of intravesical botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jhang, Jia-Fong; Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is characterized by bladder pain associated with urgency, frequency, nocturia, dysuria and sterile urine. Recent studies have shown that these bladder dysfunctions could originate from chronic inflammation or urothelial insult and proceed to a cascade of tissue reactions, which finally ascends to the central nervous system. Pilot studies of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had been introduced since 2005 with a promising result. Recent evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A could significantly improve symptoms such as daytime frequency, nocturia, pain, quality of life and bladder capacity in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. Single injection of botulinum toxin could not achieve long-term successful therapeutic result, and repeat injections could provide a better long-term success rate. However, patients with ulcer type bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis might not gain a benefit from botulinum toxin type A injection. Laboratory evidence showed that botulinum toxin type A for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis injection could induce peripheral desensitization, reduces bladder chronic inflammation and decreases apoptotic signal molecules in the urothelium. The present article reviewed the recent advances of botulinum toxin type A on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. PMID:24807497

  9. Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Braundmeier-Fleming, A.; Russell, Nathan T.; Yang, Wenbin; Nas, Megan Y.; Yaggie, Ryan E.; Berry, Matthew; Bachrach, Laurie; Flury, Sarah C.; Marko, Darlene S.; Bushell, Colleen B.; Welge, Michael E.; White, Bryan A.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Klumpp, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is associated with significant morbidity, yet underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers remain unknown. Pelvic organs exhibit neural crosstalk by convergence of visceral sensory pathways, and rodent studies demonstrate distinct bacterial pain phenotypes, suggesting that the microbiome modulates pelvic pain in IC. Stool samples were obtained from female IC patients and healthy controls, and symptom severity was determined by questionnaire. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Machine learning by Extended Random Forest (ERF) identified OTUs associated with symptom scores. Quantitative PCR of stool DNA with species-specific primer pairs demonstrated significantly reduced levels of E. sinensis, C. aerofaciens, F. prausnitzii, O. splanchnicus, and L. longoviformis in microbiota of IC patients. These species, deficient in IC pelvic pain (DIPP), were further evaluated by Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, and DIPP species emerged as potential IC biomarkers. Stool metabolomic studies identified glyceraldehyde as significantly elevated in IC. Metabolomic pathway analysis identified lipid pathways, consistent with predicted metagenome functionality. Together, these findings suggest that DIPP species and metabolites may serve as candidates for novel IC biomarkers in stool. Functional changes in the IC microbiome may also serve as therapeutic targets for treating chronic pelvic pain. PMID:27188581

  10. Stool-based biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braundmeier-Fleming, A; Russell, Nathan T; Yang, Wenbin; Nas, Megan Y; Yaggie, Ryan E; Berry, Matthew; Bachrach, Laurie; Flury, Sarah C; Marko, Darlene S; Bushell, Colleen B; Welge, Michael E; White, Bryan A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Klumpp, David J

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is associated with significant morbidity, yet underlying mechanisms and diagnostic biomarkers remain unknown. Pelvic organs exhibit neural crosstalk by convergence of visceral sensory pathways, and rodent studies demonstrate distinct bacterial pain phenotypes, suggesting that the microbiome modulates pelvic pain in IC. Stool samples were obtained from female IC patients and healthy controls, and symptom severity was determined by questionnaire. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by16S rDNA sequence analysis. Machine learning by Extended Random Forest (ERF) identified OTUs associated with symptom scores. Quantitative PCR of stool DNA with species-specific primer pairs demonstrated significantly reduced levels of E. sinensis, C. aerofaciens, F. prausnitzii, O. splanchnicus, and L. longoviformis in microbiota of IC patients. These species, deficient in IC pelvic pain (DIPP), were further evaluated by Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analyses, and DIPP species emerged as potential IC biomarkers. Stool metabolomic studies identified glyceraldehyde as significantly elevated in IC. Metabolomic pathway analysis identified lipid pathways, consistent with predicted metagenome functionality. Together, these findings suggest that DIPP species and metabolites may serve as candidates for novel IC biomarkers in stool. Functional changes in the IC microbiome may also serve as therapeutic targets for treating chronic pelvic pain. PMID:27188581

  11. Hypersensitive bladder: a solution to confused terminology and ignorance concerning interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Homma, Yukio

    2014-04-01

    Taxonomy or nomenclature concerning interstitial cystitis and its related symptom syndromes is in a state of confusion. After analyzing the reasons for confusion in regard to three components (disease name, symptoms, Hunner's lesion), I would like to propose a new term, "hypersensitive bladder", taking after overactive bladder, as a solution. Hypersensitive bladder symptoms are defined as "increased bladder sensation, usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without bladder pain." The proposal of hypersensitive bladder is based on: (i) it does not appear a symptom syndrome, but a disease by ending with an organ name, "bladder"; (ii) it does not contain confusable symptom terms (pain and urgency), but indicates irritative symptoms including pain and urgency; and (iii) it suggests pathophysiological hyperactivity of sensory nerves. Interstitial cystitis is defined by three requirements: (i) hypersensitive bladder symptoms; (ii) bladder pathology; and (iii) no other diseases, where bladder pathology should be clearly stated either as Hunner's lesion or glomerulations after hydrodistention. Hypersensitive bladder can be used for the condition with hypersensitive bladder symptoms, but no obvious disease explaining hypersensitive bladder symptoms identified. Interstitial cystitis is a representative disease causing hypersensitive bladder symptoms, most typically with pain, but might be painless and indistinguishable from overactive bladder. Introducing hypersensitive bladder as a counter concept of overactive bladder into bladder dysfunction taxonomy will facilitate clinical practice and research progress, and attract considerable attention from the medical world. PMID:24807494

  12. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder. PMID:27339056

  13. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder. PMID:27339056

  14. Interstitial Cystitis – Elucidation of Psychophysiologic and Autonomic Characteristics (the ICEPAC Study): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Chelimsky, Thomas; Chelimsky, Gisela; McCabe, N Patrick; Louttit, Megan; Hijaz, Adonis; Mahajan, Sangeeta; Sanses, Tatiana; Buffington, CA Tony; Fenton, Bradford; Janicki, Thomas; Ialacci, Sarah; Veizi, Elias; Zhang, Di; Daneshgari, Firouz; Elston, Robert; Janata, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is relatively common and associated with severe pain, yet effective treatment remains elusive. Research typically emphasized the bladder’s role, but given the high presence of systemic comorbidities, the authors hypothesized a pathophysiologic nervous system role. This paper reports the methodology and approach to study the nervous system in women with IC/BPS. The study compares neurologic, urologic, gynecologic, autonomic, gastrointestinal, and psychological features of women with IC/BPS, their female relatives, women with myofascial pelvic pain (MPP), and healthy controls to elucidate the role of central and peripheral processing. Methods and results In total, 228 women (76 IC/BPS, 76 MPP, 38 family members, and 38 healthy controls) will be recruited. Subjects undergo detailed screening, structured neurologic examination of limbs and pelvis, tender point examination, autonomic testing, electrogastrography, and assessment of comorbid functional dysautonomias. Interpreters are blinded to subject classification. Psychological and stress response characteristics are examined with assessments of stress, trauma history, general psychological function, and stress response quantification. As of December 2012, data collection is completed for 25 healthy controls, 33 IC/BPS ± MPP, eight MPP, and three family members. Recruitment rate is accelerating and strategies emphasize maintaining and encouraging investigator participation in study science, internet advertising, and presentations to pelvic pain support groups. Conclusion The study represents a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to sampling autonomic and psychophysiologic characteristics of women with IC/BPS. Despite divergent opinions on study methodologies based on specialty experiences, the study has proven feasible to date and different perspectives have proved to be one of the greatest study strengths. PMID:24855387

  15. Review of intravesical therapies for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosamilia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic pain condition characterised by urinary frequency, urgency and pain or discomfort which the patient attributes to the bladder. It is a complex condition to manage and treat and requires a multi-disciplinary and multi-modal approach. As well as lifestyle and behavioural modifications, physical therapy and oral medications, intravesical treatments can be used in the treatment algorithm for BPS/IC. A number of intravesical agents are reviewed in this paper along with the available evidence for their use. PMID:26816864

  16. Update on the Pathology and Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is characterized by bladder discomfort, urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain. The etiology and pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown and remains diagnosed by exclusion. The histologic findings are also neither specific for diagnosis nor correlated with symptoms. However, the definition and diagnostic criteria for the condition was established in the last decade. In this paper, we review the changes in the definition, terminology, and diagnostic scheme of IC/BPS, and summarize the histologic findings. We also briefly discuss some new pathologic suggestions and new urinary markers, focusing on the most promising ones. PMID:27032552

  17. Treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome as a neuropathic pain condition

    PubMed Central

    Vas, Lakshmi; Pattanik, Manorama; Titarmore, Vaishali

    2014-01-01

    A lady of 52 years with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) presented with chronic pelvic pain, irritative voiding with sphincter dominance on urodynamics. 3 yrs of oral analgesics, antispasmodics and intravesical therapy was ineffective. We surmised her pain, and irritative voiding to be secondary to constant straining against a dysfunctional pelvic floor. We treated PBS/IC as a neuropathic phenomenon with a combination of neuromodulator medications and continuous caudal epidural analgesia to reduce the pain induced peripheral and central sensitisation. Botulinum toxin type A injection into pelvic floor muscles appeared to address their dysfuction. Clinical and urodynamics response was encouraging. PMID:25097327

  18. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  19. Intravesical Liposome and Antisense Treatment for Detrusor Overactivity and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Mahendra P.; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Chancellor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The following review focuses on the recent advancements in intravesical drug delivery, which brings added benefit to the therapy of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). Results. Intravesical route is a preferred route of administration for restricting the action of extremely potent drugs like DMSO for patients of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity. Patients who are either refractory to oral treatment or need to mitigate the adverse effects encountered with conventional routes of administration also chose this route. Its usefulness in some cases can be limited by vehicle (carrier) toxicity or short duration of action. Efforts have been underway to overcome these limitations by developing liposome platform for intravesical delivery of biotechnological products including antisense oligonucleotides. Conclusions. Adoption of forward-thinking approaches can achieve advancements in drug delivery systems targeted to future improvement in pharmacotherapy of bladder diseases. Latest developments in the field of nanotechnology can bring this mode of therapy from second line of treatment for refractory cases to the forefront of disease management. PMID:24527221

  20. The Interstitial Cystitis Association of America: lessons learned over the past 30 years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In 1984, interstitial cystitis (IC) was considered a rare psychosomatic disorder in post-menopausal women. In 2014, the Interstitial Cystitis Association of America (ICA) celebrated its 30th anniversary. We’ve come a long way since 1984 and great progress has been made. IC is now recognized as a condition that afflicts both men and women of all ages, including children and teenagers. It is not a psychiatric disorder. Though it was once thought to be an orphan disease (defined as affecting less than 200,000 people), we now know that there are millions of women and men who suffer from IC/BPS (bladder pain syndrome). In looking back over this period, there were seven key reasons why the ICA became so successful: an extremely dedicated ICA staff, Board of Directors and volunteers; a very strong Medical Advisory Board and participation of many other urologists from across the country and around the world; cooperation of the media; epidemiological studies; the ICA’s Pilot Research Program; our representation in Congress; and a strong working partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Our history may prove useful to other advocacy groups. PMID:26816848

  1. Interstitial cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... lists as possibly causing bladder irritation are: Aged cheeses Alcohol Artificial sweeteners Fava and lima beans Meats that are cured, processed, smoked, canned, aged, or that contain nitrites Most ...

  2. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or she may also ask you to keep track of how much fluid you drink, how often your urinate and how much urine you pass. Your doctor will rule out other diseases such as urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, endometriosis, kidney stones, sexually ...

  3. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC) is a condition that causes discomfort or pain in the bladder and a need to urinate ... from person to person. Some people may have pain without urgency or frequency. Others have urgency and ...

  4. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ran; Ali, Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  5. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  6. Treating Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome as a Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Philip C; Bosch, David C

    2014-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is both frustrating and difficult. The etiology is uncertain and there is no definitive treatment. Consequently, both patients and doctors tend to be unhappy and unsatisfied with the quality of care. The American Urological Association (AUA) provides a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of IC/BPS. Recommended first-line treatments include patient education, self-care practices, behavior modifications, and stress management. Management of IC/BPS may be also improved if both patients and doctors treat this condition as a chronic disease. This article reviews the AUA first-line treatments for IC/BPS and considers the benefits of treating this condition as a chronic disease. PMID:25009448

  7. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Dinis, Sara; de Oliveira, Joana Tavares; Pinto, Rui; Cruz, Francisco; Buffington, CA Tony; Dinis, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. PMID:26229509

  8. Complementary and alternative medical therapies for interstitial cystitis: an update from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, Megan Danielle; Shah, Nima M.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) has shifted from organ-specific to a multifactorial, multidisciplinary and individualized approach. Patients with refractory and debilitating symptoms may respond to complementary and alternative medical treatments (CAM). Through CAM therapies, practitioners assist the patient to be at the center of their care, empowering them to be emotionally and physically involved. Multi-disciplinary care, including urology, gynecology, gastroenterology, neurology, psychology, physiotherapy and pain medicine, is also identified to be the crux of adequate management of patients with chronic pelvic pain because of its variable etiology. The purpose of this review is to emphasize these changes and discuss management strategies. PMID:26816868

  9. Update on Urinary Tract Markers in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grigorescu, Bogdan; Powers, Kenneth; Lazarou, George

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/painful bladder syndrome/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a chronic hypersensory condition of unknown etiology. Moreover, the optimal modality for diagnosing IC remains disputed. Several urinary markers have been investigated that may have potential utility in the diagnosis or confirmation of IC/BPS. Thus, inflammatory mediators, proteoglycans, urinary hexosamines, proliferative factors, nitric oxide (NO), BK polyomavirus family, and urothelial proinflammatory gene analysis have been found to correlate with varying degrees with the clinical diagnosis or cystoscopic findings in patients with IC/BPS. The most promising urinary biomarker for IC/BPS is antiproliferative factor, a sialoglycopeptide that has demonstrated inhibitory effects on urothelial cell proliferation and a high sensitivity and specificity for IC/BPS symptoms and clinical findings. In this article, we review the urinary markers, possible future therapies for IC/BPS, and the clinical relevance and controversies regarding the diagnosis of IC/BPS. PMID:26571430

  10. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  11. Risk factors for recurrent cystitis following acute cystitis in female patients.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Byung Il; Kim, Sun Wook; Ha, U-Syn; Sohn, Dong Wan; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of acute cystitis (AC) patients to evaluate the risk factors of recurrent cystitis (RC) patients following AC. The clinical records of 254 subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of AC and 90 healthy subjects who visited the Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed. A patient was diagnosed with RC if she was treated for three or more symptomatic episodes of cystitis over a 12-month period. Results were analyzed according to three groups: normal control (group A, n = 90), AC (group B, n = 121), and RC (group C, n = 133). Women in the cystitis groups (groups B and C) were more likely to have diabetes, be menopausal, have a history of catheterization or sexually transmitted infections (STI), have a low daily water intake, have frequent sexual intercourse, and to use contraception more frequently than the normal control group (P < 0.05). In groups B and C, Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus species, and Klebsiella species. There were no differences between groups in the detection rates of these uropathogens. Factors that affected progression to RC were diabetes, catheterization history, STI history, sexual intercourse more than four times per month, sexual intercourse in the last month, and the use of contraceptives (P < 0.05). The identification of these factors may help develop preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies for treating RC that has progressed from AC. PMID:23380970

  12. Combined site-specific sacral neuromodulation and pudendal nerve release surgery in a patient with interstitial cystitis and persistent arousal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Georgina Louise; Vancaillie, Thierry Georges

    2016-01-01

    A variety of neuromodulation approaches have been described for the management of pelvic neuropathies, including interstitial cystitis, pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The benefits of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuromodulator has yet to be explored for these patients. In this report, we describe the case of a 35-year-old woman with a complex pelvic neuropathy resulting in urinary, sexual and gastro-intestinal dysfunction. She presented with an established diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; however, she also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pudendal neuralgia and persistent genital arousal disorder. The patient underwent implantation of a combined sacral and pudendal nerve neuoromodulation device at the time of surgical decompression of the pudendal nerves. An impressive clinical response followed. This case demonstrates a unique clinical presentation and highlights the value of a combined surgical and neuromodulatory approach in the management of patients with complex pelvic neuropathies. PMID:27284095

  13. Novel Potential Interacting Partners of Fibronectin in Spontaneous Animal Model of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Treutlein, Gudrun; Dorsch, Roswitha; Euler, Kerstin N.; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Amann, Barbara; Hartmann, Katrin; Deeg, Cornelia A.

    2012-01-01

    Feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) is the only spontaneous animal model for human interstitial cystitis (IC), as both possess a distinctive chronical and relapsing character. Underlying pathomechanisms of both diseases are not clearly established yet. We recently detected increased urine fibronectin levels in FIC cases. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into the pathogenesis by assessing interacting partners of fibronectin in urine of FIC affected cats. Several candidate proteins were identified via immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Considerable changes in FIC conditions compared to physiological expression of co-purified proteins were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, complement C4a and thioredoxin were present in higher levels in urine of FIC patients whereas loss of signal intensity was detected in FIC affected tissue. Galectin-7 was exclusively detected in urine of FIC cats, pointing to an important role of this molecule in FIC pathogenesis. Moderate physiological signal intensity of galectin-7 in transitional epithelium shifted to distinct expression in transitional epithelium under pathophysiological conditions. I-FABP expression was reduced in urine and urinary bladder tissue of FIC cats. Additionally, transduction molecules of thioredoxin, NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK, were examined. In FIC affected tissue, colocalization of thioredoxin and NF-κB p65 could be demonstrated compared to absent coexpression of thioredoxin and p38 MAPK. These considerable changes in expression level and pattern point to an important role for co-purified proteins of fibronectin and thioredoxin-regulated signal transduction pathways in FIC pathogenesis. These results could provide a promising starting point for novel therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:23236492

  14. Use and effectiveness of psychological self-care strategies for interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Webster, D C; Brennan, T

    1995-01-01

    We explore two questions. First, What psychological self-care strategies do women use to manage interstitial cystitis (IC), and how effective are they? Second, How do self-reported cognitive-behavioral and stress reduction activities compare with the coping options hypothesized by Draucker (1991) to be available to women diagnosed with IC? One hundred thirty-eight women with IC rated the use and effectiveness of 53 psychological self-care strategies as well as levels of uncertainty related to the illness. Findings indicated that the women used a wide variety of psychological self-care strategies, including information seeking, self-validation, rejection of pathologizing psychological explanations, and downward comparison to provide perspective. Even after diagnosis, most of the women experienced considerable uncertainty regarding changing symptoms and ability to predict and plan. Use and effectiveness of most psychological strategies appeared to be more strongly related to being involved in a support group, than to current status of the illness. PMID:8576017

  15. Gene expression profile of bladder tissue of patients with ulcerative interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Gamper, Marianne; Viereck, Volker; Geissbühler, Verena; Eberhard, Jakob; Binder, Jochen; Moll, Carlo; Rehrauer, Hubert; Moser, René

    2009-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic bladder disease with an increasing incidence, is diagnosed using subjective symptoms in combination with cystoscopic and histological evidence. By cystoscopic examination, IC can be classified into an ulcerative and a non-ulcerative subtype. To better understand this debilitating disease on a molecular level, a comparative gene expression profile of bladder biopsies from patients with ulcerative IC and control patients has been performed. Results Gene expression profiles from bladder biopsies of five patients with ulcerative IC and six control patients were generated using Affymetrix GeneChip expression arrays (Affymetrix – GeneChip® Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0). More than 31,000 of > 54,000 tested probe sets were present (detection p-value < 0.05). The difference between the two groups was significant for over 3,500 signals (t-test p-value < 0.01), and approximately 2,000 of the signals (corresponding to approximately 1,000 genes) showed an IC-to-healthy expression ratio greater than two. The IC pattern had similarities to patterns from immune system, lymphatic, and autoimmune diseases. The dominant biological processes were the immune and inflammatory responses. Many of the up-regulated genes were expressed in leukocytes, suggesting that leukocyte invasion into the bladder wall is a dominant feature of ulcerative IC. Histopathological data supported these findings. Conclusion GeneChip expression arrays present a global picture of ulcerative IC and provide us with a series of marker genes characteristic for this subtype of the disease. Evaluation of biopsies from other bladder patients with similar symptoms (e.g. patients with non-ulcerative IC) will further indicate whether the data presented here will be valuable for the diagnosis of IC. PMID:19400928

  16. The enigma of men with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Hans C.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a common and frequently misdiagnosed disorder in men. Hallmark symptoms are the presence of chronic discomfort attributed to the urinary bladder associated with bladder filling and relieved with bladder emptying, often associated with irritative voiding symptoms, in the absence of any other identifiable cause. It is often grouped with another common clinical entity, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Men with IC/BPS often suffer from a delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment, often being categorized as having prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or epididymitis before the correct diagnosis is reached. The etiology of IC/BPS is poorly understood, and its pathogenesis may involve multiple pathways leading to a common clinical entity. Diagnostic criteria continue to evolve over time as the understanding of IC/BPS improves, and a clinical diagnosis with properly performed history and physical exam is suitable for diagnosis after other processes such as infection, radiation, or pharmaceutical exposure are appropriately excluded. No set pathological findings, biomarkers, or phenotypic descriptions have been universally accepted as a result of conflicting studies. Guidelines for diagnostic and treatment options are limited by available data, and few studies incorporate substantial numbers of male patients. Reported outcomes for common therapies are mixed or have not yet been subjected to study in rigorous placebo-controlled clinical trials in men. Lessons learned from the treatment of CP/CPPS can be applied to IC/BPS, by favoring a phenotypically directed, multimodal approach rather than a stepwise algorithm as advocated by current practice guidelines. PMID:26813678

  17. Revisiting the Role of Potassium Sensitivity Testing and Cystoscopic Hydrodistention for the Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Jhang, Jia-Fong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To revisit the diagnostic roles of cystoscopic hydrodistention and the potassium sensitivity test (PST) for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis (IC). Methods We prospectively enrolled 214 patients clinically diagnosed with IC, 125 non-IC patients who underwent video urodynamic studies and PST, and another 144 non-IC patients who underwent cystoscopic hydrodistention before transurethral surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for the PST and glomerulations after cystoscopic hydrodistention. Results After cystoscopic hydrodistention, glomerulations developed in 211/214 (98.6%) IC patients and 61/144 (42.4%) of the non-IC patients including patients with stones (45/67, 67%), hematuria (2/5, 40%), and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (6/17, 35%). When positive glomerulation was defined as grade 2 or more, the sensitivity was 61.7%. The PST was positive in 183/214 (85.5%) IC patients and 7/17 (41%) with hypersensitive bladder, 7/32 (22%) with detrusor overactivity, 5/27 (18%) with SUI, 2/21 (10%) with lower urinary tract symptoms, and 2/25 (8%) with bladder outlet obstruction. The PST had a sensitivity of 85.5% and a specificity of 81.6% for diagnosis of IC. IC patients with a positive PST had a significantly smaller urgency sensation capacity, smaller voided volume, and greater bladder pain score. Conclusions Both the PST and glomerulations after hydrodistention are sensitive indicators of IC, but the specificity of glomerulations in the diagnosis of IC is lower than that of the PST. A positive PST is associated with a more hypersensitive bladder and bladder pain, but not the grade of glomerulations in IC patients. Neither test provided 100% diagnostic accuracy for IC, we might select patients into different subgroups based on different PST and hydrodistention results, not for making a diagnosis of IC but for guidance of different treatments. PMID:26999787

  18. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A

    2015-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms 'Interstitial Cystitis' and 'Painful Bladder Syndrome' from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the 'Google Trends' search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  19. A multidisciplinary approach to the evaluation and management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: an ideal model of care

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka; Gaines, Natalie; Sirls, Larry T.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a complex syndrome that has long been treated with bladder directed therapies, which often fail to address the multiple underlying etiologies that can contribute to this disease process. This disease often involves symptoms that extend beyond the bladder and involve the pelvic floor making it crucial for clinicians to approach the patient using a multidisciplinary team. This article will discuss the underlying etiologies for IC/BPS and describe the multidisciplinary approach which we have found to be extremely successful in managing this patient population. PMID:26816861

  20. In what type of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is DMSO intravesical instillation therapy effective?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is the most-used agent for intravesical instillation. We conducted this retrospective clinical study to determine in what type of the interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) DMSO was effective. Methods We combined DMSO with hydrodistension in 2003 and from 2004 we performed hydrodistension alone. Hydrodistension had been performed in 7 cases of IC/BPS with Hunner’s lesions (H group) and 7 cases of IC/BPS without Hunner’s lesions (non-H group), and they served as the control group (C group; n=14). There was also a DMSO group (D group; n=14) that consisted of an H group of 7 cases and an non-H group of 7 cases in which the hydrodistension had been immediately followed by intravesical instillation of 50% DMSO 50 mL. Before, and 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (M) after the intervention, the patients were asked to complete a 4-day frequency-volume chart (FVC) and the O’Leary-Sant IC symptom index (ICSI) questionnaire and IC problem index (ICPI) questionnaire, and to rate their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results All parameters were improved after hydrodistension in both the C group and the D group. However, comparison of the C group and D group according to whether Hunner lesions were present showed that there were no significant differences in any of the postoperative parameters between the non-H groups in the C group and D group, but in the H groups, average and maximum voided volume were significantly higher and the ICSI, ICPI, and VAS scores were lower in the D group. Moreover, the significant differences increased with the duration of the postoperative period. Conclusions DMSO intravesical instillation therapy was useful in both maintaining and improving the effectiveness of hydrodistension in IC/BPS with Hunner lesions. However, DMSO did not have any particular efficacy in the treatment of IC/BPS in the absence of Hunner lesions. PMID:26816859

  1. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Traditionally, there has been a lack of sufficiently diverse expertise and application of novel, integrated methods to study this syndrome. However, some important insights have been gained. For example, epidemiological studies have revealed that IC/BPS is commonly associated with other chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. These observations suggest that IC/BPS may involve systemic pathophysiology, including alterations of the central nervous system in some patients. Furthermore, there may be multiple causes and contributing factors that manifest in the symptoms of IC/BPS leading to multiple patient sub-groups or phenotypes. Innovative research is necessary to allow for a more complete description of the relationship between this syndrome and other disorders with overlapping symptoms. This report provides examples of such innovative research studies and their findings which have the potential to provide fresh insights into IC/BPS and disorders associated with chronic pain through characterization of broad physiologic systems, as well as assessment of the contribution of the bladder and lower urinary tract. They may also serve as models for future investigation of symptom-based urologic and non-urologic disorders that may remain incompletely characterized by previous, more traditional research approaches. Furthermore, it is anticipated a more holistic

  2. Novel research approaches for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: thinking beyond the bladder.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Chris; Bavendam, Tamara; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W

    2015-10-01

    Despite years of basic and clinical research focused on interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), including clinical trials of candidate therapies, there remains an insufficient understanding of underlying cause(s), important clinical features and a lack of effective treatments for this syndrome. Progress has been limited and is likely due to many factors, including a primary focus on the bladder and lower urinary tract as origin of symptoms without adequately considering the potential influence of other local (pelvic) or systemic factors. Traditionally, there has been a lack of sufficiently diverse expertise and application of novel, integrated methods to study this syndrome. However, some important insights have been gained. For example, epidemiological studies have revealed that IC/BPS is commonly associated with other chronic pain conditions, including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. These observations suggest that IC/BPS may involve systemic pathophysiology, including alterations of the central nervous system in some patients. Furthermore, there may be multiple causes and contributing factors that manifest in the symptoms of IC/BPS leading to multiple patient sub-groups or phenotypes. Innovative research is necessary to allow for a more complete description of the relationship between this syndrome and other disorders with overlapping symptoms. This report provides examples of such innovative research studies and their findings which have the potential to provide fresh insights into IC/BPS and disorders associated with chronic pain through characterization of broad physiologic systems, as well as assessment of the contribution of the bladder and lower urinary tract. They may also serve as models for future investigation of symptom-based urologic and non-urologic disorders that may remain incompletely characterized by previous, more traditional research approaches. Furthermore, it is anticipated a more holistic

  3. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset. We constructed a case–control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID. Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89–4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55–8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91–6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82–4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88–15.20) in the <35, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88–22.50). This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  4. Abnormalities in Expression of Structural, Barrier, and Differentiation Related Proteins and Chondroitin Sulfate in the Urothelium of Cats with Feline Interstitial Cystitis Mimic Those Seen in Human Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Paul J.; VanGordon, Samuel B.; Seavey, Jonathan; Sofinowski, Troy M.; Ramadan, Mohammad; Abdullah, Shivon; Buffington, C. A. Tony; Hurst, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The urothelium of cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) was analyzed to determine if abnormalities in protein expression patterns could be detected, and whether the pattern of expression was similar to that observed in human Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC) patients. The proteins that were analyzed are involved in cell adhesion, barrier function, comprise the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer, or are markers of differentiation. Methods Formalin-fixed biopsies from 8 cats with FIC and 7 healthy controls were labeled using immunohistochemistry and scored using a modified version of a system previously used for human samples. Cluster analysis was performed to investigate relationships between the markers and samples. Results The results showed that 89% of the FIC bladders displayed abnormal protein expression and chondroitin sulfate (CS) patterns, whereas only 27% of the normal tissues exhibited slight abnormalities. Abnormalities were found in most of the FIC samples, biglycan (87.5%), CS (100%), decorin (100%), E-cadherin (100%), keratin-20 (K20, 100%), uroplakin (50%), ZO-1 (87.5%). In the FIC bladders, about 75% of the CS, biglycan, and decorin samples displayed absence of luminal staining or no staining. Results from the cluster analysis revealed that the FIC and normal samples fell into two clearly separate groups, demonstrating that the urothelium of cats with FIC is altered from normal. Conclusions FIC produces similar changes in luminal GAG and several proteins as is seen in human patients, suggesting some commonality in mechanism and supporting the use of FIC as a model for human IC. PMID:25636658

  5. Diet and its role in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) and comorbid conditions.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Justin I; Shorter, Barbara; Moldwin, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake. We review current literature with regard to diet's effect upon IC/BPS and common comorbidities (irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, and headache) with a focus upon questionnaire-based investigations. We discuss the pathologic mechanisms that may link diet and IC/BPS related-pain, concentrating upon specific comestibles such as acidic foods, foods high in potassium, caffeine, and alcohol. Up to 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of comestibles.   Pathological mechanisms suggested to be responsible for the relationship between dietary intake and symptom exacerbation include peripheral and/or central neural upregulation, bladder epithelial dysfunction, and organ 'cross-talk', amongst others.   Current questionnaire-based data suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. Specific comestible sensitivities varied between patients and may have been influenced by comorbid conditions. This suggests that a controlled method to determine dietary

  6. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome: the influence of modern diagnostic criteria on epidemiology and on Internet search activity by the public

    PubMed Central

    Gnanappiragasam, Sanjith; Thornhill, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic debilitating condition that is characterised by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia and urinary frequency. The prevalence of the condition is increasing due to more inclusive diagnostic criteria. Herein, we review the evolving epidemiology of IC/PBS and investigate health seeking behaviour for the condition through Internet search activity. Study selection was performed in accordance with PRISMA. In addition, global search trends for the terms ‘Interstitial Cystitis’ and ‘Painful Bladder Syndrome’ from 2005 to 2015 were also evaluated using the ‘Google Trends’ search application. The mean search activity per month was recorded and mean activity at annual intervals calculated. Regional search activity by country and city was also measured. Prevalence rates for IC/PBS vary according to diagnostic criteria and range from 2% to 17.3% among the general population. Increased prevalence is associated with female gender and females with one first-degree relative affected. There has been an increase in global mean search activity for IC/PBS on an annual basis since 2005. The greatest increase in search activity was in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland and India respectively. The top five cities for search activity for IC/PBS were in the USA. As diagnostic criteria for IC/PBS continues to become more inclusive it is likely that the prevalence will continue to increase. This is particularly true for the USA and Canada as these regions have demonstrated the greatest increase in Internet search activity for IC/ PBS. PMID:26816850

  7. There is a low incidence of recurrent bacteriuria in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients followed longitudinally.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Edward; McMurphy, Carolyn

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to establish whether patients with confirmed painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) presenting with symptoms of UTI have actual bacteriuria vs a flare of their PBS/IC symptoms. One hundred and six (n = 106) consecutive female patients (mean age 39.8 +/- 14 years) with newly diagnosed IC were identified and followed longitudinally for 24 months. At the initial visit and at all subsequent visits, urinary specimens were obtained by sterile catheterization (Bard 14Fr female) and cultured for bacteria. Eight patients had an initially positive urine culture, and repeat cultures 8 weeks after treatment were all negative. Once sterile urine was established, the diagnosis of PBS/IC was confirmed. A pelvic pain/urgency/frequency (PUF) questionnaire score was obtained from 89 patients. After the diagnosis of PBS/IC, all patients received multimodal treatment. Patients were instructed to present to the office whenever they developed symptoms of UTI, at which time a sterile catheter specimen was obtained and sent for culture. Greater than 10(3) colonies were considered positive. Patients who did not report flares were contacted to establish whether unreported treatments were given. Seventy-two patients (68%) had no UTI episodes or flares. The remaining 34 patients (32%) presented with 54 flares, of which 44 were culture-negative and 10 were culture-positive. A single flare was reported by 21 patients during the 24 months, with three positive cultures (14.3%). Recurrent UTI symptoms (two to four flares) were seen in a small group (n = 13) for a total of 33 flares. Of these, seven had two flares each (12 negative, 2 positive), five had three flares each (12 negative, 3 positive), and one patient had four flares (two negative, two positive). Therefore, within the group with recurrent symptoms, seven positive cultures were obtained for a rate of recurrent bacteriuria of 6.6% (7/106). Nine of the 10 positive bacterial cultures were

  8. Tizanidine-induced acute severe cystitis in a female taking famotidine

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Resham Raj; Kafle, Nisha Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis is a possible adverse drug reaction associated with the use of tizanidine. Such cases have been rarely reported in literature because of the difficulty in establishing the causality. However, from a pharmacovigilance point of view, it is better to report such cases of a possible association between a drug’s use and potential adverse drug reactions. We report a case of a 26-year-old Asian female on famotidine who presented with acute severe urinary burning after taking tizanidine. PMID:26251632

  9. Self-care effectiveness and health outcomes in women with interstitial cystitis: implications for mental health clinicians.

    PubMed

    Webster, D C; Brennan, T

    1998-01-01

    Several researchers have discussed the need to define "outcomes" in health care more holistically, particularly from women's health, chronic illness, and self-care perspectives. Interstitial cystitis (IC), a chronic illness that primarily affects women, is a poorly understood condition that can produce hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Management of IC usually requires behavioral changes in all life dimensions. Multidimensional health outcomes were examined in a survey of 138 women with IC. Item-item and item-factor correlations were used to identify relationships between indicators of health outcomes and self-reported effectiveness of more than 300 self-care strategies used to manage IC. The effectiveness of behavioral and cognitive self-care strategies correlated differentially with dimensions of health. Uncertainty correlated most strongly with the quality of relationships with health care providers. Psychiatric nurses are well prepared to address the complex body-mind phenomena of IC, promoting effective self-care strategies while maintaining a supportive therapeutic relationship. PMID:9782865

  10. Increased Brain Gray Matter in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex is Associated with Increased Pain and Mood Disturbance in Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kairys, Anson E.; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Puiu, Tudor; Ichesco, Eric; Labus, Jennifer S.; Martucci, Katherine; Farmer, Melissa A.; Ness, Timothy J.; Deutsch, Georg; Mayer, Emeran A.; Mackey, Sean; Apkarian, A. Vania; Maravilla, Kenneth; Clauw, Daniel J.; Harris, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a highly prevalent pain condition, estimated to affect 3-6% of women in the United States. Emerging data suggests there are central neurobiological components to the etiology of this disease. Here we report the first brain structural imaging findings from the Multidisciplinary Approach to Pelvic Pain (MAPP) network, with data on over 300 participants. Materials and Methods We used Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) to determine whether human patients with chronic IC display changes in brain morphology as compared to healthy controls (HCs). 33 female IC patients without comorbidities and 33 age- and sex-matched controls, taken from the larger sample, underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging at 5 different MAPP sites across the United States. Results When compared to controls, females with IC displayed significant increased gray matter (GM) volume in several regions of the brain including the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1), the superior parietal lobule bilaterally, and the right supplementary motor area. GM volume in the right S1 was associated with greater pain, mood (anxiety), and urological symptoms. We explored these correlations in a linear regression model and found independent effects of these three measures on S1 GM volume: clinical pain (McGill pain sensory total), a measure of “urgency,” and anxiety (HADS). Conclusions These data support the notion that changes in somatosensory GM may play an important role in pain sensitivity as well as affective and sensory aspects of IC. Further studies are needed to confirm the generalizability of these findings to other pain conditions. PMID:25132239

  11. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Barua, Jayanta M; Arance, Ignacio; Angulo, Javier C; Riedl, Claus R

    2016-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterised by persistent irritating micturition symptoms and pain. The objective was to compare the clinical efficacy of currently available products for intravesical therapy of BPS/IC and to assess their pharmacoeconomic impact. A Pubmed/Medline database search was performed for articles on intravesical therapy for BPS/IC. A total of 345 publications were identified, from which 326 were excluded. Statistical evaluation was performed with effect size (ES) assessment of symptom reduction and response rates. The final set of 19 articles on intravesical BPS/IC therapy included 5 prospective controlled trials (CTs), the remaining were classified as uncontrolled clinical studies. The total number of patients included was 801, 228 of whom had been evaluated in a CT. For CTs, the largest ES for symptom reduction as well as response rate was observed for high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA), with similar findings in two uncontrolled studies with HMW-HA. The number needed to treat to achieve a response to intravesical therapy was 2.67 for intravesical pentosan polysulphate and 1.31 for HMW-HA which were superior to all other instillates. HMW-HA was significantly superior in cost effectiveness and cost efficacy to all other instillation regimes. The present meta-analysis combined medical and pharmacoeconomic aspects and demonstrated an advantage of HMW-HA over other instillation agents; however, direct comparisons between the different products have not been performed to date in properly designed controlled studies. PMID:26590137

  12. Sickness behaviors in response to unusual external events in healthy cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Judi L.; Lord, Linda K.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC). Design Prospective observational study. Animals 12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC. Procedures Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks. Results An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs. PMID:21194324

  13. Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Injections for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Qinghui; Chen, Yang; Wu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of intravesical botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate high-level evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled studies assessing BTX-A injections for BPS/IC. RESULTS Seven RCTs and 1 retrospective study were identified based on the selection criteria. Pooled analyses showed that although BTX-A was associated with a slightly larger volume of post-void residual urine (PVR) (weighted mean difference [WMD] 10.94 mL; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 3.32 to 18.56; p=0.005), patients in this group might benefit from greater reduction in pelvic pain (WMD -1.73; 95% CI -3.16 to -0.29; p=0.02), Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI) scores (WMD -1.25; 95% CI -2.20 to -0.30; p=0.01), and Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) scores (WMD -1.16; 95% CI -2.22 to -0.11; p=0.03), and significant improvement in daytime frequency of urination (WMD -2.36; 95% CI -4.23 to -0.49; p=0.01) and maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) (WMD 50.49 mL; 95% CI 25.27 to 75.71; p<0.00001). Nocturia, maximal urinary flow rate, dysuria, and urinary tract infection did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Intravesical BTX-A injections might offer significant improvement in bladder pain symptoms, daytime urination frequency, and MCC for patients with refractory BPS/IC, with a slightly larger PVR. Further well-designed, large-scale RCTs are required to confirm the findings of this analysis. PMID:27624897

  14. Interstitial Cystitis (IC) Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  15. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Store Donor Resources Login My Profile Social Media Twitter YouTube Facebook Pinterest Community ShareThis Google Search ... in Combined Federal Campaign ICA Resources for Donors Social Media Twitter YouTube Facebook Pinterest Community ShareThis Google Search ...

  16. Interstitial Cystitis and Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Prostatitis Constipation ... Dr. Shorter completed the first validated, systematic food sensitivity questionnaire on IC and diet. Revised Tuesday, April ...

  17. Treatment of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis with botulinum toxin A: why isn’t it effective in all patients?

    PubMed Central

    Bjorling, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is currently used to treat a variety of painful disorders, including painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC). However, BTA is not consistently effective in all patients. This may be due to the disparity of causes of pain, but this may also relate to the processes by which BTA exerts anti-nociceptive effects. This review discusses mechanisms by which BTA may inhibit pain and studies of the use of BTA in PSB/IC patients. It is doubtful that any single treatment will effectively control pain in PBS/IC patients, and it is highly probable that multiple strategies will be required, both within individual patients and across the population of PBS/IC patients. The purpose of this review is to discuss those mechanisms by which BTA acts, with the intent that alternative strategies exploiting these mechanism, or work through alternative pathways, can be identified to more effectively treat pain in PBS/IC patients in the future. PMID:26816853

  18. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Intravescial OnabotulinumtoxinA Injections Plus Hydrodistention in the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Ling; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injection can relieve symptoms of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), but lacks sustainability. Repeated injections have been shown to provide a superior outcome to a single injection, but data on long-term efficacy and safety is limited. In this prospective study, we enrolled patients with refractory IC/BPS, and treated them with 100 U of BoNT-A injection plus hydrodistention followed by repeated injections every six months for up to two years or until the patient wished to discontinue. A “top-up” dose was offered after the fourth injection. Of these 104 participants, 56.7% completed four BoNT-A injections and 34% voluntarily received the fifth injection due to exacerbated IC symptoms. With a follow-up period of up to 79 months, O’Leary-Sant symptom and problem indexes (ICSI, ICPI, OSS), pain visual analogue scale (VAS) functional bladder capacity, frequency episodes, and global response assessment (GRA) all showed significant improvement (p < 0.0001). Those who received repeated injections had a better success rate during the long-term follow-up period. The incidence of adverse events did not rise with the increasing number of BoNT-A injections. A higher pre-treatment ICSI and ICPI score was predictive for successful response to repeated intravesical BoNT-A injections plus hydrodistention. PMID:26506388

  19. Impaired Expression of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Synthesis and Degradation Enzymes during Differentiation of Immortalized Urothelial Cells from Patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marentette, John O.; Hurst, Robert E.; McHowat, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The differentiated superficial cells of the urothelium restrict urine flow into the bladder wall. We have demonstrated that urothelial cells isolated from bladders of patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) fail to release PGE2 in response to tryptase. This study examines the expression of PGE2 synthesis and degradation enzymes in urothelial cells during differentiation. Materials and Methods We measured immunoprotein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES) and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) in human urothelial cells and in immortalized urothelial cells isolated from the bladders of IC/PBS patients or normal subjects during stratification and differentiation produced by increased calcium and fetal bovine serum (Ca/FBS) in the culture medium for 1, 3 and 7 days. Results PGES immunoprotein expression increased during differentiation in normal and IC/PBS urothelial cells. COX-2 expression also increased in cells from normal patients following differentiation. Remarkably, no COX-2 expression was detectable in urothelial cells isolated from 3 out of 4 IC/PBS patients. PGDH immunoprotein expression decreased in normal cells after 1 and 3 days of Ca/FBS addition, but returned to normal after 7 days. PGDH expression was unchanged during differentiation at 1 and 3 days, but was more than 2-fold higher at 7 days compared to day 0 in the IC/PBS cells. Urothelial cells isolated from IC/PBS patients demonstrated no PGE2 release in response to tryptase under any of the experimental conditions studied. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that PGE2 release is compromised during stratification and differentiation in IC/PBS urothelium and may contribute to impaired barrier function. PMID:26057882

  20. Effects of Combination Treatment of Intravesical Resiniferatoxin Instillation and Hydrodistention in Patients with Refractory Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Byeong Kuk; Kim, Jae Heon; Oh, Mi Mi; Lee, Jeong Gu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) is a disabling disease of the urinary bladder, and its etiology and treatment are not yet established. Current medications used in the treatment of PBS/IC have shown limited efficacy. This prospective study investigated the efficacy of intravesical resiniferatoxin (RTX) in PBS/IC refractory to medical treatment. Methods Patients with proven PBS/IC refractory to traditional medical treatment were enrolled. By randomized trial, a total of 18 consecutive patients were divided into two groups: treatment with hydrodistention and intravesical RTX (group 1) or treatment with hydrodistension only (group 2). We assessed bladder pain by use of a visual analogue pain scale, the maximal urine flow rate, post-void residual urine volume, and a voiding diary before and 3 months after treatment. Results The median age of the 18 patients was 55.8±6.9 years, and the median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 3.6±1.6 years. Frequency, functional bladder capacity, and score on a 5-point pain scale were significantly improved at 3-month after treatment in both groups. Intravesical RTX instillation plus hydrodistention, compared with hydrodistention only, did not have a significant effect on the voiding symptoms or uroflowmetry of the patients but significantly improved scores on the pain scale. Conclusions Intravesical RTX instillation plus hydrodistention was effective in relieving pain but was not effective in improving lower urinary tract symptoms. Further larger studies are needed to clarify the efficacy of combination treatment of intravesical RTX instillation and hydrodistention. PMID:22500253

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced rat acute interstitial cystitis though inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress-in vitro and in vivo experiment studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ling; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Huang, Tein-Hung; Chang, Chia-Lo; Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy can attenuate cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced acute interstitial cystitis (AIC) in rats. Methods and Results: Eighteen male-adult Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIC induced by 150 mg/kg CYP by intra-peritoneal injection) and group 3 (AIC + ECSW 200 impulses at 0.11 mJ/mm2 to the urinary bladder at 3 and 24 h after CYP treatment). Smooth-muscle cells co-culture with menadione (25 µM) with and without ECSW treatment was performed. Western-blot results demonstrated that ECSW significant attenuated oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in this in-vitro studies (all p < 0.001). 24-hour urine amount and microscopic findings of red-blood-cell count (i.e., hematuria) were higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (all p < 0.001). The urine levels of albumin and interleukin-6 showed an identical pattern of hematuria among all three groups (all p < 0.001). The cellular and mRNA expressions of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)+, CD74+, CD68+, substance p+, and Cox-2+ cells in the bladder tissue exhibited an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.0001). The integrity of epithelial layer and collagen-deposition area as stained by Sirius red displayed an opposite pattern of hematuria among the three groups (p < 0.0001). The protein expression of IL-12, iNOS, TNF-α, NF-κB, MMP-9, NOX-1, NOX-2, RANTES, and Oxyblot displayed an identical pattern of hematuria among all groups (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: ECSW therapy markedly attenuated CYP-induced AIC through inhibitions of the inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:25628776

  2. Cystitis - noninfectious

    MedlinePlus

    ... cystitis) and related disorders.In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 12. Carter C, Stallworth J, Holleman R. Urinary tract disorders. In: ...

  3. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... control. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  4. [Emphysematous cystitis].

    PubMed

    Hüsch, T; Rheinboldt, V; Thalhammer, A; Müller, T; Haferkamp, A

    2016-05-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Generally elderly women with diabetes mellitus are affected. Diagnosis is made radiologically using plain abdominal X‑ray or computed tomography. The therapy includes urine drainage, antibiotic treatment and hyperglycaemic control to avoid progress of the infection and the development of complications. In the current report we present a case of a 79-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and an incidental diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis. PMID:27119961

  5. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us Health Information > ... Chronic Pain Association American Pain Society American Urogynecologic ... Claimants' Representatives Social Security Administration United Ostomy ...

  6. Does Staphylococcus Saprophyticus Cause Acute Cystitis only in Young Females, or is there more to the Story? A One-Year Comprehensive Study Done in Budapest, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, Jennifer; Juhász, Emese; Pongrácz, Júlia; Rimanóczy, Éva; Kristóf, Katalin

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known urinary pathogen in acute cystitis in young females. We completed a retrospective overview of the distribution of urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurring in 2014, at Semmelweis University hospitals and at Heim Pál Children's Hospital. Six age-groups (ages 0-100) were examined, with the frequency of S. saprophyticus in females being: 0.1% (0-4), 0.7%, (5-15), 7.4% (16-24), 1.2% (25-39), 0.4% (40-59) and 0.1% (60-100), and S. saprophyticus being the 3(rd) most common pathogen in females aged 16-24. In males, S. saprophyticus was only isolated from those aged 5-15. Seasonal distribution of UTIs caused by S. saprophyticus showed that most infections occurred during the months of January, June, August and November. Antibiotic-resistance rates of amoxicillin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim varied as follows: 0.9%, 32.7%, 19.6%, 34.6%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Thirty randomly selected samples were analysed by pulsed-field gelelectrophoresis, and 28 different genotypes were identified. S. saprophyticus is involved in the pathogenesis of acute cystitis not only in young females, but also in other age-groups, and in young males as well. We did not find any significant seasonal occurrence in S. saprophyticus-caused UTIs. The infective strains were genetically diverse. Antibiotic-resistance does not pose any issue as of yet. PMID:27020869

  7. Microbiological Characteristics of Unresolved Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Youn; Lee, Seung-Ju; Lee, Dong Sup; Yoo, Jae Mo; Choe, Hyun-Sop

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility rates between acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with failed initial antimicrobial treatment, who were considered unresolved cases, and newly presenting acute uncomplicated cystitis patients without recent antimicrobial use within 3 months and to determine whether different treatment strategies should be applied according to recent antimicrobial exposure (RAE). Female acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with Escherichia coli growth, who visited our hospital's urology department from 2010 to 2014, were divided according to RAE. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli was compared between the group with RAE and the group with no antimicrobial exposure (NAE) within 3 months. The total number of acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with E. coli growth was 259: 40 patients comprised the RAE group and 219 patients formed the NAE group. The mean age was significantly older and previous recurrent cystitis history was higher in the RAE group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was significantly lower in the RAE group, with susceptibility results of 64.7%/88.0% (RAE/NAE), 77.5%/89.0%, 79.4%/95.3%, 31.3%/64.2%, and 42.5%/70.6%, respectively. RAE was an independent factor for antimicrobial resistance. This study showed that antimicrobial susceptibilities were significantly lower in acute uncomplicated cystitis patients with failed initial antimicrobial treatment, who are defined as unresolved cases. Our results suggest that first-line antimicrobials might show poor efficacy in cases of unresolved, acute uncomplicated cystitis and alternative or secondary antimicrobials should be considered in these cases. PMID:26780182

  8. Pseudotumoral Eosinophilic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Ahmed; Bouzouita, Abderrazak; Ayed, Haroun; Kerkeni, Walid; Cherif, Mohamed; Ben Slama, Riadh M.; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder which origin and pathogenesis are unknown. Since the first description in 1960, hundreds of cases have been reported, 20 Pseudotumor forms. We report a case of cystitis eosinophils in tumor-form, a patient of 72 years without urological or allergic history. The patient was treated with endoscopic resection alone. The outcome was favorable with disappearance symptoms and no recurrence at 1, 3 and 6 months controls. We carry a literature review of cystitis eosinophils on the different clinical manifestations, the means diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26793503

  9. Rare interstitial lung disease: Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a young non smoking Indian female.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lalita; Vadala, Rohit; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes; Vaideeswar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Adult Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare interstitial lung disease which occurs almost exclusively in smokers. A marked male predominance was initially reported, but recent studies show both men and women are equally affected due to the increasing smoking habits in women. The natural history is variable with 25% of patients having asymptomatic disease while 10-20% progress rapidly to respiratory insufficiency and death. The diagnosis is not easily recognized by clinicians or pathologists. Awareness of the clinical presentation and classical HRCT findings helps in early diagnosis and management of this disease. We report a rare case of severe PLCH in a young non smoking female with a short history who progressed rapidly to respiratory failure and died. PMID:25857566

  10. Comparison of female and male interstitial deletions in the distal Xq

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, M.

    1996-07-12

    We reviewed female interstitial deletions in the distal Xq and compared them to those reported in males. Most of the deletions were common to females and males, and they were scattered within Xq27 and proximal Xq. Six females had large deletions of 1-10 Mb which formed a contig covering {approximately}13 Mb within Xq27.1{r_arrow}proximal Xq28. In 3 of these patients the deleted X chromosome was preferentially active, and the phenotype was abnormal (mental retardation in the patient of Schmidt et al.; mental retardation and Hunter syndrome in the patient of Clarke et al.; and mental retardation and myotubular myopathy in the patient of Dahl et al.) All three deletions occurred de novo. Our previous analysis of these deletions showed no abnormalities in the methylation and replication patterns of the region distal to the deletion, and in the corresponding area on the normal X chromosome. Thus, there is no evidence that the skewed inactivation pattern in these cases resulted from the cell selection driven by anomalies of X inactivation. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  11. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for female peri-urethral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Ajeet Kumar; Bhatla, Neerja; Kumar, Sunesh; Rath, Goura Kisor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peri-urethral cancer (PUC) in females is a rare malignancy. Surgery is not usually contemplated due to associated morbidity. Radiation therapy (RT) can be employed in the form of interstitial brachytherapy (IBT) alone for early lesions, and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without IBT for advanced lesions. We report our first experience in the literature to evaluate the role of high-dose-rate (HDR) IBT in female PUC. Material and methods Between 2008 and 2013, 10 female patients with PUC (5 primary and 5 recurrent) were treated with HDR-IBT with or without EBRT at our center. Size of the lesion ranged from 1.5 cm to 5.0 cm. A 2-3 plane free-hand implant was performed using plastic catheters. The prescribed dose of HDR-IBT was 42 Gy in 14 fractions for brachytherapy alone (5 patients), and 18-21 Gy for the boost along with EBRT (5 patients). Patients were followed up regularly for assessment of disease control and toxicity. Results At a median follow up of 25 months, six patients were disease free at their last follow up. Four patients developed recurrence: 2 at inguinal nodes, 1 at local site, and 1 at both local as well as inguinal nodes. Moist desquamation was the commonest acute toxicity observed in all 5 patients treated with IBT alone, which healed within 4 weeks’ time. Overall, grade II delayed complication rate was 30%. Conclusions Though small sample size, the results of our study have shown that HDR-IBT provides good loco-regional control with acceptable toxicity for female PUC. PMID:26985196

  12. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis. PMID:27152976

  13. Intravesical Heparin: Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Generali, Joyce A.; Cada, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    This Hospital Pharmacy feature is extracted from Off-Label Drug Facts, a publication available from Wolters Kluwer Health. Off-Label Drug Facts is a practitioner-oriented resource for information about specific drug uses that are unapproved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This new guide to the literature enables the health care professional or clinician to quickly identify published studies on off-label uses and determine if a specific use is rational in a patient care scenario. References direct the reader to the full literature for more comprehensive information before patient care decisions are made. Direct questions or comments regarding Off-Label Drug Uses to jgeneral@ku.edu. PMID:24421434

  14. Amitriptyline: Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Generali, Joyce A.; Cada, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    This Hospital Pharmacy feature is extracted from Off-Label Drug Facts, a publication available from Wolters Kluwer Health. Off-Label Drug Facts is a practitioner-oriented resource for information about specific drug uses that are unapproved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This new guide to the literature enables the health care professional or clinician to quickly identify published studies on off-label uses and determine if a specific use is rational in a patient care scenario. References direct the reader to the full literature for more comprehensive information before patient care decisions are made. Direct questions or comments regarding Off-Label Drug Uses to jgeneral@ku.edu. PMID:25477611

  15. Hemorrhagic radiation cystitis.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, William M; Henderson, Randal H; Costa, Joseph A; Hoppe, Bradford S; Dagan, Roi; Bryant, Curtis M; Nichols, Romaine C; Williams, Christopher R; Harris, Stephanie E; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2015-06-01

    The optimal management of persistent hemorrhagic radiation cystitis is ill-defined. Various options are available and include oral agents (ie, sodium pentosan polysulfate), intravenous drugs (ie, WF10), topical agents (ie, formalin), hyperbaric oxygen, and endoscopic procedures (ie, electrical cautery, argon plasma coagulation, laser coagulation). In general, it is best to manage patients conservatively and intervene only when necessary with the option least likely to exacerbate the cystitis. More aggressive measures should be employed only when more conservative approaches fail. Bladder biopsies should be avoided, unless findings suggest a bladder tumor, because they may precipitate a complication. PMID:24322335

  16. Intravesical electromotive drug administration for the treatment of non-infectious chronic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Riedl, C R; Knoll, M; Plas, E; Stephen, R L; Pflüger, H

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen patients with non-infectious chronic cystitis (NICC) (9 with interstitial cystitis, 6 patients with radiation cystitis, 1 with chemocystitis and 1 with lupoid cystitis) were treated with electromotive administration of intravesical lidocaine and dexamethasone followed by hydrodistension of the bladder. Complete resolution of symptoms for an average of 7.5 months was observed in 11 patients (65%), partial improvement in 4 (23.5%). In this series no complications occurred. Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) and cystodistension were well tolerated by all patients. The treatment was performed on an outpatient basis, thus reducing therapeutic costs. The results presented demonstrate that the combination of EMDA and bladder hydrodistension is an effective first-line treatment for NICC patients. PMID:9449584

  17. [Vaginal ectopia of urethra as a cause of chronic recurrent cystitis in women: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Derevianko, T I

    2009-01-01

    Ectopia of the urethral opening (female hypospadia) often causes chronic recurrent cystitis in women because of a retrograde delivery of urogenital infection from the introitus and vagina to the short wide urethra and urinary bladder. Etiologically, cystitis develops due to pathogenic vaginal microflora: Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma, urealyticum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida, E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria. In 64 female patients aged 16-57 years with female hypospadia (FH) the diagnosis was made by O'Donnel-Hirchhorn symptom. Identification of urinary and vaginal microflora was made using polymerase chain reaction. Radical treatment of chronic recurrent cystitis in FH is surgical transposition of the distal urethra and its opening in the typical place with pre- and perioperative anti-inflammatory therapy according to the pathogen or with drugs having combined antimycotic and antiprotosoic properties. One of such drugs safocid demonstrates a rapid therapeutic effect in mixed urogenital infections causing chronic recurrent cystitis in women. PMID:20209864

  18. Demonstrative Imaging of Emphysematous Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    May, Tal; Stein, Avi; Molnar, Roni; Dekel, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents an incidental finding of emphysematous cystitis on computed tomography (CT) scan done as part of evaluating abdominal pain in a 78 years old man with a history of metastatic thymus carcinoma. PMID:27175347

  19. Emphysematous cystitis and necrotizing fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peter Zhan Tao; Martin, Paul R.; Luke, Patrick P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is an uncommon and often severe infectious condition of the bladder that usually affects women and diabetics. We report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who presented with concomitant emphysematous cystitis and necrotizing fasciitis of the right leg. The patient was initially managed with emergent disarticulation of the right leg. Tissue cultures were positive for Ciprofloxacin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. He was treated with Piperacillin-Tazobactam; however, due to the failure of conservative management of the condition, the patient underwent a cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit. To our knowledge, this is the first report of concomitant emphysematous cystitis and necrotizing fasciitis requiring aggressive surgical intervention for both diseases. PMID:25132897

  20. A Case Report of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis and Acute Hemorrhagic Cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Beyazal Polat, Hatice; Beyazal Çeliker, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi are a rare condition. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, fever, headache, urinary burning, and bloody urine. Based on clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluations, the patient was diagnosed with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis due to Salmonella Typhi. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for two weeks. After the treatment, the patient's clinical and laboratory findings improved. Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to Salmonella Typhi concomitant with acute hemorrhagic cystitis is very rare and might be difficult to diagnose. Infectious agents such as Salmonella Typhi should be considered when acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute hemorrhagic cystitis are detected in adult patients with no underlying diseases. PMID:25161668

  1. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  2. Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Tomislav M; Roque, Rod; Yasar, Uzay; Tomchin, Shayna B; Serrato, Jose M; Deem, Samuel G; Tierney, James P; Chang, Ho-Huang

    2008-01-01

    Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers. It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology. Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. PMID:18990947

  3. Hemorrhagic cystitis: A challenge to the urologist

    PubMed Central

    Manikandan, R.; Kumar, Santosh; Dorairajan, Lalgudi N.

    2010-01-01

    Severe hemorrhagic cystitis often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Infectious etiologies are less common causes except in immunocompromised hosts. These cases can be challenging problems for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity and sometimes mortality for the patients. A variety of modalities of treatment have been described for the management of hemorrhagic cystitis but there is none that is uniformly effective. Some progress has been made in the understanding and management of viral hemorrhagic cystitis. This article reviews the common causes of severe hemorrhagic cystitis and the currently available management options. PMID:20877590

  4. Treatment of radiation cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenrock, G.J.; Cianci, P.

    1986-03-01

    A patient with severe radiation cystitis resistant to current therapy was treated with hyperbaric oxygen to facilitate closure of a vesicocutaneous fistula. In addition to the fistula healing, her symptoms of radiation cystitis have not recurred for over a year and a half.

  5. Polaprezinc attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and related bladder pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami-Nakayama, Masahiro; Tsubota, Maho; Hiruma, Saki; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Matsuyama, Kenji; Kimura, Takeshi; Moriyama, Masahiro; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2015-02-01

    Cav3.2 T-type Ca(2+) channels targeted by H2S, a gasotransmitter, participate in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis and bladder pain. Given that zinc selectively inhibits Cav3.2 among T-channel isoforms and also exhibits antioxidant activity, we examined whether polaprezinc (zinc-l-carnosine), a medicine for peptic ulcer treatment and zinc supplementation, reveals preventive or therapeutic effects on bladder inflammation and/or pain in the mouse with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, a model for interstitial cystitis. Systemic administration of cyclophosphamide caused cystitis-related symptoms including increased bladder weight and vascular permeability, and histological signs of bladder edema, accompanied by bladder pain-like nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia. All these symptoms were significantly attenuated by oral preadministration of polaprezinc at 400 mg/kg. The same dose of polaprezinc also prevented the increased malondialdehyde level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and protein upregulation of cystathionine-γ-lyase, an H2S-generating enzyme, but not occludin, a tight junction-related membrane protein, in the bladder tissue of cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Oral posttreatment with polaprezinc at 30-100 mg/kg reversed the nociceptive behavior/referred hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the increased bladder weight. Together, our data show that zinc supplementation with polaprezinc prevents the cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis probably through the antioxidant activity, and, like T-channel blockers, reverses the established cystitis-related bladder pain in mice, suggesting novel therapeutic usefulness of polaprezinc. PMID:25727961

  6. Activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase by BAY 58-2667 improves bladder function in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Mariana G; Calmasini, Fabiano B; Alexandre, Eduardo C; De Nucci, Gilberto; Mónica, Fabíola Z; Antunes, Edson

    2016-07-01

    Activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) interact directly with its prosthetic heme group, enhancing the enzyme responsiveness in pathological conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the sGC activator BAY 58-2667 on voiding dysfunction, protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and cGMP levels in the bladder tissues after cyclophosphamide (CYP) exposure. Female C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g) were injected with CYP (300 mg/kg ip) to induce cystitis. Mice were pretreated or not with BAY 58-2667 (1 mg/kg, gavage), given 1 h before CYP injection. The micturition patterns and in vitro bladder contractions were evaluated at 24 h. In freely moving mice, the CYP injection produced reduced the micturition volume and increased the number of urine spots. Cystometric recordings in CYP-injected mice revealed significant increases in basal pressure, voiding frequency, and nonvoiding contractions (NVCs), along with decreases in bladder capacity, intercontraction interval, and compliance. BAY 58-2667 significantly prevented the micturition alterations observed in both freely moving mice and cystometry and normalized the reduced in vitro carbachol-induced contractions in the CYP group. Reduced protein expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and of cGMP levels were observed in the CYP group, all of which were prevented by BAY 58-2667. CYP exposure significantly increased reactive-oxygen species (ROS) generation in both detrusor and urothelium, and this was normalized by BAY 58-2667. The increased myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 activities in the bladders of the CYP group remained unchanged by BAY 58-2667. Activators of sGC may constitute a novel and promising therapeutic approach for management of interstitial cystitis. PMID:27122537

  7. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... rye-tus) is a kidney disorder. The kidneys filter waste and extra fluid from the body. Interstitial nephritis reduces the kidneys’ ability to filter properly. Interstitial nephritis is a serious condition, but ...

  8. [A case of emphysematous cystitis].

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo; Takemae, Katsuro

    2005-12-01

    A 60-year-old woman visited our clinic with a complaint of gross hematuria. She was under treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, amyloidosis and diabetes mellitus at the Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Internal Medicine. The results of a urine analysis showed protein urine, glucose urine, hematopyuria and bacteriuria. The diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis was made from radiography, ultrasonogram and cystoscopic findings. Antibiotics were administered effectively. However, one month later, bilateral hydronephrosis was identified by a computed tomographic scan performed by the Department of Internal Medicine. The bilateral hydronephrosis was brought on by urinary retention caused by a neurogenic bladder disorder. Thus, an indwelling catheter followed by intermittent catheterization was performed and cholinergic medication prescribed successfully. PMID:16440731

  9. Intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brian D.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ziegelmann, Matthew J.; Joyce, Daniel D.; Linder, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hemorrhagic cystitis is a challenging clinical entity with limited evidence available to guide treatment. The use of intravesical silver nitrate has been reported, though supporting literature is sparse. Here, we sought to assess outcomes of patients treated with intravesical silver nitrate for refractory hemorrhagic cystitis. Material and methods We identified nine patients with refractory hemorrhagic cystitis treated at our institution with intravesical silver nitrate between 2000–2015. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after silver nitrate instillation prior to hospital discharge. Results Median patient age was 80 years (IQR 73, 82). Radiation was the most common etiology for hemorrhagic cystitis 89% (8/9). Two patients underwent high dose (0.1%–0.4%) silver nitrate under anesthesia, while the remaining seven were treated with doses from 0.01% to 0.1% via continuous bladder irrigation for a median of 3 days (range 2–4). All nine patients (100%) had persistent hematuria despite intravesical silver nitrate therapy, requiring additional interventions and red blood cell transfusion during the hospitalization. There were no identified complications related to intravesical silver nitrate instillation. Conclusion Although well tolerated, we found that intravesical silver nitrate was ineffective for bleeding control, suggesting a limited role for this agent in the management of patients with hemorrhagic cystitis.

  10. Advances in Therapeutic Development for Radiation Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Jayabalan, Nirmal; Tyagi, Pradeep; Kaufman, Jonathan; Chancellor, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Radiation treatment for pelvic malignancies is typically associated with radiation injury to urinary bladder that can ultimately lead to radiation cystitis (RC). The late sequelae of radiation therapy may take many years to develop and include bothersome storage symptoms such as hematuria, which may be life-threatening in severe cases of hemorrhagic cystitis. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are used for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis including blood transfusion, bladder irrigation, intravesical instillation of substances such as alum, silver nitrate, prostaglandins or formalin, and fulguration of intravesical bleeding sites and surgery options such as supravesical urinary diversions and cystectomy. Effects of non-surgical treatments for radiation and hemorrhagic cystitis are of modest success and studies are lacking to control the effects caused by RC. When such measures have proven ineffective, use of bladder botulinum toxin injection has been reported. New therapy, such as intravesical immunosuppression with local tacrolimus formulation is being developed for the treatment of radiation hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:26663493

  11. Emphysematous Cystitis: A Rare Disease of Genito-Urinary System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shilpi; Jehangir, Waqas; Littlefield, Jay; Hanna, George; Bowling, Gretchen; Yousif, Abdalla; Middleton, John R

    2015-01-01

    Context: Emphysematous cystitis (EC) is a rare infection of the urinary tract that results in gas production in the bladder. It is more common in diabetic and female patients, and can be associated with more serious complications, including pyelonephritis. Case Report: We describe a case of recurrent bacterial cystitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). An incidental finding in our patient of pneumaturia on computed tomography (CT) scan prompted further work-up. Differential diagnoses for pneumaturia include infection, trauma, and fistula, most commonly colovesicular. The patient history ruled out trauma and CT scanning ruled out a fistula; culture of the urine then showed a bacterial load greater than 100,000 E. coli/mL. The patient was then diagnosed with EC. She was treated with ceftriaxone and released in stable condition. Conclusion: The literature was scarce when it came to diagnoses of EC based on bacterial load. We present this case to increase health care providers' awareness of recurrent EC with a urine culture bacterial load greater than 100,000 E. coli/mL. PMID:26258082

  12. Cathelicidin Augments Epithelial Receptivity and Pathogenesis in Experimental Escherichia coli Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Danka, Elizabeth S.; Hunstad, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cathelicidin is a proposed defender against infection of the urinary tract via its antimicrobial properties, but its activity has not been delineated in a dedicated cystitis model. Methods. Female C57Bl/6 mice, wild type or deficient in cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP; an ortholog of the sole human cathelicidin, LL-37), were infected transurethrally with the cystitis-derived uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain UTI89. Infection course was evaluated by bladder titers, intracellular bacterial community quantification, and histological analysis. Immune responses and resolution were characterized through cytokine profiling, microscopy, and quantitation of epithelial recovery from exfoliation. Results. CRAMP-deficient mice exhibited significantly lower bladder bacterial loads and fewer intracellular bacterial communities during acute cystitis. Although differences in bacterial titers were evident as early as 1 hour after infection, CRAMP-deficient mice showed no baseline alterations in immune activation, uroepithelial structure, apical expression of uroplakins (which serve as bacterial receptors), or intracellular bacterial growth rate. CRAMP-deficient hosts demonstrated less intense cytokine responses, diminished neutrophil infiltration, and accelerated uroepithelial recovery. Conclusions. Mice lacking the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin experienced less severe infection than wild-type mice in a well-established model of cystitis. Although CRAMP exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against UPEC, it may enhance UPEC infection in the bladder by promoting epithelial receptivity and local inflammation. PMID:25336727

  13. Cystitis, Co-morbid Disorders and Associated Epithelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Birder, Lori A.; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T.; Mayer, Emeran; Buffington, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis (painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis; PBS/IC) is a persistent pain syndrome affecting the urinary bladder with symptoms including urinary frequency, bladder pain and nocturia.(1–6) Various animal models have been studied, most of which mimic some aspect of the human condition of interest to the investigator(s). This review will provide examples of various animal models including those incorporating chronic stress, thought to produce features that share similarities to that of PBS/IC patients, whose symptoms are often exacerbated by various stressors. (7–12) This review also provides evidence that patients with PBS/IC exhibit abnormalities within the bladder epithelium (or urothelium), even though a consistent relationship of such changes with symptom severity has not been demonstrated. These changes include alterations in urothelial integrity, differentiation and/or proliferation as well as changes in ‘sensory’ function (altered expression or sensitivity of receptors and ion channels). Establishing a diagnostic ‘indicator’ with a high degree of correlation in this syndrome would be of value in terms of disease status, diagnosis and treatment. There have been reports of a number of factors/mediators altered in PBS/IC. However, the lack of a validated biomarker and a well-defined etiology for this syndrome introduces a number of complications, including diagnostic confidence, choice of appropriate animal models to study basic mechanism with the goal toward treatment, and rational therapies. It is also becoming increasingly apparent that patients with PBS/IC often overlap or share symptoms commonly associated with other persistent pain disorders. These include (but are not limited to) irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), non-cardiac chest pain, fibromyalgia and even overactive bladder syndrome (OAB).(13–18) Such types of changes are not limited to the urinary bladder, however, as reports of alterations in

  14. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  15. A case of emphysematous cystitis diagnosed by exploratory laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Fukushima, Hidetada; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Urisono, Yasuyuki; Hata, Michiaki; Nishio, Kenji; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare form of infection. Well known symptoms are: dysuria, urinary frequency and lower abdominal pain. We experienced a case of emphysematous cystitis presented with atypical peritoneal sign and computed tomography findings of massive intra-peritoneal fluid collection and abnormal gas appearance in pelvic space. Due to its presentation as acute abdomen, patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and the diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis was established. As far as we know, our case is the first report of emphysematous cystitis with intra-peritoneal fluid collection. PMID:24470964

  16. The role of steroid treatment in intractable cystitis glandularis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Urkmez, Ahmet; Erdogru, Tibet; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis glandularis is a proliferative disease of the urinary bladder epithelium. It is rare in children. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with intractable macroscopic hematuria and severe irritative bladder symptoms persisting for 13 years. The patient, who had undergone open and endoscopic bladder surgery at various medical centres, is currently being followed up at our clinic. Cystoscopy revealed multiple edematous papillary tumours on the bladder neck, trigone, and lateral wall on both sides and she underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumour. The pathological diagnosis was cystitis glandularis in accordance with the histopathological reports obtained from the other medical centres. Her condition was resistant to transurethral resection, partial cystectomy, intravesical mitomycin, and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment; it eventually could have affected the upper urinary tract. Oral steroid treatment was given for 6 months; after treatment, her symptoms improved and the cystoscopy revealed a dramatic improvement in her condition. PMID:26029302

  17. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gilho; Romih, Rok; Zupančič, Daša

    2014-01-01

    Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches. PMID:24877098

  18. Intravesical epinephrine preserves uroplakin II expression in urinary bladder from cyclophosphamide-induced rat cystitis.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Yoon Soo; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the attenuated effect of intravesical epinephrine (EPI) on uroplakin II (UPII) expression in cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced rat cystitis. Sixty-eight Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into one negative control group (GI) and five intraperitoneally CYP (150 mg CYP/kg)-injected groups (GII-VI) consisting of a positive control group (GII), three groups (GIII-V) with retaining intravesically instillated ameliorating agents for 90 min by urethral ligation until sacrifice, and one group (GVI) with freely voiding after intravesical EPI instillation. The retention groups were further classified into null-treated- (GIII), EPI- (GIV), and vehicle group (GV). All rats were euthanized 24 h after CYP injection. The UPII and α1-adrenergic receptors (AR) levels were measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and the morphological changes were also evaluated. CYP induced severe cystitis and decreased vesical UPII mRNA level. The EPI-treated groups had showed attenuation effects against submucosal edema and hemorrhage, and preserved UPII expression. Concurrently, intravesical EPI resulted in a significant preservation of both subtypes of α1A- and α1B AR expressions, which was well correlated with the hemostatic pattern in the samples. The obstructed and null-treated group (GIII) revealed severe cystitis and maximally decreased UPII levels, and the diluting effect of vehicle (GV) on CYP toxicity was insignificant on UPII preservation. The UPII level of RT-PCR was well correlated with the UPII immunohistological expression and their morphological changes. Intravesical instillation of EPI preserves UPII expression and attenuates the toxic responses in the bladder in CYP-induced rat cystitis. PMID:22638760

  19. Idiopathic cystitis in domestic cats--beyond the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Buffington, C A T

    2011-01-01

    Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. Dedication: I dedicate this contribution to Professor Dennis J. Chew, whose collaboration, patience, and support made it all possible. PMID:21564297

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 10(6)) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  1. Idiopathic Cystitis in Domestic Cats—Beyond the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Buffington, C.A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Signs of lower urinary tract (LUT) disease in domestic cats can be acute or chronic, and can result from variable combinations of abnormalities within the lumen of the LUT, the parenchyma of the LUT itself, or other organ system(s) that then lead to LUT dysfunction. In the majority of cats with chronic signs of LUT dysfunction, no specific underlying cause can be confirmed after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with these cats, permitting comparisons between the two species. A wide range of similarities in abnormalities has been identified between these syndromes outside as well as inside the LUT. A variety of potential familial and developmental risk factors also have been identified. These results have permitted generation of the hypothesis that some of these people have a disorder affecting the LUT rather than a disorder of the LUT. This perspective has suggested alternative diagnostic strategies and novel approaches to treatment, at least in cats. The purpose of this review is to summarize research investigations into the various abnormalities present in cats, to compare some of these findings with those identified in human beings, and to discuss how they might modify perceptions about the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cats with this disease. PMID:21564297

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 106) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  3. [Incidence of bacterial cystitis in diabetic dogs and cats at the time of diagnosis. Retrospective study for the period 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Kirsch, M

    1998-02-01

    Bacterial cystitis is a problem often found among patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Insulin management can be impaired by this condition. Diagnosis and therapy of a urinary tract infection are very important in regarding the possibility of bacteria ascending to the kidneys because in a great amount of diabetic patients the kidneys are already damaged by diabetic glomerular nephropathy. Compared to other patients of our clinic the frequency of cystitis among diabetic dogs (n = 158, cystitis diagnosed in 12.7%) and cats (n = 71, cystitis diagnosed in 9.9%) was already considerably higher when diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in these animals. In this retrospective study female animals were far more affected than males. The diagnosis of cystitis among cats and dogs was most frequent when patients had already been suffering from polydipsia and polyuria for more than four weeks. A division among the dogs depending on the etiology of diabetes mellitus led to the following result: especially patients suffering from Cushing's disease and bitches with progesterone-STH-induced diabetes mellitus--particularly when endometritis or pyometra was found--were running the highest risk of developing urinary infections. The bacterium most frequently isolated in the urine samples was E. coli. PMID:9531671

  4. [Cystitis cystica glandularis. A study of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Dakir, M; Sarf, I; Aboutaieb, R; Zamiati, S; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors report two cases of cystitis glandularis revealed by hematuria and urinary retention. Cystitis glandularis is a rare disease, caused by metaplasia of the vesical submucosa, probably related to a chronic irritative factor. In its minor form, it has the same clinical features as simple cystitis, but its major pseudoneoplastic form may be mistaken for bladder tumor. The diagnosis is essentially histological. Treatment is usually medical, based on eradication of the irritative factors. Surgery is performed in the case of complications of this disease. The clinical course is unclear, requiring long-term surveillance. PMID:9412342

  5. [Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Pires, Christophe; Irani, Jacques; Ouaki, Frédéric; Murat, François-Joseph; Doré, Bertrand

    2002-12-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with other modalities is used in the treatment of a large number of pelvic tumours of urological or gynaecological origin. Despite constant progress in this field, medium-term and long-term complications remain frequent and often require difficult long-term management. Radiation cystitis is one of the most frequent complications and directly concerns urologists. Among the various treatment options for haemorrhagic cystitis, hyperbaric oxygen therapy appears to give good short-term and medium-term results. It is currently reserved for cases refractory to the standard treatments for radiation cystitis. PMID:12545623

  6. RISK OF ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS IN RELATIVES OF SUBJECTS WITH INTERSTIAL CYSTITIS

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Brady, Kristina; Norton, Peggy; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) includes interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic, bladder pain condition of unknown etiology. IC/PBS can co-occur with a number of associated conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study is to estimate the heritability of approximately 20 associated conditions in first-, and if appropriate second-, and third-degree relatives of IC/PBS cases to identify shared genetic contributions for the disease combinations. Methods We used the Utah Population Database (UPDB), a unique population-based genealogical database that has been linked to electronic health records for the University of Utah Health Science Center back to 1994. IC/PBS probands were identified by ICD-9 code for chronic interstitial cystitis and had genealogy information for 12 of their 14 immediate ancestors. We calculated excess risk of an associated condition in relatives of IC/PBS cases using relative risk estimates. Results We identified 248 IC/PBS probands. We found that two associated conditions, myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation, were in significant excess in IC/PBS cases themselves, their first-degree relatives and their second-degree relatives. The excess risk among relatives between IC/PBS and these associated conditions also held in the converse direction. Excess risk of IC/PBS was observed in first-and second-degree relatives in probands with myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and in probands with constipation. Conclusion These results suggest myalgia and myositits/unspecified (fibromyalgia) and constipation are likely to share underlying genetic factors with IC/PBS. PMID:25349937

  7. A unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17)(q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Contiguous gene or microdeletion syndromes occurring on chromosome 17p include the Smith-Magenis and Miller-Dieker syndromes associated with interstitial deletions of 17p11.2 and 17p13.3, respectively. Other cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions on chromosome 17 are quite rare or unique. We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 [del(17)(q23.2q24.3)] who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. We have compared our patient`s phenotype and karyotype to two reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap. The most striking clinical features of this patient were severe intrauterine growth retardation, widespread skeletal malformations (split sutures, hypoplastic acetabulae and scapulae, vertebral anomalies, and digital hypoplasia), cutis verticis gyrata, dysmorphic facial features, and oropharyngeal malformations (absent uvula and submucous cleft palate). Mild congenital heart disease and anomalous optic nerves were also present. Parental karyotyps were normal. DNA from parents and patient has been collected and cell lines established on both parents. Genes which have been previously mapped to the region that is apparently deleted in this patient include: chorionic somatomammotropin A, growth hormone (normal), acid alpha-glucosidase, apolipoprotein H, and the alpha peptide of type 4 voltage gated sodium channel. As in other clinical cytogenetic syndromes, further descriptions of patients with similar or overlapping rearrangements in this region will be necessary to delineate genotype/phenotype correlations for chromosome 17.

  8. Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease? Childhood interstitial (in-ter-STISH-al) lung disease, ... with similar symptoms—it's not a precise diagnosis. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) also occurs in adults. However, the cause ...

  9. Treatment of radiation-induced cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.P.; Boland, F.P.; Mori, H.; Gallagher, M.; Brereton, H.; Preate, D.L.; Neville, E.C.

    1985-08-01

    The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on radiation cystitis have been documented in 3 patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. Cessation of gross hematuria and reversal of cystoscopic bladder changes were seen in response to a series of hyperbaric oxygen treatments of 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 2 hours. To our knowledge this is the first report of cystoscopically documented healing of radiation-induced bladder injury.

  10. Unique de novo interstitial deletion of chromosome 17, del(17) (q23.2q24.3) in a female newborn with multiple congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.L.; Shaffer, L.G.; Lewis, R.L.

    1995-01-02

    We describe a newborn with a novel interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17 (del(17) (q23.2q24.3)) who died on day of life 17 during a recurrent apneic episode. Her phenotype included severe growth retardation, multiple facial anomalies, maldeveloped oralpharyngeal structures, and digital and widespread skeletal anomalies. This patient`s phenotype was compared to two other reported patients with deletion 17q with minor clinical overlap consistent with a unique deletion. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Xanthogranulomatous cystitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Doreen E.; Carr, Lesley K.; Sugar, Linda; Hladunewich, Michelle; Deane, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is a benign condition characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells, chronic inflammatory cells and lipid-laden macrophages, known as xanthoma cells. Only 22 cases of xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XGC) have been reported in the Japanese and English literature. In this report, we describe the twenty-third case of XGC and the third case associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A 50-year-old woman with quiescent Crohn’s disease was incidentally found to have a bladder mass on ultrasound. The lesion was resected through a transurethral approach. Pathology demonstrated XGC. At 3 months post-resection, there was no evidence of recurrence adjacent to the previous resection scar. PMID:20694091

  12. Low Concordance With Guidelines for Treatment of Acute Cystitis in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Zoorob, Roger; Wang, Haijun; Trautner, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The updated 2010 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommended 3 first-line therapies for uncomplicated cystitis: nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), and fosfomycin, while fluoroquinolones (FQs) remained as second-line agents. We assessed guideline concordance for antibiotic choice and treatment duration after introduction of the updated guidelines and studied patient characteristics associated with prescribing of specific antibiotics and with treatment duration. Methods. We used the Epic Clarity database (electronic medical record system) to identify all female patients aged ≥18 years with uncomplicated cystitis in 2 private family medicine clinics in the period of 2011–2014. For each eligible visit, we extracted type of antibiotic prescribed, duration of treatment, and patient and visit characteristics. Results. We included 1546 visits. Fluoroquinolones were the most common antibiotic class prescribed (51.6%), followed by nitrofurantoin (33.5%), TMP-SMX (12.0%), and other antibiotics (3.2%). A significant trend occurred toward increasing TMP-SMX and toward decreasing nitrofurantoin use. The duration of most prescriptions for TMP-SMX, nitrofurantoin, and FQs was longer than guidelines recommendations (longer durations were prescribed for these agents in 82%, 73%, and 71% of the prescriptions, respectively). No patient or visit characteristic was associated with use of specific antibiotics. Older age and presence of diabetes were independently associated with longer treatment duration. Conclusions. We found low concordance with the updated guidelines for both the choice of drug and duration of therapy for uncomplicated cystitis in primary care. Identifying barriers to guideline adherence and designing interventions to decrease overuse of FQs may help preserve the antimicrobial efficacy of these important antimicrobials. PMID:26753168

  13. Does antibacterial ointment applied to urethral meatus in women prevent recurrent cystitis?

    PubMed

    Meyhoff, H H; Nordling, J; Gammelgaard, P A; Vejlsgaard, R

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the preventive value of the antibacterial ointment povidone-iodine 10% (Isodine, Betadine) applied to urethral meatus was evaluated in 17 females suffering from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). The patients applied povidone-iodine respectively placebo ointment twice daily and before sexual intercourse in two 6-month periods in a cross-over design. No difference was observed in number of UTI during povidone-iodine and placebo prophylaxis. A decrease in the incidence of UTI was seen during application of any ointment. The antibacterial properties of povidone-iodine ointment is unimportant in the prophylaxis of reinfections as also indicated from urethral and periurethral cultures during the study revealing no change in pathogenic bacterial flora. An improved perineal hygiene in the context of application of ointment may be responsible for the reduction in UTI incidence in females with recurrent cystitis. PMID:7036332

  14. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  15. Nerve hyperplasia: a unique feature of ketamine cystitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an emerging association between ketamine abuse and the development of urological symptoms including dysuria, frequency and urgency, which have a neurological component. In addition, extreme cases are associated with severe unresolving bladder pain in conjunction with a thickened, contracted bladder and an ulcerated/absent urothelium. Here we report on unusual neuropathological features seen by immunohistology in ketamine cystitis. Results In all cases, the lamina propria was replete with fine neurofilament protein (NFP+) nerve fibres and in most patients (20/21), there was prominent peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia that showed particular resemblance to Morton’s neuroma. The nerve fascicles, which were positive for NFP, S100 and the p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), were generally associated with a well-developed and in places, prominent, epithelial membrane antigen+/NGFR+ perineurium. This peripheral nerve fascicle hyperplasia is likely to account for the extreme pain experienced by ketamine cystitis patients. Urothelial damage was a notable feature of all ketamine cystitis specimens and where urothelium remained, increased NGFR expression was observed, with expansion from a basal-restricted normal pattern of expression into the suprabasal urothelium. Conclusions The histological findings were distinguishing features of ketamine cystitis and were not present in other painful bladder conditions. Ketamine cystitis afflicts predominantly young patients, with unknown long-term consequences, and requires a strategy to control severe bladder pain in order to remove a dependency on the causative agent. Our study indicates that the development of pain in ketamine cystitis is mediated through a specific neurogenic mechanism that may also implicate the urothelium. PMID:24252413

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen: Primary treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, J.P.; Neville, E.C.

    1989-07-01

    Of 8 patients with symptoms of advanced cystitis due to pelvic radiation treated with hyperbaric oxygen 7 are persistently improved during followup. All 6 patients treated for gross hematuria requiring hospitalization have been free of symptoms for an average of 24 months (range 6 to 43 months). One patient treated for stress incontinence currently is dry despite little change in bladder capacity, implying salutary effect from hyperbaric oxygen on the sphincter mechanism. One patient with radiation-induced prostatitis failed to respond. This experience suggests that hyperbaric oxygen should be considered the primary treatment for patients with symptomatic radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  17. Bilateral Psoas Muscle Abscess Associated with Emphysematous Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Ki; Kwon, Jae-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous urinary tract infection is very rare. There were very few reports about urinary tract infections such as renal abscess, perinephric abscess, and emphysematous pyelonephritis complicated with psoas muscle abscess; however, psoas muscle abscess associated with emphysematous cystitis has not yet been reported. Here, we report a case of bilateral posas muscle abscess following emphysematous cystitis in an 81-year-old nondiabetic man, who was treated successfully with prolonged antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Early recognition of psoas muscle abscess can prevent aggressive interventional procedure and warrant good prognosis. PMID:25755669

  18. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:25653684

  19. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:25653684

  20. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  1. [VIRAL INFECTIONS: HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND GENITAL HERPES TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 AS A CAUSE OF CHRONIC RECURRENT CYSTITIS WITH SEVERE DYSURIA IN WOMEN WITH URETHRAL HYPERMOBILITY AND HYPOSPADIAS].

    PubMed

    Derevjanko, T I; Ryzhkov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Female hypospadias presenting as a misplaced urethral opening is a common cause of chronic recurrent cystitis. Cystitis occurs when urogenital infection and anaerobic bacteria enter the urethra and bladder from the vagina. The authors argue that chronic infections of the lower urinary tract in women with hypospadias should be treated surgically by meatal transposition. They present a study confirming the role of the antiviral drug Panavir in prevention of inflammatory complications in the postoperative period in patients with a history of viral infection (human papillomavirus and herpes). PMID:26665761

  2. Eosinophilic Cystitis with Eosinophilic Cholecystitis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, F.; Hmida, W.; Mestiri, S.; Ziadi, S.; Sriha, B.; Mokni, M.; Mosbah, F.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a rare case of eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic cholecystitis in a 30-year-old patient who underwent bladder biopsy for irritative voiding symptoms and routine elective cholecystectomy for gallstones. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The rarity of this condition prompted us to report this entity in which no specific cause could be found. PMID:24195001

  3. Urinary tract analgesics for the treatment of patients with acute cystitis: where is the clinical evidence?

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vassilis; Arnos, Pantelis; Mavros, Michael N; Pitsouni, Eleni; Athanasiou, Stavros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2012-08-01

    Acute cystitis is one of the most common health-related problems in the female population. Over the last few decades, a number of drugs labeled as 'urinary tract analgesics' were released; these are available over the counter and are gaining widespread resonance among the North American population. The main representatives of this class of drugs are phenazopyridine and methenamine hippurate. Methenamine's efficacy and side effects have been well studied in a recent systematic review. On the other hand, in contrast to its widespread use, the published clinical evidence regarding phenazopyridine's effectiveness and safety is scarce. In addition, consumers (potentially patients) appear to ignore the limitations of this kind of treatment. In this article, concerns regarding the use of over-the-counter uroanalgesics, with a focus on the relevant clinical evidence, are discussed. PMID:23030327

  4. What I Need to Know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... your body. The device delivers small pulses of electricity to the nerves around the bladder. For some ... t feel the pain. Others believe that the electricity releases endorphins , which are hormones that block pain ...

  5. Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... UpToDate, Inc. ("UpToDate"), in consideration of the subscription fee and acceptance of this Agreement, grants you a ... or your Institution have agreed to pay subscription fees. At the end of this period, your license ...

  6. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome—a PLEA

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so. PMID:26816849

  7. What I Need to Know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  8. Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression. It is believed that amitriptyline reduces pain perception when used in low doses, but the exact ... articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon. ...

  9. Patient-centred standardization in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome-a PLEA.

    PubMed

    Meijlink, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Standardization has an impact on all links in the healthcare chain and directly affects patients with regard to diagnosis, treatment, eligibility for reimbursement, social benefits and care. Furthermore, patients are also affected if research goes down inappropriate pathways due to inaccurate terminology and definitions. Complex healthcare coding and electronic medical record systems and global reliance on the internet and search machines mean that new terminology or changes now need in some way to be designed to last or to be updated in a way that will cause least disruption, while still allowing for evolution, since changes have far more ramifications today than they ever did in the past. Official recognition of a condition is vital, so coding must be correct and uniform across all authorities. Potential problems must be anticipated at an early stage in the process. In order to achieve global consensus, stakeholders from all parts of the world need to communicate and collaborate with all viewpoints taken into consideration. Patients and their advocacy groups should be involved in standardization processes to ensure that all aspects of a condition are covered, that no patients or symptoms are excluded and that there is no adverse impact on the patient in practical terms following implementation. The trend today is for patients to be more involved in healthcare and decision-making. We must ensure that standardisation and guidelines do not get left behind in this process of development either now or in the future. However, it is necessary to find some way of training patient representatives to enable them to participate fully in standardization and guidelines and also to encourage them to do so. PMID:26816849

  10. Intrathecal cannabinoid-1 receptor agonist prevents referred hyperalgesia in acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marsha Ritter; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bjorling, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of intrathecal arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist, to inhibit referred hyperalgesia and increased bladder contractility resulting from acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats. 24 female rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical saline; 2) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein; 3) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical saline; and 4) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical acrolein. Bladder catheters were placed 4-6 days prior to the experiment. On the day of the experiment, rats were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane to recover the external end of the cystostomy catheter. After recovery from anesthesia, pre-treatment cystometry was performed, and mechanical sensitivity of the hindpaws was determined. Rats were again briefly anesthetized with isoflurane to inject ACEA or vehicle into the intrathecal space between L5-L6. Beginning 10 minutes after intrathecal injection, saline or acrolein was infused into the bladder for 30 minutes. Post-treatment cystometry and mechanical sensitivity testing were performed. Rats were euthanized, and bladders were collected, weighed, and fixed for histology. The intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein group developed mechanical hyperalgesia with post-treatment mechanical sensitivity of 6 ± 0.3 g compared to pretreatment of 14 ± 0.4 g (p < 0.01). Pre- and post-treatment hind paw mechanical sensitivity was statistically similar in rats that received intrathecal ACEA prior to intravesical infusion of acrolein (15 ± 0.2 g and 14 ± 0.4 g, respectively). Acrolein treatment increased basal bladder pressure and maximal voiding pressure and decreased intercontraction interval and voided volume. However, intrathecal ACEA was ineffective in improving acrolein-related urodynamic changes. In addition, bladder histology demonstrated submucosal and muscularis edema that was similar for all acrolein-treated groups, irrespective of ACEA treatment

  11. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  12. Successful treatment of Corynebacterium urealyticum encrusting cystitis with systemic and intravesical antimicrobial therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Oriana; Béraud, Romain; Tefft, Karen M.; Muckle, C. Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old Saint Bernard dog was diagnosed with encrusting cystitis caused by Corynebacterium urealyticum. The infection persisted despite the prolonged use of antimicrobials and surgical debridement of the urinary bladder. Resolution occurred following intravenous vancomycin, urine acidification, and intravesical gentamicin. The challenges involved in the treatment of encrusting cystitis are described. PMID:25969578

  13. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in Radiation-induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zwaans, Bernadette M.M.; Nicolai, Heinz G.; Chancellor, Michael B.; Lamb, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    As diagnosis and treatment of cancer is improving, medical and social issues related to cancer survivorship are becoming more prevalent. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), a rare but serious disease that may affect patients after pelvic radiation or systemic chemotherapy, has significant unmet medical needs. Although no definitive treatment is currently available, various interventions are employed for HC. Effects of nonsurgical treatments for HC are of modest success and studies aiming to control radiation-induced bladder symptoms are lacking. In this review, we present current and advanced therapeutic strategies for HC to help cancer survivors deal with long-term urologic health issues. PMID:27601964

  15. [Antibacterial therapy for acute cystitis in the age of growing pathogen resistance].

    PubMed

    Siniakova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Acute cystitis refers to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, with the recurrence rates after the first cystitis episode being 50%. The basic treatment for the above diseases is antibacterial therapy, whose efficiency depends entirely on the right choice of a drug during initial empiric therapy. The paper gives the European Association of Urology guidelines and Russian guidelines, which are based on the results of both international (ARESC) and Russian (DARMIS) studies of urinary tract infection pathogens and their susceptibility to antibacterial drugs. Phosphomycin trometamol and furasidine potassium are the drugs of choice to treat acute cystitis in Russia now. PMID:24864480

  16. [A case of prednisolone therapy for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Masato; Nishimura, Taiji; Kurita, Susumu; Lee, Chorsu; Kondo, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Keiichi

    2011-05-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis resulting from radiation to pelvic visceral malignant lesions often might be incurable and there have been no established definitive treatment. We experienced a case with severe radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis refractory to conventional therapy. The treatment with oral administration of prednisolone was performed and obtained a successful result. Gross hematuria disappeared in 2 weeks in this case. This experience suggested that oral administration of prednisolone could be considered the treatment for patients with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis when usual treatments including transurethral electro-coagulation are unsuccessful. PMID:21846069

  17. Diagnosis of childhood BK virus cystitis by electron microscopy and PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, K; Sugae, N; Koike, N; Akiyama, Y; Iwamura, Y; Kimura, H

    1993-01-01

    A case of BK virus cystitis in a 5 year old boy is reported. This patient, who was not immunocompromised, had had acute cystitis for two weeks. Many intracytoplasmic inclusions were observed in urinary sediment smears stained by the Papanicolaou method. Electron microscopic examination showed virus particles, presumed to be human polyomavirus, in the nuclei of the degenerated urothelial cells. A DNA sequence of the BK virus was detected in 200-300 urothelial cells in Papanicolaou stained smears by the polymerase chain reaction. BK virus is an unusual cause of symptomatic cystitis in a healthy child. Images PMID:8408709

  18. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, A; Dixon, A K; Roberton, N R

    1984-01-01

    Forty one of 210 preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome in a three year period had radiological evidence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. The development of this condition was significantly associated with malpositioning of the endotracheal tube in a main bronchus and the use of high peak pressure ventilation. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema was associated with a significant increase in the number of pneumothoraces, intraventricular haemorrhages, and the need for prolonged respiratory support, but did not increase mortality. Although in 12 infants in whom fast rate ventilation was used there was a significant reduction in the number of pneumothoraces, outcome was not altered in any other way. Fast rate ventilation may be of greater benefit if initiated before the development of pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6508339

  19. Interstitial Pneumonitis from Treatment with Gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brolin B.; Brockman, Megan M.; Byrd, Debbie C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of gemcitabine may lead to numerous adverse effects ranging from mild to very severe, such as interstitial pneumonitis. The diagnosis of this complication is based on multiple laboratory findings, radiographic evidence, and high clinical suspicion. Presented is a case report of a patient who met these criteria and had onset consistent with drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Case Presentation: A 76-year-old White female was treated with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Two months after the initiation of therapy, she was admitted to the hospital for worsening dyspnea and cough. High clinical suspicion, bilateral interstitial opacities on chest x-ray, worsening pulmonary status, and onset 2 months after initiation of therapy led to the diagnosis of gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Steroid therapy with prednisone was initiated, and the patient’s clinical symptoms and radiographic findings improved. Discussion: Gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis is well described in the literature. It is a rare but serious complication associated with gemcitabine therapy in which patients present with worsening dyspnea. Most patients only require supportive care and discontinuation of the drug for treatment, but in severe cases supplemental oxygen and steroid therapy must be used before resolution of symptoms. It is important to obtain an accurate medication history to evaluate for other potentially pulmonary toxic medications. Radiographic findings such as bilateral infiltrates should be completely resolved after therapy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical suspicion can lead to early recognition of interstitial pneumonitis from gemcitabine. Physician awareness of this adverse effect and early recognition are keys to providing prompt treatment in resolving symptoms and decreasing mortality. PMID:25477616

  20. Inherited interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Christine Kim; Raghu, Ganesh

    2004-09-01

    This article focuses on recent advances in the identification of genes and genetic polymorphisms that have been implicated in the development of human interstitial lung diseases. It focuses on the inherited mendelian diseases in which pulmonary fibrosis is part of the clinical phenotype and the genetics of familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other rare inherited interstitial lung diseases. The article also reviews the association studies that have been published to date regarding the genetics of sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The reader is directed to recent reviews on human genetic predisposition of sarcoidosis, environmental-related, drug-related, connective tissue related pulmonary fibrosis, and genetic predisposition of fibrosis in animal models. PMID:15331184

  1. [Study on virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and phylogenetic groupings in Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients with cystitis].

    PubMed

    Tiba, Monique Ribeiro; Nogueira, Gustavo Prado; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli samples isolated from female patients with cystitis were characterized with regard to the presence of virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and phylogenetic groupings. Polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that all the samples were positive for the gene fimH (type 1 fimbriae), 91 for fliC (flagellins), 50 for papC (P fimbriae), 44 for kpsMTII (capsules) and 36 for flu (antigen 43). The results from assays to quantify the biofilm formation demonstrated that 44 samples produced biofilm on polystyrene microplates and 56 samples produced weak or no biofilm. We also confirmed that Escherichia coli samples were present in phylogenetic groups B2 and D. PMID:19287937

  2. Aplastic anemia associated with severe hemorrhagic cystitis following radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    NAKANO, TAITO; IZUMI, KOUJI; MAOLAKE, AERKEN; NATSAGDORJI, ARIUNBOLD; IWAMOTO, HIROAKI; KITAGAWA, YASUHIDE; KADONO, YOSHIFUMI; KONAKA, HIROYUKI; MIZOKAMI, ATSUSHI; NAMIKI, MIKIO

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a rare complication following radiotherapy for intrapelvic cancer types, including cervical cancer, bladder cancer and prostate cancer. The severity of hemorrhagic cystitis is different in each case, although symptoms improve spontaneously in certain cases, and often significant morbidity requiring numerous interventions occurs. Since no treatment strategy exists with high evidences for such severe hemorrhagic cystitis, urologists have difficulty in solving the bleeding and pain, which the patients suffer. Aplastic anemia is a rare blood disorder, with an incidence reported as 2/1 million individuals annually. Patients have a risk of diffuse bleeding for presentation with anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. The present report presented a case of severe hemorrhagic cystitis remitted successfully by the treatment for underlying aplastic anemia. PMID:27123281

  3. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  4. A Narrative Review on the Pathophysiology and Management for Radiation Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Browne, C.; Davis, N. F.; Mac Craith, E.; Lennon, G. M.; Mulvin, D. W.; Quinlan, D. M.; Mc Vey, Gerard P.; Galvin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation cystitis is a recognised complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Incidence of radiation cystitis ranges from 23 to 80% and the incidence of severe haematuria ranges from 5 to 8%. High quality data on management strategies for radiation cystitis is sparse. Treatment modalities are subclassified into systemic therapies, intravesical therapies, and hyperbaric oxygen and interventional procedures. Short-term cure rates range from 76 to 95% for hyperbaric oxygen therapy and interventional procedures. Adverse effects of these treatment strategies are acceptable. Ultimately, most patients require multimodal treatment for curative purposes. Large randomised trials exploring emergent management strategies are required in order to strengthen evidence-based treatment strategies. Urologists encounter radiation cystitis commonly and should be familiar with diagnostic modalities and treatment strategies. PMID:26798335

  5. Virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli canine isolates from pyometra, cystitis and fecal origin.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Luisa; Henriques, Sofia; Merino, Carolina; Pomba, Constança; Lopes da Costa, Luís; Silva, Elisabete

    2013-10-25

    Pyometra is the most common diestrual uterine disease of bitches. Escherichia coli is the most frequent bacterium isolated from the uterine content of pyometra uteri and it is associated with the most severe clinical signs, leading to endotoxemia and sepsis. In this study, canine E. coli isolates from pyometra (n=31), cystitis (n=23) and fecal (n=26) origin were compared regarding the prevalence of 23 potential virulence traits (15 virulence factor (VF) genes and 8 pathogenicity associated islands-PAIs), detected by PCR assays. Overall, there was a considerable overlap between pyometra, cystitis and fecal isolates regarding the phylogenetic grouping and virulence traits. Virulence traits more prevalent in pyometra than in cystitis and fecal isolates included two PAIs (PAI IV536 and PAI ICFT073) and three VF genes (sfa/focDE, fyuA and chuA). Regardless the isolates' origin, the average number of virulence traits per strain was higher in B2 than in the other phylogenetic groups (A, B1 and D). The prevalence of phylogenetic group B2 was significantly higher in pyometra (94%) than in cystitis (48%) and fecal (39%) isolates. In conclusion, pyometra isolates have a high potential of virulence and a broad virulence genotype, although being similar to a subset of cystitis and fecal isolates. This leads to the suggestion that cystitis and fecal isolates may be able to induce pyometra in receptive hosts. PMID:23953028

  6. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  7. Vesical Artery Embolization in Haemorrhagic Cystitis in Children.

    PubMed

    García-Gámez, Andrés; Bermúdez Bencerrey, Patricia; Brio-Sanagustin, Sonia; Guerrero Vara, Rubén; Sisinni, Luisa; Stuart, Sam; Roebuck, Derek; Gómez Muñoz, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Haemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon and, in its severe form, potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or cancer therapy in children. The severe form involves macroscopic haematuria with blood clots, urinary obstruction and/or renal impairment. There are many therapeutic options to treat acute haemorrhage, but only recombinant factor VII has a high level of clinical evidence in children. Supraselective vesical artery embolization (SVAE) is an increasingly used therapeutic procedure for controlling haemorrhage in adults, but is less commonly used in children. This might be due to several factors, such as the invasive nature of the procedure, lack of appropriate medical experience and possible long-term side effects. We present three cases of children successfully treated by means of effective SVAE. PMID:26850734

  8. Treatment options for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Naber

    2000-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is classified as uncomplicated if it occurs in a patient with a structurally and functionally normal urinary tract. Acute uncomplicated cystitis is observed chiefly in women. It needs, however, to be differentiated depending on whether it occurs in premenopausal, postmenopausal or pregnant women. Only a small number of 15-50 year old, otherwise healthy men suffer acute uncomplicated cystitis. In premenopausal, non-pregnant women, single-dose antimicrobial therapy is generally less effective than the same antibiotic used for longer duration. However, most antimicrobial agents given for 3 days are as effective as those given for longer duration, and adverse events tend to be found more often with longer treatment. Trimethoprim (or co-trimoxazole) can be recommended as first-line empirical therapy only in communities with resistance rates of uropathogens to trimethoprim of 10%) of Escherichia coli strains in the community are already resistant to fluoroquinolones, as in Spain, for example. Recurrent UTIs are common among young, healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. The following prophylactic antimicrobial regimens are recommended: (i) the use of long-term, low-dose prophylactic antimicrobials taken at bedtime; (ii) post-coital prophylaxis for women in whom episodes of infection are associated with sexual intercourse. Other prophylactic methods are not as yet as effective as antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:10969048

  9. Treatment options for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Naber, K G

    2000-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is classified as uncomplicated if it occurs in a patient with a structurally and functionally normal urinary tract. Acute uncomplicated cystitis is observed chiefly in women. It needs, however, to be differentiated depending on whether it occurs in premenopausal, postmenopausal or pregnant women. Only a small number of 15-50 year old, otherwise healthy men suffer acute uncomplicated cystitis. In premenopausal, non-pregnant women, single-dose antimicrobial therapy is generally less effective than the same antibiotic used for longer duration. However, most antimicrobial agents given for 3 days are as effective as those given for longer duration, and adverse events tend to be found more often with longer treatment. Trimethoprim (or co-trimoxazole) can be recommended as first-line empirical therapy only in communities with resistance rates of uropathogens to trimethoprim of < or =10-20%. Otherwise fluoroquinolones are recommended. Alternatives are fosfomycin trometamol or beta-lactams, such as second- or third-generation oral cephalosporins or pivmecillinam, especially when fluoroquinolones are contraindicated or a high proportion (>10%) of Escherichia coil strains in the community are already resistant to fluoroquinolones, as in Spain, for example. Recurrent UTIs are common among young, healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. The following prophylactic antimicrobial regimens are recommended: (i) the use of long-term, low-dose prophylactic antimicrobials taken at bedtime; (ii) post-coital prophylaxis for women in whom episodes of infection are associated with sexual intercourse. Other prophylactic methods are not as yet as effective as antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:11051620

  10. Behavioral and Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with First and Recurrent Cystitis in Indian Women: A Case-control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bharti; Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Pandey, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country. PMID:26917870

  11. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  12. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G

    2015-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5-0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  13. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process. PMID:27514593

  15. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  16. Interstitial Collagen Catabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Gregg B.

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial collagen mechanical and biological properties are altered by proteases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the collagen triple-helical structure. Collagenolysis is critical in development and homeostasis but also contributes to numerous pathologies. Mammalian collagenolytic enzymes include matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin K, and neutrophil elastase, and a variety of invertebrates and pathogens possess collagenolytic enzymes. Components of the mechanism of action for the collagenolytic enzyme MMP-1 have been defined experimentally, and insights into other collagenolytic mechanisms have been provided. Ancillary biomolecules may modulate the action of collagenolytic enzymes. PMID:23430258

  17. Adverse Events of Intravesical OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection between Patients with Overactive Bladder and Interstitial Cystitis—Different Mechanisms of Action of Botox on Bladder Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injections have been proposed to treat both overactive bladder (OAB) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) in patients with refractory conditions. We compared adverse events (AEs) after BoNT-A treatment between IC/BPS and OAB in women. IC/BPS patients who failed conventional treatments were enrolled to receive suburothelial injections of BoNT-A (100 U) followed by hydrodistention. Age matched OAB female patients refractory to antimuscarinic agents underwent BoNT-A (100 U) injections. The bladder capacity, maximum flow rate (Qmax), post-void residual (PVR), and voiding efficiency (VE) at baseline, 3 and 6 months, and the post-treatment AEs were analyzed between groups. Finally, 89 IC/BPS and 72 OAB women were included. In the OAB group, the bladder capacity and PVR increased, and VE decreased significantly at three and six months after BoNT-A treatment. In the IC/BPS group, the Qmax increased significantly at six months. There were significant differences in changes of capacity, Qmax, PVR and VE between the two groups. Moreover, OAB patients suffered more frequently from events of hematuria, UTI, and large PVR (>200 mL), but less frequently from events of straining to void. In conclusion, OAB women had higher PVR volume and lower VE than those in IC/BPS after BoNT-A injections. These results imply that the bladder contractility of OAB patients are more susceptible to BoNT-A, which might reflect the different mechanisms of action of Botox on bladder dysfunction. Further investigations to confirm this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:26999201

  18. Translocation of NF-κB and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 are enhanced by ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis in rat bladder.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yung-Shun; Lee, Yi-Lun; Long, Cheng-Yu; Wong, Jhen-Hong; Jang, Mei-Yu; Lu, Jian-He; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Yen-Shun; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Chuang, Shu-Mien

    2015-08-01

    The number of ketamine abusers has increased significantly recently. Ketamine abusers exhibit urinary frequency, urgency, and at times urinary incontinence. Our aim was to investigate the role of transcription factor NF-κB and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in ketamine-induced cystitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three groups, which received saline or treatment with ketamine or ketamine combined with a Cox-2 inhibitor (parecoxib). In addition, the toxic effect of ketamine and its metabolites were examined by primary urothelial cell culture. The ketamine-treated group displayed bladder hyperactivity and decreased bladder capacity. Treatment with ketamine + COX-2 inhibitor prevented these bladder dysfunctions. These bladder dysfunctions were accompanied by increases in the expression of NF-κB and COX-2 at the protein and mRNA levels. Ketamine treatment also enhanced bladder interstitial fibrosis, whereas ketamine + Cox-2 inhibitor decreased the intensity of fibrosis. Treatment of primary urothelial cells in vitro with ketamine or urine obtained from ketamine-treated rats stimulated the expression of NF-κB p65 and COX-2. Ketamine also initiated NF-κB translocation from cell cytoplasm to nucleus. Treatment with NF-κB inhibitor suppressed Cox-2 mRNA expression. Promoter-deletion analysis revealed that NF-κB was a necessary transcription factor for COX-2 gene (Ptgs2) activation. These results demonstrate that the regulation of COX-2 via the NF-κB pathway is involved in the inflammatory signaling of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat urinary bladder. PMID:26073037

  19. Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Gul, Murat; Karabagli, Pinar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. Case Presentation We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment. Conclusions Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

  20. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  1. Urinary bladder hypersensitivity and dysfunction in female mice following early life and adult stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Angela N; Di Silvestro, Elizabeth R; Eller, Olivia C; Wang, Ruipeng; Ryals, Janelle M; Christianson, Julie A

    2016-05-15

    Early adverse events have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. Despite high clinical relevance and reports of stress-related symptom exacerbation, animal models investigating the contribution of early life stress to female urological pain are lacking. We examined the impact of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) on bladder sensitivity and visceral neuroimmune status both prior-to, and following, water avoidance stress (WAS) in adult female mice. The visceromotor response to urinary bladder distension was increased at baseline and 8d post-WAS in NMS mice, while colorectal sensitivity was transiently increased 1d post-WAS only in naïve mice. Bladder micturition rate and output, but not fecal output, were also significantly increased following WAS in NMS mice. Changes in gene expression involved in regulating the stress response system were observed at baseline and following WAS in NMS mice, and WAS reduced serum corticosterone levels. Cytokine and growth factor mRNA levels in the bladder, and to a lesser extent in the colon, were significantly impacted by NMS and WAS. Peripheral mRNA levels of stress-responsive receptors were differentially influenced by early life and adult stress in bladder, but not colon, of naïve and NMS mice. Histological evidence of mast cell degranulation was increased in NMS bladder, while protein levels of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) were increased by WAS. Together, this study provides new insight into mechanisms contributing to stress associated symptom onset or exacerbation in patients exposed to early life stress. PMID:26940840

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis Presenting with Acute Urinary Retention and Emphysematous Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yasushi; Doi, Asako; Endo, Akiko; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A combination of acute urinary retention and aseptic meningitis has occasionally been described, which is referred to as meningitis-retention syndrome. In contrast, acute urinary retention has rarely been reported in bacterial meningitis. We herein report a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis presenting with acute urinary retention which led to emphysematous cystitis in an elderly woman. She presented with impaired consciousness and a distended lower abdomen. She was diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis by lumbar puncture. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the presence of emphysematous cystitis. She completely recovered with antibiotic therapy without any complications. Acute urinary retention can occur secondary to pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:27477423

  3. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  4. Trapping of interstitials in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Frank, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The term trapping is used extensively to refer to the fact that interstitial atoms often find interstices associated with lattice imperfections to be energetically preferable to normal sites. This preference results in a delay of diffusion of interstitial atoms near these sites. As understanding of the details of lattice imperfections has improved, understanding of the effect of traps on the diffusion process has increased. Trapping is often illustrated by the use of a potential energy diagram. This simple model is characterized by a potential energy well deeper than those of surrounding interstitial sites. The energy required for the interstitial to jump into the trap is the same as that required for jumping into other adjacent interstitial sites, but that required for jumping out is greater. The additional energy required to leave the site is often designated as the trap binding energy, E/sub B/. Potential energy diagrams appropriate for most traps in metals are likely to be more complicated, but this simple model is a starting point for more sophisticated models of trapping. Imperfections may occasionally produce interstitial sites less favorable than normal sites and thus be less preferred. Little experimental exploration of this anti-trapping phenomenon has been carried out, however. Developments in understanding at various levels of trapping of interstitial impurities by lattice imperfections are examined.

  5. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Oliai, Caspian; Fisher, Brandon; Jani, Ashish; Wong, Michael; Poli, Jaganmohan; Brady, Luther W.; Komarnicky, Lydia T.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for treating hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and proctitis secondary to pelvic- and prostate-only radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients were treated with HBOT for radiation-induced HC and proctitis. The median age at treatment was 66 years (range, 15-84 years). The range of external-beam radiation delivered was 50.0-75.6 Gy. Bleeding must have been refractory to other therapies. Patients received 100% oxygen at 2.0 atmospheres absolute pressure for 90-120 min per treatment in a monoplace chamber. Symptoms were retrospectively scored according to the Late Effects of Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scale to evaluate short-term efficacy. Recurrence of hematuria/hematochezia was used to assess long-term efficacy. Results: Four of the 19 patients were lost to follow-up. Fifteen patients were evaluated and received a mean of 29.8 dives: 11 developed HC and 4 proctitis. All patients experienced a reduction in their LENT-SOMA score. After completion of HBOT, the mean LENT-SOMA score was reduced from 0.78 to 0.20 in patients with HC and from 0.66 to 0.26 in patients with proctitis. Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 7-70 months). No cases of hematuria were refractory to HBOT. Complete resolution of hematuria was seen in 81% (n = 9) and partial response in 18% (n = 2). Recurrence of hematuria occurred in 36% (n = 4) after a median of 10 months. Complete resolution of hematochezia was seen in 50% (n = 2), partial response in 25% (n = 1), and refractory bleeding in 25% (n = 1). Conclusions: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is appropriate for radiation-induced HC once less time-consuming therapies have failed to resolve the bleeding. In these conditions, HBOT is efficacious in the short and long term, with minimal side effects.

  7. Characterisation of patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Justin M; Adegunsoye, Ayodeji; Valenzi, Eleanor; Lee, Cathryn; Witt, Leah; Chen, Lena; Husain, Aliya N; Montner, Steven; Chung, Jonathan H; Cottin, Vincent; Fischer, Aryeh; Noth, Imre; Vij, Rekha; Strek, Mary E

    2016-06-01

    Patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) may have features of connective tissue disease (CTD), but lack findings diagnostic of a specific CTD. A recent European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society research statement proposed criteria for patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF).We applied IPAF criteria to patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and undifferentiated CTD-ILD (UCTD). We then characterised the clinical, serological and morphological features of the IPAF cohort, compared outcomes to other ILD cohorts and validated individual IPAF domains using survival as an endpoint.Of 422 patients, 144 met IPAF criteria. Mean age was 63.2 years with a slight female predominance. IPAF cohort survival was marginally better than patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but worse than CTD-ILD. A non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern was associated with improved survival, as was presence of the clinical domain. A modified IPAF cohort of those meeting the clinical domain and a radiographic or histological feature within the morphological domain displayed survival similar to those with CTD-ILD.IPAF is common among patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and UCTD. Specific IPAF features can identify subgroups with differential survival. Further research is needed to replicate these findings and determine whether patients meeting IPAF criteria benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27103387

  8. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  9. Bacterial characteristics as predictors of posttherapy recurrent bacteriuria among children with acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Murray, Andrew; Kuskowski, Michael A; Maslow, Joel N; Johnson, Candice

    2007-12-01

    Multiple characteristics of pretherapy Escherichia coli urine isolates from 39 children with acute, uncomplicated cystitis (including specific virulence genes and phylogenetic groups) identified an increased risk for recurrent bacteriuria after 3-day (but not 10-day) therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Rapid testing conceivably could facilitate rational selection of treatment duration for pediatric cystitis. Certain traits might represent good targets for preventive interventions. PMID:18043456

  10. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  11. A case of DIPNECH presenting as usual interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kshitij; Kamimoto, Jorge Jo; Dunn, Andrew; Mittadodla, Enchala; Joshi, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare disease that is classically described as presenting with cough, dyspnea, and wheezing in non-smoker middle aged females. Pulmonary function tests commonly demonstrate an obstructive pattern and CT of chest usually reveals diffuse air trapping with mosaic pattern. We present a case of patient with DIPNECH manifesting with restrictive pattern and as usual interstitial pneumonia on imaging. PMID:27238180

  12. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  13. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  14. Protective Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ersin; Yılmaz, H Ramazan; Ugan, Yunus; Altuntas, Atila; Dogru, Atalay; Kutlucan, Ali; Tunc, Sevket Ercan

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats in comparison with 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA). Forty male rats were randomized into four groups: group 1 (control), group 2 (cyclophosphamide), group 3 (cyclophosphamide + MESNA), group 4 (cyclophosphamide + CAPE). Cyclophosphamide injection increased malondialdehyde levels indicating oxidative stress, whereas CAPE and MESNA ameliorated malondialdehyde levels in the bladder (p < 0.05). Only catalase activities were decreased significantly in both groups (cyclophosphamide + MESNA and cyclophosphamide + CAPE, p < 0.05). Pretreatment with CAPE (p < 0.01) resulted in a significant decrease in nitric oxide levels when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. When we consider the studies that show the critical importance of increased nitric oxide levels in pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, we suggest that it would be more beneficial to use MESNA with CAPE to prevent histological damage. PMID:26207616

  15. Simultaneous BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV)-associated nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis after living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Helanterä, Ilkka; Hirsch, Hans H; Wernli, Marion; Ortiz, Fernanda; Lempinen, Marko; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Auvinen, Eeva; Mannonen, Laura; Lautenschlager, Irmeli

    2016-03-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) commonly reactivates after kidney transplantation, and can cause polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), whereas after allogeneic stem cell transplantation the most frequent manifestation of BKPyV is polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (PyVHC). Despite high-level BKPyV replication in both, the pathogenesis and manifestation of both BKPyV entities appears to differ substantially. We describe an unusual case of simultaneous PyVAN and PyVHC presenting with acute symptoms in a BKPyV-IgG positive recipient eight months after kidney transplantation from a haploidentical living donor, who was BKPyV-IgG negative. Symptoms of cystitis and viremia subsided rapidly after reduction of immunosuppression. PMID:26771744

  16. [Recurrent cystitis and vaginitis: role of biofilms and persister cells. From pathophysiology to new therapeutic strategies].

    PubMed

    Graziottin, A; Zanello, P P; D'Errico, G

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent vaginitis and cystitis are a daily challenge for the woman and the physician. The recurrence worsens the symptoms' severity, increases comorbidities, both pelvic (provoked vestibulodynia, bladder pain syndrome, levator ani hyperactivity, introital dyspareunia, obstructive constipation, chronic pelvic pain) and cerebral (neuroinflammation and depression), increases health costs, worsens the quality of life. Antibiotics increase the risk of bacterial resistences and devastate the ecosystems: intestinal, vaginal and mucocutaneous. Pathogenic biofilms are the (still) neglected etiology of recurrences. Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria and yeasts, protected by a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to a living or inert structures, such as medical devices. Biofims can be intra or extracellular. Pathogens live in a resting state in the deep biofilm layers as "persister cells", resistant to antibiotics and host defences and ready to re-attack the host. The paper updates the evidence on biofilms and introduces new non-antibiotic strategies of preventing and modulating recurrent vaginitis and cystitis. PMID:25245998

  17. CD34+ fibroblast-like cells in the interstitial infiltrates in glomerulonephritis - an immunohistochemical observation.

    PubMed

    Gluhovschi, Cristina; Potencz, Elena; Lazar, Elena; Petrica, Ligia; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Gadalean, Florica; Bob, Flaviu; Gluhovschi, Adrian; Cioca, Daniel; Velciov, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    CD34 cells in the interstitial infiltrates in glomerulonephritis (GN) could be the turning point between regenerative processes and interstitial fibrosis. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of CD34+ cells in the interstitial infiltrates in GN. A cross-sectional study of 33 patients with glomerulonephritis, mean age: 43.3 ±11.31 years, 20 male and 13 female, was conducted. Conventional stains, as well as immunohistochemistry for the CD34 antigen were employed on kidney biopsies. Strength of immunohistochemical reaction was assessed semi-quantitatively. Regarding the percentage of cases with CD34+ cells in the interstitial infiltrates out of 33 patients: cells of interstitial infiltrates were 27.3% positive. The percentage of cases showing CD34+ cells at the level of interstitial infiltrates was: 44.4% in FSGS, 14.3% in membranoproliferative GN, 28.6% in membranous nephropathy, 20% in mesangial proliferative GN, 0% in minimal change disease, and 50% in crescentic GN. With the exception of minimal change disease, CD34+ cells were found in the interstitial infiltrates in all histopathological forms of GN. Some of these cells were spindle-shaped fibroblast-like cells. As inflammation in the tubulointerstitial compartment either resolves or proceeds to fibrosis, aims at reversing this process will benefit from analyses of the interstitial infiltrates harboring CD34+ cells. PMID:23359197

  18. Self-Interstitial in Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Janke, C.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Coutinho, J.; Öberg, S.

    2007-10-01

    Low-temperature radiation damage in n- and p-type Ge is strikingly different, reflecting the charge-dependent properties of vacancies and self-interstitials. We find, using density functional theory, that in Ge the interstitial is bistable, preferring a split configuration when neutral and an open cage configuration when positively charged. The split configuration is inert while the cage configuration acts as a double donor. We evaluate the migration energies of the defects and show that the theory is able to explain the principal results of low-temperature electron-irradiation experiments.

  19. Beneficial effects of Gosha-jinki-gan and green tea extract in rats with chemical cystitis.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Sweety; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize pharmacological effects of gosha-jinki-gan (GJG) and green tea extract (GTE), on urodynamic parameters, bladder receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats were measured using the cystometric method. Muscarinic and purinergic receptors in rat tissues were measured by radioreceptor assays. Urinary cytokine levels were measured with ELISA kits. GJG and GTE were orally administered to rats once a day for 7 days. The GJG treatment significantly ameliorated changes in urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats. Similar treatment with GTE slightly attenuated changes in urodynamic parameters. The maximal number of binding sites for [³H]NMS and [³H]αβ-MeATP in the bladder was significantly lower in CYP-treated rats than in sham rats. Such a reduction in receptor density was significantly attenuated by the GJG treatment. GTE treatment also significantly attenuated the down-regulation of muscarinic receptors, but not P2X receptors in bladders of rats with CYP-induced cystitis. The elevation in urinary cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was effectively attenuated by GJG treatment. The elevation in cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was alleviated by GTE treatment. In conclusion, GJG may be a pharmacologically useful plant extract for cystitis. PMID:23842285

  20. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  1. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  2. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laria, A; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  3. A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Jeong, In Gab; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol; Lim, Dae Jung; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Won Hee; Jung, Hee Chang

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. PMID:20191044

  4. Relevance of the cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis model for pharmacological studies targeting inflammation and pain of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Augé, Céline; Chene, Gérald; Dubourdeau, Marc; Desoubzdanne, Denis; Corman, Bruno; Palea, Stefano; Lluel, Philippe; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Coelho, Anne-Marie

    2013-05-01

    This work aimed at establishing the relevance of using the in vivo model of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced bladder inflammation in rats for in vivo pharmacological studies. Specifically, we measured visceral nociception, identified key inflammatory mediators and evaluated the effects of relevant pharmacological treatments. Cystitis was induced in female rats by a single CYP injection. Sensitivity of the lower abdomen to von Frey mechanical stimulation was determined as a nociceptive parameter. Bladders were assessed for weight, wall thickness and macroscopic damage. Inflammatory mediators were quantified in bladders and urines. The effects of aspirin, ibuprofen and morphine were investigated on all these parameters. A single CYP injection increased nociceptive scores and decreased nociceptive threshold in response to mechanical stimuli between 1 and 4h post-administration. Increased bladder weight and wall thickness were associated with edema and hemorrhage. Bladder levels of IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VCAM, and urinary levels of PGE2 were increased. In contrast, a decrease in the urinary metabolites, indoxyl sulfate and pantothenic acid, was observed. Aspirin, ibuprofen and morphine decreased CYP-induced referred visceral pain. Aspirin and ibuprofen also reversed the increased wall thickness, macroscopic damage and levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2, and the decreased panthotenic acid levels. In contrast, morphine increased wall thickness, edema, hemorrhage, and bladder IL-6 and MCP-1 levels. This work presents a new and reliable method to evaluate visceral sensitivity in rats, and new relevant biomarkers identified in the bladder and urine to measure inflammation and pain parameters for in vivo pharmacological studies. PMID:23541724

  5. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-09-01

    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs. PMID:26324804

  6. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ebschner, U; Hartschuh, W; Petzoldt, D

    2000-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a rare dermatologic disorder seen in patients suffering from diseases in which circulating immune complexes occur. The typical cutaneous signs are linear cords usually located on the lateral aspect of the trunk. The characteristic, although not specific, histology reveals a dense diffuse infiltrate composed mostly of histiocytes, accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils, and degenerated collagen surrounded by palisades of histiocytes. We discuss this disorder and its differential diagnosis. PMID:10743580

  7. Neonatal Cystitis-Induced Colonic Hypersensitivity in Adult Rats: A Model of Viscero-Visceral Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Adrian; Mickle, Aaron; Schmidt, Jamie; Zhang, Zhihong; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani; Sengupta, Jyoti N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine if neonatal cystitis alters colonic sensitivity later in life and to investigate the role of peripheral mechanisms. Methods Neonatal rats received intravesical zymosan, normal saline, or anesthesia only for three consecutive days (postnatal days 14th–16th). The estrous cycle phase was determined prior to recording the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in adult rats. Eosinophils and mast cells were examined from colon and bladder tissue. CRD or urinary bladder distension (UBD)-sensitive pelvic nerve afferents (PNAs) were identified and their responses to distension were examined. The relative expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) NR1 subunit in the L6-S1 spinal cord was examined using Western blot. Results The VMR to CRD (≥10mmHg) in the neonatal zymosan group was significantly higher than control in both the diestrus, estrus phase and in all phases combined. There was no difference in the total number of eosinophils, mast cells or number of degranulated mast cells between groups. The spontaneous firing of UBD, but not CRD-sensitive PNAs from the zymosan rats was significantly higher than the control. However, the mechanosensitive properties of PNAs to CRD or UBD were no different between groups (p > 0.05). The expression of spinal NR1 subunit was significantly higher in zymosan-treated rats compared to saline treated rats (p <0.05). Conclusion Neonatal cystitis results in colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats without changing tissue histology or the mechanosensitive properties of CRD-sensitive PNAs. Neonatal cystitis does results in overexpression of spinal NR1 subunit in adult rats. PMID:21592255

  8. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in women with acute cystitis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Warren J; Moineddin, Rahim; Meaney, Christopher; Mazzulli, Tony

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a traditional first-line antibiotic treatment for acute cystitis; however, guidelines do not recommend TMP-SMX in regions where Escherichia coli resistance exceeds 20%. While resistance is increasing, there are no recent Canadian estimates from a primary care setting to guide prescribing decisions. METHODS: A total of 330 family physicians assessed 752 women with suspected acute cystitis between 2009 and 2011. Physicians documented clinical features and collected urine for cultures for 430 (57.2%) women. The proportion of resistant isolates of E coli and exact binomial 95% CIs were estimated nationally, and compared regionally and demographically. These estimates were compared with those from a 2002 national study. RESULTS: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli was 16.0% nationally (95% CI 11.3% to 21.8%). This was not statistically higher than 2002 (10.9% [P=0.14]). TMP-SMX resistance was increased in women ≤50 years of age (21.4%) compared with older women (10.7% [P=0.037]). In women with no antibiotic exposure in the previous three months, TMP-SMX-resistant E coli remained more prevalent in younger women (21.8%) compared with older women (4.4% [P=0.003]). The proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant E coli was 5.5% nationally (95% CI 2.7% to 9.9%), and was increased compared with 2002 (1.1% [P=0.036]). Ciprofloxacin resistance was highest in British Columbia (17.7%) compared with other regions (2.7% [P=0.003]), and was increased compared with 2002 levels in this province (0.0% [P=0.025]). Nitrofurantoin-resistant E coli levels were low (0.5% [95% CI 0.01% to 2.7%). DISCUSSION: The proportion of TMP-SMX-resistant E coli causing acute cystitis in women in Canada remains below 20% nationally, but may exceed this level in premenopausal women. Ciprofloxacin resistance has increased, notably in British Columbia. Nitrofurantoin resistance levels are low across the country. These observations indicate that

  9. Suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Murray, K M; Wilson, M G

    1990-04-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a rare but serious adverse effect of many drugs and usually is diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms of hematuria, proteinuria, eosinophilia, fever, azotemia, and rash. Ciprofloxacin is one drug that has been reported to cause interstitial nephritis. Renal toxicities have been reported in less than one percent of the patients receiving ciprofloxacin therapy. Limited documentation of this adverse effect exists in the literature. This article describes a patient with suspected ciprofloxacin-induced interstitial nephritis. PMID:2327115

  10. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sjoerd A M E G; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A; Stifft, Frank; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; van Paassen, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis has been observed in <1% of native renal biopsies. Here, we describe two patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis in relation to Crohn's disease. Circulating helper and cytotoxic T cells were highly activated, and both cell types predominated in the interstitial infiltrate, indicating a cellular autoimmune response. After immunosuppressive treatment, renal function either improved or stabilized in both patients. In conclusion, granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a genuine extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the treatment of which should include immunosuppressive agents. PMID:27478596

  11. Ciprofloxacin and furagin in acute cystitis: comparison of early immune and microbiological results.

    PubMed

    Dybowski, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Olga; Radziszewski, Piotr; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    Furagin (a nitrofurantoin analogue) has the same efficacy in treating acute cystitis as ciprofloxacin, however the duration of therapy is longer. We established a hypothesis that therapy with ciprofloxacin results in faster resolution of mucosal inflammation in comparison with furagin. Rates of urinary secretion of immunoglobulins class A, M and G and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were evaluated before and after initiation of therapy in adult women presenting with acute cystitis confirmed by urine culture. Women were randomised into two groups receiving either ciprofloxacin 250mg twice a day for 3 days (n=13) or furagin 100mg three times a day for 7 days (n=14). Median lengths of follow-up were 4 days and 5 days in the ciprofloxacin and furagin groups, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in faster eradication of pathogens. No bacteria or nitrates were detected in the ciprofloxacin group, whilst leukocyte esterase was positive in only one case. In the furagin group there were four positive cultures, seven cases with positive nitrates and five cases with positive esterase. Secretion rates of all four substances dropped significantly, but the changes over time were similar in both groups. PMID:18060746

  12. Sildenafil Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Ryan; Shah, Nina; Lewin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is characterized by inflammation of the renal interstitium and usually occurs in a temporal relationship with the medication. We present a case of an Asian male who had nephrotic range proteinuria and presented with acute kidney injury. The patient reported an acute change in physical appearance and symptomatology after the ingestion of a single dose of sildenafil. Renal biopsy was notable for minimal change disease (MCD) with acute and chronic interstitial nephritis. Renal replacement and glucocorticoid therapy were initiated. Renal recovery within six weeks permitted discontinuation of dialysis. AIN superimposed on MCD is a known association of NSAID induced nephropathy. The temporal association and the absence of any new drugs suggest that the AIN was most likely due to the sildenafil. NSAIDs are less likely to have caused the AIN given their remote use. The ease of steroid responsiveness would also suggest another cause as NSAID induced AIN is often steroid resistant. The MCD was most likely idiopathic given the lack of temporal association with a secondary cause. As the number of sildenafil prescriptions increases, more cases of AIN may be identified and physician awareness for this potential drug disease association is necessary. PMID:26491581

  13. A candidate serum biomarker for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis†‡

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Diaz, Daniel E.; Pozza, Megan E.; Dimitrakov, Jordan; Gilleran, Jason P.; Giusti, M. Monica; Stella, Judith L.; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic markers for Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis (IC) currently are not available. This study evaluated the feasibility of diagnosing IC in humans and domestic cats from the spectra of dried serum films (DSFs) using infrared microspectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from films from 29 humans and 34 domestic cats to create classification models using Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA). Ultrafiltration of serum improved discrimination capability. The classification models for both species successfully classified spectra based on condition (healthy/sick), and a different set of masked spectra correctly predicted the condition of 100% of the subjects. Classification required information from the 1500–1800 cm–1 spectral region to discriminate between subjects with IC, other disorders, and healthy subjects. Analysis of cat samples using liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy revealed differences in the concentration of tryptophan and its metabolites between healthy and affected cats. These results demonstrate the potential utility of infrared microspectroscopy to diagnose IC in both humans and cats. PMID:19475139

  14. Angiogenic factors, bladder neuroplasticity and interstitial cystitis—new pathobiological insights

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for normal embryonic development, and maintenance of adult vascular function. Originally described as a vascular permeability factor, VEGF alters tight cell junctions and contributes to maintenance of bladder permeability. VEGF and its receptors are not only expressed in bladder blood vessels but also in apical cells and intramural ganglia. VEGF receptors are fundamentally altered by inflammation and bladder diseases such as interstitial cystitis (IC). Experimental results indicate that VEGF exerts direct effects on bladder nerve density and function. Regardless of the etiology or initiating cause for IC, it is hypothesized that the urinary bladder responds to injury by increasing the production of VEGF that acts initially as a survival mechanism. However, VEGF also has the capacity to increase vascular permeability leading to glomerulations, edema, and inflammation. Moreover, due to elevated numbers of VEGF receptors in the urothelium, the increased levels of VEGF further increase bladder permeability and establish a vicioCus cycle of disease pathophysiology. PMID:26816854

  15. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  16. [Interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking].

    PubMed

    Nová, Markéta; Hornychová, Helena; Matěj, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    There are many different interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking. This short review describes officially recognized disorders (desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and pulmonary Langerhans´cells histiocytosis) and entities with uncertain relationship to smoking, which have recently been published in the literature. Histopathological pictures and differential diagnosis of smoking-related diseases of the lungs are discussed. PMID:27223588

  17. Update on lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Fishback, N; Koss, M

    1996-09-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) involves a clinicopathologic pattern of pulmonary disease characterized by diffuse interstitial reactive lymphoid infiltrates. In adults, it occurs most commonly in autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren's syndrome (0.9% of these patients) and primary biliary cirrhosis, whereas in children it is usually seen in HIV infection. Dysproteinemias (hyper- and hypogammaglobulinemia) are found in more than 60% of patients. Children can show CD8-lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung tissue, peripheral blood, and salivary gland, associated with HLA-DR5 haplotype. Radiographically, most patients with LIP have reticulonodular infiltrates, with or without patchy areas of consolidation. CT scans can show both small nodular and ground glass patterns, patterns that are diagnostically nonspecific. Reduced lung volumes and diffusing capacities are consistent and sensitive indicators of disease in LIP. In an experimental model, diffusing capacity was the single most sensitive functional index of disease progression. Microscopically, LIP is part of a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoid proliferations, ranging from follicular bronchitis-bronchiolitis and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (the latter in AIDS patients), proliferations largely limited to airways, to low-grade malignant lymphoma. These patterns may be difficult to differentiate from each other. It appears that LIP sometimes evolves to lymphoma; the frequency of this evolution is probably low but is difficult to assess because low-grade lymphomas may mimic LIP. A relatively high frequency of LIP patients have Epstein-Barr virus DNA in their lungs but not all patients with LIP show this finding, suggesting other possible etiologies. PMID:9363179

  18. Effective treatment of severe BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis with leflunomide in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kang-Hsi; Weng, Tefu; Wu, Han-Ping; Peng, Ching-Tien; Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chao, Yu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Leflunomide, an immunosuppressant with antiviral activity, was used to treat 5 children with severe BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Without severe side effects, BK viral loads in blood and urine decreased significantly after leflunomide treatment. Compared with 7 historical controls, duration of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis was significantly shorter in patients receiving leflunomide therapy (P < 0.01). PMID:25361409

  19. Successful hyperbaric oxygen therapy for refractory BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, K; Yamazaki, H; Nakamura, T; Yoroidaka, T; Imi, T; Shima, Y; Ohata, K; Takamatsu, H; Kotani, T; Kondo, Y; Takami, A; Nakao, S

    2014-10-01

    BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a common and major cause of morbidity in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A 32-year-old woman developed severe BKV-HC on day 24 after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Despite supportive therapies - such as hyperhydration, forced diuresis, and urinary catheterization - macroscopic hematuria and bladder irritation persisted for over a month. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy at 2.1 atmospheres for 90 min per day was started on day 64 after CBT. Macroscopic hematuria resolved within a week, and microscopic hematuria was no longer detectable within 2 weeks. Hematuria did not recur after 11 sessions of HBO therapy, and no significant side effects were observed during or after treatment. HBO therapy could thus be useful in controlling refractory BKV-HC after CBT. PMID:25040402

  20. Cefpodoxime vs Ciprofloxacin for Short-Course Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hooton, Thomas M.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    Context Although fluoroquinolones remain the most reliable urinary antimicrobial, resistance rates have increased and effective fluoroquinolone-sparing antimicrobials are needed. Objective To determine whether cefpodoxime is noninferior to ciprofloxacin for treatment of acute cystitis. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized, double-blind trial of 300 women aged 18 to 55 years with acute uncomplicated cystitis comparing ciprofloxacin (n=150) with cefpodoxime (n=150); patients were from a student health center in Seattle, Washington, and a referral center in Miami, Florida. The study was conducted from 2005 to 2009 and outcomes were assessed at 5 to 9 days and 28 to 30 days after completion of therapy. Intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed; 15 women in the ciprofloxacin group and 17 women in the cefpodoxime group were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients were given 250 mg of ciprofloxacin orally twice daily for 3 days or 100 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil orally twice daily for 3 days. Main Outcome Measures Overall clinical cure (defined as not requiring antimicrobial treatment during follow-up) at the 30-day follow-up visit. Secondary outcomes were clinical and microbiological cure at the first follow-up visit and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization at each follow-up visit. The hypothesis that cefpodoxime would be noninferior to ciprofloxacin by a 10% margin (ie, for the difference in the primary outcome for ciprofloxacin minus cefpodoxime, the upper limit of the confidence interval would be <10%) was formulated prior to data collection. Results The overall clinical cure rate at the 30-day visit with the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having clinical cure was 93% (139/150) for ciprofloxacin compared with 82% (123/150) for cefpodoxime (difference of11%; 95% CI, 3% – 18%); and for the intent-to-treat approach in which patients lost to follow-up were considered as having not responded to

  1. Chemical- and radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis: current treatments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Payne, Heather; Adamson, Andrew; Bahl, Amit; Borwell, Jonathan; Dodds, David; Heath, Catherine; Huddart, Robert; McMenemin, Rhona; Patel, Prashant; Peters, John L; Thompson, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    • To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. • Despite recognition that HC can be a significant complication of cancer treatment, there is currently a lack of UK-led guidelines available on how it should optimally be defined and managed. • A systematic literature review was undertaken to evaluate the evidence for preventative measures and treatment options in the management of cancer treatment-induced HC. • There is a wide range of reported incidence due to several factors including variability in study design and quality, the type of causal agent, the grading of bleeding, and discrepancies in definition criteria. • The most frequently reported causal factors are radiotherapy to the pelvic area, where HC has been reported in up to 20% of patients, and treatment with cyclophosphamide and bacillus Calmette-Guérin, where the incidence has been reported as up to 30%. • Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sodium sulphonate), hyperhydration and bladder irrigation have been the most frequently used prophylactic measures to prevent treatment-related cystitis, but are not always effective. • Cranberry juice is widely cited as a preventative measure and sodium pentosanpolysulphate as a treatment, although the evidence for both is very limited. • The best evidence exists for intravesical hyaluronic acid as an effective preventative and active treatment, and for hyperbaric oxygen as an equally effective treatment option. • The lack of robust data and variability in treatment strategies used highlights the need for further research, as well as best practice guidance and consensus on the management of HC. PMID:24000900

  2. Functional respiratory assessment in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Reyes, José Luis; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect, to a greater or lesser degree, the alveolus, peripheral airway, and septal interstitium. Functional assessment in patients suspected of having an interstitial lung disease has implications for diagnosis and makes it possible to objectively analyze both response to treatment and prognosis. Recently the clinical value of lung-diffusing capacity and the six-minute walking test has been confirmed, and these are now important additions to the traditional assessment of lung function that is based on spirometry. Here we review the state-of-the-art methods for the assessment of patients with interstitial lung disease. PMID:25857578

  3. Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24960482

  4. Bronchial anthracofibrosis with interstitial lung disease: an association yet to be highlighted.

    PubMed

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial anthracofibrosis (BAF), an emerging pulmonary disease due to long-standing exposure to biomass fuel smoke, is predominantly seen in females from developing nations. BAF is known to be associated with tuberculosis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, but the association of BAF with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and yet to be highlighted. A 72-year-old woman with a 30-year history of exposure to biomass fuel smoke presented with dry cough and exertional dyspnoea. Imaging demonstrated interlobular, intralobular and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and honeycombing adjoining the subpleural regions, suggestive of the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. A restrictive pattern with diffusion defect was noted. Fibrebronchoscopy revealed a bluish-black anthracotic pigmentation with a narrowed and distorted left upper lobe, and apical segment of left lower lobe bronchus, confirming BAF. A diagnosis of BAF with ILD was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of this association. PMID:26759407

  5. Cystitis - noninfectious

    MedlinePlus

    ... urinate and to delay urination at all other times. One method is to force yourself to delay urinating despite the urge to urinate in between these times. As you become better at waiting this long, ...

  6. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... who live in nursing homes) Pregnancy Problems fully emptying your bladder (urinary retention) Procedures that involve the ... develop new symptoms such as fever, back pain, stomach pain, or vomiting.

  7. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  8. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  9. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  10. Lupus-erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marmon, Shoshana; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Franks, Andrew G

    2012-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of lupus erythematous presented with a five-year history of small, erythematous, flesh-colored papules and nodules that coalesced into symmetrically-distributed plaques on her upper back. A biopsy specimen showed an interstitial, granulomatous mixed-cell dermatitis with eosinophils. These clinicopathologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of lupus erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. PMID:23286821

  11. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression.

    PubMed

    Gore, Prashant R; Prajapati, Chaitali P; Mahajan, Umesh B; Goyal, Sameer N; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues. PMID:27489498

  12. A C-type lectin receptor pathway is responsible for the pathogenesis of acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Dejima, Takashi; Shibata, Kensuke; Yamada, Hisakata; Takeuchi, Ario; Hara, Hiromitsu; Eto, Masatoshi; Naito, Seiji; Yoshikai, Yasunobu

    2013-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis often arises after cyclophosphamide (CYP) administration. As yet, however, the mechanism involved in its pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, it was found that the Fc receptor γ chain (FcRγ)- caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)-dependent pathway rather than the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of acute CYP-induced cystitis in mice. Rapid and transient production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β was detected in the bladder at 4 hr, preceding IL-23 and IL-17A production and an influx of neutrophils, which reached a peak at 24 hr after injection. As assessed by weight, edema and neutrophil infiltration, cystitis was significantly attenuated in CARD9 knockout (KO) and FcRγKO mice, this attenuation being accompanied by impaired production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-17A. The major source of IL-17A is the vesical γδ T cell population: IL-17AKO, CδKO and Tyk2KO mice showed little IL-17A production and reduced neutrophil infiltration in the bladder after CYP injection. These results suggest that FcRγ-CARD9-dependent production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-23 and the subsequent activation of IL-17A-producing γδ T cells are at least partly involved in the pathogenesis of acute CYP-induced cystitis in mice. PMID:24102807

  13. Unusual case of severe late-onset cytomegalovirus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Ersan, Sibel; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Sert, Mehmet; Atila, Koray; Celik, Ali; Gulcu, Aytac; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Hüseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and accounts for the majority of graft compromise. Major risk factors include primary exposure to CMV infection at the time of transplantation and the use of antilymphocyte agents such as OKT3 (the monoclonal antibody muromonab-CD3) and antithymocyte globulin. It most often develops during the first 6 months after transplantation. Although current prophylactic strategies and antiviral agents have led to decreased occurrence of CMV disease in early posttransplant period, the incidence of late-onset CMV disease ranges from 2% to 7% even in the patients receiving prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir. The most common presentation of CMV disease in transplant patients is CMV pneumonitis followed by gastrointestinal disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The condition is usually due to cyclophosphamide-based myeloablative regimens and infectious agents. Even in these settings, CMV-induced cases occur only sporadically. Ureteritis and hemorrhagic cystitis due to CMV infection after kidney transplantation is reported very rarely on a case basis in the literature so far. We report here a case of late-onset CMV-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and ureteritis presenting with painful macroscopic hematuria and ureteral obstruction after 4 years of renal transplantation. The diagnosis is pathologically confirmed by the demonstration of immunohistochemical staining specific for CMV in a resected ureteral section. We draw attention to this very particular presentation of CMV hemorrhagic cystitis with ureteral obstruction in order to emphasize atypical presentation of tissue-invasive CMV disease far beyond the timetable for posttransplant CMV infection. PMID:22251223

  14. Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis through Inhibiting DNA Damage and Upregulation of Nrf2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Prashant R.; Prajapati, Chaitali P.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Belemkar, Sateesh; Ojha, Shreesh; Patil, Chandragouda R.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP) induced hemorrhagic cystitis is a dose-limiting side effect involving increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and suppressed activity of nuclear factor related erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). Thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, is reported to increase the expression of Nrf2, exert antioxidant action, and anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental animals. The present study was designed to explore the effects of TQ on CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in Balb/c mice. Cystitis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of CYP (200 mg/kg). TQ was administered intraperitoneally at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg doses twice a day, for three days before and three days after the CYP administration. The efficacy of TQ was determined in terms of the protection against the CYP-induced histological perturbations in the bladder tissue, reduction in the oxidative stress, and inhibition of the DNA fragmentation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the expression of Nrf2. TQ protected against CYP-induced oxidative stress was evident from significant reduction in the lipid peroxidation, restoration of the levels of reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. TQ treatment significantly reduced the DNA damage evident as reduced DNA fragmentation. A significant decrease in the cellular infiltration, edema, epithelial denudation and hemorrhage were observed in the histological observations. There was restoration and rise in the Nrf2 expression in the bladder tissues of mice treated with TQ. These results confirm that, TQ ameliorates the CYP-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in mice through reduction in the oxidative stress, inhibition of the DNA damage and through increased expression of Nrf2 in the bladder tissues. PMID:27489498

  15. Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

    2013-12-01

    Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

  16. Human telomeric proteins occupy selective interstitial sites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Xiong, Yuanyan; Kim, Hyeung; He, Quanyuan; Li, Yumei; Chen, Rui; Songyang, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Human telomeres are bound and protected by protein complexes assembled around the six core telomeric proteins RAP1, TRF1, TRF2, TIN2, TPP1, and POT1. The function of these proteins on telomeres has been studied extensively. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested possible roles for these proteins outside of telomeres. However, the non-canonical (extra-telomeric) function of human telomeric proteins remains poorly understood. To this end, we systematically investigated the binding sites of telomeric proteins along human chromosomes, by performing whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for RAP1 and TRF2. ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that RAP1 and TRF2 could be found on a small number of interstitial sites, including regions that are proximal to genes. Some of these binding sites contain short telomere repeats, suggesting that telomeric proteins could directly bind to interstitial sites. Interestingly, only a small fraction of the available interstitial telomere repeat-containing regions were occupied by RAP1 and TRF2. Ectopically expressed TRF2 was able to occupy additional interstitial telomere repeat sites, suggesting that protein concentration may dictate the selective targeting of telomeric proteins to interstitial sites. Reducing RAP1 and TRF2 expression by RNA interference led to altered transcription of RAP1- and TRF2-targeted genes. Our results indicate that human telomeric proteins could occupy a limited number of interstitial sites and regulate gene transcription. PMID:21423278

  17. [Interstitial mycosis fungoid: a rare variant of mycosis fungoids. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Marie-Thérèse; Comoz, François; Dompmartin-Blanchere, Anne; Bagot, Martine; Ortonne, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Mycosis fungoids can present with various clinical and histological features, with only a few of them being recognized as distinct entities in the current WHO and EORTC classifications. Histologically, mycosis fungoids (MF) usually show a superficial perivascular or band-like lymphocytic infiltrate with epidermotropism. We here report two cases of a rare histological variant of MF, called interstitial in the literature. Our first patient, a 71-year-old male, had a previously diagnosed MF, which clinically evolved towards nodules, showing histologically an interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate without epidermotropism and without large cell transformation. The second patient was a 64-year-old female with widespread plaques and nodules. Histologically, a dense dermal interstitial infiltrate was observed, with foci of epidermotropism, without large cell transformation. At relapse after treatment, she presented with plaques, papules and nodules, histologically showing a slight interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate that resembled granuloma annulare or inflammatory morphea. In both patients, clinical aspect suggested MF and a dominant T-cell clone was found in lesional skin. Nodules in MF are not always the hallmark of large cell transformation, but may correspond to unusual interstitial lesions. Diagnosis of such rare variant may be difficult and requires a good clinical pathological correlation together with the search for foci of epidermotropism on skin biopsy and for a dominant cutaneous T-cell clone. PMID:21349387

  18. Emergence of antimicrobial-resistant uropathogens isolated from pediatric patients with cystitis on daily clean intermittent catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Uehara, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Jiro; Nishinaka, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya

    2015-10-01

    One of the major complications of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is urinary tract infection (UTI). Recent reports showed that community-acquired UTIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant pathogens were gradually presenting in adults. However, there have been few reports about UTIs caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in pediatric patients. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 45 children with CIC due to neurogenic bladder dysfunction from January 2010 to March 2013. Sixty-two episodes of cystitis occurred in 27 patients. Seventy bacterial strains were isolated from urine samples. The rate of Gram-negative bacteria was 84.3%. Six extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains were isolated from 4 patients. An ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis strain and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain were isolated from one patient each. Most of the pathogens of cystitis in the pediatric patients with CIC were Gram-negative bacilli, especially E. coli. We should be aware that ESBL producing E. coli as potential pathogens cause cystitis and regularly survey antimicrobial susceptibility to understand the resistant strains that develop. PMID:26194974

  19. LeuX tRNA-dependent and -independent mechanisms of Escherichia coli pathogenesis in acute cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Thomas J.; Mysorekar, Indira U.; Chen, Swaine L.; Walker, Jennifer N.; Jones, Jennifer M.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Seed, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contain multiple horizontally acquired pathogenicity-associated islands (PAI) implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. In a murine model of cystitis, type 1 pili-mediated bladder epithelial invasion and intracellular proliferation are key events associated with UPEC virulence. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which a conserved PAI contributes to UPEC pathogenesis in acute cystitis. In the human UPEC strain UTI89, spontaneous excision of PAI IIUTI89 disrupts the adjacent leuX tRNA locus. Loss of wild-type leuX-encoded tRNA5Leu significantly delayed, but did not eliminate, FimB recombinase-mediated phase variation of type 1 pili. FimX, an additional FimB-like, leuX-independent recombinase, was also found to mediate type 1 pili phase variation. However, whereas FimX activity is relatively slow in vitro, it is rapid in vivo as a non-piliated strain lacking the other fim recombinases rapidly expressed type 1 pili upon experimental infection. Finally, we found that disruption of leuX, but not loss of PAI IIUTI89 genes, reduced bladder epithelial invasion and intracellular proliferation, independent of type 1 piliation. These findings indicate that the predominant mechanism for preservation of PAI IIUTI89 during the establishment of acute cystitis is maintenance of wild-type leuX, and not PAI IIUTI89 gene content. PMID:18036139

  20. Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance. PMID:25587284

  1. Efficient and Cost-Effective Alternative Treatment for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Interstitial Cystitis in Women: A Two-Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Anthony; Hariri, Essa; Shelh, Samar; Irani, Ralph; Mroueh, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance. PMID:25587284

  2. Suppression of the PI3K Pathway In Vivo Reduces Cystitis-Induced Bladder Hypertrophy and Restores Bladder Capacity Examined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shanwei; Corwin, Frank D.; Liu, Miao; Guan, Ruijuan; Grider, John R.; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the real-time status of the urinary bladder in normal and diseased states following cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis, and also examined the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in the regulation of urinary bladder hypertrophy in vivo. Our results showed that under MRI visualization the urinary bladder wall was significantly thickened at 8 h and 48 h post CYP injection. The intravesical volume of the urinary bladder was also markedly reduced. Treatment of the cystitis animals with a specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced cystitis-induced bladder wall thickening and enlarged the intravesical volumes. To confirm the MRI results, we performed H&E stain postmortem and examined the levels of type I collagen by real-time PCR and western blot. Inhibition of the PI3K in vivo reduced the levels of type I collagen mRNA and protein in the urinary bladder ultimately attenuating cystitis-induced bladder hypertrophy. The bladder mass calculated according to MRI data was consistent to the bladder weight measured ex vivo under each drug treatment. MRI results also showed that the urinary bladder from animals with cystitis demonstrated high magnetic signal intensity indicating considerable inflammation of the urinary bladder when compared to normal animals. This was confirmed by examination of the pro-inflammatory factors showing that interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α levels in the urinary bladder were increased with cystitis. Our results suggest that MRI can be a useful technique in tracing bladder anatomy and examining bladder hypertrophy in vivo during disease development and the PI3K pathway has a critical role in regulating bladder hypertrophy during cystitis. PMID:25486122

  3. Interstitial granulomatous drug reaction with a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Lacour, J P; Castanet, J; Michiels, J F

    2001-08-01

    The interstitial granulomatous drug reaction (IGDR) is a novel drug-associated entity, characterized by violaceous plaques with a predilection for skin fold areas. Light microscopically, it resembles the incipient diffuse interstitial phase of granuloma annulare. Differentiating light microscopic features include the absence of complete collagen necrobiosis, the presence of interface dermatitis, and variable lymphoid atypia. The lack of vasculitis rules out the extravascular necrotizing granuloma (Winkelmann granuloma) associated with systemic disease. The differential diagnosis with interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis as defined by Ackerman et al. has not been studied until now. Our aim was to determine the histologic criteria allowing us to differentiate IGDR without interface dermatitis and lymphoid atypia from interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We report three patients with IGDR triggered, in two cases by respectively angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and furosemide, and in one case by the association of an ACE inhibitor, furosemide, and fluindione. Histologic examination showed a histological pattern of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. We found a dense, diffuse histiocytic infiltrate distributed interstitially and in palisaded array within the reticular dermis. Eosinophils and some neutrophils were scattered throughout the infiltrate. In some tiny foci, enveloped by histiocytes, thick collagen bundles associated with basophilic nuclear debris or "flame figures" were seen. Vasculitis, interface dermatitis, or lymphoid atypia were absent. Our study allowed us to expand the histological spectrum of IGDR including a histological pattern similar to interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. The lack of degenerated collagen could be a subtle clue in favor of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis triggered by a drug. PMID:11481519

  4. Heterogeneity of Ovarian Theca and Interstitial Gland Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyabayashi, Kanako; Tokunaga, Kaori; Otake, Hiroyuki; Baba, Takashi; Shima, Yuichi; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that two developmentally and functionally distinct cell types emerge within the mammalian testis and adrenal gland throughout life. Fetal and adult types of steroidogenic cells (i.e., testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells) develop in the prenatal and postnatal period, respectively. Although the ovary synthesizes steroids postnatally, the presence of fetal-type steroidogenic cells has not been described. We had previously established transgenic mouse lines in which fetal Leydig cells were labeled with an EGFP reporter gene by the FLE (fetal Leydig enhancer) of the Ad4BP/SF-1 (Nr5a1) gene. In the present study, we examined the reporter gene expression in females and found that the reporter gene is turned on in postnatal ovaries. A comparison of the expressions of the EGFP and marker genes revealed that EGFP is expressed in not all but rather a proportion of steroidogenic theca and in interstitial gland cells in the ovary. This finding was further supported by experiments using BAC transgenic mice in which reporter gene expression recapitulated endogenous Ad4BP/SF-1 gene expression. In conclusion, our observations from this study strongly suggest that ovarian theca and interstitial gland cells in mice consist of at least two cell types. PMID:26039146

  5. Heterogeneity of ovarian theca and interstitial gland cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyabayashi, Kanako; Tokunaga, Kaori; Otake, Hiroyuki; Baba, Takashi; Shima, Yuichi; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that two developmentally and functionally distinct cell types emerge within the mammalian testis and adrenal gland throughout life. Fetal and adult types of steroidogenic cells (i.e., testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical cells) develop in the prenatal and postnatal period, respectively. Although the ovary synthesizes steroids postnatally, the presence of fetal-type steroidogenic cells has not been described. We had previously established transgenic mouse lines in which fetal Leydig cells were labeled with an EGFP reporter gene by the FLE (fetal Leydig enhancer) of the Ad4BP/SF-1 (Nr5a1) gene. In the present study, we examined the reporter gene expression in females and found that the reporter gene is turned on in postnatal ovaries. A comparison of the expressions of the EGFP and marker genes revealed that EGFP is expressed in not all but rather a proportion of steroidogenic theca and in interstitial gland cells in the ovary. This finding was further supported by experiments using BAC transgenic mice in which reporter gene expression recapitulated endogenous Ad4BP/SF-1 gene expression. In conclusion, our observations from this study strongly suggest that ovarian theca and interstitial gland cells in mice consist of at least two cell types. PMID:26039146

  6. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  7. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  8. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  9. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article. PMID:26234096

  10. Interstitial myocardial fibrosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Baskin, Gary B; Gigliotti, Andrew P; Lee, D Rick; Ely, John J; Sleeper, Meg M

    2008-08-01

    The clinical and necropsy records of 36 (25 male and 11 female) chimpanzees age 10 to 40 y old that died over a 6-y period (2001 to 2006) were reviewed. All animals had annual physical exams that included electrocardiograms and serial blood pressures. Nine of the 36 animals had a complete cardiac evaluation by a board certified veterinary cardiologist, and 7 of the 36 animals (19%) were diagnosed with some form of cardiomyopathy. Systemic hypertension was noted in 3 cases. Cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular ectopy) were seen in 15 (12 male and 3 female) of the 36 animals (42%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 13 (11 male and 2 female) chimps (36%) and was the leading cause of death (n = 13), followed by renal failure (n = 9) and septicemia (n = 3). Histologic examination of the hearts revealed interstitial myocardial fibrosis (IMF) in 29 chimpanzees (81%), and all of the animals that died suddenly due to cardiac causes had IMF to varying degrees. More data will be needed to identify the possible causes of IMF in captive chimpanzees, and IMF may be associated with arrhythmias and SCD in these animals. PMID:18724782

  11. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  12. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  13. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  14. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with eosinophilic cystitis: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Gao; Chen, Ying; Qian, Zi-Hua; Yang, Li; Yu, Ri-Sheng; Zhu, Xiu-Liang; Li, Qing-Hai; Chen, Qian

    2015-03-14

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a rare, distinct clinical entity, and EG associated with eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is extremely rare and has not been well documented. Here, we report two cases of EG and coexistent EC along with findings from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An 18-year-old male with a history of hematuria, urgency and occasional urodynia for two weeks and a 34-year-old male with a history of abdominal distention for one week were admitted to our hospital. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT in both patients revealed wall thickening in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract with inhomogeneous reinforcement, coexistent with local or diffuse bladder wall thickening with progressive enhancement, and also showed that the bladder mucosal lining was nondestructive. Pelvic MRI showed that the local or diffuse thickened bladder wall was iso-intense on T1-weighted images, hypo-intense on T2-weighted images, and slightly restricted on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in one case. After therapy, the thickened wall of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder had improved markedly in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the radiological imaging of EG and coexistent EC by both CT and MRI and the first with DWI findings. PMID:25780317

  15. Genotypic characterization of virulence factors in Escherichia coli strains from patients with cystitis.

    PubMed

    Tiba, Monique Ribeiro; Yano, Tomomasa; Leite, Domingos da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Adhesins (P-fimbriae, S-fimbriae, type 1 fimbriae and afimbrial adhesin), toxins (alpha-hemolysin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1), iron acquisition systems (aerobactin) and host defense avoidance mechanisms (capsule or lipopolysaccharide) have been shown to be prevalent in Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary tract infections. In this work, 162 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains from patients with cystitis were genotypically characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. We developed three multiplex PCR assays for virulence-related genes papC, papE/F, papG alleles, fimH, sfa/foc, afaE, hly, cnf-1, usp, cdtB, iucD, and kpsMTII, all of them previously identified in UPEC strains. The PCR assay results identified 158 fimH (97.5%), 86 kpsMTII (53.1%), 53 papC/papEF/papG (32.7%), 45 sfa (27.8%), 42 iucD (25.9%), 41 hly (25.3%), 36 usp (22.2%), 30 cnf-1(18.5%) and 10 afa (6.2%) strains. No strain was positive for cdtB. In this work, we also demonstrated that adhesins may be multiple within a single strain and that several virulence genes can occur combined in association. PMID:18949339

  16. Cystitis induced by infection with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Czub, S.; Duray, P. H.; Thomas, R. E.; Schwan, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the urinary bladder is a consistent source for isolating the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, from both experimentally infected and naturally exposed rodents. We examined histopathologic changes in the urinary bladder of different types of rodents experimentally infected with Lyme spirochetes, including BALB/c mice (Mus musculus), nude mice (M. musculus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster). Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally, subcutaneously, or intranasally with low-passaged spirochetes, high-passaged spirochetes, or phosphate-buffered saline. At various times after inoculation, animals were killed and approximately one-half of each urinary bladder and kidney were cultured separately in BSK-II medium while the other half of each organ was prepared for histologic examination. Spirochetes were cultured from the urinary bladder of all 35 mice inoculated with low-passaged spirochetes while we were unable to isolate spirochetes from any kidneys of the same mice. The pathologic changes observed most frequently in the urinary bladder of the infected mice were the presence of lymphoid aggregates, vascular changes, including an increase in the number of vessels and thickening of the vessel walls, and perivascular infiltrates. Our results demonstrate that nearly all individuals (93%) of the four types of mice examined had a cystitis associated with spirochetal infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1443051

  17. Ternatin, a flavonoid, prevents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Milena Morais; Macêdo, Francisco Yuri B; Filho, José Nelson Belarmino; Costa, Ana Carolina L V; Cunha, Adriano N; Silveira, Edilberto R; Brito, Gerly Anne C; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A

    2004-02-01

    To compare the classical uroprotective efficacy of mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) with ternatin (flavonoid isolated from Egletes viscosa Less.) in cyclophosphamide (CYP) and ifosfamide (IFS) induced hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, CYP or IFS and were treated with saline or mesna, 5 min before, 4 and 8 h after CYP or IFS administration. In other animals, 1, 2 or 3 doses of mesna were replaced with ternatin or 3 doses of mesna were replaced with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), ternatin diluent. In an additional group, the last 2 doses of mesna were replaced with saline. HC was evaluated 24 h after CYP or IFS administration. CYP or IFS treatment induced marked changes in macroscopic and microscopic evaluation and in bladder wet weight (BWW), and these alterations were significantly inhibited by treatment with 3 doses of mesna, as well as by the replacement of 1 or 2 doses of mesna with ternatin. The replacement of 2 doses of mesna with saline or all doses of mesna with ternatin or DMSO did not prevent HC. In conclusion, the replacement of 1 or 2 doses of mesna with ternatin efficiently blocked CYP- or IFS-induced HC, however mesna is necessary for initial uroprotection. PMID:15022166

  18. Resveratrol potentiates effects of simvastatin on inhibition of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by ovarian enlargement, hyperplastic theca compartment and increased androgen production due to, at least in part, excessive expression of several key genes involved in steroidogenesis. Previously, our group has demonstrated that simvastatin, competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a rate-limiting step of the mevalonate pathway, reduces rat-theca interstitial cell steroidogenesis by inhibiting Cyp17a1 gene expression, the key enzyme of the androgen biosynthesis pathway. Recently, we demonstrated that resveratrol, a bioflavonoid abundant in red grapes, decreases rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis and this suppressive effect is mediated through mechanisms independent of the mevalonate pathway. The present study evaluated the effect of combining simvastatin and resveratrol treatments on rat theca-interstitial cell steroidogenesis. Methods Rat theca-interstitial cells isolated from 30 day-old female rats were cultured for up to 48 h with or without simvastatin (1 μM) and/or resveratrol (3-10 μM). Steroidogenic enzymes gene expression was evaluated by quantitative real time PCR and steroid levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results Resveratrol potentiated inhibitory effects of simvastatin on androstenedione and androsterone production in theca-interstitial cells. This suppressive effect correlated with profound inhibition in Cyp17a1 mRNA expression in the presence of a combination of resveratrol and simvastatin. Conclusions The present findings indicate that resveratrol potentiates the simvastatin-induced inhibitory effect on theca-interstitial cell androgen production, raising the possibility of development of novel treatments of PCOS. PMID:24524197

  19. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. PMID:22365253

  20. Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

  1. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  2. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  3. Mica-associated pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Landas, S K; Schwartz, D A

    1991-09-01

    We present the clinical and biopsy findings of a 63-yr-old white male with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and a long history of extensive exposure to mica while working in the rubber industry. The patient presented 30 yr after the initial exposure with complaints of progressive shortness of breath and a chronic nonproductive cough. Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive lung function with a mild reduction in the total lung capacity (80% of predicted) and a moderate-to-severe reduction in the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (50% of predicted). The chest radiogram and high-resolution chest CT scan showed diffuse fibrosis and focal honeycombing involving the upper and lower lung zones bilaterally. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 20% neutrophils in the lavage fluid with abundant rectangular flaking crystals. Open-lung biopsy exhibited extensive fibrosis and architectural remodeling with abundant sheets and fragments of engulfed polarizable crystalline material. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy and electron diffraction studies confirmed the material to have the features of mica. Asbestos and other silicates were not identified. The documentation of prolonged exposure to mica, the clinical and radiographic features of severe interstitial fibrosis, and the histopathologic delineation of the interstitial lesion, including spectroscopic and crystallographic verification of crystalline mica, support the causal relationship between mica and interstitial fibrosis. PMID:1892315

  4. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a diagnostic algorithm for symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service

    PubMed Central

    Grude, Nils; Lindbaek, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the clinical outcome of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis who were seen by a doctor, with patients who were given treatment following a diagnostic algorithm. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. Out-of-hours service, Oslo, Norway. Intervention. Women with typical symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis were included in the trial in the time period September 2010–November 2011. They were randomized into two groups. One group received standard treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm, the other group received treatment after a regular consultation by a doctor. Subjects. Women (n = 441) aged 16–55 years. Mean age in both groups 27 years. Main outcome measures. Number of days until symptomatic resolution. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the basic patient demographics, severity of symptoms, or percentage of urine samples with single culture growth. A median of three days until symptomatic resolution was found in both groups. By day four 79% in the algorithm group and 72% in the regular consultation group were free of symptoms (p = 0.09). The number of patients who contacted a doctor again in the follow-up period and received alternative antibiotic treatment was insignificantly higher (p = 0.08) after regular consultation than after treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm. There were no cases of severe pyelonephritis or hospital admissions during the follow-up period. Conclusion. Using a diagnostic algorithm is a safe and efficient method for treating women with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service. This simplification of treatment strategy can lead to a more rational use of consultation time and a stricter adherence to National Antibiotic Guidelines for a common disorder. PMID:25961367

  6. An open evaluation of a 3-day course of pivmecillinam (ten 200 mg tablets) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Donald, J F; Rimmer, D M

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-four women, with acute uncomplicated cystitis, received a 3-day course of pivmecillinam comprising an initial 400 mg (two tablets) dose, followed by 200 mg every 8 hours; a total of ten tablets. A satisfactory clinical response was achieved in 91% of patients. Bacteriological success was observed in 94% of sixty-eight patients with a proven infection. Side-effects were reported in sixteen patients (8.4%). Two patients ceased therapy prematurely. Pivmecillinam did not select out resistant Gram-negative organisms. A trend towards reinfection with Gram-positive cocci was observed. The possible significance of reinfection with different organisms is discussed. PMID:6245977

  7. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  8. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Walkty, Andrew J; Karlowsky, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (<1%). Fosfomycin is excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration with peak urinary concentration ~4000 µg/mL and remains at concentrations >100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin's in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC. PMID:27366158

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in case of hemorrhagic cystitis after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Klejnotowska, Alicja; Matuszewski, Marcin; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Markuszewski, Marcin; Krajka, Kazimierz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We present the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) after radiotherapy for cancer in the pelvic cavity resulting in hematuria. Increasing the pressure of oxygen (PO2) in ischemic tissues favors the formation of new blood vessels and increases the secretion of collagen. Material and methods We evaluated 10 patients who were treated with HBOT from October 2006 to December 2010 due to persistent radiation damage to the lining of the bladder leading to recurrent hematuria. The study group was comprised of seven men and three women. In the case of cervical and endometrial cancers, 30 Gy of brachytherapy with 45-50 Gy of teleradiotherapy were used. In prostate cancer (PCa), we applied 50 Gy of teleradiotherapy with an additional dose of 20-24 Gy, and in the case of bladder cancer (BCa), 50 Gy of teleradiotherapy was applied with an additional dose of 16 Gy. HBOT consisted of 60 HBO2 treatments, in which patients were administered 100% oxygen at a pressure of 2.5 atm. Results The group effect of total or partial resolution was observed in six patients. In one case, treatment was discontinued due to an increase in hematuria and the consequent suspicion of bladder tumor recurrence. While in and additional three cases, the treatment did not produce the desired result. Conclusions Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is a difficult therapeutic challenge. One possible method is the implementation of HBOT. In very difficult cases, HBO2 treatment appears to be effective in giving more than half of patients a chance of getting better. PMID:24578962

  10. Fosfomycin: A First-Line Oral Therapy for Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhanel, George G.; Walkty, Andrew J.; Karlowsky, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents. Fosfomycin displays broad-spectrum activity against ESBL-producing, AmpC-producing, carbapenem-non-susceptible, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli. Resistance to fosfomycin in E. coli is rare (<1%). Fosfomycin is excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration with peak urinary concentration ~4000 µg/mL and remains at concentrations >100 µg/mL for 48 hours after a single 3-gram oral dose. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in pregnant patients, or in either renal or hepatic impairment. Fosfomycin demonstrates a favorable safety profile, and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy in AUC that is comparable to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Fosfomycin's in vitro activity against common uropathogens, including MDR isolates, its favorable safety profile including pregnancy patients, drug interactions, and clinical trials data demonstrating efficacy in AUC, has resulted in Canadian, US, and European guidelines/authorities recommending fosfomycin as a first line agent for the treatment of AUC. PMID:27366158

  11. Genetic Analysis of Sporadic and Familial Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in understanding the biology and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia, the etiology of this disease remains elusive. Epidemiologic studies have consistently identified cigarette smoke as an important exposure; however, most smokers do not develop interstitial pneumonia and many individuals with interstitial pneumonia do not smoke cigarettes. Moreover, interstitial pneumonias have been reported to cluster in families. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the genetic etiology of interstitial pneumonia may prove critically important in defining the biology and clinical course of this complex human disease. PMID:18403331

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance of Urinary Tract Isolates in Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis among College-Aged Women: Choosing a First-Line Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hames, Leesa; Rice, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors of this retrospective case study focused on antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary tract isolates in cases of acute uncomplicated cystitis in college-aged women, aged 18 to 24 years, diagnosed at a major south-central university student health center. Methods: The authors obtained pertinent data from…

  13. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  15. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  16. Irradiation system for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; De la Rosa, J.

    2013-11-01

    Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) is a promising form of treatment of deep-seated and bulky malignant tumors, based on the lethal cell response to the photochemical reactions when drug is light activated in presence of oxygen. In order to accomplish an effective internal illumination, laser sources are preferably used because of two important reasons: the monochromatic light can be confined to the narrow absorption band of the drug and the laser beam is easily focused into optical fibers. In this work the development of a diode-laser-light-source is presented. The system is tuned by temperature to get a better match in the 5-ALA absorption band. This system also comprises a trifurcated fiber system to accomplish interstitial illumination.

  17. Surface effects in Si interstitial formation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Ann E.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Armiento, Rickard

    2007-03-01

    We are calculating Si self-interstitial formation energies using Density Functional Theory and several different exchange-correlation energy functionals. We show that the difference in results obtained with the LDA, PBE, PW91, and AM05 [1] functionals can be explained by the functionals' different surface intrinsic errors. We explain why surface effects are important for formation energies of interstitials in semi-conductors. Surface effects have previously been studied for metal vacancy formation energies. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. [1] R. Armiento and A. E. Mattsson, Phys. Rev. B 72, 085108 (2005).

  18. [Computer-assisted system for interstitial hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Kneschaurek, P; Weisser, M

    1987-03-01

    The combination of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia is more promising in the treatment of tumors than one of these methods alone. The unit developed by us uses the afterloading needles for heating up the tumor tissue with ohm current and for controlling the distribution of temperature in the target volume. Up to twelve needles are provided by one commutator with the R.F. current controlled by the computer. The temperature is measured by three thermistors per needle which are arranged at an axial distance of 2 cm each. The linearization of the thermistor characteristics and the control of cummutator and R.F. generator is performed by the computer over an interface constructed by us. In order to achieve a homogeneous distribution of temperature in the target volume and to avoid hot spots, we have examined several needle configurations by measuring in an homogeneous phantom. PMID:3563878

  19. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  20. Reversed Halo Sign on CT as a Presentation of Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Marcus D; Grajo, Joseph R; Karamsadkar, Neel D; Steffensen, Thora S; Hazelton, Todd R

    2013-01-01

    A 52 year-old African American female with a past medical history of symptomatic uterine fibroids and increasing abdominal circumference underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) as part of her workup. Because of an abnormality in the left lower lobe, CT of the chest was subsequently performed and showed a focal region of discontinuous crescentic consolidation with central ground glass opacification in the right lower lobe, suggestive of the reversed halo sign. The patient underwent percutaneous CT-guided core biopsy of the lesion, which demonstrated lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, a benign lymphoproliferative disease characterized histologically by small lymphocytes and plasma cells. This case report describes the first histologically confirmed presentation of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia with the reversed halo sign on CT. PMID:24421923

  1. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  2. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  3. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  4. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J

    2015-06-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+ / PDGFRβ+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRβ+ / αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  5. Interstitial pericytes decrease in aged mouse kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Stefanska, Ania; Eng, Diana; Kaverina, Natalya; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Rabinovitch, Peter; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, the kidney undergoes characteristic changes in the glomerular and tubulo-interstitial compartments, which are ultimately accompanied by reduced kidney function. Studies have shown age-related loss of peritubular vessels. Normal peritubular vessel tone, function and survival depend on neighboring pericytes. Pericyte detachment leads to vascular damage, which can be accompanied by their differentiation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, a state that favors matrix production. To better understand the fate of pericytes in the aged kidney, 27 month-old mice were studied. Compared to 3 month-old young adult mice, aged kidneys showed a substantial decrease in capillaries, identified by CD31 staining, in both cortex and medulla. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in surrounding NG2+/PDGFRß+ pericytes. This decrease was more pronounced in the medulla. Capillaries devoid of pericytes were typically dilated in aged mice. Aged kidneys were also characterized by interstitial fibrosis due to increased collagen-I and -III staining. This was accompanied by an increase in the number of pericytes that acquired a pro-fibrotic phenotype, identified by increased PDGFRß+/αSMA+ staining. These findings are consistent with the decline in kidney interstitial pericytes as a critical step in the development of changes to the peritubular vasculature with aging, and accompanying fibrosis. PMID:26081073

  6. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  7. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  8. Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease. PMID:23969008

  9. Macrophage polarization in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewski, Michał; Osińska, Iwona; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The role of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) examination in differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was established. Currently, functional polarization into M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) subpopulations is emphasized. The aim of our study was to compare the proportion of M1 and M2 in BALf of patients with different ILD. BALf samples were collected from 75 ILD patients: sarcoidosis (SA, 36), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, 10), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, 8), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, 6) and other ILD (15). Phenotyping was performed by immunocytochemistry with anti-CD40 and CD163 antibodies (for M1 and M2, respectively). For both, CD40 and CD163, three populations of cells have been specified: small cells with strong (+++), large cells with weak (+) and cells with no (–) reaction. Due to lack of statistically significant differences between patients with HP, NSIP and IPF, they were classified into a common group and compared to the group of patients with sarcoidosis. The median proportion of macrophage population was as follows: for CD40: 61%, 35%, 2% in patients with SA and 49%, 47%, 3% in patients with other ILD and for CD163: 55%, 35%, 5% in SA and 53%, 43%, 1% in ILD patients, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of M1 in SA when compared with other ILD. Our study showed no evidence of defined polarization of alveolar macrophages in different types of interstitial lung diseases. However, we emphasized the role of CD40 positive cells in sarcoidosis and the role of CD163 positive cells in fibrotic diffuse lung diseases. PMID:27536201

  10. Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Basset, F.; Ferrans, V. J.; Soler, P.; Takemura, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Crystal, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic and ultrastructural features of intraluminal organizing and fibrotic changes were studied in open lung biopsies and autopsy specimens from 373 patients with interstitial lung disorders, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 44), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 92), collagen-vascular diseases (n = 20), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (n = 10), pulmonary histiocytosis X (n-90), pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 62), pneumoconioses (n = 25), Legionnaire's disease (n = 5), drug- and toxin-induced pneumonitis (n = 4), radiation-induced pneumonitis (n = 2), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (n = 11), and chronic organizing pneumonia of unknown cause (n = 8). Three patterns of intraluminal organization and fibrosis were recognized: 1) intraluminal buds, which partially filled the alveoli, alveolar ducts and/or distal bronchioles; 2) obliterative changes, in which loose connective tissue masses obliterated the lumens of alveoli, alveolar ducts or distal bronchioles, and 3) mural incorporation of previously intraluminal connective tissue masses, which fused with alveolar, alveolar ductal, or bronchiolar structures and frequently became reepithelialized. All three patterns had common morphologic features, suggesting that, regardless of their severity, they resulted from a common pathogenetic mechanism, ie, the migration of activated connective tissue cells, through defects in the epithelial lining and its basement membrane, from the interstitial into the intraluminal compartment. Intraluminal buds were observed most frequently in hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and organizing pneumonia of unknown cause. Mural incorporation and, to a lesser extent, obliterative changes were observed in most interstitial disorders and were very prominent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Mural incorporation and obliterative changes play an important role in pulmonary remodeling, especially when several adjacent alveoli and/or other air spaces are

  11. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  12. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasurya, R.; Srinivas, B. H.; Ponraj, M.; Haridasan, S.; Parameswaran, S.; Priyamvada, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids. PMID:27512305

  13. Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

  14. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  15. Ultrasound distinction between simple recurrent urinary tract infections and a specific bladder wall inflammatory entity called cystitis cystica.

    PubMed

    Milosević, Danko; Batinic, Danica; Vrljicak, Kristina; Skitarelić, Natasa; Potkonjak, Ana-Meyra; Turudić, Daniel; Bambir, Ivan; Roić, Andrea Cvitković; Spajić, Marija; Spajić, Borislav

    2014-03-01

    A specific representative of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) called cystitis cystica (CC) was assessed by ultrasound. The aim of the study was to delineate, by means of ultrasound measurement (US) of bladder wall thickness (BWT), the children with mere repeated UTI from those prone to frequent UTI due to CC. Two groups were compared, the control group of 30 with recurrent UTI without US CC BWT changes, and the group of 30 children with characteristic CC bladder wall thickening in whom cystoscopy was performed for verification the diagnosis of CC. BWT of > 3 mm (> 2.8 mm and > 3.3 mm) was found as cut-of value for distinction of CC versus simple recurrent UTI. US BWT measurement is useful in diagnosing CC and therefore valuable in decision about need of UTI prophylaxis. PMID:24851610

  16. Extended virulence genotypes and phylogenetic background of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with cystitis, pyelonephritis, or prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James R; Kuskowski, Michael A; Gajewski, Abby; Soto, Sara; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Jimenez de Anta, M Teresa; Vila, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    Molecular analysis of 63 Escherichia coli urine isolates showed that pyelonephritis (n=23) and prostatitis (n=17) isolates exhibited more virulence factors (VFs) among the 35 sought than did cystitis isolates (n=23). Several nontraditional VFs--including bmaE (M fimbriae), gafD (G fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), ireA and iroN (novel siderophore receptors), cvaC (colicin [microcin] V), traT (serum-resistance associated), ibeA (invasion of brain endothelium), ompT (outer membrane protease T), and malX (pathogenicity island marker)--either differentiated significantly between syndromes (despite small numbers of isolates and possible multiple-comparison artifacts) or were broadly prevalent. Thus, interventions that target conserved uro-VFs may be possible, despite the likely existence of syndrome-specific pathogenetic mechanisms and/or host defense systems. PMID:15593002

  17. Sensitivities of major causative organisms isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis against various antibacterial agents: results of subanalysis based on the presence of menopause.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Hayami, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazushi; Muratani, Tetsuro; Monden, Koichi; Arakawa, Soichi; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2012-08-01

    We investigated whether the presence of menopause influenced the species and distribution of causative bacteria isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (the most common urinary tract infection), and we also investigated the sensitivity of the isolated species to antibacterial agents. Using multivariate analysis, we also investigated risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli, because its frequency has increased and it is now a clinical problem in Japan. Six hundred and thirty-four strains were isolated from 489 premenopausal patients (mean age 32.3 ± 10.1 years). Major causative bacteria detected were Escherichia coli (65.0 %), Enterococcus faecalis (12.0 %), Streptococcus agalactiae (5.5 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.6 %). From 501 postmenopausal patients (mean age 68.7 ± 10.29 years), 657 strains were isolated, and the major causative bacteria detected were E. coli (61.5 %), E. faecalis (13.7 %), K. pneumoniae (5.2 %), and S. agalactiae (4.0 %). The sensitivities to fluoroquinolones (FQs) and cephems of E. coli isolated from premenopausal patients were both ≥90 %, while the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli isolated from postmenopausal patients were about 5 % lower. In regard to infection with quinolone-resistant E. coli (minimal inhibitory concentration of levofloxacin [LVFX] ≥4 μg/mL), significant risk factors were observed in patients with more than two episodes of cystitis within a year (p = 0.0002), patients to whom antibacterial agents were used previously for this episode of cystitis (p = 0.0175), and patients who had a history of FQ administration within 1 month. Although the species and distribution of causative bacteria of acute uncomplicated cystitis were the same regardless of the presence of menopause, the sensitivities to FQs of E. coli detected in postmenopausal patients were significantly lower than those in the premenopausal women. The major risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant E

  18. Effect of a Stewardship Intervention on Adherence to Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis Guidelines in an Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Michelle T.; Fox, Clinton J.; Son, Andrea H.; Cydulka, Rita K.; Siff, Jonathan E.; Emerman, Charles L.; Sethi, Ajay K.; Muganda, Christine P.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate adherence to uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) guidelines and UTI diagnostic accuracy in an emergency department (ED) setting before and after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Methods The intervention included implementation of an electronic UTI order set followed by a 2 month period of audit and feedback. For women age 18 – 65 with a UTI diagnosis seen in the ED with no structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary system, we evaluated adherence to guidelines, antimicrobial use, and diagnostic accuracy at baseline, after implementation of the order set (period 1), and after audit and feedback (period 2). Results Adherence to UTI guidelines increased from 44% (baseline) to 68% (period 1) to 82% (period 2) (P≤.015 for each successive period). Prescription of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated cystitis decreased from 44% (baseline) to 14% (period 1) to 13% (period 2) (P<.001 and P = .7 for each successive period). Unnecessary antibiotic days for the 200 patients evaluated in each period decreased from 250 days to 119 days to 52 days (P<.001 for each successive period). For 40% to 42% of cases diagnosed as UTI by clinicians, the diagnosis was deemed unlikely or rejected with no difference between the baseline and intervention periods. Conclusions A stewardship intervention including an electronic order set and audit and feedback was associated with increased adherence to uncomplicated UTI guidelines and reductions in unnecessary antibiotic therapy and fluoroquinolone therapy for cystitis. Many diagnoses were rejected or deemed unlikely, suggesting a need for studies to improve diagnostic accuracy for UTI. PMID:24498394

  19. The influence of oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents on autonomic nervous system activity in rat experimental cystitis model.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Thor, Piotr J

    2013-01-01

    The oxazaphosphorines alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide; CP and ifosfamide; IF) are often used in common clinical practice. However, treatment with CP/IF is burdened with the risk of many adverse drug reactions, especially including hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) that is associated with bladder overactivity symptoms (OAB). The HC pathophysiology is still not fully displayed; it seems that autonomic nervous system (ANS) functional abnormalities play important role in this disturbance. The aim of our study was to reveal the potential ANS differences in rat experimental HC model, evoked by CP and IF by an indirect ANS assessment--heart rate variability (HRV) study. We carried out our experimental research in three essential groups: control group (group 1), cyclophosphamide-induced HC (CP-HC; group 2) one and ifosfamide-induced HC (IF-HC; group 3) one. CP was i.p. administrated four times in dose of 75 mg/kg body weight while IF-treated rats received i.p. five drug doses; 50 mg/kg body weight. Control rats were administrated i.p. vehicle in appropriate volumes as CP/IF treated animals. HRV studies were performed the next day after the last oxazaphosphorines dose. Standard time- and spectral (frequency) domain parameters were estimated. We confirmed the HC development after both CP/IF in macroscopic assessment and bladder wet weight measurement; however, it was more aggravated in CP-HC group. Moreover, we demonstrated HRV disturbances, suggesting ANS impairment after both studied oxazaphosphorines, however, consistent with the findings mentioned above, the autonomic dysfunction was more emphasized after CP. CP treatment was also associated with changes of non-normalized HRV spectral components percentage distribution--a marked very low frequency--VLF [%] increase together with low frequency--LF [%] and high frequency--HF [%] decrease were observed. Taking into consideration the next findings, demonstrating the lack of both normalized power spectral components (nLF and n

  20. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  1. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  2. Interstitial point radiance spectroscopy of turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Lee C. L.; Lloyd, Brendan; Whelan, William M.; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2009-05-01

    We present an optical technique, point radiance spectroscopy, to directly recover chromophore concentrations and the reduced optical scattering coefficient spectrum from continuous wave interstitial point radiance measurements at a single-source-detector separation in turbid, tissuelike media. The method employs a spectral algorithm to fit the relative radiance data, using the P3 approximation, at only two detection angles (0° and 90°). The spectral fitting algorithm is applied to simulated data of relative point fluence and relative point radiance data with added 1% noise and shows that even under realistic experimental conditions, only point radiance information is able to provide quantitative information regarding chromophore concentrations and scattering power at distances greater than two to three mean free paths from the source. Furthermore, experimental measurements in tissue-simulating phantoms demonstrate that dye concentrations and scattering parameters can be recovered to within ˜10%. The developed point radiance technique bridges a technological gap between local surface reflectance and spatially resolved interstitial fluence methods in optical assessment of random media such as biological tissue.

  3. Expansion of Interstitial Telomeric Sequences in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Aksenova, Anna Y; Han, Gil; Shishkin, Alexander A; Volkov, Kirill V; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2015-11-24

    Telomeric repeats located within chromosomes are called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). They are polymorphic in length and are likely hotspots for initiation of chromosomal rearrangements that have been linked to human disease. Using our S. cerevisiae system to study repeat-mediated genome instability, we have previously shown that yeast telomeric (Ytel) repeats induce various gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR) when their G-rich strands serve as the lagging strand template for replication (G orientation). Here, we show that interstitial Ytel repeats in the opposite C orientation prefer to expand rather than cause GCR. A tract of eight Ytel repeats expands at a rate of 4 × 10(-4) per replication, ranking them among the most expansion-prone DNA microsatellites. A candidate-based genetic analysis implicates both post-replication repair and homologous recombination pathways in the expansion process. We propose a model for Ytel repeat expansions and discuss its applications for genome instability and alternative telomere lengthening (ALT). PMID:26586439

  4. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  5. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  6. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  7. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  8. Effects of CYP-Induced Cystitis on Growth Factors and Associated Receptor Expression in Micturition Pathways in Mice with Chronic Overexpression of NGF in Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Girard, Beatrice M; Malley, Susan; May, Victor; Vizzard, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    We have determined if cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis produces additional changes in growth factor/receptors expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral (L6-S1) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression of NGF (NGF-OE). Functionally, NGF-OE mice treated with CYP exhibit significant increases in voiding frequency above that observed in control NGF-OE mice (no CYP). Quantitative PCR was used to determine NGF, BDNF, VEGF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) transcripts expression in tissues from NGF-OE and wild-type (WT) mice with CYP-induced cystitis of varying duration (4 h, 48 h, 8 days). In urothelium of control NGF-OE mice, NGF mRNA was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased. Urothelial expression of NGF mRNA in NGF-OE mice treated with CYP (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) was not further increased but maintained with all durations of CYP treatment evaluated. In contrast, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) regulation in BDNF, VEGF, TrkA, TrkB, and P75(NTR) mRNA in urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. Similarly, CYP-induced cystitis (4 h, 48 h, 8 days) in NGF-OE mice resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.05), differential changes in transcript expression for NGF, BDNF, and receptors (TrkA, TrkB, p75(NTR)) in S1 DRG that was dependent on the duration-of CYP-induced cystitis. In general, NGF, BDNF, TrkA, and TrkB protein content in the urinary bladder increased in WT and NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h). Changes in NGF, TrkA and TrkB expression in the urinary bladder were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in NGF-OE mice with CYP-induced cystitis (4 h) compared to WT mice with cystitis (4 h). However, the magnitude of change between WT and NGF-OE mice was only significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different for TrkB expression in urinary bladder of NGF-OE mice treated with CYP. These studies are

  9. Interstitial Solutes and Deformation in Nb and Nb Single Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    R. E. Ricker; D. J. Pitchure; and G. R. Myneni

    2006-10-30

    Experiments were conducted on high purity single and polycrystalline niobium to determine the influence of low concentrations of interstitial impurities on mechanical properties and to evaluate the feasibility of using measurements of mechanical properties to detect, identify, and quantify the diffusible interstitial content.

  10. Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial-Free Steels

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial-free (IF) steels are defined by their low amounts of solute interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen. During secondary forming, strain can be localized at the grain boundaries of these steels, resulting in secondary cold work embrittlement (CWE).

  11. Free-floating collagen fibers in interstitial mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Gerardo; Crisman, Giuliana; Zalaudek, Iris; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2010-06-01

    We present a case of interstitial mycosis fungoides showing pseudodovascular clefts with "free-floating" collagen fibers surrounded by neoplastic T lymphocytes. Such a finding further expands the histopathologic spectrum of mycosis fungoides and could be taken into account in its differential diagnosis from granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous drug reaction. PMID:20145533

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Radiation-Induced Cystitis and Proctitis: A Prospective Cohort Study on Patient-Perceived Quality of Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Oscarsson, Nicklas; Arnell, Per; Lodding, Pär; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Seeman-Lodding, Heléne

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In this prospective cohort study, the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) were evaluated concerning patient-perceived symptoms of late radiation-induced cystitis and proctitis secondary to radiation therapy for pelvic cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients, 35 men and 4 women with a mean age of 71 (range, 35-84) years were included after informed consent and institutional ethics approval. They had all been treated with radiation therapy for prostate (n=34), cervix (n=2), or rectal (n=3) cancer using external beam radiation at a dose of 25 to 75 Gy. Patients with hematuria requiring blood transfusion were excluded. The HBOT was delivered with 100% oxygen for 90 minutes at 2.0 to 2.4 atmospheres (ATA). Mean number of treatments was 36 (28-40). Symptoms were prospectively assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite score before, during, and 6 to 12 months after HBOT. Results: The HBOT was successfully conducted, and symptoms were alleviated in 76% for patients with radiation cystitis, 89% for patients with radiation proctitis, and 88% of patients with combined cystitis and proctitis. Symptom reduction was demonstrated by an increased Expanded Prostate Index Composite score in the urinary domain from 50 ± 16 to 66 ± 20 after treatment (P<.001) and in the bowel domain from 48 ± 18 to 68 ± 18 after treatment (P<.001). For 31% of the patients with cystitis and 22% with proctitis, there were only trivial symptoms after HBOT. The improvement was sustained at follow-up in both domains 6 to 12 months after HBOT. No severe side effects were observed related to HBOT, and treatment compliance was high. Conclusions: HBOT can be an effective and safe treatment modality for late radiation therapy-induced soft tissue injuries in the pelvic region.

  13. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: A review.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Harari, Sergio; Caminati, Antonella; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2016-01-01

    For many years, cigarette smoking has been considered as the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Recently, however, it has also been associated with the development of diffuse interstitial lung diseases. In the latest classification of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP), the term smoking-related IIP has been introduced, including two entities, namely desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD). Other entities in which smoking has a definite or suggested role include pulmonary Langerhan's cell histiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of smoking-related lung damage and on the clinical aspects of these disorders with the exception of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, which will be reviewed elsewhere in this review series. PMID:26138798

  14. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of p63, Ki67 and β-catenin in canine transitional cell carcinoma and polypoid cystitis of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Hanazono, K; Nishimori, T; Fukumoto, S; Kawamura, Y; Endo, Y; Kadosawa, T; Uchide, T

    2016-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a urinary bladder tumour associated with high mortality in dogs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using p63, Ki67 or β-catenin as a clinical marker for predicting biological behaviour and prognosis in canine TCC. Expression levels of these proteins in TCC (n = 25), polypoid cystitis (n = 5) and normal urinary bladder (n = 5) were scored after immunohistochemical staining. The staining scores for p63 (P < 0.01) and β-catenin (P < 0.05) in TCC were significantly lower than those in normal urinary bladder and polypoid cystitis. In contrast, Ki67 (P < 0.01) staining scores in TCC were significantly higher than those in normal urinary bladder and polypoid cystitis. In TCC, low p63 expression was significantly related to the presence of vessel invasion (P < 0.05) and metastasis (P < 0.01) as well as short survival time (P < 0.05). These findings show that p63 could be a reliable marker for predicting prognosis in canine TCC. PMID:24758385

  16. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  17. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis Mimicking Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Linga, Karthika R.; Khoor, Andras; Phelan, Jonathan A.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a known complication after catheter ablation of arrhythmias. Surprisingly, little information is available on its manifestations in the lung. We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented from an outside hospital with worsening shortness of breath after catheter ablation of pulmonary veins for atrial fibrillation. After an initial diagnosis of pneumonia and its nonimprovement with antibiotics, a surgical lung biopsy was done and interpreted as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with vascular changes consistent with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Later, she was admitted to our institution where a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) and subsequent computed tomography (CT) angiogram of the heart showed severe stenosis of all four pulmonary veins. The previous lung biopsy was rereviewed and reinterpreted as severe parenchymal congestion mimicking NSIP. Our case demonstrates that PVS is an underrecognized complication of catheter ablation, and increased awareness among both clinicians and pathologists is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:26779359

  18. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  19. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  20. Comparative studies on extraction of sediment interstitial waters: Discussion and comment on the current state of interstitial water studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The implication by Murthy and Ferrell (1972)that interstitial water studies are in a confused state is criticized on the basis that the authors have not drawn on a considerable body of data, especially Soviet studies since the 1950's, and results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Pressure filtration systems for extracting interstitial waters are currently the methods of choice for marine studies and have achieved substantial reliability and reproducibility. Although gaps and problems remain, many aspects of interstitial composition of marine sediments have been clarified; these include the substantial constancy of composition of interstitial waters in deep sea pelagic deposits, depletion of interstitial cations owing to authigenic mineral formation in more rapidly accumulated (especially terrigenous) sediments, and special phenomena in sediments overlying salt deposits. ?? 1974.

  1. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  2. Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  3. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile

  4. De novo interstitial deletion of 9q32-34.1 with mental retardation, developmental delay, epilepsy, and cortical dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Karacan, C D; Andiran, N; Colakoglu, E Y

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a 10 year-old female patient with interstitial deletion of 9q32-q34.1 associated with mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism, epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. Interstitial deletion of 9q associated with q32-q34 is found extremely rare. Common features of seven previously reported cases are mental retardation, developmental delay, short stature, a distinct cranial and facial phenotype (brachycephaly, low midface, low and prominent forehead, and low set malformed ears). Combination of epilepsy, abnormal EEG and brain MRI findings are not reported before. PMID:25059019

  5. MicroRNA-mediated GABA Aα-1 receptor subunit down-regulation in adult spinal cord following neonatal cystitis-induced chronic visceral pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Jyoti N; Pochiraju, Soumya; Pochiraju, Soumiya; Kannampalli, Pradeep; Bruckert, Mitchell; Addya, Sankar; Yadav, Priyanka; Miranda, Adrian; Shaker, Reza; Banerjee, Banani

    2013-01-01

    The nociceptive transmission under pathological chronic pain conditions involves transcriptional and/or translational alteration in spinal neurotransmitters, receptor expressions, and modification of neuronal functions. Studies indicate the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) - mediated transcriptional deregulation in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term cross-organ colonic hypersensitivity in neonatal zymosan-induced cystitis is due to miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional suppression of the developing spinal GABAergic system. Cystitis was produced by intravesicular injection of zymosan (1% in saline) into the bladder during postnatal (P) days P14 through P16 and spinal dorsal horns (L6-S1) were collected either on P60 (unchallenged groups) or on P30 after a zymosan re-challenge on P29 (re-challenged groups). miRNA arrays and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed significant, but differential, up-regulation of mature miR-181a in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horns from zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated controls in both the unchallenged and re-challenged groups. The target gene analysis demonstrated multiple complementary binding sites in miR-181a for GABA(A) receptor subunit GABA(Aα-1) gene with a miRSVR score of -1.83. An increase in miR-181a concomitantly resulted in significant down-regulation of GABA(Aα-1) receptor subunit gene and protein expression in adult spinal cords from rats with neonatal cystitis. Intrathecal administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol failed to attenuate the viscero-motor response (VMR) to colon distension in rats with neonatal cystitis, whereas in adult zymosan-treated rats the drug produced significant decrease in VMR. These results support an integral role for miRNA-mediated transcriptional deregulation of the GABAergic system in neonatal cystitis-induced chronic pelvic pain. PMID:23273104

  6. In the absence of overt urothelial damage, chondroitinase ABC digestion of the GAG layer increases bladder permeability in ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Robert E; Van Gordon, Samuel; Tyler, Karl; Kropp, Bradley; Towner, Rheal; Lin, HsuehKung; Marentette, John O; McHowat, Jane; Mohammedi, Ehsan; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2016-05-01

    Loss of integrity of the protective impermeability barrier in the urothelium has been identified as significant in bladder dysfunction. In this study, we tested the theory that the luminal layer of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) serves as an important component of barrier function. The peptide polycation protamine sulfate (PS), 1 mg/ml, was instilled intravesically for 10 min into rat bladders. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), 63 IU/ml, was instilled into an additional six rats for 30 min to digest the GAG layer. Unmanipulated controls and sham-injected controls were also performed. After 24 h, the rats were euthanized, the bladders were removed, and permeability was assessed in the Ussing chamber and by diffusion of FITC-labeled dextran (4 kDa) to measure macromolecular permeability. The status of tight junctions was assessed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. In control and sham treated rat bladders, the transepithelial electrical resistance were means of 2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 2.6 ± 1.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.5 and 1.01 ± 0.7 kΩ·cm(2) in the PS-treated and ChABC-treated rat bladders (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0039, respectively). Similar differences were seen in dextran permeability. Histopathology showed a mild inflammation following PS treatment, but the ChABC-treated bladders were indistinguishable from controls. Tight junctions generally remained intact. ChABC digestion alone induced bladder permeability, confirming the importance of the GAG layer to bladder barrier function and supports that loss of the GAG layer seen in bladder biopsies of interstitial cystitis patients could be a significant factor producing symptoms for at least some interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome patients. PMID:26911855

  7. Evolution kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials: a phase-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Li, Yulan; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial loops are one of the principal evolving defects in irradiated materials. The evolution of interstitial loops, including spatial and size distributions, affects both vacancy and interstitial accumulations in the matrix, hence, void formation and volumetric swelling. In this work, a phase-field model to simulate the growth kinetics of interstitial loops in irradiated materials during aging is developed. The diffusion of vacancies and interstitials and the elastic interaction between interstitial loops and point defects are accounted in the model. The effects of interstitial concentration, chemical potential, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics and stability of interstitial loops are investigated in two and three dimensions. It is found that the elastic interaction enhances the growth kinetics of interstitial loops. The elastic interaction also affects the stability of a small interstitial loop adjacent to a larger loop. The model predicts linear growth rates for interstitial loops that is in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions and experimental observations.

  8. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Adrian C.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2011-02-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals.

  9. Acute Interstitial Nephritis Following Multiple Asian Giant Hornet Stings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute interstitial nephritis Symptoms: Difficulty breathing • headache • numbness • oliguria Medication: Methylprednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasma exchange Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: The Asian giant hornet is the largest wasp species in the world. Its stings can cause acute interstitial nephritis and acute renal failure. From July to October, 2013, Asian giant hornet attacks have killed 42 people and injured 1675 people with their powerful venomous stings in Hanzhong, Ankang, and Shangluo, three cities in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Case Report: We report here a case of a 42-year-old man with acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. On admission, the patient had difficulty breathing, headache, and numbness in both limbs (arm and leg). He was treated in the Emergency Department and Department of Nephrology with plasma exchange and dialysis within 24 hours after being stung. A kidney biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with interstitial infiltrations of eosinophils and lymphocytes. After intensive treatment, his liver function recovered within 10 days. Along with oral methylprednisolone, his renal function recovered 1 month later. Conclusions: This case shows that acute interstitial nephritis happens several days after being stung. Since the number of deaths in southern Shaanxi province is much higher than other places, our report draws the attention of fellow clinicians to the acute interstitial nephritis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings. PMID:26076055

  10. Interstitial lung disease in infancy: A general approach.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erica J; Walsh, Mark; Armes, Jane E; Douglas, Tonia; Chawla, Jasneek

    2016-04-01

    Childhood Interstitial lung disease (chILD) is an umbrella term used to define a broad range of rare, diffuse pulmonary disorders with altered interstitial structure that leads to abnormal gas exchange. Presentation of chILD in infancy can be difficult to differentiate from other common causes of diffuse lung disease. This article aimed at paediatricians provides an overview of interstitial lung disease presenting in infancy and includes key clinical features, a suggested approach to investigation and a summary of management. An overview of three clinical cases has been included to demonstrate the diagnostic approach, characteristic investigation findings and varied clinical outcomes. PMID:27145498

  11. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  12. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  13. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29

  14. Failure of Gallium-67 scintigraphy to identify reliably noninfectious interstitial nephritis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.D.; Lundy, M.M.; Moreno, A.J.

    1983-07-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy has been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of noninfectious interstitial nephritis. We studied 12 patients with Ga-67 citrate that were diagnosed as having noninfectious interstitial nephritis on renal biopsy. Only seven of the twelve patients with interstitial nephritis on biopsy were scan-positive. Gallium-67 scintigraphy may not reliably identify noninfectious interstitial nephritis.

  15. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  17. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  18. Evaluation of the wear properties of high interstitial stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tylczak, J.H.; Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.

    2007-04-01

    Adding carbon to high nitrogen steels increases interstitial concentrations over what can be obtained with nitrogen addition alone. This can results in an increase in hardness, strength, and wear resistance. The alloys produced for this study were all based on commercially available high-nitrogen Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steel. This study is the first significant wear study of these new high interstitial nitrogen-carbon stainless steel alloys. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk abrasion, dry sand/rubber wheel abrasion, impeller impact, and jet erosion. Increasing interstitial concentration increased strength and hardness and improved wear resistance under all test conditions. The results are discussed in terms of overall interstitial alloy concentration.

  19. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  20. Indication for Interstitial Brachytherapy in Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Scott, Joseph C.; Jacobs, Allan J.; Rojas, John

    1984-01-01

    More than 40 patients with gynecological, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal malignancies, both primary and recurrent but confined to the pelvis, were treated with interstitial irradiation over a four-year period. Interstitial irradiation was the choice of treatment for early carcinoma of the prostate, carcinoma of the anal canal less than T2, recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and carcinoma of the cervical stump. The authors' experience in treating recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix with interstitial irradiation is the basis for the indications for selecting the technique of interstitial irradiation presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:6471113

  1. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia: comparison of the clinicopathologic features and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinfu; Liu, Jinming; Yi, Xianghua; Sun, Xiwen; Shi, Jingyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has recently been proposed as a histologic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), but its broad spectrum of clinicopathologic findings and variable prognosis are poorly understood. It is particularly unclear how NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are related. The present study investigated the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of NSIP, and its differential diagnosis from UIP. Methods The clinicopathologic findings and prognosis in 21 NSIP and 18 UIP patients who underwent surgical or video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy were reviewed. Results NSIP was more frequent in women and showed nonspecific clinical manifestations. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) demonstrated ground-glass, net-like, and patchy attenuation in both lungs. Semiquantitative HRCT showed a median fibrosis score of 3 (range, 0 to 7) in NSIP patients and 5 (range, 2 to 7) in UIP patients (P<0.01). On histopathologic examination, NSIP cases were heterogeneous and the findings could be categorized into cellular and fibrosing patterns. The mean age of the NSIP and UIP patients was 48 and 60 years, respectively. The frequencies of fibroblast foci, myogelosis, honeycomb lesions, and pulmonary structural destruction in NSIP and UIP patients were 16.7% and 100% (P<0.001), 22.2% and 85.7% (P<0.05), 16.7% and 92.9% (P<0.001), and 27.8% and 100% (P<0.05), respectively. The responses to glucocorticoid treatment and the prognosis were significantly greater in NSIP than those in UIP. Conclusions NSIP was difficult to be differentiated from UIP by general clinical manifestations, but HRCT can be helpful for this purpose. Definitive diagnosis depends on the results of surgical lung biopsy. PMID:25364525

  2. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  3. Suspected acute interstitial nephritis induced by colistin.

    PubMed

    Kallel, Hatem; Hamida, Chokri Ben; Ksibi, Hichem; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Hergafi, Leila; Chaari, Anis; Chelly, Hedi; Bouaziz, Mounir

    2005-01-01

    We describe a 35-year-old male admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). He developed ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and was treated with imipenem and colistin without any renal toxicity. The patient was readmitted to the ICU for a 2nd and a 3rd exacerbation of COPD and was again treated with imipenem and colistin. In both episodes, he developed rapid worsening in renal function, which improved following colistin withdrawal. Use of the Naranjo ADR probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the renal failure and the colistin therapy. In addition, the time course of events suggested that colistin was the cause of acute interstitial nephritis in this patient. We conclude that our patient had a possible acute allergic reaction to colistin since the 1st introduction was not associated with any renal toxicity and renal failure was observed on the 1st day of the 2nd and the 3rd initiation of colistin therapy, respectively. PMID:16013023

  4. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

  5. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  6. Acute interstitial nephritis - a reappraisal and update.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-09-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an under recognized and under diagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It is estimated to account for 15 - 20% of cases of AKI; it is the reported diagnosis in 2.8% of all kidney biopsies, and 13.5% of biopsies done specifically for acute renal failure. Considerable evidence implicates antigen initiated cell-mediated injury in the pathogenesis of AIN. Drugs account for 70% of all cases, with over 150 different agents incriminated. The remaining cases are due to infections, autoimmune diseases, and rarely idiopathic. The central component of renal injury in AIN is altered tubular function, which usually precedes decrements in filtration rate. The key to early diagnosis is vigilance for the presence of tubular dysfunction in non-oliguric individuals, especially in patients with modest but gradual increments in creatinine level. The utility of urinary biomarkers to diagnose AIN in its early nascent and potentially reversible stage remains to be determined. Prompt recognition, elimination of the offending source of antigen, and use of a limited course of steroid therapy where indicated, will result in complete resolution in ~ 65% of cases, partial resolution in up to 20%, and irreversible damage in the rest. PMID:25079860

  7. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  8. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of uterine leimyoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alastair D.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Patel, Bipin L.; Broadbent, Jeff J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Bown, Stephen G.

    1996-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common benign tumors which may cause heavy or painful periods, may present as a pelvic mass and are associated with infertility. Local excision of symptomatic lesions can be difficult and hazardous, and the alternative is hysterectomy. We are investigating interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) as a less invasive alternative. Initial experiments were undertaken on 40 fibroids after surgical removal. One or two bare tipped, precharred fibers from a 25 W semiconductor laser (805 nm) were inserted into the center of the fibroid and treatment delivered with 2 - 10 W for 100 - 1000 sec. Specimens were subsequently sectioned perpendicular to the fiber track. Fibroids are very pale and apart from occasional charred tracts there was little evidence of thermal coagulation macroscopically or after haematoxylon and eosin staining. However, using a diaphorase stain technique we were able to demonstrate ellipsoid zones of devitalized tissue up to 20 mm across (15 mm for single fibers). These results suggest that ILP is producing gentle, uniform coagulation which could lead to resorption of treated areas. With appropriate numbers of treatment sites, this could permit minimally invasive management of clinically significant lesions. Clinical studies have commenced treating fibroids with ILP at the time of surgical excision by myomectomy or hysterectomy.

  9. Immunologic Observations in Canine Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Kai; Mero, Matti; Oksanen, Aili; Sandholm, Markus

    1971-01-01

    Immunofluorescence studies in cases of chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) in the dog demonstrated deposition of canine IgC and C'3 in the thickened capillary walls of the glomeruli and in the mesangium. Eluates obtained from the nephritic kidneys contained antibodies of IgG type and reacted with autologous or homologous nephritic kidneys but not with normal kidneys or with any normal canine tissue. The staining pattern of fluorescein-conjugated eluates was similar to that obtained with anti-canine IgG or anti-canine C'3. The eluates did not contain leptospiral antibodies. The findings indicate that complement-fixing immune complexes are deposited in the damaged glomeruli in CIN. The nature of the antigen involved in these complexes is unknown, but it does not seem to be a component of normal canine tissue and could thus be viral or bacterial. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4106382

  10. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  11. Ultrastructure of the genital organs in interstitial polychaetes. III. Penes and ejaculatory ducts in Hesionides arenaria (Hesionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westheide, W.

    1982-12-01

    The ejaculatory ducts of the two paired copulatory organs in the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria are ciliated tubes, which open into simple, partly groove-like, non-stiffened penis papillae. The larger part of the ducts within the dorsal body wall is surrounded by circular muscle cells. Voluminous gland cell bodies lie between the pharynx-gut system and the body wall in the anterior part of the body; they extend anteriorly like long, thin necks, of which severl are always united in prominent strands. Their distal ends are expanded and penetrate the ducts. Six different types of glands can be distinguished according to the ultrastructure of their secretory granules. They produce the sheath of the double spermatophore or probably contain lytic enzymes that provide for the penetration of sperm into the body of the female. Differences in ultrastructure of the male organs in the interstitial genera Hesionides and Microphthalmus do not support the recent erection of the subfamily “Microphthalminae”.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to modulate the painful symptoms associated to cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic cystitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Raquel D S; Costa, Kesiane M; Nicoletti, Natália F; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Campos, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the long-term dietary fish oil supplementation or the acute administration of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the mouse hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CYP). HC was induced in mice by a single CYP injection (300mg/kg ip). Animals received four different diets containing 10% and 20% of corn or fish oil, during 21days. Separated groups received DHA by ip (1μmol/kg) or intrathecal (i.t.; 10μg/site) routes, 1h or 15min before CYP. The behavioral tests (spontaneous nociception and mechanical allodynia) were carried out from 1h to 6h following CYP injection. Bladder inflammatory changes, blood cell counts and serum cytokines were evaluated after euthanasia (at 6h). Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed for assessing spinal astrocyte and microglia activation or GPR40/FFAR1 expression. Either fish oil supplementation or DHA treatment (ip and i.t.) markedly prevented visceral pain, without affecting CYP-evoked bladder inflammatory changes. Moreover, systemic DHA significantly prevented the neutrophilia/lymphopenia caused by CYP, whereas this fatty acid did not significantly affect serum cytokines. DHA also modulated the spinal astrocyte activation and the GPR40/FFAR1 expression. The supplementation with fish oil enriched in omega-3 fatty acids or parenteral DHA might be interesting nutritional approaches for cancer patients under chemotherapy schemes with CYP. PMID:26482705

  13. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Pietrobon Martins, Jerônimo; Kaiser, Samuel; Madeira Silva, Rodrigo Braccini; Rockenbach, Liliana; Albano Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Ortega, George González; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Campos, Maria Martha; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE) is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP). Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna) has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight) but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition. PMID:26154141

  14. Haemorrhagic cystitis due to BK virus in a child with ALL on standard chemotherapy without stem cell transplant

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Samin; Yazdi, Mohammad Kaji; Parvin, Mahmoud; Zohrehbandian, Farahnaz; Azma, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    The BK virus (BKV) is a nonenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomavirus family that primarily affects immunocompromised people. BKV infects humans at an early age. Initial infections with BKV are mainly asymptomatic and usually remain latent in the brain, peripheral blood, kidneys, and urothelium. Following the primary infection, viruses persist indefinitely as ‘latent’ infections of the kidney and urinary system because the virus is urotheliotropic. Reactivation of the virus infections occurs in individuals with severe immunosuppression states such as kidney and stem cell transplantation and rarely in pregnancy. In this line, BKV has been implicated as a common cause of late-onset haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation. In contrast, reports of BKV-associated diseases in nontransplant paediatric patients are almost exclusively in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Herein, we report the first case of a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed BKV-associated HC without receiving stem cell transplantation while on standard maintenance chemotherapy. PMID:24062808

  15. The Quinovic Acid Glycosides Purified Fraction from Uncaria tomentosa Protects against Hemorrhagic Cystitis Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Fabrícia; Pietrobon Martins, Jerônimo; Kaiser, Samuel; Madeira Silva, Rodrigo Braccini; Rockenbach, Liliana; Albano Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Ortega, George González; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno; Campos, Maria Martha; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases, such as urinary tract disease. Hemorrhagic cystitis (HE) is an inflammatory condition of the bladder associated with the use of anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP). Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (Mesna) has been used to prevent the occurrence of HE, although this compound is not effective in established lesions. It has been demonstrated that the purinergic system is involved in several pathophysiological events. Among purinergic receptors, P2X7 deserves attention because it is involved in HE induced by CYP and, therefore, can be considered a therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of the quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction (QAPF) from U. tomentosa in the mouse model of CYP-induced HE. Pretreatment with QAPF not only had a protective effect on HE-induced urothelial damage (edema, hemorrhage and bladder wet weight) but was also able to control visceral pain, decrease IL-1β levels and down-regulates P2X7 receptors, most likely by inhibit the neutrophils migration to the bladder. This research clearly demonstrates the promising anti-inflammatory properties of QAPF, supporting its use as complementary therapy. QAPF represents a promising therapeutic option for this pathological condition. PMID:26154141

  16. Interaction of interstitial photodynamic therapy and interstitial hyperthermia in a rat rhabdomyosarcoma--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Levendag, P C; Marijnissen, H P; de Ru, V J; Versteeg, J A; van Rhoon, G C; Star, W M

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the activation of photosensitizing drugs by light of appropriate wavelength. The photosensitive agent Hematoporphyrin Derivative (HPD) appears to be preferentially retained in malignant tumors; irradiation of HPD-containing tissue by light of appropriate wavelength (625 nm) and dose leads to (tumor) tissue destruction. The aim of this study is to achieve maximum tumor control probability with minimum normal tissue photosensitivity. In previous work from our laboratory it has been demonstrated that PDT has its fundamental effects on the tumor and normal tissue microcirculation. As it is well established that hyperthermia (HT) has its major effects in less well vascularized areas of the tumor, the combined modality of HT and PDT might prove to be advantageous. Moreover, suppression of sublethal damage repair by HT has been observed. To overcome the problem of poor light penetration into tissues and the high rate of recurrences following PDT with external irradiation, the combined effects of interstitial PDT with interstitial hyperthermia in a new line of animal experiments were studied in our laboratory. An experimental murine tumor (Rhabdomyosarcoma, type R-1) was transplanted in WAG/Rij rats and, after reaching an average diameter of 2 cm, the active component of HPD, that is Photofrin II, was injected intravenously in different dose schedules (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg). After 24 or 48 hrs the tumors were implanted with four flexible catheters, through which either light or heat could be applied. Light was obtained from an Argon-Dye laser system tuned to a wavelength of 625 nm at a dose rate of 75-100 mW per fiber to a dose level of 900 Joule from four linear light applicators. Heat (44 degrees C/30') was delivered by four 27 MHz radiofrequency antennas. Dose response relationships for PDT alone, HT alone and PDT combined with HT were established with cure as endpoint. This study showed that these two modalities, in the proper sequence

  17. Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: similarity and difference.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Thomas; Sundaram, Baskaran; Khanna, Dinesh; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2014-02-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are increasingly recognized in patients with systemic diseases. Patients with early ILD changes may be asymptomatic. Features of ILD overlap among systemic diseases and with idiopathic variety. High-resolution computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing ILDs. Imaging features are often nonspecific. Therapy- and complication-related lung changes would pose difficulty in diagnosing and classifying an ILD. Biology and prognosis of secondary ILDs may differ between different disease-related ILDs and idiopathic variety. Combination of clinical features, serological tests, pulmonary and extrapulmonary imaging findings, and pathology findings may help to diagnose ILDs. PMID:24480141

  18. Peribronchiolar metaplasia: a common histologic lesion in diffuse lung disease and a rare cause of interstitial lung disease: clinicopathologic features of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Junya; Franks, Teri J; Colby, Thomas V; Flaherty, Kevin R; Galvin, Jeffrey R; Hayden, Dennis; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Kazerooni, Ella A; Martinez, Fernando; Travis, William D

    2005-07-01

    Peribronchiolar metaplasia (PBM) is a histologic lesion consisting of peribronchiolar metaplasia (PBM) of bronchiolar-type epithelium. Although widely recognized, PBM has received little attention in the pathologic literature and is not known to have clinical significance. We identified 15 cases in which PBM was the only major histologic finding in surgical lung biopsies from patients with interstitial lung disease (PBM-ILD), and we reviewed the clinical, imaging, and pathologic findings. The mean age was 57 years (range, 44-74 years) with 13 females and 2 males. One patient had been a welder with fume and asbestos exposure; another had pigeon exposure. Smoking history was available for 13 patients: three current smokers, one cocaine user, two former smokers, and seven never smokers. Three patients had collagen vascular disease. One had elevated serum antinuclear antibody titers. Pulmonary function data were available for 10 patients: one obstructive, five restrictive, two mixed obstructive and restrictive, and two normal. Computerized tomography in 7 patients showed mosaic attenuation in 3 patients and air trapping in 1 patient; no bronchiectasis, septal lines, or honeycombing were seen in any cases. All 11 patients with available follow-up are alive; 4 of them have experienced symptomatic improvement (follow-up, 0.6-6.9 years; mean, 2.4 years). PBM was found focally in other interstitial lung diseases, which were assessed for this lesion: 59% of usual interstitial pneumonia (17 of 29), 50% of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (10 of 20), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (3 of 6), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (9 of 18), and 11% of respiratory bronchiolitis (2 of 18). In summary, PBM is a common histologic finding in various interstitial lung disorders. It is rarely the sole major lung biopsy finding in patients presenting with interstitial lung disease (PBM-ILD). Patients are mostly older women, with mild symptoms and CT findings. Survival appears to be

  19. Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, Hans Jørgen Timm; Indrebø, Marianne; Nedrebø, Torbjørn; Norgård, Gunnar; Wiig, Helge; Berg, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of plasma and interstitial fluid play important roles in transvascular fluid exchange. COP values for monitoring fluid balance in healthy and sick children have not been established. This study set out to determine reference values of COP in healthy children. Materials and Methods COP in plasma and interstitial fluid harvested from nylon wicks was measured in 99 healthy children from 2 to 10 years of age. Nylon wicks were implanted subcutaneously in arm and leg while patients were sedated and intubated during a minor surgical procedure. COP was analyzed in a colloid osmometer designed for small fluid samples. Results The mean plasma COP in all children was 25.6 ± 3.3 mmHg. Arbitrary division of children in four different age groups, showed no significant difference in plasma or interstitial fluid COP values for patients less than 8 years, whereas patients of 8-10 years had significant higher COP both in plasma and interstitial fluid. There were no gender difference or correlation between COP in interstitial fluid sampled from arm and leg and no significant effect on interstitial COP of gravity. Prolonged implantation time did not affect interstitial COP. Conclusion Plasma and interstitial COP in healthy children are comparable to adults and COP seems to increase with age in children. Knowledge of the interaction between colloid osmotic forces can be helpful in diseases associated with fluid imbalance and may be crucial in deciding different fluid treatment options. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01044641 PMID:25853713

  20. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  1. Computer Simulations of Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics in irradiated bcc Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Henager, Charles H.; Deng, Huiqiu; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    The growth kinetics of (001) [001] interstitial loops in bcc Fe is studied by phase-field modeling. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) concentration, generation, recombination, sink strength, and elastic interaction on the growth kinetics of interstitial loops is systematically simulated. Results show that the elastic interaction between the defects and interstitial loops speeds up the growth kinetics and affects the morphology of the interstitial loops. Linear growth rate, i.e., the loop average radius is linear to time, under both aging and irradiation are predicted, which is in agreement with experimental observation. The results also show that the interstitial loop growth rate, which is directly related to the sink strength of the interstitial loop for interstitials, increases linearly with the initial interstitial concentration during aging while changing logarithmically with the interstitial generation rate under irradiation.

  2. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones. PMID:27049045

  3. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed Central

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has a worse response to therapy and prognosis. New insight into the pathophysiology of usual interstitial pneumonia suggests a distinctly fibroproliferative process, and antifibrotic therapies show promise. While the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias can be made confidently in some cases, many patients require surgical lung biopsy to determine their underlying histopathology. A structured, clinical-radiological-pathological approach to the diagnosis of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, with particular attention to the identification of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, insures proper therapy, enhances prognostication, and allows for further investigation of therapies aimed at distinct pathophysiology. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:17060957

  4. Image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy – a valuable salvage treatment approach for loco-regional recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ning; Zhao, Hongfu; Han, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhipeng; Ge, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the treatment effect of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy for refractory recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Case report This 66-year-old female presented with recurrence 5 years after thyroidectomy for PTC. Despite external irradiation and radioactive 131I, the lesion expanded as 3.7 × 3.0 × 2.3 cm3 and 2.0 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm3. The locoregional recurrent tumor was treated with image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The total dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions were delivered on the whole recurrent tumor. Results Removal of the recurrent tumor was securely achieved by HDR interstitial brachytherapy guided with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. The refractory tumor in the patients healed uneventfully after HDR interstitial brachytherapy without recurrence during the 14 months of follow-up. Conclusions The image-guided HDR interstitial brachytherapy may be a valuable salvage treatment approach for refractory recurrence of PTC. PMID:27257420

  5. An observational study of giant cell interstitial pneumonia and lung fibrosis in hard metal lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junichi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Terada, Masaki; Takada, Toshinori; Suzuki, Eiichi; Narita, Ichiei; Kawabata, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Hebisawa, Akira; Sakai, Fumikazu; Arakawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Hard metal lung disease has various pathological patterns including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although the UIP pattern is considered the prominent feature in advanced disease, it is unknown whether GIP finally progresses to the UIP pattern. Objectives To clarify clinical, pathological and elemental differences between the GIP and UIP patterns in hard metal lung disease. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients from 17 institutes participating in the 10th annual meeting of the Tokyo Research Group for Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases, 2009. Nineteen patients (seven female) diagnosed with hard metal lung disease by the presence of tungsten in lung specimens were studied. Results Fourteen cases were pathologically diagnosed as GIP or centrilobular inflammation/fibrosing. The other five cases were the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis. Elemental analyses of lung specimens of GIP showed tungsten throughout the centrilobular fibrotic areas. In the UIP pattern, tungsten was detected in the periarteriolar area with subpleural fibrosis, but no association with centrilobular fibrosis or inflammatory cell infiltration. The GIP group was younger (43.1 vs 58.6 years), with shorter exposure duration (73 vs 285 months; p<0.01), lower serum KL-6 (398 vs 710 U/mL) and higher lymphocyte percentage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (31.5% vs 3.22%; p<0.05) than the fibrosis group. Conclusions The UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis is remarkably different from GIP in distribution of hard metal elements, associated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and clinical features. In hard metal lung disease, the UIP pattern or upper lobe fibrosis may not be an advanced form of GIP. PMID:24674995

  6. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  7. [Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD)].

    PubMed

    Goeckenjan, G

    2003-05-01

    Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) designates interstitial lung changes in smokers, characterized histologically by bronchiolocentric accumulation of pigmented alveolar macrophages and fibrotic or cellular inflammatory changes of pulmonary interstitium. The definition is nearly identical to that of condensate pneumopathy, smoker's pneumopathy or smoker's lung, defined by accumulation of pigmented alveolar macrophages with bland alveoloseptal or peribronchial fibrosis and cellular inflammation of the bronchial wall. In addition to respiratory bronchiolitis, which is found in nearly all smokers, RB-ILD comprises a broad spectrum of varying degrees of the interstitial reaction to the exogenous injury of inhalation smoking with gradual transition to desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). In most cases RB-ILD manifestations are subclinical and detected coincidentally. Radiographic features are reticulonodular and ground glass opacities of the lung. The high resolution computed tomography reveals centrilobular nodules, ground glass opacities, thickening of bronchial walls, and in some cases a reticular pattern. Mild emphysema is frequent. Lung function analysis reveals only minor restrictive or obstructive defects in most cases, often combined with hyperinflation. CO diffusing capacity is slightly to moderately impaired. Pronounced interstitial lung diseases with serious restrictive defects and arterial hypoxemia have been reported infrequently. In differential diagnosis smoking related interstitial lung diseases (DIP, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) and other interstitial lung diseases have to be excluded. In most cases diagnosis can be achieved by bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. In cases of pronounced interstitial lung disease or assumption of an additional interstitial lung disease besides RB-ILD a thoracoscopic or open lung biopsy can be necessary. RB-ILD has a favourable

  8. The NACHT, LRR and PYD Domains-Containing Protein 3 (NLRP3) Inflammasome Mediates Inflammation and Voiding Dysfunction in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Rat Model of Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Francis M; Kennis, James G; Youssef, Melissa N; Lowe, Danielle W; Shaner, Brooke E; Purves, J Todd

    2016-01-01

    Objective NOD-like receptors (NLRs) sense sterile and non-sterile signals and form inflammasomes which trigger an inflammatory response through the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β. Recently we have shown the presence of several NLRs in the bladder urothelia and demonstrated the importance of NLRP3 in bladder outlet obstruction and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis, both models of sterile inflammation. In this study we explore a role for NLRP3 in mediating the response to LPS, a key antigen of uropathogenic bacteria. Method In order to bypass the protective glycosaminoglycan layer lining the urothelium, LPS was directly injected into the bladder wall of Sprague-Dawley rats. Glyburide (a NLRP3 inhibitor) or vehicle was administered orally prior to and after injection. Rats were analyzed 24 h later. Inflammasome activity (caspase-1 activity, IL-1β release) and inflammation (Evan’s Blue extravasation, bladder weight) were assessed, as was physiological bladder function (urodynamics). Results Injection of LPS stimulated inflammasome activation (caspase-1 activity) and the release of IL-1β into the urine which was prevented by glyburide. Likewise, LPS increased inflammation, (bladder weight and the extravasation of Evan’s blue dye), and this was reversed by glyburide. Functionally, animals injected with saline alone demonstrated decreased voiding volume as measured by urodynamics. In the presence of LPS, additional urinary dysfunction was evident with decreased voiding pressures and threshold pressures. The decrease in voiding pressure was blocked by glyburide but the decrease in threshold pressure was not, suggesting that LPS has significant effects mediated by inflammasome-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Conclusion Overall, the results demonstrate the potential importance of inflammasomes in bacterial cystitis as well as the ability of the bladder wall injection technique to isolate the in vivo effects of specific inflammasome ligands to the

  9. Normalization of lung function following treatment of secondary usual interstitial pneumonia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient's symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  10. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Saumen; Santra, Avradip; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  11. Interstitial Lung Disease in Systemic Scleroderma, Complicated with Bilateral Pulmonary Aspergilloma: An Unusual Association

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Saumen; Ghoshal, Loknath; Kundu, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Aspergilloma or mycetoma is a saprophytic fungal infection that colonizes pre-existing excavated lung lesion. However, its association with systemic sclerosis related interstitial lung disease is unusual and scarcely found in literature. We report a middle aged female with long standing systemic sclerosis, who was on immunosuppressive therapy for many years, presented with repeated haemoptysis. Although provisionally pulmonary tuberculosis was suspected, imaging investigations showed presence of bilateral masses inside bullous air spaces along with air-crescent sign suggestive of fungal ball. Subsequent Computed tomography guided needle aspiration from lung mass confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus as aetiologic agent on fungal culture. Patient was treated conservatively for haemoptysis and with oral antifungal drug as surgical removal of fungal ball was not an option due to poor pulmonary reserve. Although she had been treated with itraconazole for more than three years, she had recurrent haemoptysis during this period without any significant regression of size of the aspergilloma. Management of aspergilloma in a background of extensive interstitial lung disease remains poorly defined and complicated. Thereby, overall prognosis is unfavourable and depends on evolution of both underlying scleroderma as well as aspergilloma. PMID:26816937

  12. Normalization of Lung Function Following Treatment of Secondary Usual Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hohberger, Laurie A; Montero-Arias, Felicia; Roden, Anja C; Vassallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) and is associated with a poor prognosis and poor responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy. We present a case of a woman with steroid-responsive biopsy-proven UIP with significant and sustained improvement in pulmonary function. A female in her 40s presented following a one-year history of progressive dyspnea, a 20 lb weight loss, and fatigue. Imaging of the chest with computed tomography (CT) showed bibasilar subpleural reticular opacities and minimal peripheral honeycombing. Comprehensive connective tissue disease (CTD) antibody testing was negative. Pulmonary function testing showed moderate impairment with reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC, 69% predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 73% predicted), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO, 52% predicted). Surgical lung biopsy showed UIP with prominent inflammatory infiltrates. Following treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, the patient’s symptoms resolved, while objective pulmonary function testing showed normalization of lung function, which is sustained at >4 years of follow-up. Improvement in lung function following immunosuppressive therapy is distinctly uncommon in either idiopathic or secondary UIP. This report suggests that occasionally, patients with secondary UIP occurring in the context of otherwise undefinable autoimmune clinical syndromes may be responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25922588

  13. Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Grinsted, Per

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting General practice, Denmark. Subjects Patients (n = 167) with uncomplicated UTI confirmed by positive urine phase-contrast microscopy. Main outcome measures Drug efficacy based on clinical and bacteriological cure. Results Urinary symptoms disappeared first in patients treated with pivmecillinam, but after five days there was no significant difference in clinical cure rate between the two antibiotics. At the follow-up visit 7–10 days after initiation of treatment, 95.4% of patients treated with pivmecillinam and 92.6% of patients treated with sulfamethizole had no persistent cystitis symptoms (difference 2.8%, CI −4.5%; 10.0%). Bacteriological cure was observed in 68.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam and in 77.9% randomized to sulfamethizole (difference −9.2%, CI −24.7%; 6.3%). Some 26.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam experienced a new UTI within 6 months after treatment compared with 18.4% of patients randomized to sulfamethizole (difference 8.4%, CI −4.5%;21.4%). No patients developed septicaemia with urinary pathogens within one year after initial treatment. Conclusion Patients treated with a three-day regime of pivmecillinam experienced faster relief of symptoms compared with patients treated with a three-day regime of sulfamethizole. Five days after initiation of treatment there was no significant difference in clinical and bacteriological cure between the two antibiotic regimes. PMID:18991182

  14. High burden of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilis, L; Morisset, S; Billaud, G; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Labussière-Wallet, H; Nicolini, F-E; Barraco, F; Detrait, M; Thomas, X; Tedone, N; Sobh, M; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T; Salles, G; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2014-05-01

    BK virus (BKV) reactivation has been increasingly associated with the occurrence of late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) resulting in morbidity and sometimes mortality. We investigated the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BKV-HC in 323 consecutive adult patients undergoing allo-HSCT over a 5-year period. BK viremia values for HC staging were evaluated, as well as the medico-economic impact of the complication. Forty-three patients developed BKV-HC. In univariate analysis, young age (P=0.028), unrelated donor (P=0.0178), stem cell source (P=0.0001), HLA mismatching (P=0.0022) and BU in conditioning regimen (P=0.01) were associated with a higher risk of developing BKV-HC. In multivariate analysis, patients receiving cord blood units (CBUs) (P=0.0005) and peripheral blood stem cells (P=0.011) represented high-risk subgroups for developing BKV-HC. BK viremia was directly correlated to HC severity (P=0.011) with a 3 to 6-log peak being likely associated with grades 3 or 4 HC. No correlation was found between BKV-HC and acute graft versus host disease or mortality rate. Patients with BKV-HC required a significantly longer duration of hospitalization (P<0.0001), more RBC (P=0.0003) and platelet transfusions (P<0.0001). Over the 5-year study period, the financial cost of the complication was evaluated at \\[euro]2 376 076 ($3 088 899). Strategies to prevent the occurrence of late-onset BKV-HC after allo-HSCT are urgently needed, especially in CBU and peripheral blood stem cell recipients. BK viremia correlates with the severity of the disease. Prospective studies are required to test prophylactic approaches. PMID:24488049

  15. Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) is an ideal target of optimization for antibiotic therapy in primary care. Because surveillance networks on urinary tract infections (UTI) mix complicated and uncomplicated UTI, reliable epidemiological data on AUC lack. Whether the antibiotic choice should be guided by a rapid urine test (RUT) for leukocytes and nitrites has not been extensively studied in daily practice. The aim of this primary care study was to investigate local epidemiology and RUT-daily use to determine the optimal strategy. Methods General practitioners included 18–65 years women with symptoms of AUC, performed a RUT and sent urines for analysis at a central laboratory. Different treatment strategies were simulated based on RUT and resistance results. Results Among 347 enrolled patients, 78% had a positive urine culture. Escherichia coli predominated (71%) with high rates of susceptibility to nitrofurantoin (100%), fosfomycin (99%), ofloxacin (97%), and even pivmecillinam (87%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (87%). Modelization showed that the systematic use of RUT would reduce by 10% the number of patients treated. Fosfomycin for patients with positive RUT offered a 90% overall bacterial coverage, compared to 98% for nitrofurantoin. 95% for ofloxacin, 86% for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 78% for pivmecillinam. Conclusion Local epidemiology surveillance data not biased by complicated UTI demonstrates that the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance has not affected AUC yet. Fosfomycin first line in all patients with positive RUT seems the best treatment strategy for AUC, combining good bacterial coverage with expected low toxicity and limited effect on fecal flora. Trial registration The current study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00958295) PMID:24612927

  16. Ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis involve oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keh-Min; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Long, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Yi-Lun; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Lu, Mei-Chin; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lu, Jian-He; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Ho, Wan-Ting; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-08-15

    Ketamine abusers develop severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The major aims of the present study were to elucidate ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis and bladder apoptosis in association with oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three different groups, which received normal saline or ketamine for a period of 14 or 28 days, respectively. Double-labeled immunofluorescence experiments were performed to investigate tight junction proteins for urothelial barrier functions. A TUNEL assay was performed to evaluate the distribution of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis was carried out to examine the expressions of urothelial tight junction proteins, ER stress markers, and apoptosis-associated proteins. Antioxidant enzymes, including SOD and catalase, were investigated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence experiments. Ketamine-treated rats were found to display bladder hyperactivity. This bladder dysfunction was accompanied by disruptions of epithelial cadherin- and tight junction-associated proteins as well as increases in the expressions of apoptosis-associated proteins, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals and ER stress markers. Meanwhile, expressions of mitochondria respiratory subunit enzymes were significantly increased in ketamine-treated bladders. Conversely, mRNA expressions of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD (SOD2), Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1), and catalase were decreased after 28 days of ketamine treatment. These results demonstrate that ketamine enhanced the generation of oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria- and ER-dependent pathways and consequently contributed to bladder apoptosis and urothelial lining defects. Such oxidative stress-enhanced bladder cell apoptosis and urothelial barrier defects are potential factors that may play a crucial role in bladder overactivity and ulceration. PMID:26109091

  17. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  18. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy. PMID:24658888

  19. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 4 with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yoshihiko; Kawamura, Kodai; Ichikado, Kazuya; Suga, Moritaka; Yoshioka, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding tendency, and lysosomal accumulation of ceroid-like material, with occasional development of interstitial pneumonia (IP). Nine genetically distinct subtypes of HPS are known in humans; IP develops primarily in types 1 and 4. Most reported cases of HPS with IP are type 1, and there are no published reports of type 4 in Japanese individuals. A 58-year-old man with congenital oculocutaneous albinism and progressive dyspnea for 1 month was admitted to our hospital. We administered high-dose corticosteroids on the basis of a diagnosis of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia. Respiratory symptoms and the findings of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) showed improvement. He was diagnosed with HPS type 4 with interstitial pneumonia on the basis of gene analysis. He has been receiving pirfenidone for 1 year and his condition is stable. This is the first report on the use of pirfenidone for HPS with IP caused by a novel mutation in the HPS4 gene. We conclude that HPS should be suspected in patients with albinism and interstitial pneumonia. High-dose corticosteroid treatment may be useful in cases of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia due to HPS-4, and pirfenidone may be useful and well tolerated in patients with HPS-4. PMID:26029628

  20. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  1. SU-F-19A-12: Split-Ring Applicator with Interstitial Needle for Improved Volumetric Coverage in HDR Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sherertz, T; Ellis, R; Colussi, V; Mislmani, M; Traughber, B; Herrmann, K; Podder, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric coverage of a Mick Radionuclear titanium Split-Ring applicator (SRA) with/without interstitial needle compared to an intracavitary Vienna applicator (VA), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary ring and tandem applicator (RTA). Methods: A 57 year-old female with FIGO stage IIB cervical carcinoma was treated following chemoradiotherapy (45Gy pelvic and 5.4Gy parametrial boost) with highdose- rate (HDR) brachytherapy to 30Gy in 5 fractions using a SRA. A single interstitial needle was placed using the Ellis Interstitial Cap for the final three fractions to increase coverage of left-sided gross residual disease identified on 3T-MRI. High-risk (HR) clinical target volume (CTV) and intermediate-risk (IR) CTV were defined using axial T2-weighted 2D and 3D MRI sequences (Philips PET/MRI unit). Organs-at-risks (OARs) were delineated on CT. Oncentra planning system was used for treatment optimization satisfying GEC-ESTRO guidelines for target coverage and OAR constraints. Retrospectively, treatment plans (additional 20 plans) were simulated using intracavitary SRA (without needle), intracavitary VA (without needle), interstitial-intracavitary VA, and intracavitary RTA with this same patient case. Plans were optimized for each fraction to maintain coverage to HR-CTV. Results: Interstitial-intracavitary SRA achieved the following combined coverage for external radiation and brachytherapy (EQD2): D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy; Bladder-2cc =88.9Gy; Rectum-2cc =65.1Gy; Sigmoid-2cc =48.9Gy; Left vaginal wall (VW) =103Gy, Right VW =99.2Gy. Interstitial-intracavitary VA was able to achieve identical D90 HR-CTV =94.6Gy, yet Bladder-2cc =91.9Gy (exceeding GEC-ESTRO recommendations of 2cc<90Gy) and Left VW =120.8Gy and Right VW =115.5Gy. Neither the SRA nor VA without interstitial needle could cover HR-CTV adequately without exceeding dose to Bladder-2cc. Conventional RTA was unable to achieve target coverage for the HR-CTV >80Gy without severely

  2. AGE-RELATED EFFECT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF COLLAGEN CROSSLINKS IN HUMAN OSTEONAL AND INTERSTITIAL BONE TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Acuna, Rae L.; Gayle, Heather J.; Reyes, Michael J.; Tyler, Jerrod H.; Dean, David D.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    Collagen crosslinks are important to the quality of bone and may be contributors to the age-related increase in bone fracture. This study was performed to investigate whether age and gender effects on collagen crosslinks are similar in osteonal and interstitial bone tissues. Forty human cadaveric femurs were collected and divided into two age groups: Middle aged (42–63 years of age) and Elderly (69–90 years of age) with ten males and ten females in each group (n = 10). Micro-cores of bone tissue from both secondary osteons (newly formed) and interstitial regions (biologically old) in the medial quadrant of the diaphysis were extracted using a custom-modified, computer numerical controlled machine. The bone specimens were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to determine the effects of age and gender on the concentration of mature, enzymatic crosslinks (hydroxylysyl-pyridinoline – HP and lysylpyridinoline – LP) and a non-enzymatic crosslink (pentosidine – PE) at these two bony sites. The results indicate that age has a significant effect on the concentration of LP and PE, while gender has a significant effect on HP and LP. In addition, the concentration of the crosslinks in the secondary osteons is significantly different from that in the interstitial bone regions. These results suggest that the rate of non-enzymatic crosslinking may increase while the formation of maturate enzymatic crosslinks may decrease with age. Such changes could potentially reduce the inherent quality of the bone tissue in the elderly skeleton. PMID:16962838

  3. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  4. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  5. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  6. Successful alectinib treatment after crizotinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Satoru; Fujita, Yuka; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    A 70-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma, harbouring anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, was treated with crizotinib as third-line chemotherapy. After 2 months, crizotinib was discontinued because of the development of crizotinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). Steroid treatment was then introduced and tapered off. Following complete resolution of the interstitial shadow, cytotoxic chemotherapy was initiated, and continued for over 2 years, until new intrapulmonary lesions developed. Although there was a risk of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia, alectinib was initiated as the fifth-line therapy, without steroid supplementation, as there was no alternative treatment. No recurrence of ILD was noted at 10 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful alectinib treatment after the development of crizotinib-induced ILD without the use of prednisolone. PMID:27516885

  7. Successful alectinib treatment after crizotinib‐induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuka; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 70‐year‐old woman with lung adenocarcinoma, harbouring anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, was treated with crizotinib as third‐line chemotherapy. After 2 months, crizotinib was discontinued because of the development of crizotinib‐induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). Steroid treatment was then introduced and tapered off. Following complete resolution of the interstitial shadow, cytotoxic chemotherapy was initiated, and continued for over 2 years, until new intrapulmonary lesions developed. Although there was a risk of drug‐induced interstitial pneumonia, alectinib was initiated as the fifth‐line therapy, without steroid supplementation, as there was no alternative treatment. No recurrence of ILD was noted at 10 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful alectinib treatment after the development of crizotinib‐induced ILD without the use of prednisolone. PMID:27516885

  8. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  9. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  10. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  11. Effect of amlodipine on mouse renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Honma, Shigeyoshi; Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinohara, Masahiro; Mitazaki, Satoru; Abe, Sumiko; Yoshida, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-established method to study interstitial fibrosis of the kidney. In this study, we investigated the effects of a calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, on UUO-induced renal interstitial fibrosis in mice. UUO significantly increased the fibrotic area in the obstructed kidney, but this change was inhibited by amlodipine (6.7mg/kg/day in drinking water). mRNA expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 47 and type IV collagen was increased in the kidneys of UUO mice. Amlodipine reduced the expression of both HSP47 and type IV collagen mRNAs. Phosphorylation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was significantly increased by UUO, but the change was inhibited by amlodipine. Collectively, these results suggest that amlodipine may inhibit the expression of HSP47 and type IV collagen by reducing phosphorylation of JNK and ameliorating the renal interstitial fibrosis induced by UUO. PMID:27029240

  12. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Kazuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Dai; Inui, Naoki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). A 58-year-old Japanese woman presented with oculocutaneous albinism and dyspnea on exertion. A high resolution computed tomography scan showed areas of reticular and ground glass opacity in the lungs, and a surgical lung biopsy revealed fibrotic NSIP. Foamy type 2 pneumocytes and the absence of dense granules in platelets were also observed, consistent with a diagnosis of HPS. Ultimately, a genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the HPS1 gene. The interstitial pneumonia progressed despite treatment with prednisolone, cyclosporine A and pirfenidone. In this report, we discuss the pathological lung features and treatment of HPS associated with interstitial pneumonia. PMID:24583434

  13. Regional extravascular and interstitial lung water in normal dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Snashall, P.D.; Keyes, S.J.; Morgan, B.; Jones, B.; Murphy, K.

    1980-10-01

    The regional distribution of pulmonary extravascular and interstitial water was measured to examine the possibility that regional differences in microvascular pressure or tissue stress may cause regional differences in lung water. Chloralose-anesthetized dogs were traced in an upright or supine position and injected with 51Cr-labeled albumin to equilibrate with plasma. The data revealed that regional extravascular and interstitial water were constant throughout the lungs in both groups and that there were no significant differences between upright and supine dogs. There were no significant differences in hematocrit between slices. It appears that gravity and body position have no measurable effect on either the total size of the extravascular and interstitial compartments or their regional distribution.

  14. The Yersiniabactin-Associated ATP Binding Cassette Proteins YbtP and YbtQ Enhance Escherichia coli Fitness during High-Titer Cystitis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Ik; Hung, Chia S; Henderson, Jeffrey P

    2016-05-01

    The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island (HPI) is common to multiple virulence strategies used by Escherichia coli strains associated with urinary tract infection (UTI). Among the genes in this island are ybtP and ybtQ, encoding distinctive ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins associated with iron(III)-yersiniabactin import in Yersinia pestis In this study, we compared the impact of ybtPQ on a model E. coli cystitis strain during in vitro culture and experimental murine infections. A ybtPQ-null mutant exhibited no growth defect under standard culture conditions, consistent with nonessentiality in this background. A growth defect phenotype was observed and genetically complemented in vitro during iron(III)-yersiniabactin-dependent growth. Following inoculation into the bladders of C3H/HEN and C3H/HeOuJ mice, this strain exhibited a profound, 10(6)-fold competitive infection defect in the subgroup of mice that progressed to high-titer bladder infections. These results identify a virulence role for YbtPQ in the highly inflammatory microenvironment characteristic of high-titer cystitis. The profound competitive defect may relate to the apparent selection of Yersinia HPI-positive E. coli in uncomplicated clinical UTIs. PMID:26883590

  15. Protein-based profiling of the immune response to uropathogenic Escherichia coli in adult patients immediately following hospital admission for acute cystitis.

    PubMed

    Sundac, Lana; Dando, Samantha J; Sullivan, Matthew J; Derrington, Petra; Gerrard, John; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are common infections in humans. Despite the substantial healthcare cost represented by these infections, the human immune response associated with the infection immediately following the onset of symptoms in patients remains largely undefined. We performed a prospective study aimed at defining the milieu of urinary cytokines in adult inpatients in the 24-48 h period immediately following hospital admission for acute cystitis due to UPEC. Urine samples, analyzed using 27-target multiplex protein assays, were used to generate immune profiles for patients and compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The levels of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in urine as a result of infection, an observation consistent with prior findings in murine models and clinical literature. We also identified significant responses for several novel factors not previously associated with the human response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-17A, eotaxin, Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and several growth factors. These data establish crucial parallels between the human immune response to UPEC and murine model UTI studies, and emphasize the complex but poorly defined nature of the human immune response to UPEC, particularly in the immediate period following the onset of symptoms for acute cystitis. PMID:27354295

  16. Successful treatment with intravesical cidofovir for virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Maki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Umeda, Masayuki; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Kouhei; Takaori-Kondo, Akifum

    2016-07-01

    Virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (VAHC) is a formidable complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The standard management of severe VAHC after allo-HSCT has not been established. Intravenous administration of cidofovir (CDV), an acyclic nucleoside analogue with broad-spectrum activity against DNA viruses, has been reported to be effective for VAHC, but it can cause severe renal toxicity. Here we report four cases who achieved clinical responses with intravesical instillation of CDV for severe VAHC after allo-HSCT. Median age was 57 years (40-63), and all were male. The underlying diseases were hematological malignancies. Three had received bone marrow transplantation, and one received cord blood transplantation twice. Conditioning regimen was myeloablative for one, and reduced-intensity for three. The viral types were BK virus and/or adenovirus. Two patients had received CDV intravenously prior to the intravesical therapy. A dose of intravesical CDV was 2-5 mg/kg. In all cases, symptoms of cystitis improved dramatically within a few days without showing any systemic adverse effects. The virological response was observed in two cases. This local therapy was effective even in the cases refractory to the intravenous CDV and a case with severe renal failure. Along with the review of literature, we propose that the intravesical instillation of CDV can be a therapeutic option for severe VAHC after allo-HSCT. PMID:26898668

  17. Treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis with low-dose intravenous cidofovir in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Shin; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Seo-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Jang, Hee-Chang; Kang, Seung-Ji; Jang, Mi-Ok; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims BK virus (BKV) has been associated with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Cidofovir has been used at higher doses (3 to 5 mg/kg/wk) with probenecid prophylaxis; however, cidofovir may result in nephrotoxicity or cytopenia at high doses. Methods Allogeneic HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC are treated with 1 mg/kg intravenous cidofovir weekly at our institution. A microbiological response was defined as at least a one log reduction in urinary BKV viral load, and a clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms and stability or reduction in cystitis grade. Results Eight patients received a median of 4 weekly (range, 2 to 11) doses of cidofovir. HC occurred a median 69 days (range, 16 to 311) after allogeneic HSCT. A clinical response was detected in 7/8 patients (86%), and 4/5 (80%) had a measurable microbiological response. One patient died of uncontrolled graft-versus-host disease; therefore, we could not measure the clinical response to HC treatment. One microbiological non-responder had a stable BKV viral load with clinical improvement. Only three patients showed transient grade 2 serum creatinine toxicities, which resolved after completion of concomitant calcineurin inhibitor treatment. Conclusions Weekly intravenous low-dose cidofovir without probenecid appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with BKV-associated HC. PMID:25750563

  18. Acute interstitial nephritis following kudzu root juice ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Myun; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Noh, Hyunjin; Han, Dong Cheol; Jeon, Jin Seok; Jin, So Young

    2013-10-01

    Recently, the use of herbal remedies and complementary and alternative medicine has increased globally. Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine to promote health. A middle-aged woman consumed kudzu root juice to promote health and well-being for 10 days. Subsequently, she developed anorexia, epigastric discomfort and azotemia. These symptoms improved rapidly within several days after discontinuation of the suspected offending agent and conservative treatment. Acute interstitial nephritis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing acute interstitial nephritis following the ingestion of kudzu root juice. PMID:24060140

  19. Diffusion of zinc vacancies and interstitials in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Paul; Albe, Karsten

    2006-05-01

    The self-diffusion coefficient of zinc in ZnO is derived as a function of the chemical potential and Fermi level from first-principles calculations. Density functional calculations in combination with the climbing image-nudged elastic band method are used in order to determine migration barriers for vacancy, interstitial, and interstitialcy jumps. Zinc interstitials preferentially diffuse to second nearest neighbor positions. They become mobile at temperatures as low as 90-130K and therefore allow for rapid defect annealing. Under predominantly oxygen-rich and n-type conditions self-diffusion occurs via a vacancy mechanism.

  20. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  2. Evaluation of anelastic evidence for interstitial solute binding in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cost, J.R.; Stanley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A Direct Spectrum Analysis (DSA) technique has been applied to key internal friction and elastic after-effect data which are involved in the controversy over the existance of interstitial clustering in the refractory metals. It is found that at relatively high interstitial solute concentrations some of the Snoek peak broadening is due to relaxations that are distinct from the main relaxation. This finding supports the view that interstitial solutes have an interaction that produces clusters of interstitials.

  3. Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. P.; Good, R. R.; Bartone, F. F.

    1990-01-01

    We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2319613

  4. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  5. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  6. Simulation of the interstitial system of exposed sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, Anton; Dye, Arthur; Harty, Beryl

    1981-03-01

    A sand column system with tidal rather than continuous seawater inputs was developed for laboratory simulation of interstitial conditions on exposed sandy beaches. Adjustment of flow volume and rate and permanent water table depth allow simulation of various parts of the intertidal zone by 50 cm sand columns. As oxygen consumption by the interstitial fauna is directly proportional to flow rate, it is critical to obtain the correct flow rates to simulate field conditions. A 4-month experiment with five columns was conducted. During the latter 2 months high amino acid levels were added to the columns. Rates of oxygen consumption, oxidation of organic nitrogen and nitrate production by the columns are described. On average about one-third of the organic nitrogen was oxidized and 2 μmol NO 3-N1 -1 generated by the columns without amino acid addition. This activity could only account for 60% of the oxygen uptake. Meiofauna, protozoans and bacteria segregated vertically in the columns and meiofauna numbers dropped, but protozoan and bacterial numbers increased, especially after amino acid addition. Calculated interstitial respiration, based on individual rates in the literature, was too high and indicates experimental overestimation. It is concluded that much refinement is still needed to improve our under-standing of interstitial metabolism.

  7. Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.P.; Good, R.R.; Bartone, F.F. )

    1990-03-01

    We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced.

  8. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. PMID:23416532

  9. Lumbar Tuberculosis Associated with Membranous Nephropathy and Interstitial Nephritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Quan; Sun, Li; Feng, Jiangmin; Liu, Nan; Jiang, Yi; Ma, Jianfei; Wang, Lining

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a common disease worldwide. However, it now is clear that tuberculosis can affect the kidney more insidiously. We describe a case of lumbar tuberculosis associated with simultaneous membranous nephropathy and interstitial nephritis, in which recovery of renal function occurred after treatment with steroids in addition to antituberculosis agents. PMID:20375238

  10. Localized interstitial granuloma annulare induced by subcutaneous injections for desensitization.

    PubMed

    Spring, Philipp; Vernez, Maxime; Maniu, Christa-Maria; Hohl, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We describe a patient with interstitial granuloma annulare associated with subcutaneous injection therapy (SIT) for desensitization to a type I allergy. Asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous annular patches were located at the injection sites on both her arms. Medical history revealed perennial rhinoconjonctivitis treated with SIT (Phostal Stallergen® cat 100% and D. pteronyssinus/D.farinae 50%:50%). PMID:24011321

  11. Antioxidants induce apoptosis of rat ovarian theca-interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Rzepczynska, Izabela J; Foyouzi, Nastaran; Piotrowski, Piotr C; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Cress, Amanda; Duleba, Antoni J

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of growth of ovarian theca-interstitial tissues is essential for normal ovarian development and function. Reactive oxygen species are involved in modulation of signal transduction pathways, including regulation of tissue growth and apoptosis. Previously, we have demonstrated that antioxidants inhibit proliferation of theca-interstitial cells. This report evaluates the effects of antioxidants on apoptosis of rat theca-interstitial cells. The cells were cultured in chemically defined media without or with vitamin E succinate and ebselen. Apoptosis was evaluated by cytochemical assessment of nuclear morphology, activity of executioner caspases 3 and 7, and determination of staining with annexin V in combination with propidium iodide. Both tested antioxidants induced significant morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, nuclear shrinkage, and pyknosis. Antioxidants also induced other hallmarks of apoptosis including increased activity of caspases 3/7 as well as increased staining with annexin V. The present findings demonstrate that antioxidants with distinctly different mechanisms of action induce a series of events consistent with the process of apoptosis in ovarian mesenchyme. These observations may be of translational-clinical relevance, providing mechanistic support for the use of antioxidants in the treatment of PCOS, a condition associated with excessive growth and activity of theca-interstitial cells. PMID:20844276

  12. Interstitial fluid flow: simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guang-Hong

    2011-08-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues, while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array, we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software, studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow, and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells, up to 30 Pa or so, which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries, blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion, numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research, helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells, and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  13. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  14. Distribution of body fluids: local mechanisms guarding interstitial fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Aukland, K

    1984-01-01

    The plasma volume is determined by fluid influx through drinking and outflux by renal excretion. Both fluxes are regulated according to plasma volume and composition through arterial pressure, osmoreceptors and vascular stretch receptors. As to the remaining part of the extracellular volume, the interstitial space, there is no evidence that its volume (IFV), pressure or composition are sensed in such a way as to influence water intake or excretion. Nevertheless, IFV is clearly regulated, often pari passu with the regulation of plasma volume. However, there are many exceptions to parallel changes of the two compartments, indicating the existence of automatic, local mechanisms guarding the net transfer of fluid between plasma and interstitium. Thus, a rise in arterial and/or venous pressure, tending to increase capillary pressure and net filtration, is counteracted by changes in the "Starling forces": hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures of capillary blood and interstitial fluid. These "oedemapreventing mechanisms" (A. C. Guyton) may be listed as follows: Vascular mechanisms, modifying capillary pressure or interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Increased transmural vascular pressure elicits precapillary constriction and thereby reduces the rise in capillary pressure. Counteracts formation of leg oedema in orthostasis. Venous expansion transmits pressure to the interstitium in encapsulated organs (brain, bone marrow, rat tail). Mechanisms secondary to increased net filtration, A rise in IFV will increase IFP, and thereby oppose further filtration. Favoured by lowcompliant interstitium. Reduction of interstitial COP through dilution and/or washout of interstitial proteins. A new steady state depends on increased lymph flow. Increased lymph flow permits a rise in net capillary filtration pressure. Low blood flow and high filtration fraction will increase local capillary COP. PMID:6399307

  15. Interstitial gold and external beam irradiation for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, M.A.; Dowling, R.A.; Gonzales, M.; Handel, P.H.; Benson, G.S.; Corriere, J.N. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    We treated 65 patients with prostatic cancer confined clinically to the prostate or periprostatic area during an 8-year period. Seven patients had stage A2, 38 stage B and 20 stage C disease. All 65 patients underwent staging pelvic lymphadenectomy and implantation of gold grains into the prostate (mean dose 3,167 rad). A total of 64 patients then completed a course of external beam irradiation to a mean total tumor dose of 6,965 rad. Complications of therapy were mild and limited (less than 3 months in duration) in most patients, and they included radiation cystitis (32 per cent), diarrhea (31 per cent), extremity lymphedema (7.7 per cent) and wound infection (3 per cent). Two patients suffered urinary incontinence after therapy and 2 (3 per cent) had diarrhea more than 3 months in duration. The actuarial 5-year survival rate for all patients was 87 per cent and the 5-year survival free of disease was 72 per cent.

  16. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies. PMID:27621665

  17. Key Role of the Cation Interstitial Structure in the Radiation Resistance of Pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, Alain; Catillon, Gilles; Crocombette, Jean-Paul

    2009-04-17

    The annealing of the B cation interstitial is shown to drive the thermokinetic of the response to irradiations of A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores. Molecular dynamics simulations evidenced that the annealing of interstitials created by irradiations depends upon the nature of B. As the coordination number of B decreases, the dumbbell interstitial is stabilized at the expense of the isolated interstitial. Unlike the isolated interstitials, the recombination of the dumbbells is thermally activated and hindered at low temperatures. The occurrence of dumbbells drives the structure towards the amorphous state.

  18. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies. PMID:27621665

  19. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  20. Levofloxacin for the treatment of severe refractory BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: A report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    TOPTAS, TAYFUR; KAYGUSUZ-ATAGUNDUZ, ISIK; KANI, HALUK TARIK; ADIGUZEL, CAFER; FIRATLI-TUGLULAR, TULIN

    2014-01-01

    BK-virus (BKV) is an important etiological agent for late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Late-onset HC causes significant morbidity among these patients. Therapeutic approaches remain predominantly symptomatic. Several treatment options have been used with variable success rates. Cidofovir has the highest specificity against BKV; however, its lack of availability in the majority of countries, high costs and potential nephrotoxic effects limit its use. The present study reports three cases of severe and prolonged BKV-associated HC (BKHC). HC was resolved in all three of the patients using oral levofloxacin. Thus, levofloxacin may be an effective treatment modality for achieving complete clinical and molecular response in patients with refractory, severe BKHC. PMID:25202408

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy-derived interstitial hydrogen ion concentration and tissue oxygen saturation during ambulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stuart M C; Clarke, Mark S F; O'Connor, Daniel P; Stroud, Leah; Ellerby, Gwenn E C; Soller, Babs R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether walking and running at different treadmill speeds resulted in different metabolic and cardiovascular responses in the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) by examining metabolite accumulation and tissue oxygen saturation. Ten healthy subjects (6 males, 4 females) completed a submaximal treadmill exercise test, beginning at 3.2 km h(-1) and increasing by 1.6 km h(-1) increments every 3 min until reaching 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Muscle tissue oxygenation (SO(2)), total hemoglobin (HbT) and interstitial hydrogen ion concentration ([H(+)]) were calculated from near infrared spectra collected from VL and LG. The [H(+)] threshold for each muscle was determined using a simultaneous bilinear regression. Muscle and treadmill speed effects were analyzed using a linear mixed model analysis. Paired t-tests were used to test for differences between muscles in the [H(+)] threshold. SO(2) decreased (P = 0.001) during running in the VL and LG, but the SO(2) response across treadmill speeds was different between muscles (P = 0.047). In both muscles, HbT and [H(+)] increased as treadmill speed increased (P < 0.001), but the response to exercise was not different between muscles. The [H(+)] threshold occurred at a lower whole-body VO(2) in the LG (1.22 ± 0.63 L min(-1)) than in the VL (1.46 ± 0.58 L min(-1), P = 0.01). In conclusion, interstitial [H(+)] and SO(2) are aggregate measures of local metabolite production and the cardiovascular response. Inferred from simultaneous SO(2) and [H(+)] measures in the VL and LG muscles, muscle perfusion is well matched to VL and LG work during walking, but not running. PMID:21212975

  2. Effects of the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel on edema formation and interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Brønstad, Aurora; Berg, Ansgar; Reed, Rolf K

    2004-08-01

    Interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) is important for maintaining constant interstitial fluid volume. In several acute inflammatory reactions, a dramatic lowering of P(if) has been observed, increasing transcapillary filtration pressure and favoring initial and rapid edema formation. This lowering of P(if) seems to involve dynamic beta(1)-integrin-mediated interactions between connective tissue cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers. beta(1)-Integrins are adhesion receptors responsible for the attachment of connective tissue cells to the ECM providing a force-transmitting physical link between the ECM and cytoskeleton. Disruption of actin filaments leads to lowering of P(if) and edema formation, suggesting a role for actin filaments. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the control of P(if) by studying the effect of microtubuli fixation using paclitaxel and docetaxel. P(if) was measured with the micropuncture technique. Albumin extravasation (E(alb)) was measured using (125)I-labeled albumin. Paclitaxel and docetaxel were tested locally on foot skin in female Wistar rats. Paclitaxel (6 mg/ml) reduced P(if) from -1.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg in controls to -4.9 +/- 2.6 mmHg after 30 min (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Docetaxel caused a similar lowering of P(if). Both paclitaxel and docetaxel increased E(alb) compared with Cremophor EL and saline control (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with phalloidin before paclitaxel, causing fixation of actin filaments, abolished the lowering of P(if) caused by paclitaxel. This study confirms several previous studies demonstrating that connective tissue cells influence P(if) and edema formation. PMID:15059777

  3. The immunoprofile of interstitial Cajal cells within adenomyosis/endometriosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Isabela Magdalena; Drăghici, Liviu; Cojocaru, Manole; Gorgan, Carmen Loredana; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2015-01-01

    Adenomyosis and endometriosis are lesions which have aroused the interest for the investigation of antibodies specific to the structures from the composition, but also for the cause behind the appearance of these lesions in completely different structures. The impact they have on fertility is not known entirely, for they are difficult to diagnose. Endometriosis causes infertility and it is a hard to treat lesion. The research performed in the last years has been focused on the so-called linkage analysis, or reverse genetics. It refers to identifying the genes which are prone to developing this affection. We investigated clinically 40 female inpatients (n=40) who had underwent genital surgery and received a variegate diagnosis in the "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between January-September 2014 and also their histopathology and immunohistochemistry. We proceeded with the histopathology examination in order to establish a diagnosis in respect to the admission diagnosis and then, using the ABC (Avidin-Biotin complex) method, we analyzed the immunohistochemistry of the following markers: S100 protein (for detection of ganglia and nerve cells), CD117÷c-kit (selective detection of interstitial Cajal cells - ICC), desmin and vimentin (intermediary filaments for detecting ICC-like cells, which cohabit with uterine myocytes and are not contractile cells) and CD10 (a sensitive and useful immunomarker in the diagnosis of endometrial stroma and, in some cases, of neoplasia). Our study, regarding the immunoprofile of some markers of adenomyosis÷endometriosis lesions, supports the hypothesis that the interstitial Cajal cells are non-reactive, they are not in relationship with investigated lesions, but CD10 is a very useful marker to highlight the endometrial stroma in query cases. PMID:25826497

  4. Indirect autonomic nervous system activity assessment with heart rate variability in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis treated with melatonin or agomelatine

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Agnieszka; Thor, Piotr J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Melatonin (MLT) is reported to exert uroprotective effect due to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties. It is unknown whether that effect also results from melatonin receptor activation, or it is attributed to the modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of MLT and agomelatine (AMT) – melatonin receptor agonist on ANS activity, indirectly assessed by heart rate variability (HRV), in rats with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (CP-HC). Material and methods CP-HC was induced in all rats by four doses of cyclophosphamide given intraperitoneally (i.p.) at the dose of 75 mg/kg/dose. Rats were divided on three experimental groups and during induction of cystitis were treated i.p. with: (1) saline (control group); (2A/2B) MTL given at the dose of 40 or 100 mg/kg/dose; (3A/3B) AMT given at the dose of 40 or 100 mg/kg/dose. HRV recordings were performed in anesthetized rats at the eight day of the study. Results Both 2A and 2B animals were characterized by an increase in all non-normalized components in HRV spectrum. Furthermore, normalized LF (nLF) increase along with normalized HF (nHF) decrease were demonstrated in 2B rats. AMT treatment resulted only in an increase in total power (TP) and very low frequency (VLF) in 3A animals. Conclusions CP-HC rats treated with MLT were characterized by global ANS activity elevation, with a marked sympathetic tone predominance in subgroup 2B. Since the AMT treatment had no effect on autonomic function, it seems that melatonin modulates autonomic activity via non-receptor mechanisms. PMID:26793020

  5. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-01

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. PMID:27343032

  6. Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Diseases: Unresolved Issues.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Irene Jarana; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) complicating connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Progress has been made in our understanding of these collective diseases; however, there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we describe the current views on epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, and prognosis in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated ILD. We also highlight several areas that remain unresolved and in need of further investigation, including interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, histopathologic phenotype, and pharmacologic management. A multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach to diagnosis, management, and investigation of CTD-associated ILD patients is essential to advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathobiology of this challenging group of diseases. PMID:27231868

  7. Significance of granulomatous inflammation in usual interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tomic, Rade; Kim, Hyun J; Perlman, David M; Bors, Melinda; Allen, Tadashi; Ritter, Jon; Dincer, H Erhan; Bhargava, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unclear etiology with characteristic pulmonary lesions. We describe 2 unique cases of sarcoidosis where after approximately 20 years of clinical quiescence, patients developed interstitial opacities on chest CT scan and an increase in shortness of breath. With lack of therapeutic response to a course of prednisone, both patients underwent a surgical lung biopsy that revealed a pattern consistent with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) with honeycombing and fibroblastic foci. Postoperatively, the course of the disease was consistent with what would be expected in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Ultimately the disease progressed with one patient needed lung transplantation and the other requiring high-flow oxygen supplementation. In conclusion, we present two patients in whom a diagnosis of sarcoidosis preceded the diagnosis of UIP by 20 years or more. The subsequent course of disease in both patients was consistent with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. PMID:26278696

  8. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Nena, Evangelia; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis. PMID:22900168

  9. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D; Golubov, Stanislav I; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  10. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  11. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-09-26

    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. PMID:25139731

  12. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  13. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  14. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without arthritis: successful therapy with hydroxychloroquine].

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Eva Kristina; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A; Ständer, Sonja

    2003-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a rare entity characterized by cutaneous linear strands (the "rope sign") and rheumatoid arthritis. In the past years, 12 other cases have been described with variable cutaneous symptoms. All showed similar histological features, resembling those of granuloma annulare or 'palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis', suggesting a wide spectrum for a single entity. A 60-year-old patient presented with erythematous patches with an indurated, violaceous border resembling the "rope sign" on both flanks. The histological investigation revealed dense diffuse interstitial inflammatory infiltrates composed of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and multinucleated giant cells in the superficial and deep dermis. In the deep dermis, prominent eosinophilic degenerated collagen fibres with surrounding macrophages ('floating sign') occurred. In contrast to most previously described patients, our patient did not have arthralgias. The skin findings cleared following therapy with hydroxychloroquine. PMID:16285183

  15. Interstitial Lung Disease with ANCA-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    The association between interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), particularly microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), has been described in a number of case reports and case series reports in the last 2 decades. In addition, patients with pulmonary fibrosis and ANCA positivity but without other manifestations of systemic vasculitis have also been reported. Pulmonary fibrosis was clinically manifested at the time of diagnosis in the majority of AAV patients that developed this condition. Moreover, ANCA-positive conversion occurs in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and as a result, other manifestations of systemic vasculitis develop in some of these patients. There is significant predominance of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and MPA in patients with AAV and ILD. Radiological and pathological findings generally demonstrate usual interstitial pneumonia (pattern) in the lungs of these patients. In most studies, AAV patients with ILD have a worse prognosis than those without it. PMID:26448696

  16. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population. PMID:27068927

  17. Computerized Tomography: Its Role in Interstitial Brachytherapy of Pelvic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Pradeep; Taylor, Judith; Jones, E.O.; McAnulty, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    The advantages of computerized tomography (CT) in the treatment planning of external beam radiation therapy have been shown in several studies. The authors extended the use of CT to the interstitial brachytherapy treatment planning of pelvic malignancies. CT was found to be invaluable in localizing pelvic tumors, selecting implant techniques, and checking the accuracy of the implant. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:3950985

  18. An atypical case of fulminant interstitial pneumonitis induced by carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Narita, Hideyuki; Ozawa, Takuro; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Shohei; Watanabe, Seigo; Isshiki, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Carbamazepine is a therapeutic anticonvulsant, used to manage pain. We often use it to treat trigeminal and post-herpes zoster neuralgias. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is a known adverse consequence of using carbamazepine, with bronchiolitis obliterans and organizing pneumonitis. (BOOP) drug-induced IP as typical examples. Here we described a patient with post-herpes zoster neuralgia, who suffered from drug-induced acute IP that differed from cases typically induced by carbamazepine. PMID:19149523

  19. Interstitial 1q23.3q24.1 deletion in a patient with renal malformation, congenital heart disease, and mild intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Klink, Barbara; Weber, Julia Sara; Mayer, Brigitte; Schröck, Evelin; Tzschach, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial deletions including chromosome region 1q23.3q24.1 are rare. Only eight patients with molecularly characterized deletions have been reported to date. Their phenotype included intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, microcephaly, congenital heart disease, and renal malformations. We report on a female patient with mild developmental delay, congenital heart disease, and bilateral renal hypoplasia in whom an interstitial de novo deletion of approximately 2.7 Mb in 1q23.3q24.1 was detected by array CGH. This is the smallest deletion described in this region so far. Genotype-phenotype comparison with previously published patients allowed us to propose LMX1A and RXRG as potential candidate genes for intellectual disability, PBX1 as a probable candidate gene for renal malformation, and enabled us to narrow down a chromosome region associated with microcephaly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27255444

  20. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. Biopsy specimens by transbronchial lung biopsy showed subacute interstitial pneumonia and an organizing pneumonia pattern with acute alveolar injury. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed a positive result for vildagliptin. Withdrawal of vildagliptin and administration of glucocorticoid treatment improved his respiratory condition and radiological findings. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia based on both his clinical course and pathological findings. Interstitial pneumonia as a side effect of vildagliptin is rare. It may be necessary to monitor the respiratory condition of patients upon administration of DPP-4 inhibitors until further evidence is obtained. PMID:27144110

  1. Unusual gestational choriocarcinoma arising in an interstitial pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Meddeb, Sawsen; Rhim, Mohamed Salah; Zarrouk, Wissal; Bibi, Mohamed; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Khairi, Hedi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm. Its association with ectopic pregnancy is very rare and usually with aggressive behavior. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a new case arising in an interstitial pregnancy occurring in a 46-year-old woman. The patient was admitted for severe pelvic pain and abundant metrorrhagia. One month ago, she had had a laparoscopic resection of an interstitial pregnancy subsequent to failure of chemotherapy by methotrexate. The raise of serum βhCG level and the hyperechoic intrauterine mass were in favor of gestational trophoblastic disease. Urgent laparotomy was performed for circulatory collapse. Hysterectomy was done. Histological examination revealed a choriocarcinoma. The patient underwent chemotherapy. Two years later, neither metastasis nor recurrence was detected. DISCUSSION Clinical diagnosis of primary interstitial choriocarcinoma is difficult, since it is rare and manifesting by non-specific abnormal vaginal bleeding. Imaging findings are also not helpful in ectopic location. The frequency of metastasis is related to the delayed diagnosis. Serial measurement of βhCG level was the most useful marker of diagnosis and follow up. Histopathological examination remains the only tool of the precise diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma has a very good prognosis even in advanced stages, since it is very chemosensitive. CONCLUSION The current trend of the treatment of ectopic pregnancy by conservative surgery requires adequate monitoring of βhCG and careful examination of pathologic specimens to avoid misdiagnosis of ectopic gestational trophoblastic disease. PMID:25290382

  2. The interstitial fraction of diffusivity of common dopants in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossmann, H.-J.; Haynes, T. E.; Stolk, P. A.; Jacobson, D. C.; Gilmer, G. H.; Poate, J. M.; Luftman, H. S.; Mogi, T. K.; Thompson, M. O.

    1997-12-01

    The relative contributions of interstitials and vacancies to diffusion of a dopant A in silicon are specified by the interstitial fraction of diffusivity, fA. Accurate knowledge of fA is required for predictive simulations of Si processing during which the point defect population is perturbed, such as transient enhanced diffusion. While experimental determination of fA is traditionally based on an underdetermined system of equations, we show here that it is actually possible to derive expressions that give meaningful bounds on fA without any further assumptions but that of local equilibrium. By employing a pair of dopants under the same point-defect perturbance, and by utilizing perturbances very far from equilibrium, we obtain experimentally fSb⩽0.012 and fB⩾0.98 at temperatures of ˜800 °C, which are the strictest bounds reported to date. Our results are in agreement with a theoretical expectation that a substitutional dopant in Si should either be a pure vacancy, or a pure interstitial(cy) diffuser.

  3. A case of vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kuse, Naoyuki; Abe, Shinji; Kuribayashi, Hidehiko; Inomata, Minoru; Saito, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese male with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital with a productive cough and worsening dyspnea. He had started receiving vildagliptin, which is one of the dipeptideylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, several days before the appearance of his symptoms. Laboratory findings revealed markedly elevated levels of immunoglobulin E and Krebs von den Lungen-6. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity with irregular reticulation throughout both lungs. Biopsy specimens by transbronchial lung biopsy showed subacute interstitial pneumonia and an organizing pneumonia pattern with acute alveolar injury. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed a positive result for vildagliptin. Withdrawal of vildagliptin and administration of glucocorticoid treatment improved his respiratory condition and radiological findings. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with vildagliptin-induced interstitial pneumonia based on both his clinical course and pathological findings. Interstitial pneumonia as a side effect of vildagliptin is rare. It may be necessary to monitor the respiratory condition of patients upon administration of DPP-4 inhibitors until further evidence is obtained. PMID:27144110

  4. Outcome Measures for Clinical Trials in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Matthew R.; Baughman, Robert P.; Birring, Surinder S.; Russell, Anne-Marie; Ryu, Jay H.; Scholand, Marybeth; Distler, Oliver; LeSage, Daphne; Sarver, Catherine; Antoniou, Katerina; Highland, Kristin B.; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Lasky, Joseph A.; Wells, Athol U.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2015-01-01

    The chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are a group of heterogeneous pulmonary parenchymal disorders described by radiologic and histological patterns termed usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). These include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and those related to connective tissue disease (CTD) and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Beyond the importance of establishing an appropriate diagnosis, designing optimal clinical trials for IIPs has been fraught with difficulties in consistency of clinical endpoints making power analyses, and the establishment of efficacy and interpretation of results across trials challenging. Preliminary recommendations, developed by rigorous consensus methods, proposed a minimum set of outcome measures, a ‘core set’, to be incorporated into future clinical trials (Saketkoo et al, THORAX. 2014.). This paper sets out to examine the candidate instruments for each domain (Dyspnea, Cough, Health Related Quality of Life, Imaging, Lung Physiology and Function, Mortality). Candidate measures that were not selected as well as measures that were not available for examination at the time of the consensus process will also be discussed. PMID:27019654

  5. Interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplantation. Assessment of risk factors

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, R.S.; Bortin, M.M.; Gale, R.P.; Gluckman, E.; Kay, H.E.; Kolb, H.J.; Hartz, A.J.; Rimm, A.A.

    1986-02-01

    Data from 932 patients with leukemia who received bone marrow transplants were analyzed to determine factors associated with an increased risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis. Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 268 patients for a 2-year actuarial incidence of 35 +/- 4% (SD) and with a mortality rate of 24%. Six factors were associated with an increased risk: use of methotrexate rather than cyclosporine after transplantation (relative risk, 2.3; p less than 0.0002); older age (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); presence of severe graft-versus-host disease (relative risk, 1.9; p less than 0.003); long interval from diagnosis to transplantation (relative risk, 1.6; p less than 0.002); performance ratings before transplantation of less than 100% (relative risk, 2.1; p less than 0.0001); and high dose-rates of irradiation in patients given methotrexate after transplantation (relative risk, 3.2; p less than 0.03). The risk of developing interstitial pneumonitis ranged from 8% in patients with none of these adverse risk factors to 94% in patients with all six. These findings may help to identify patients at high risk for this complication.

  6. Four new Schizopera (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from marine interstitial habitats in Korea.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Cho, Joo-Lae

    2016-01-01

    With more than 100 valid species, the predominantly marine genus Schizopera Sars, 1905 has a near global distribution. The genus is also relatively successful in invading estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. In Korea only two widely distributed estuarine species have been recorded previously: S. clandestina (Klie, 1924) and S. neglecta Akatova, 1935. Four rare new species discovered in marine interstitial habitats are reported herein. Schizopera daejinensis sp. nov. and S. yeonghaensis sp. nov. are described after a single female and one specimen of each sex respectively. These two species were found living simpatrically in Daejin beach, near Yeong Hae city, on the East Coast of Korea. The minute S. gangneungensis sp. nov. is described after three females from a beach in Gangneung city, also on the East Coast of Korea. Schizopera sindoensis sp. nov. is described after one female and five males from a tiny beach on Jeju Island, on the South Coast of Korea. Our detailed survey of Korean beaches and the absence of any of these species in other localities suggest them to be either short range endemics or anthropogenic relics. We discuss the need for further study and protection of these neglected habitats, and the role they might play in harbouring disproportionate levels of diversity. A variety of phenotypic features for comparative descriptions of the four new species were used, including all cuticular organs (sensilla and pores) on the somites. These minute and underutilized structures provide as much resolution on the species level as traditionally used characters do, with an added bonus of an almost complete lack of sexual dimorphism. This might provide useful directions for future pairing of opposite sexes in these and other copepods, especially in cases of sympatric congeners or missing sexes. PMID:27395109

  7. Feline idiopathic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S Dru; Towell, Todd L

    2015-07-01

    While FIC remains a diagnosis of exclusion, studies over the last two decades suggest that it results from complex interactions between the urinary bladder, neuroendocrine system and environmental factors, and stress appears to play a role in the pathogenesis. The self-limiting nature of FIC and importance of environmental factors on recurrence of clinical signs emphasize the need for controlled, prospective, double-blinded clinical studies to determine the best management options. Current best evidence for initial management of acute, non-obstructive FIC supports a specific nutritional recommendation for a therapeutic urinary food proven to reduce recurrent episodes, environmental enrichment and feeding moist food. PMID:25813400

  8. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  9. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  10. Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis in native and allograft renal biopsies: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pallav; Rana, D S; Bhalla, A K; Gupta, Ashwini; Malik, Manish; Gupta, Anurag; Bhargava, Vinant

    2014-10-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of renal failure in both native and allograft renal biopsies. Drugs and sarcoidosis are the commonest causes of granulomatous interstitial nephritis as reported in Western countries. Unlike the west, tuberculosis is the commonest cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis in Indian subcontinent. The etiological factors, clinical course, glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes associated with granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been analyzed in the present study along with the outcome in patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis. PMID:25155448

  11. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p < 0.05). Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms. PMID:26961802

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Ab initio calculation of the local vibrational modes of the interstitial boron interstitial oxygen defect in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Coutinho, J.; Briddon, P. R.

    2005-05-01

    The first stage in the anneal of interstitial boron below room temperature in Czochralski-grown Si (Cz-Si) is the formation of the interstitial boron-oxygen (BiOi) defect. First principles modelling show that this defect has a structure similar to the interstitial carbon-oxygen complex. However, whereas the latter defect has been characterized by local vibrational mode infra-red spectroscopy, there is no information on the local vibrational modes of BiOi even though the defect is known to be a dominant interstitial boron defect in irradiated Cz-Si. Here, we carry out density functional calculations to determine its vibrational modes and respective isotope shifts, concluding that it possesses six local vibrational modes. As in the case of CiOi, we find an oxygen-related vibrational mode with frequency far below the 1136 cm-1 of the oxygen interstitial, characteristic of the three-fold coordinated oxygen.

  13. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    PubMed

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2016-05-01

    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features. PMID:26627191

  14. Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.]. PMID:26328003

  15. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  16. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  17. Autistic and Rett-like features associated with 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Hyun; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Myungshin

    2015-09-01

    We describe the fourth reported case of a de novo 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion and review the literature in attempt to identify relevant candidate genes. A 15-month-old female patient presented for evaluation with poor eye contact and developmental delay. She had microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, such as downslanting palpebral fissures, high forehead, small mouth, high palate, and general hypotonia. At 30 months of age, she was referred to the genetic clinic for an evaluation of persistent developmental delay, autistic traits, and Rett-like features, including bruxism and repetitive movement of the left hand. Chromosome analysis revealed 46,XX at the 550 band level. No abnormalities were found on analysis of MECP2 gene for Rett syndrome and a DNA methylation test for Prader-Willi syndrome. An array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed a de novo 2q33.3-q34 heterozygous deletion (206,048,173-211,980,867). The deletion was estimated to be 5.9 Mb in size and contained 34 known genes. Candidate genes were identified as NRP2, ADAM23, KLF7, CREB1, MAP2, UNC80, and LANCL1 for the 2q33.3-q34 interstitial deletion. PMID:25899208

  18. Quantitative analysis of interstitial mast cells in AA and AL renal amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Danilewicz, Marian; Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen renal biopsy specimens obtained from patients with AA-type renal amyloidosis (AA) and 11 from patients with AL-type renal amyloidosis (AL), for whom both light and electron microscopy as well as immunofluorescence microscopy and full clinical data were available, were examined quantitatively. The cases were selected on the basis of immunohistochemical studies. As a control, we used 10 biopsy specimens from the kidneys removed because of trauma. Morphometric investigations were carried out by a computer image analysis system to find an answer to the question of whether mast cells can correlate with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in AA and AL renal amyloidosis, and to examine the relationship between mast cells and interstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression and interstitial infiltrates. The morphometric study revealed that the mean values of the interstitial tryptase-positive cells, expression of alpha-SMA, interstitial volume, CD68+, CD45RB+, CD43+ and CD20+ cells were increased in AA as compared with the AL group, most of them significantly. Most of these parameters were also significantly increased in both AA and AL patients as compared with the control group. In both the AA group and the AL group, there existed some significant positive correlations between interstitial tryptase-positive cells and interstitial expression of alpha-SMA, interstitial volume and CD68+ cells. Interestingly, in AA cases, but not in AL cases, we noted a significant relationship between interstitial tryptase-positive cells and CD43+ cells. Our findings demonstrate that mast cells belong to the constitutive cell types in the interstitium in renal amyloidosis, in particular in amyloid type A. In addition, in both the AA group and the AL group, the significant positive correlations between interstitial mast cell count and relative interstitial volume and interstitial expression of alpha-SMA suggest that these cells play a role in the development of interstitial

  19. Sharma's Python Sign: A New Tubal Sign in Female Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB. PMID:27365923

  20. Sharma's Python Sign: A New Tubal Sign in Female Genital Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai Bhagwan

    2016-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of infertility in developing countries. Various type of TB salpingitis can be endosalpingitis, exosalpingitis, interstitial TB salpingitis, and salpingitis isthmica nodosa. The fallopian tubes are thickened enlarged and tortuous. Unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx may be formed. A new sign python sign is presented in which fallopian tube looks like a blue python on dye testing in FGTB. PMID:27365923

  1. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  3. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  4. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  5. On the Origin of Large Interstitial Clusters in Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Calder F; Barashev, Aleksandr; Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N

    2010-01-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  6. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125I and 103Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S(K)) standard for 125I seeds and has also established an S(K) standard for 103Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (inverted V) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of dose rate constant and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of dose rate constant. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that dose rate constant may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S(K) and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for dose rate constant was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of dose rate constant as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated dose rate constant for 125I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within +/-1%. For the 103Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the +/-7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for dose rate constant proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known. PMID:11213926

  7. On the origin of large interstitial clusters in displacement cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. F.; Bacon, D. J.; Barashev, A. V.; Osetsky, Yu. N.

    2010-03-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  8. [Drepanocytosis and diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Raison, J; Krivitzky, A; Bentata-Pessayre, M; Volter, F; Delzant, G

    1981-01-01

    Respiratory disorders in homozygous drepanocytosis and double SC heterozygosis are mainly dependent on two factors : repeated infections with, more particularly, pneumococcus or mycoplasma, and epidoses of occlusion of the pulmonary circulation. Mutual reinforcement of these two factors occurs, in so far as the relative hypoxia of an infected lung increases the risk of falciform and thrombosis formation in the pulmonary arterioles. The particular physical and chemical properties of the drepanocyte red cell, and the anaemia, themselves lead to parallel disturbances in pulmonary circulation function and gas exchanges. Possible development of respiratory insufficiency is generally, therefore, the result of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the results of respiratory function tests are often fairly analogous to those observed in moderate interstitial fibrosis : reduction in vital capacity, alveolo-capillary block, reduction in CO diffusion space, a shunt effect, and diminished pulmonary compliance. This problem is discussed in relation to findings of diffuse interstitial fibrosis in a 34-year-old man with double SC heterozygosis, who had numerous episodes of bone, abdominal, and pulmonary microinfarcts. The presence of a diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, evoked by radiological criteria and respiratory function tests and confirmed by transbronchial biopsy, no other aetiology being established, raises the question of the possible genesis of the fibrosis from repeated episodes of microvascular occlusion. Many factors may therefore be involved in the formation of fibrosis of this type, not only the pulmonary artery obstruction from the microthrombi but also the macrophagic perivascular inflammatory response related to the presence of foci of infarction and precipitation of pathological intravascular material. PMID:7337330

  9. A retired shipyard worker with rapidly progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Moy, E V; Hu, H; Christiani, D C

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of progressive interstitial fibrosis in a retired shipyard worker who was exposed to asbestos during the postwar era of the late 1940s and 1950s, when asbestos exposures in the workplace were not regulated. Forty years later, at 63 years of age, the patient presented with restrictive lung disease. The patient was diagnosed with asbestos-related pleural disease and parenchymal asbestosis. He remained stable for the next 7 years, but then he began to manifest rapid clinical progression, which raised the possibility of an unusual variant of asbestosis, a concomitant interstitial process, or an unrelated disease. Lung biopsy was not undertaken because of the patient's low pulmonary reserve and limited treatment options. An empiric trial of oral steroids was initiated, but his pulmonary status continued to deteriorate and he died of pulmonary failure at 72 years of age. Many diseases result in pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Ideally, open lung biopsy should be performed, but this procedure inevitably causes complications in many patients with end-stage restrictive lung disease. Furthermore, while the presence of asbestos bodies in tissue sections is a sensitive and specific marker of asbestos exposure, neither this finding nor any other charge is a marker indicative of asbestosis or the severity of asbestosis. With the enactment of the Asbestos Standard in the United States, asbestos exposures have been decreasing in this country. However, industries that produce asbestos products and wastes continue to expand in developing countries. Prevention of asbestos-related lung disease should be a global endeavor, and asbestos exposures should be regulated in both developed and developing countries. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090713

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate mechanosensitive responses in the stomach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2005-10-01

    Changes in motor activity are a basic response to filling of smooth muscle organs. Responses to gastric filling, for example, are thought to be regulated by neural reflexes. Here, we demonstrate a previously uncharacterized aspect of stretch-dependent responses in visceral smooth muscles that is mediated by mechanosensitive interstitial cells of Cajal. Length ramps were applied to the murine antral muscles while recording intracellular electrical activity and isometric force. Stretching muscles by an average of 27 ± 1% of resting length resulted in 5 mN of force. Increasing length caused membrane depolarization and increased slow-wave frequency. The responses were dependent on the rate of stretch. Stretch-dependent responses were not inhibited by neuronal antagonists or nifedipine. Increases in slow-wave frequency, but not membrane depolarization, were inhibited by reducing external Ca2+ (100 μM) and by Ni2+ (250 μM). Responses to stretch were inhibited by indomethacin (1 μM) and were absent in cyclooxygenase II-deficient mice, suggesting that cyclooxygenase II-derived eicosanoids may mediate these responses. Dual microelectrode impalements of muscle cells within the corpus and antrum showed that stretch-induced changes in slow-wave frequency uncoupled proximal-to-distal propagation of slow waves. This uncoupling could interfere with gastric peristalsis and impede gastric emptying. Stretch of antral muscles of W/WV mice, which lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal, did not affect membrane depolarization or slow-wave frequency. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized nonneural stretch reflex in gastric muscles and provide physiological evidence demonstrating a mechanosensitive role for interstitial cells of Cajal in smooth muscle tissues. gastric compliance | pacemaker | stretch | slow waves | propagation

  11. First-principles calculations for interstitial Fe impurities in hcp Sc, Y, Ti, and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frota-Pessôa, S.; de Mello, L. A.; Petrilli, H. M.; Klautau, A. B.

    1993-12-01

    We have determined the electronic structure around interstitial Fe impurities in hcp Sc, Y, Ti, and Zr. The self-consistent calculations take lattice relaxation into account and were performed using the recently developed real space linear muffin-tin orbital scheme. This is the first time that such realistic calculations have been performed for isolated interstitial impurities in metals. In agreement with experiments, interstitial Fe was found to be nonmagnetic in these hosts; the calculated isomer shifts on both interstitial and substitutional Fe sites are also in excellent agreement with experiments.

  12. Ruptured Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy at 18 Weeks Gestation Diagnosed by MRI: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ehab SM; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin WH; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore present characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging of a ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy which had reached 18 weeks, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. PMID:24421921

  13. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  14. Exchange of deeply trapped and interstitial hydrogen in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.; Van de Walle, C.G.; Adams, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    Using {ital ab initio} density-functional calculations, we examine possible exchange mechanisms between an interstitial hydrogen atom and a deeply bound H at a silicon-hydrogen bond. We determine a low-energy pathway for exchange, which involves an intermediate, metastable {equivalent_to}SiH{sub 2} complex with both hydrogen atoms strongly bound to the silicon atom. The energy barrier for the exchange process is E{sub ex}{lt}0.2 eV, consistent with observations of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a-Si:H(D) films. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Rovibrational states of interstitial H2 in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, S.; Lavrov, E. V.; Weber, J.

    2011-06-01

    Rovibrational Q(J) transitions of the interstitial H2 molecule in Si have been investigated by Raman scattering in the temperature range 90-388 K. In accordance with an earlier suggestion [M. Hiller, E. V. Lavrov, and J. Weber, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.74.235214 74, 235214 (2006)], it is shown that the Q(2) transition of para hydrogen couples to the TAX phonon of Si and appears in the Raman spectra at temperatures above 200 K. The results presented also indicate that the rotational J=3 state of ortho hydrogen is resonantly coupled to the OΓ phonon.

  16. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  17. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC. PMID:20568987

  18. VPF and interstitial fluid pressure in brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Sirovskiy, E; Kornienko, V; Moshkin, A; Amcheslavskiy, V; Ingorokva, G; Glazman, L

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring of VFP and local brain interstitial fluid pressure was performed in 169 patients after removal of hemispheric gliomas, basal and subtentorial tumours. On the basis of CT-data 97% of the patients had postoperative oedema of various severity and spreading. The location of the tumour determined both the degree and severity of oedema as well as VFP and ISFP. Different mechanisms of oedema formation may be involved depending on localization of the tumour. Thus, we can propose a hypothesis of the mechanisms of oedema development in neurosurgical pathology. PMID:2089955

  19. Respiratory and lower limb muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, Marios; Polychronopoulos, Vlasis; Strange, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that respiratory and limb muscle function may be impaired in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, muscle dysfunction could promote dyspnoea, fatigue and functional limitation all of which are cardinal features of ILD. This article examines the risk factors for skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD, reviews the current evidence on overall respiratory and limb muscle function and focuses on the occurrence and implications of skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD. Research limitations and pathways to address the current knowledge gaps are highlighted. PMID:26768011

  20. Granulomatous Interstitial Nephritis Presenting as Hypercalcemia and Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharmeen, Saika; Kalkan, Esra; Yi, Chunhui; Smith, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of acute kidney injury as the initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. A 55-year-old male was sent from his primary care physician's office with incidental lab findings significant for hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury with past medical history significant for nephrolithiasis. Initial treatment with intravenous hydration did not improve his condition. The renal biopsy subsequently revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN). Treatment with the appropriate dose of glucocorticoids improved both the hypercalcemia and renal function. Our case demonstrates that renal limited GIN due to sarcoidosis, although a rare entity, can cause severe acute kidney injury and progressive renal failure unless promptly diagnosed and treated. PMID:26904327

  1. Laparoscopic Management of Heterotopic Interstitial Pregnancy with Subsequent Term Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Soon; Lee, Sang-Hun; Im, Kyong Shil; Ro, Jae Hun

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year-old woman at 7-week gestational age was referred to our hospital. The patient was diagnosed with the heterotopic interstitial pregnancy by transvaginal ultrasonogra- phy after receiving in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Laparoscopic excision and curettage was successfully performed at 8.4-gestational age under general anesthesia and the patient was discharged 2 days after operation without any post-operative complications. The woman had normal antenatal follow-up and deliv- ered a healthy baby at term by cesarean section. PMID:26246887

  2. Idiopathic granulomatous interstitial nephritis responsive to mycophenolate mofetil therapy.

    PubMed

    Leeaphorn, Napat; Stokes, Michael B; Ungprasert, Patompong; Lecates, William

    2014-04-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare histologic disease. Various causes have been reported in the literature, including drugs, sarcoidosis, and infections. Other incidents have no discernible cause and are identified as idiopathic. We report a 68-year-old white man who presented with acute kidney injury and was given a diagnosis of idiopathic GIN. Mycophenolate mofetil treatment was elected because of steroid toxicity. He responded well to mycophenolate mofetil and has been in remission for more than 3 years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment with mycophenolate mofetil of an adult patient with idiopathic GIN. PMID:24315767

  3. Levetiracetam-induced severe acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Chau, Katrina; Yong, Jim; Ismail, Kasim; Griffith, Neil; Liu, Michael; Makris, Angela

    2012-06-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is an uncommon cause of renal failure, which may be caused by drugs. Levetiracetam is an increasingly used anti-epileptic medication that is not known to cause renal toxicity in adults. To our knowledge, levetiracetam has not previously been reported as a cause of GIN. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who developed haemodialysis-requiring acute renal failure after commencement of treatment with levetiracetam, which was shown to be GIN by renal biopsy. She made a complete recovery with cessation of levetiracetam and treatment with steroids. PMID:26069773

  4. Recent Treatments of Interstitial Lung Disease with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuoka, Hidekata

    2015-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a disorder characterized by immune dysfunction, microvascular injury, and fibrosis. Organ involvement in patients with SSc is variable; however, pulmonary involvement occurs in up to 90% of patients with SSc. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of mortality and, thus, a major determinant in the prognosis of patients with SSc. This review summarizes current findings about the characteristics of ILD in patients with SSc, selection of patients with SSc-ILD who are candidates for the treatment, and current treatment options. PMID:26819563

  5. Characterization of a 16 Mb interstitial chromosome 7q21 deletion by tiling path array CGH.

    PubMed

    Tzschach, Andreas; Menzel, Corinna; Erdogan, Fikret; Schubert, Marei; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Barbi, Gotthold; Petzenhauser, Christine; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Ullmann, Reinhard; Kalscheuer, Vera

    2007-02-15

    We report on a 42-year-old female patient with an interstitial 16 Mb deletion in 7q21.1-21.3 and a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 6 and 7 [karyotype 46,XX,t(6;7)(q23.3;q32.3)del(7)(q21.1q21.3)de novo]. We characterized the size and position of the deletion by tiling path array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and we mapped the translocation breakpoints on chromosomes 6 and 7 by FISH. The clinical features of this patient-severe mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and deafness-are in accordance with previously reported patients with 7q21 deletions. Chromosome band 7q21.3 harbors a locus for split hand/split foot malformation (SHFM1), and part of this locus, including the SHFM1 candidate genes SHFM1, DLX5, and DLX6, is deleted. The absence of limb abnormalities in this patient suggests either a location of the SHFM1 causing factor distal to this deletion, or reduced penetrance of haploinsufficiency of a SHFM1 factor within the deleted interval. PMID:17230488

  6. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  7. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubule interstitial nephritis leading to acute kidney injury in influenza A (H1N1) infection

    PubMed Central

    Kute, V. B.; Vanikar, A. V.; Shah, P. R.; Gumber, M. R.; Patel, H. V.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory complications and renal failure are the leading causes for morbidity and mortality due to influenza (H1N1) virus infection. There has been limited information on histopathology of H1N1 influenza-related acute kidney injury (AKI). We describe AKI with H1N1 infection in a 52-year-old female. Renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubule interstitial nephritis. Her condition improved rapidly with oseltamivir, fluid replacement, steroid and dialysis. Our case suggests that H1N1 infection may have a causative link to the development of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. PMID:24701045

  8. Velo-cardio-facial and partial DiGeorge phenotype in a child with interstitial deletion at 10p13 - implications for cytogenetics and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, A.; Sholler, G.; Issacs, D.

    1996-11-11

    We report on a female with a interstitial deletion of 10p13 and a phenotype similar to that seen with the 22q deletion syndromes (DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial). She had a posterior cleft palate, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, dyscoordinate swallowing, T-cell subset abnormalities, small ears, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, deficient alae nasi, contractures of fingers and developmental delay. This could indicate homology of some developmental genes at 22q and 10p so that patients with the velocardiofacial phenotype who do not prove to be deleted on 22q are candidates for a 10p deletion. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Dose optimization in gynecological 3D image based interstitial brachytherapy using martinez universal perineal interstitial template (MUPIT) -an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Swamidas, Jamema V; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Deshpande, D. D.; Manjhi, Jayanand; Rai, D V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose optimization in 3D image based gynecological interstitial brachytherapy using Martinez Universal Perineal Interstitial Template (MUPIT). Axial CT image data set of 20 patients of gynecological cancer who underwent external radiotherapy and high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy using MUPIT was employed to delineate clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs). Geometrical and graphical optimization were done for optimum CTV coverage and sparing of OARs. Coverage Index (CI), dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index (OI), dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), external volume index (EI), conformity index (COIN) and dose volume parameters recommended by GEC-ESTRO were evaluated. The mean CTV, bladder and rectum volume were 137 ± 47cc, 106 ± 41cc and 50 ± 25cc, respectively. Mean CI, DHI and DNR were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.69 ± 0.11 and 0.31 ± 0.09, while the mean OI, EI, and COIN were 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.07 ± 0.05 and 0.79 ± 0.05, respectively. The estimated mean CTV D90 was 76 ± 11Gy and D100 was 63 ± 9Gy. The different dosimetric parameters of bladder D2cc, D1cc and D0.1cc were 76 ± 11Gy, 81 ± 14Gy, and 98 ± 21Gy and of rectum/recto-sigmoid were 80 ± 17Gy, 85 ± 13Gy, and 124 ± 37Gy, respectively. Dose optimization yields superior coverage with optimal values of indices. Emerging data on 3D image based brachytherapy with reporting and clinical correlation of DVH parameters outcome is enterprizing and provides definite assistance in improving the quality of brachytherapy implants. DVH parameter for urethra in gynecological implants needs to be defined further. PMID:25190999

  10. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  11. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables.We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "presence" or "nonpresence" of bilateral Velcro crackles.Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern.In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care. PMID:26844464

  12. Interstitially stabilized phases in the zirconium-nickel system

    SciTech Connect

    MacKay, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Addition of nonmetal interstitial atoms to Zr-Ni compounds has resulted in several new phases. A single-crystal x-ray study was carried out for Zr{sub 3}NiO. Zr{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O is a high- temperature phase, forming in samples annealed at 1250 C. Huekel band calculations led to prediction and confirmation of additional phases in more electron rich systems. Other phases studied by XRD are Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 0.6}, Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}O, and Nb{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Phases identified by powder diffraction are Nb{sub 4}Ni{sub 2}O, Zr{sub 4}Cu{sub 2}O, and Zr{sub 6}Co{sub 4}Ti{sub 2}O. New Zr kappa phases in space group P6s{sub 3}/mmc were found: Zr{sub 9}Mo{sub 4}SO{sub x} and Zr{sub 9}W{sub 4}(S,Ni)O{sub 3}. A new structure type was discovered with Zr{sub 6}Ni{sub 6}TiSiO{sub 1.8}. In all these interstitially stabilized phases, O is coordinated in Zr octahedral; there are no Ni-O interactions.

  13. Asbestosis and environmental causes of usual interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Mridu; Redlich, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent epidemiologic investigations suggest that occupational and environmental exposures contribute to the overall burden of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This article explores the epidemiologic and clinical challenges to establishing exposure associations, the current literature regarding exposure disease relationships and the diagnostic work-up of IPF and asbestosis patients. Recent findings IPF patients demonstrate a histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. In the absence of a known cause or association, a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern leads to an IPF diagnosis, which is a progressive and often terminal fibrotic lung disease. It has long been recognized that asbestos exposure can cause pathologic and radiographic changes indistinguishable from IPF. Several epidemiologic studies, primarily case control in design, have found that a number of other exposures that can increase risk of developing IPF include cigarette smoke, wood dust, metal dust, sand/silica and agricultural exposures. Lung mineralogic analyses have provided additional support to causal associations. Genetic variation may explain differences in disease susceptibility among the population. Summary An accumulating body of literature suggests that occupational and environmental exposure can contribute to the development of IPF. The impact of exposure on the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease requires further study. PMID:25621562

  14. [Severe interstitial lung disease from pathologic gastroesophageal reflux in children].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, P; Weimer, B; Hofmann, D

    1999-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of pulmonary conditions that cause restrictive lung disease of poor prognosis, especially if growth failure, pulmonary hypertension and fibrosis appears. We report on the case of a girl of 11 years of age who suffered from severe nonallergic asthma in early childhood and who developed severe interstitial pulmonary disease caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux at the age of 8 years. This diagnosis was established by lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and a high amount of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, 2-level pH measurement and oesophageal biopsy. Because therapy with oral and inhaled steroids failed and Omeprazol showed benificial effects, hemifundoplication according to THAL was performed. At present the lung function is clearly normal and there is no need of any medicaments. Following the history, we can assume the pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to be the cause of the disease. It is important to state that there were no typical symptoms at any time pointing to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The development of pulmonary disease by pathological reflux is very often caused by "silent aspiration". Very typically there are no symptoms such as vomiting, heartburn and pain but only signs of chronic lung disease. PMID:10444954

  15. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Irfan; Bracamonte, Erika; Thajudeen, Bijin; Sussman, Amy; Madhrira, Machaiah; Costello, James

    2015-01-01

    Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI. PMID:26664405

  16. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  17. Estimation of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure (TIFP) Noninvasively.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long Jian; Brown, Stephen L; Ewing, James R; Ala, Brigitte D; Schneider, Kenneth M; Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), is a physiological parameter with demonstrated predictive value for a tumor's aggressiveness, drug delivery, as well as response to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite its utility, measurement of TIFP has been limited by the need for invasive procedures. In this work, the theoretical basis for approaching the absolute value of TIFP and the experimental method for noninvasively measuring TIFP are presented. Given specific boundary and continuity conditions, we convert theoretical variables into measurable variables by applying MRI technology. The work shows that TIFP in the central region of the tumor can be estimated by an analysis of the variation of tissue fluid motion in the tumor rim and surrounding tissue. It is determined from three noninvasive measurable parameters: i) an estimate of the velocity of the tumor interstitial fluid at the tumor surface, which is maximal, ii) a measurement of the distance from the tumor surface to where the tumor exudates are absorbed (or normalized), and iii) an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the interstitium through which the tumor exudate travels. We experimentally show that the fluid flow within the tumor rim is not uniform, even for a round shaped tumor, and demonstrate the procedures for the noninvasive measurement of TIFP. PMID:27467886

  18. Hyperfine interactions at nitrogen interstitial defects in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atumi, M. K.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.; Shrif, F. E.; Rayson, M. J.

    2013-02-01

    Diamond has many extreme physical properties and it can be used in a wide range of applications. In particular it is a highly effective particle detection material, where radiation damage is an important consideration. The WAR9 and WAR10 are electron paramagnetic resonance centres seen in irradiated, nitrogen-containing diamond. These S = 1/2 defects have C2v and C1h symmetry, respectively, and the experimental spectra have been interpreted as arising from nitrogen split-interstitial centres. Based upon the experimental and theoretical understanding of interstitial nitrogen defect structures, the AIMPRO density functional code has been used to assess the assignments for the structures of WAR9 and WAR10. Although the calculated hyperfine interaction tensors are consistent with the measured values for WAR9, the thermal stability renders the assignment problematic. The model for the WAR10 centre yields principal directions of the hyperfine tensor at variance with observation. Alternative models for both centres are discussed in this paper, but no convincing structures have been found.

  19. Probe for Sampling of Interstitial Fluid From Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus characterized as both a membrane probe and a bone ultrafiltration probe has been developed to enable in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid in bone. The probe makes it possible to measure the concentration of calcium and other constituents of the fluid that may be relevant to bone physiology. The probe could be especially helpful in experimental studies of microgravitational bone loss and of terrestrial bone-loss disease states, including osteoporosis. The probe can be implanted in the bone tissue of a living animal and can be used to extract samples of the interstitial bone fluid from time to time during a long-term study. The probe includes three 12-cm-long polyacrylonitrile fibers configured in a loop form and attached to polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.025 in. (0.64 mm), outside diameter 0.040 in. (1 mm)]; the attachment is made by use of a 1-cm-long connecting piece of polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.035 0.003 in. (0.89 0.08 mm), outside diameter 0.060 0.003 in. (1.52 0.08 mm)]. At the distal end, a 2-cm-long piece of polyurethane tubing of the same inner and outer diameters serves as a connector to a hub. A 1-cm long piece of expanded poly (tetrafluoroethylene) tubing over the joint between the fibers and the connecting tubing serves as a tissue-in-growth site.

  20. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.