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Sample records for fermented soybean foods

  1. A Chinese fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Han, B Z; Rombouts, F M; Nout, M J

    2001-04-11

    Sufu or furu is a fermented soybean product originating in China. It is a cheese-like product with a spreadable creamy consistency and a pronounced flavour. Sufu is a popular side dish consumed mainly with breakfast rice or steamed bread. It has a long history and written records date back to the Wei Dynasty (220-265 AD). Sufu is made by fungal solid state fermentation of tofu (soybean curd) followed by aging in brine containing salt and alcohol. The present review is based on scientific data published in Chinese and international sources. Several types of sufu can be distinguished, according to processing method or according to colour and flavour. Choice of processing can result in mould fermented sufu, naturally fermented sufu, bacterial fermented sufu, or enzymatically ripened sufu. Depending on the choice of dressing mixture, red, white or grey sufu may be obtained. The stages of the process are discussed and include the preparation of tofu, the preparation of pehtze, salting and ripening. Fungal starters include Actinomucor spp., Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. The chemical composition is discussed with particular reference to the proximate composition, the amino acid content and profile, as well as the volatile flavour components of various types of sufu. PMID:11322691

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Son, Jun-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2002-06-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation.

  3. Genomic Features and Niche-Adaptation of Enterococcus faecium Strains from Korean Soybean-Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bae; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Jun-Yeong; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-01-01

    Certain strains of Enterococcus faecium contribute beneficially to human health and food fermentation. However, other E. faecium strains are opportunistic pathogens due to the acquisition of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance determinants. To characterize E. faecium from soybean fermentation, we sequenced the genomes of 10 E. faecium strains from Korean soybean-fermented foods and analyzed their genomes by comparing them with 51 clinical and 52 non-clinical strains of different origins. Hierarchical clustering based on 13,820 orthologous genes from all E. faecium genomes showed that the 10 strains are distinguished from most of the clinical strains. Like non-clinical strains, their genomes are significantly smaller than clinical strains due to fewer accessory genes associated with antibiotic resistance, virulence, and mobile genetic elements. Moreover, we identified niche-associated gene gain and loss from the soybean strains. Thus, we conclude that soybean E. faecium strains might have evolved to have distinctive genomic features that may contribute to its ability to thrive during soybean fermentation. PMID:27070419

  4. Production of vitamin B-12 in tempeh, a fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Liem, I T; Steinkraus, K H; Cronk, T C

    1977-12-01

    Several varieties of soybeans contained generally less than 1 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. It was found that use of a lactic fermentation typical of tropical conditions during the initial soaking of the soybeans did not influence the vitamin B-12 content of the resulting tempeh. Pure tempeh molds obtained from different sources did not produce vitamin B-12. It was found that the major source of vitamin B-12 in commercial tempeh purchased in Toronto, Canada, was a bacterium that accompanies the mold during fermentation. Reinoculation of the pure bacterium onto dehulled, hydrated, and sterilized soybeans resulted in the production of 148 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. The presence of the mold, along with the bacterium, did not inhibit or enhance production of vitamin B-12. Nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin B-12 were also found in the Indonesian fermented food, ontjom. PMID:563702

  5. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from "Tua Nao" of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains. PMID:26505996

  6. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Strains Isolated from Non-Salted Fermented Soybean Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kamada, Mayumi; Hase, Sumitaka; Fujii, Kazushi; Miyake, Masato; Sato, Kengo; Kimura, Keitarou; Sakakibara, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the main component in the fermentation of soybeans. To investigate the genetics of the soybean-fermenting B. subtilis strains and its relationship with the productivity of extracellular poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA), we sequenced the whole genome of eight B. subtilis stains isolated from non-salted fermented soybean foods in Southeast Asia. Assembled nucleotide sequences were compared with those of a natto (fermented soybean food) starter strain B. subtilis BEST195 and the laboratory standard strain B. subtilis 168 that is incapable of γPGA production. Detected variants were investigated in terms of insertion sequences, biotin synthesis, production of subtilisin NAT, and regulatory genes for γPGA synthesis, which were related to fermentation process. Comparing genome sequences, we found that the strains that produce γPGA have a deletion in a protein that constitutes the flagellar basal body, and this deletion was not found in the non-producing strains. We further identified diversity in variants of the bio operon, which is responsible for the biotin auxotrophism of the natto starter strains. Phylogenetic analysis using multilocus sequencing typing revealed that the B. subtilis strains isolated from the non-salted fermented soybeans were not clustered together, while the natto-fermenting strains were tightly clustered; this analysis also suggested that the strain isolated from “Tua Nao” of Thailand traces a different evolutionary process from other strains. PMID:26505996

  7. Bacterial community migration in the ripening of doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Do-Won; Kim, Hye-Rim; Jung, Gwangsick; Han, Seulhwa; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste, is made by mixing and ripening meju with high salt brine (approximately 18%). Meju is a naturally fermented soybean block prepared by soaking, steaming, and molding soybean. To understand living bacterial community migration and the roles of bacteria in the manufacturing process of doenjang, the diversity of culturable bacteria in meju and doenjang was examined using media supplemented with NaCl, and some physiological activities of predominant isolates were determined. Bacilli were the major bacteria involved throughout the entire manufacturing process from meju to doenjang; some of these bacteria might be present as spores during the doenjang ripening process. Bacillus siamensis was the most populous species of the genus, and Bacillus licheniformis exhibited sufficient salt tolerance to maintain its growth during doenjang ripening. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the major lactic acid bacteria (LAB) identified in this study, did not continue to grow under high NaCl conditions in doenjang. Enterococci and certain species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the predominant acid-producing bacteria in meju fermentation, whereas Tetragenococcus halophilus and CNS were the major acid-producing bacteria in doenjang fermentation. We conclude that bacilli, LAB, and CNS may be the major bacterial groups involved in meju fermentation and that these bacterial communities undergo a shift toward salt-tolerant bacilli, CNS, and T. halophilus during the doenjang fermentation process. PMID:24548930

  8. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from soybean-based fermented foodstuffs. Two were isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Multilocus sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and 5 protein coding genes indi...

  9. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An isolate of a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. It was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean food product. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain ...

  10. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (PGA)-Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Kinema, Indian Fermented Soybean Food

    PubMed Central

    Chettri, Rajen; Bhutia, Meera O.; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2016-01-01

    Kinema, an ethnic fermented, non-salted and sticky soybean food is consumed in the eastern part of India. The stickiness is one of the best qualities of good kinema preferred by consumers, which is due to the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Average load of Bacillus in kinema was 107 cfu/g and of lactic acid bacteria was 103 cfu/g. Bacillus spp. were screened for PGA-production and isolates of lactic acid bacteria were also tested for degradation of PGA. Only Bacillus produced PGA, none of lactic acid bacteria produced PGA. PGA-producing Bacillus spp. were identified by phenotypic characterization and also by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis. PMID:27446012

  11. Characterization of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus sp. LM7 isolated from chungkookjang, a Korean traditional fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jiyeon; Nam, Young-Do; Lee, Jong Suk; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2016-03-16

    A wild-type microorganism exhibiting antimicrobial activities was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented soybean food Chungkookjang and identified as Bacillus sp. LM7. During its stationary growth phase, the microorganism secreted an antimicrobial substance, which we partially purified using a simple two-step procedure involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and heat treatment. The partially purified antimicrobial substance, Anti-LM7, was stable over a broad pH range (4.0-9.0) and at temperatures up to 80 °C for 30 min, and was resistant to most proteolytic enzymes and maintained its activity in 30% (v/v) organic solvents. Anti-LM7 inhibited the growth of a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes, but it did not inhibit lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Moreover, unlike commercially available nisin and polymyxin B, Anti-LM7 inhibited certain fungal strains. Lastly, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of Anti-LM7 revealed that it contained eight lipopeptides belonging to two families: four bacillomycin D and four surfactin analogs. These Bacillus sp. LM7-produced heterogeneous lipopeptides exhibiting extremely high stability and a broad antimicrobial spectrum are likely to be closely related to the antimicrobial activity of Chungkookjang, and their identification presents an opportunity for application of the peptides in environmental bioremediation, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. PMID:26803269

  12. Molecular identification of dominant microflora associated with 'Hawaijar' - a traditional fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Jeyaram, K; Mohendro Singh, W; Premarani, T; Devi, A Ranjita; Chanu, K Selina; Talukdar, N C; Singh, M Rohinikumar

    2008-03-20

    The dominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar', a traditional non-salted fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.)) food of Manipur, India, were isolated and identified by molecular techniques. Bacillus spp. were the predominant microorganisms in 'Hawaijar'. A total of 274 isolates were obtained from forty-one 'Hawaijar' samples collected from household preparations and markets of valley districts of Manipur. Phenotypic grouping followed by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Digestion Analysis (ARDRA), PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA region, RFLP by Hae III and Hind III double digest (by comparing MTCC type strains) and sequencing of 9-1514 region of 16S rDNA resulted in three major phylogenic groups. Bacillus subtilis group comprising B. subtilis and B. licheniformis representing 112 isolates, B. cereus group representing of 128 isolates and Staphylococcus spp. group comprising S. aureus and S. sciuri representing 23 isolates. A few bacterial isolates belongs to Alkaligenes spp. and Providencia rettgeri were also found. Genetic diversity of B. subtilis phylogenic group was investigated by RAPD-PCR. Eighty-two strains of B. subtilis phylogenic group were identified using RAPD-PCR using OPA-18 and OPA-20 primers. These strains will be investigated for potential starter culture selection. PMID:18281117

  13. Production of African breadfruit (Treculia africana) and soybean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations, 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality.

    PubMed

    Ariahu, C C; Ukpabi, U; Mbajunwa, K O

    1999-01-01

    Germination and fermentation were investigated as methods of improving the nutritional and organoleptic properties of soybean and African breadfruit seed based food formulations. Four products consisting of germinated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GFSB), nongerminated-fermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGFSB), germinated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (GNFSB) and nongerminated-nonfermented soy-breadfruit seeds (NGNFSB) were prepared. Phytic acid contents, in vitro protein digestibilities, protein efficiency ratios (PER), net protein ratios (NPR), flavor, appearance and overall acceptability were evaluated. Germination followed by natural lactic fermentation significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the phytic acid by a factor of 11.6 in NGNFSB compared to reduction factors of 2.1 and 1.5 in GNFSB and NGFSB, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility (%), PER and NPR values of 73.4, 2.46 and 3.62 for GFSB; 71.1, 2.35 and 3.46 for NGFSB; 68.7, 2.16 and 3.41 for GNFSB were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 64.7, 1.82 and 2.11 for NGNFSB. The mean sensory scores were 5.26-5.67 for GNFSB, 4.66-4.94 for NGNFSB, 4.33-4.80 for GFSB and 4.27-4.34 for NGFSB on a 7-point rating scale. PMID:10716401

  14. Antibiotic resistance and probiotic properties of dominant lactic microflora from Tungrymbai, an ethnic fermented soybean food of India.

    PubMed

    Thokchom, Sharmila; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2012-06-01

    The present investigation was conducted to assess lactic acid bacteria present in traditionally fermented food of ethnic tribes in India for probiotic properties, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic tolerance behavior. Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Lactococcus sp. showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus MTCC 430, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus MTCC 740, and Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi A MTCC 735. Lactococcus sp. and Lactobacillus sp. could tolerate acidic conditions (pH 2) and high bile salt concentration (4000 ppm). The lactic microflora were found to be sensitive to most common antibiotics, except for cloxacillin (5 μg), cephalexin (30 μg), and cephalothin (30 μg). PMID:22752919

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus subtilis strains applicable to natto (fermented soybean) production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore-forming Bacillus strains that produce extracellular poly-'-glutamic acid were screened for their application to natto (fermented soybean food) fermentation. Among the 365 strains, including B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, which we isolated from rice straw, 59 were capable of fermenting n...

  16. Thrombus Degradation by Fibrinolytic Enzyme of Stenotrophomonas sp. Originated from Indonesian Soybean-Based Fermented Food on Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg. Blood clot in the tail was induced by kappa carrageenan injection at 1 mg/kg BW. Results. Experiment with cell culture confirmed the enzyme safety at the concentration used and increased expression of tPA. Decreasing of thrombus was observed in the positive group down to 70.35 ± 23.11% of the negative control animals (100%). The thrombus observed in the crude enzyme treatment was down to 56.99 ± 15.95% and 71.5 ± 15.7% for semipurified enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy showed clearly that bood clots were found in the animals injected with kappa carrageenan; however, in the treatment and positive groups, the clot was much reduced. Conclusions. Oral treatment of enzyme from Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesian fermented food was capable of degrading thrombus induced in Wistar rats.

  17. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  18. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry. PMID:26149963

  19. Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Choi, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products. PMID:26528531

  20. Fermentation of Soybean Meal Hydrolyzates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Luján-Rhenals, Deivis E; Morawicki, Rubén O; Gbur, Edward E; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-07-01

    Most of the ethanol currently produced by fermentation is derived from sugar cane, corn, or beets. However, it makes good ecological and economic sense to use the carbohydrates contained in by-products and coproducts of the food processing industry for ethanol production. Soybean meal, a co-product of the production of soybean oil, has a relatively high carbohydrate content that could be a reasonable substrate for ethanol production after fermentable sugars are released via hydrolysis. In this research, the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2233 and Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis NRRL B-4286 to produce ethanol was evaluated using soybean meal hydrolyzates as substrates for the fermentation. These substrates were produced from the dilute-acid hydrolysis of soybean meal at 135 °C for 45 min with 0, 0.5%, 1.25%, and 2% H2 SO4 and at 120 °C for 30 min with 1.25% H2 SO4 . Kinetic parameters of the fermentation were estimated using the logistic model. Ethanol production using S. cerevisiae was highest with the substrates obtained at 135 °C, 45 min, and 0.5% H2 SO4 and fermented for 8 h, 8 g/L (4 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM), while Z. mobilis reached its maximum ethanol production, 9.2 g/L (4.6 g ethanol/100 g fresh SBM) in the first 20 h of fermentation with the same hydrolyzate. PMID:25998174

  1. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health. PMID:26388675

  2. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  3. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  4. Metabolomic assessment of fermentative capability of soybean starter treated with high pressure.

    PubMed

    Ko, Bong-Kuk; Kim, Ki Myong; Hong, Young-Shick; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2010-08-11

    Meju, a brick of dried fermented soybean naturally inoculated with microorganisms, is a starter used for producing traditional Korean fermented soybean products such as soybean paste (doenjang) and soy sauce (ganjang). In order to reduce aging time during production of soybean paste and soy sauce, high pressure (HP) treatment was applied to the meju starter at 500 MPa of pressure for 10 min at 15 degrees C. Fermentative behaviors of normal and HP-treated meju were assessed and compared through physicochemical and (1)H NMR-based metabolomic analysis. All mejues were incubated for 3 weeks at 30 degrees C. At 1 week of incubation, total bacterial population decreased mainly due to a reduction of water content by spontaneous evaporation during the incubation period. As the incubation time increased, glutamate, proline, betain, choline, and phosphocholine levels increased in both normal and HP-treated mejues, indicating that microorganisms in the mejues synthesize these metabolites to endure intracellular hyperosmotic stress induced by the reduction in water content. Through 3 weeks of incubation, the amino-type nitrogen contents and neutral protease activities in HP-treated meju were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in normal meju, even though total bacterial content in HP-treated meju was 2 or 3 times lower. Moreover, marked increases in glycerol, acetate, tyrosine, and choline levels were observed in HP-treated meju compared to normal meju. In particular, higher levels of tyrosine in HP-treated meju were consistent with the increased neutral protease activities compared to normal meju, indicating an improvement in enzyme stability with HP treatment. These findings highlight a new or better understanding of the influence of the HP or physical treatments on fermentative products in food processing, such as those associated with soybean paste and soy sauce, regarding metabolic behaviors in fermentative starter induced by HP treatment. PMID:20681663

  5. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  6. Food Use of Whole Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a chapter for a book entitled “Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing and Utilization”, edited by L.A. Johnson, P.J. White and R. Galloway, to be published by AOCS Press, Champaign, IL. According to the book outline, this book is a monograph on every things about soybeans, ...

  7. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and β-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products. PMID:25466133

  8. Dietary supplementation with fermented soybeans suppresses intimal thickening.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kazunao; Ichise, Hideyuki; Tsukamoto, Yoshinori; Urano, Tetsumei; Umemura, Kazuo

    2003-03-01

    Although soy foods have been consumed for more than 1000 y, it is only in the past 20 y that they have made inroads into Western diets. We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with natto extracts produced from fermented soybeans on intimal thickening of arteries after vessel endothelial denudation. Natto extracts include nattokinase, a potent fibrinolytic enzyme having four times greater fibrinolytic activity than plasmin. Intimal thickening was induced in the femoral arteries by intravenous infusion of rose bengal followed by focal irradiation with a transluminal green light. Dietary natto extract supplementation was started 3 wk before endothelial injury and continued for another 3 wk after. In ex vivo studies, euglobulin clot lysis times were measured 3 wk after the initial supplementation. Neointima formation and thickening were also initiated successfully. The intima media ratio 3 wk after endothelial injury was 0.15 +/- 0.03 in the control group. Dietary natto extract supplementation suppressed intimal thickening (0.06 +/- 0.01; P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Natto extracts shortened euglobulin clot lysis time, suggesting that their thrombolytic activities were enhanced. These findings suggest that natto extracts, because of their thrombolytic activity, suppress intimal thickening after vascular injury as a result of the inhibition of mural thrombi formation. PMID:12620531

  9. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ga Yeon; Ha, Bae Jin

    2011-12-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  10. Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Dunlap, Christopher A; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-10-01

    Two independent isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium were recovered from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste food product. Preliminary sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus sonorensis KCTC-13918T and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T. In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 15 and 55 °C and to tolerate up to 8 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0.The isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown glycolipid. Draft genomes of the two strains were determined and in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations with their nearest neighbour (B. sonorensis KCTC-13918T) revealed 29.9 % relatedness for both strains. Phylogenomic analysis of the genomes was conducted with the core genome (799 genes) of all strains in the Bacillus subtilis group and the two strains formed a distinct monophyletic cluster. In addition, the strains differed from the two most closely related species in that they did not metabolize maltose, d-galactose, d-sorbitol or d-gluconic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.9 mol%. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus glycinifermentans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GO-13T ( = KACC 18425T = NRRL B-65291T). PMID:26297378

  11. HYPOALLERGENIC FOODS - SOYBEANS AND PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have been recognized as a growing problem. Although food allergies are routinely managed by avoidance, understanding how food allergies are induced presents the prospect for moderating adverse and possibly life-threatening immune reactions. Among the possible means to manage food alle...

  12. Fermentation of soybean hulls to ethanol while retaining protein value

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Wyman, Professor Charles E; John, Bardsley

    2009-01-01

    Soybean hulls were evaluated as a resource for production of ethanol by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, and no pretreatment of the hulls was found to be needed to realize high ethanol yields with S. cerevisiae D5A. The impact of cellulase, -glucosidase and pectinase dosages were determined at a 15% biomass loading, and ethanol concentrations of 25-30 g/L were routinely obtained, while under these conditions corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass produced 3-4 times lower ethanol yields. Removal of carbohydrates also concentrated the hull protein to over 25% w/w from the original roughly 10%. Analysis of the soybean hulls before and after fermentation showed similar amino acid profiles including an increase in the essential amino acids lysine and threonine in the residues. Thus, eliminating pretreatment should assure that the protein in the hulls is preserved, and conversion of the carbohydrates to ethanol with high yields produces a more concentrated and valuable co-product in addition to ethanol. The resulting upgraded feed product from soybean hulls would likely to be acceptable to monogastric as well as bovine livestock.

  13. Functional genomics for food fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Hugenholtz, J

    2010-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific and technological drivers of food fermentation research. In addition, a number of practical implications of the results of this development will be highlighted. The first part of the manuscript elaborates on the message that genome sequence information gives us an unprecedented view on the biodiversity of microbes in food fermentation. This information can be made applicable for tailoring relevant characteristics of food products through fermentation. The second part deals with the integration of genome sequence data into metabolic models and the use of these models for a number of topics that are relevant for food fermentation processes. The final part will be about metagenomics approaches to reveal the complexity and understand the functionality of undefined complex microbial consortia used in a diverse range of food fermentation processes. PMID:22129346

  14. Immunoreactivity reduction of soybean meal by fermentation, effect on amino acid composition and antigenicity of commercial soy products.

    PubMed

    Song, Y-S; Frias, J; Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Vidal-Valdeverde, C; de Mejia, E Gonzalez

    2008-05-15

    Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the consumer and the food industry. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reduction of immunoreactivity by natural and induced fermentation of soybean meal (SBM) with Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Saccharomyces cereviseae, and to assess the effect on amino acid concentration. Immunoreactivity of commercially available fermented soybean products and ingredients was also evaluated. ELISA and western blot were used to measure IgE immunoreactivity using plasma from soy sensitive individuals. Commercial soy products included tempeh, miso and yogurt. Fermented SBM showed reduced immunoreactivity to human plasma, particularly if proteins were <20kDa. S. cereviseae and naturally fermented SBM showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity, up to 89% and 88%, respectively, against human pooled plasma. When SBM was subjected to fermentation with different microorganisms, most of the total amino acids increased significantly (p<0.05) and only few of them suffered a decrease depending on the type of fermentation. All commercial soy containing products tested showed very low immunoreactivity. Thus, fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity and can be optimized to develop nutritious hypoallergenic soy products. However, the clinical relevance of these findings needs to be determined by human challenge studies. PMID:26059135

  15. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  16. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  17. Production of fibrinolytic enzyme from soybean grits fermented by Bacillus firmus NA-1.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus firmus NA-1 producing fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Japanese traditional fermented soybean (Natto). Seed starter was cultured in 5% soy milk prepared with micronized soybean powder. To optimize the production of fibrinolytic enzyme, the soybean grits were mixed with 1 volume of water and sterilized at 121 degrees C for 5 minutes, and then used as the medium for solid-state fermentation at 42 degrees C. The fibrinolytic enzyme activity of the fermented grits was 1,120 plasmin units/100 g (wet weight) after fermentation for 24 hours. The water extract of the fermented grits showed the highest viscosity after fermentation for 12 hours. However, the tyrosine content was the highest (962 mg%) after fermentation for 60 hours. The color of raw soybean grit was affected by heat treatment. The activity of fibrinolytic enzyme was stable after freezing-drying, but was completely destroyed by heating at 70 degrees C for 10 minutes. The color of soybean grit was greatly darkened by increasing fermentation time. Soybean grits were completely converted into valuable functional ingredients containing fibrinolytic enzyme, peptide, and mucilage by the solid-state fermentation. PMID:15671687

  18. Comparison of Metabolites Variation and Antiobesity Effects of Fermented versus Nonfermented Mixtures of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and Soybean According to Fermentation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Seung Hyung; Lee, Sarah; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the changes in metabolites in the mixture of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and soybean (CLM) during fermentation. Additionally, the antiobesity effects of CLM and fermented-CLM (FCLM) were studied based on the analysis of plasma from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The levels of cyanidin and the glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and cyanidin derived from L. caerulea were decreased, whereas the levels of luteolin and quercetin were increased during fermentation. Isoflavone glycosides and soyasaponins originating from the soybean were decreased, whereas their aglycones such as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were increased. As for prenylated flavonoids from C. tricuspidata, these metabolites were decreased at the early stage of fermentation, and were increased at end of the fermentation. In terms of the functional food product, various metabolites derived from diverse natural products in CLM had complementary effects and demonstrated higher antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibition activities after fermentation; these activities were closely related to flavonoid aglycones including genistein, daidzein, glycitein, luteolin, and quercetin. In an in vivo experiment, several clinical parameters affected by HFD were improved by the administration of either CLM or FCLM, but there was a difference in the antiobesity effects. The levels of lysoPCs with C20:4, C16:0, and C22:6 were significantly attenuated by CLM administration, while the attenuated levels of lysoPCs with C20:4 and C18:2 were significantly restored by FCLM administration. These metabolites may explain the above-mentioned differences in antiobesity effects. Although only the changes in plasma lysophospholipids could not fully explain antiobesity effects between non-fermented and fermented plant mixtures from our results, we suggest that metabolomics approach could provide a way to reveal

  19. Comparison of Metabolites Variation and Antiobesity Effects of Fermented versus Nonfermented Mixtures of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and Soybean According to Fermentation In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Seung Hyung; Lee, Sarah; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We used ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the changes in metabolites in the mixture of Cudrania tricuspidata, Lonicera caerulea, and soybean (CLM) during fermentation. Additionally, the antiobesity effects of CLM and fermented-CLM (FCLM) were studied based on the analysis of plasma from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The levels of cyanidin and the glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and cyanidin derived from L. caerulea were decreased, whereas the levels of luteolin and quercetin were increased during fermentation. Isoflavone glycosides and soyasaponins originating from the soybean were decreased, whereas their aglycones such as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were increased. As for prenylated flavonoids from C. tricuspidata, these metabolites were decreased at the early stage of fermentation, and were increased at end of the fermentation. In terms of the functional food product, various metabolites derived from diverse natural products in CLM had complementary effects and demonstrated higher antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibition activities after fermentation; these activities were closely related to flavonoid aglycones including genistein, daidzein, glycitein, luteolin, and quercetin. In an in vivo experiment, several clinical parameters affected by HFD were improved by the administration of either CLM or FCLM, but there was a difference in the antiobesity effects. The levels of lysoPCs with C20:4, C16:0, and C22:6 were significantly attenuated by CLM administration, while the attenuated levels of lysoPCs with C20:4 and C18:2 were significantly restored by FCLM administration. These metabolites may explain the above-mentioned differences in antiobesity effects. Although only the changes in plasma lysophospholipids could not fully explain antiobesity effects between non-fermented and fermented plant mixtures from our results, we suggest that metabolomics approach could provide a way to reveal

  20. The anti-inflammatory action of fermented soybean products in kidney of high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jehun; Kwon, Sun-Hwa; Park, Kun-Young; Yu, Byung Pal; Kim, Nam Deuk; Jung, Jee H; Chung, Hae Young

    2011-03-01

    Soybean has many compounds with a variety of biological properties that potentially benefit human health; among them, isoflavones have inhibitory effects on lipid oxidation in adipose tissue. In this study, we examined two Korean traditional fermented soybean products--doenjang (DNJ) and cheonggukjang (CGJ)--for their ability to suppress redox-sensitive nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in the kidney of rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 weeks old, were fed soybean, DNJ, or CGJ (1 g/kg/day) with a 20% fat diet for 6 weeks. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored. NF-κB-related activities of genes for inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), were determined. The soybean products exhibited antioxidative action by maintaining redox regulation, suppressing NF-κB activation, and modulating the expression of genes for NF-κB-induced inflammatory proteins such as COX-2, iNOS, and VCAM-1. Based on these results, we conclude that Korean traditional soybean fermented products, especially CGJ, suppress the generation of reactive species, NF-κB activity, and NF-κB-related inflammatory genes. PMID:21332402

  1. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  2. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  3. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Ostlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  4. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products. PMID:27052865

  5. A Beverage Containing Fermented Black Soybean Ameliorates Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-Induced Renal Oxidative Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Yasumasa; Iqbal, Mohammad; Kawakami, Norito; Yamamoto, Yorihiro; Toyokuni, Shinya; Okada, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    It is beneficial to seek scientific basis for the effects of functional foods. Natural pigments derived from plants are widely known as possible antioxidants. Black soybean contains a larger amount of anthocyanins than regular soybean. Here we studied the antioxidative effect of a beverage obtained via citric acid fermentation of black soybean (BBS), using a rat model of renal oxidative injury induced by a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate. BBS (10 ml/kg) was orally administered 30 min before ferric nitrilotriacetate treatment. Renal lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated animals concomitant with decrease in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Maintenance of renal activities of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase was significantly better in the BBS-pretreated rats. Elevation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated rats. These data suggest that dietary intake of BBS is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediate by iron, and warrant further investigation. PMID:21103028

  6. Natural fermentation of soybean (glycine max) with added salt for 'soy-daddawa' production.

    PubMed

    Omafuvbe, B O

    1994-07-01

    Microbial growth, pH and titratable acidity decreased with increasing NaCl concentration during the fermentation of soybeans. NaCl at 1% (w/w) in the fermenting mash improved the organoleptic quality of 'soy-daddawa'. PMID:24421103

  7. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively impact cecal fermentation and inte...

  8. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

    PubMed

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Ostlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-11-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

  9. Quantification and odor contribution of 2-furanmethanethiol in different types of fermented soybean paste miso.

    PubMed

    Ohata, Motoko; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Dubourdieu, Denis; Kubota, Kikue; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2009-03-25

    2-Furanmethanethiol, a compound contained in many kinds of food, was identified for the first time in five types of miso fermented soybean paste (red salty rice miso, thin-colored salty rice miso, weak salty rice miso, barley miso, and soy miso) by specific extraction of volatile thiols using p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. In the triangle test with red salty rice miso, which included a higher concentration of 2-furanmethanethiol, and thin-colored salty rice miso, which included a lower concentration of 2-furanmethanethiol, it was shown that the aroma of thin-colored salty rice miso was similar to that of red salty rice miso by adding 2-furanmethanethiol into thin-colored salty rice miso. In addition, a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) clearly shows that 2-furanmethanethiol contributed to the intensity of three odor qualities "thick, complex", "sweet", and "pleasant aroma like coffee beans" in six odor qualities and was a very important component of miso aroma. PMID:19231859

  10. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing. PMID:26540032

  11. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  12. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  13. Isolation of antifungal bacteria from Japanese fermented soybeans, natto.

    PubMed

    Murata, Daichi; Sawano, Sayaka; Ohike, Tatsuya; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    An inhibitory effect of a traditional Japanese fermented food, natto, was found against plant pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, and the bacteria which showed inhibition were isolated from the natto. Among isolated bacteria, BC-1 and GAc exhibited a strong antagonistic effect in vitro against plant pathogens on an agar medium. The supernatant of bacterial culture also showed strong activity against R. solani, which meant the antimicrobial substances were produced and secreted into the medium. Both of the bacteria were estimated as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens from a partial sequence of the 16s rRNA gene. High performance liquid chromatography analysis clearly showed the production of the lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by BC-1 and GAc. PMID:25078814

  14. Accurate determination of ochratoxin A in Korean fermented soybean paste by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seonghee; Lee, Suyoung; Lee, Joonhee; Kim, Byungjoo

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, has been frequently detected in doenjang, a traditional fermented soybean paste, when it is fermented under improper conditions. Reliable screening of OTA in traditional fermented soybean paste (doenjang) is a special food-safety issue in Korea. Our laboratory, the National Metrology Institute of Korea, established an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method as a higher-order reference method to be used for SI-traceable value-assignment of OTA in certified reference materials (CRMs). (13)C20-OTA was used as an internal standard. Sample preparation conditions and LC/MS measurement parameters were optimised for this purpose. The analytical method was validated by measuring samples fortified with OTA at various levels. Repeatability and reproducibility studies showed that the ID-LC/MS/MS method is reliable and reproducible within 2% relative standard deviation. The analytical method was applied to determine OTA in various commercial doenjang products and home-made doenjang products. PMID:26212984

  15. Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov., isolated from fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2015-10-01

    An isolate of a Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was recovered from soybean-based fermented paste. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the strain was most closely related to Bacillus sonorensis KCTC-13918T (99.5 % similarity) and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (99.4 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strain was found to grow at 15–60 °C and to tolerate up to 10 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strain grew in media with pH 6–11 (optimal growth at pH 7.0–8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (37.7 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (31.5 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome sequence of the strain was completed and used for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenomic analysis of all published genomes of species in the B. licheniformis group revealed that strains belonging to B. licheniformis clustered into two distinct groups, with group 1 consisting of B. licheniformis DSM 13T and 11 other strains and group 2 consisting of KJ-16T and four other strains. The DNA G+C content of strain KJ-16T was 45.9 % (determined from the genome sequence). Strain KJ-16T and another strain from group 2 were subsequently characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach and compared with strains from group 1 and another closely related species of the genus Bacillus. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus paralicheniformis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain KJ-16T ( = KACC 18426T = NRRL B-65293T). PMID:26296568

  16. Complete genome sequences and comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 5-2 isolated from fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Jian; Wang, Rui; Gong, Fu-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Hua-Jun; Luo, Yi-Yong; Li, Xiao-Ran

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic and is mostly isolated from fermented foods. We sequenced the genome of L. plantarum strain 5-2, which was derived from fermented soybean isolated from Yunnan province, China. The strain was determined to contain 3114 genes. Fourteen complete insertion sequence (IS) elements were found in 5-2 chromosome. There were 24 DNA replication proteins and 76 DNA repair proteins in the 5-2 genome. Consistent with the classification of L. plantarum as a facultative heterofermentative lactobacillus, the 5-2 genome encodes key enzymes required for the EMP (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas) and phosphoketolase (PK) pathways. Several components of the secretion machinery are found in the 5-2 genome, which was compared with L. plantarum ST-III, JDM1 and WCFS1. Most of the specific proteins in the four genomes appeared to be related to their prophage elements. PMID:26212213

  17. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  18. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  19. Yellow perch nutrient utilization and performance fed grower diet formulations with fermented soybean concentrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeds formulated with fermented soybean concentrate (FSBC) were processed using a pilot-scale Wenger twin screw extruder, using a 1.9 cm diameter circular die, and then fed to juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (~26g) as a protein replacer for fish meal protein. Four fish-meal replacement lev...

  20. Chitooligosaccharides as novel ingredients of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Vela Gurovic, M S; Dello Staffolo, M; Montero, M; Debbaudt, A; Albertengo, L; Rodríguez, M S

    2015-11-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) have been clinically evaluated for their immunostimulating effects after oral intake. Similar to dietary supplements, prebiotics and biopreservatives, these water-soluble bioactives are easily incorporated into dairy products and beverages. Notwithstanding, the use of COS in fermented foods would be limited by its antimicrobial properties. In order to study the interaction with yoghurts as a model of fermented food, the effects of COS on chemical composition, viability, morphology and metabolism of lactic acid bacteria, fatty acid profiles and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were assessed over 28 days and after chemical digestion. There were no significant differences between the nutritional composition of controls and yoghurts supplemented with concentrations up to 0.1% w/w of COS. However, the acidification of milk decreased at 0.5% (p < 0.05) and the formation of yoghurt failed at 3.0%, without affecting viable counts. Lipid hydrolysis of yoghurts supplemented with 0.1% COS was not affected by chemical digestion. No significant differences were found between CLA percentages of controls and supplemented yoghurts after digestion. Although the nutritional composition, fatty acids and viable counts were not significantly modified after COS supplementation, the present study shows that COS diminishes bacterial acidification at concentrations higher than 0.1%, thus limiting the amounts that could be added to yoghurt. PMID:26301404

  1. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  2. Effect of fermented soybean product (Cheonggukjang) intake on metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Choi, Joo Hee; Cha, Youn Soo; Muthaiya, Maria John; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-10-01

    As a nontargeted metabolomics approach, we investigated changes in the plasma metabolite levels in a mouse model of obesity induced by a high-fat diet and fermented soybean product diet. We analyzed the plasma samples by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). In the present study, the animals were divided into four groups according to the diet type; normal fat diet control group (ND), high-fat diet control group (HD), high-fat diet plus 30% cooked soybean power (HD + S), and high-fat diet plus 30% 72-h fermented Cheonggukjang powder (HD + CGJ). To examine the changes in plasma metabolite levels because of high-fat diet feeding, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in the HD + S and HD + CGJ groups than in the ND group. According to partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), major metabolites contributing to the discrimination between each group were assigned as lipid metabolites in plasma, e.g., lyso-phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Therefore, diets containing soy-based food products, which are rich sources of isoflavonoids, might be helpful for controlling the lipid metabolism under high-fat diet conditions. PMID:23609950

  3. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods.

    PubMed

    Liener, I E

    1994-01-01

    There are a number of components present in soybeans that exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Among those factors that are destroyed by heat treatment are the protease inhibitors and lectins. Protease inhibitors exert their antinutritional effect by causing pancreatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia, which ultimately results in an inhibition of growth. The lectin, by virtue of its ability to bind to glycoprotein receptors on the epithelial cells lining the intestinal mucosa, inhibits growth by interfering with the absorption of nutrients. Of lesser significance are the antinutritional effects produced by relatively heat stable factors, such as goitrogens, tannins, phytoestrogens, flatus-producing oligosaccharides, phytate, and saponins. Other diverse but ill-defined factors appear to increase the requirements for vitamins A, B12, D, and E. The processing of soybeans under severe alkaline conditions leads to the formation of lysinoalanine, which has been shown to damage the kidneys of rats. This is not generally true, however, for edible soy protein that has been produced under milder alkaline conditions. Also meriting consideration is the allergenic response that may sometimes occur in humans, as well as calves and piglets, on dietary exposure to soybeans. PMID:8142044

  4. The Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology of the Isoflavones in Soybeans and their Food Products

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this review of the chemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of plant isoflavones, emphasis is placed on the isoflavones in soy and the food products derived from them. Soybeans have been part of food history in Asia for several millennia but did not reach the Americas and Europe until the eighteenth century. In the twentieth century, there was a tremendous increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States and more recently in South America. Soy foods have entered the U.S. food supply in ever-increasing amounts both in the form of traditional products (soy milk, tofu) and in more subtle ways in dairy and bread/cake products. The isoflavones in non-fermented foods are for the most part in the form of glycoside conjugates. These undergo changes due to different processing procedures. Isoflavones and their metabolites are well absorbed and undergo an enterohepatic circulation. They are often termed phytoestrogens because they bind to the estrogen receptors although weakly compared to physiologic estrogens. This estrogenicity is not the only mechanism by which isoflavones may have bioactivity—they inhibit tyrosine kinases, have antioxidant activity, bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator regulators α and γ, inhibit enzymes in steroid biosynthesis, strongly influence natural killer cell function and the activation of specific T-cell subsets, and inhibit metastasis. These various properties may explain the much lower incidence of hormonally-dependent breast cancer in Asian populations compared to Americans and Europeans. PMID:20235891

  5. The biochemistry, chemistry and physiology of the isoflavones in soybeans and their food products.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    In this review of the chemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of plant isoflavones, emphasis is placed on the isoflavones in soy and the food products derived from them. Soybeans have been part of food history in Asia for several millennia but did not reach the Americas and Europe until the eighteenth century. In the twentieth century, there was a tremendous increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States and more recently in South America. Soy foods have entered the U.S. food supply in ever-increasing amounts both in the form of traditional products (soy milk, tofu) and in more subtle ways in dairy and bread/cake products. The isoflavones in non-fermented foods are for the most part in the form of glycoside conjugates. These undergo changes due to different processing procedures. Isoflavones and their metabolites are well absorbed and undergo an enterohepatic circulation. They are often termed phytoestrogens because they bind to the estrogen receptors although weakly compared to physiologic estrogens. This estrogenicity is not the only mechanism by which isoflavones may have bioactivity-they inhibit tyrosine kinases, have antioxidant activity, bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator regulators alpha and gamma, inhibit enzymes in steroid biosynthesis, strongly influence natural killer cell function and the activation of specific T-cell subsets, and inhibit metastasis. These various properties may explain the much lower incidence of hormonally-dependent breast cancer in Asian populations compared to Americans and Europeans. PMID:20235891

  6. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25998000

  7. Rumen fermentation and lactation performance of cows fed roasted soybeans and tallow.

    PubMed

    Grummer, R R; Luck, M L; Barmore, J A

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to examine the effects of incremental tallow addition to diets containing whole roasted soybeans on rumen fermentation and lactational performance. Total mixed rations were fed for ad libitum intake and contained, on a DM basis, 33% alfalfa silage, 12% corn silage, 14% roasted soybeans, and 41% concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal. Treatments were 0, 1, 2, or 3% supplemental tallow. Diets contained 20% CP and ranged from 1.68 to 1.82 Mcal NEL/kg of DM. The DMI, milk yield, milk protein and fat yields, milk fat percentage, rumen acetate: propionate ratio, and in situ forage DM disappearance did not differ among treatments. A small linear decrease occurred in milk protein percentage as tallow feeding was increased (2.89 to 2.86%). Tallow supplementation increased total VFA concentration in rumen fluid and resulted in a linear decrease in rumen pH (6.17 to 5.99). Supplementation of 1 to 3% tallow to diets containing 2.8% supplemental fat from whole roasted soybeans had minimal negative effects on rumen fermentation and did not influence lactational performance. PMID:8227669

  8. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-06-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  9. Aglycone Isoflavones and Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Surh, Jeonghee; Kang, Soon Ah; Jang, Ki-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones from glycoside-formed isoflavones by commercial lactic acid bacteria in fermented soybean paste was evaluated. Enterococcus faecium KCTC 13410 showed the most resistant capacity and Lactobacillus acidophilus KCTC 3925 had a sensitive susceptibility at a high NaCl concentration (13.2%) in fermented soybean paste. Among the 5 strains tested, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 showed the highest relative ratio of aglycone-formed isoflavones to total isoflavones in fermented soybean paste. Production of exopolysaccarides (EPS) by lactic acid bacteria was compared using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium containing 1% sucrose at 37°C for 48 h. Among the 5 lactic acid bacteria, Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KCTC 3929 were investigated to produce EPS. Based on the results concerning growing susceptibility and conversion of aglycone-formed isoflavones/EPS production, it is anticipated that Lac. acidophilus KCTC 3925 may be used for preparation of Cheonggukjang, which contains relative low NaCl content. PMID:27390728

  10. Effects of dietary traditional fermented soybean on reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Visavarungroj, Nuwat; Suttajit, Maitree

    2013-01-01

    Isoflavone in soybean and its products have numerous beneficial health effects. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary soy isoflavone can relieve menopausal symptoms, lower risks of breast cancer, and lower cholesterol and glucose. Among the various effects of isoflavone, the role of cholesterol and glucose reduction seems to be well documented; however, other effects such as reproductive hormones were inconclusive and inconsistent. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of six-month dietary traditional fermented soybean intake on BMI, reproductive hormones, lipids, and glucose among postmenopausal women. Subjects were women with their last menstrual period occurring at least 12 months prior to selection by interview and health screening from Baan Tham Village, Phayao Province, Thailand. A total of 60 women were divided into 2 groups: experimental group (n=31) and reference group (n=29). The experimental group was permitted to continue their usual diet, and supplemented with fermented soybean for 6 months. The fermented soybean provided approximately 60 mg of isoflavone per day. The remarkable findings were that dietary fermented soybean had favorable effects on progesterone and cholesterol, but had no effects on estradiol, glucose, and triglycerides. Although estradiol and glucose in the experimental group did not change, a decrease of estradiol and an increase of glucose were found in the reference group. Our results, therefore, suggest that fermented soybean may have beneficial effects on reproductive hormones and cholesterol, and they would be warrant further detail investigations. PMID:23635365

  11. Focused Review: Agmatine in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous substances considered to be bioregulators of numerous cell functions; they take part in cell growth, division, and differentiation. These biogenic amines are also involved in tissue repair and in intracellular signaling; in fact, because of their polycationic character, they interact to a large extent with membrane phospholipids and may play an important role in the regulation of membrane-linked enzymes. The intracellular polyamine content derives from the simultaneous regulation of the synthesis, catabolism, uptake, and elimination of the polyamines; furthermore, PAs are present in all cell types at different concentrations, but the highest levels are found in rapid-turnover tissues. In addition to spermidine, spermine, and putrescine, also agmatine (AGM), deriving from arginine and identified in mammals in the 1990s, is a polyamine and several studies have reported its potentially positive role in the production of secretagogues, and in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, and therapeutic functions. Because of the low arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity in mammalians, the amounts of AGM found in their tissues can be only minimally ascribed to an endogenous de novo synthesis by ADC, while a substantial quantity of AGM may be of dietary origin. Several food products contain only small amounts of polyamines, while higher concentrations can be found in fermented foods. PAs could also be considered as indicators of freshness in fish and meat products; as these moieties are produced during food storage, it would seem to confirm the main role of microorganisms in their synthesis. In particular, high levels of AGM are present in alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, sake, which would seem to confirm the role of yeasts in AGM production. Although many biological functions have been attributed to polyamines, high levels of these compounds in foodstuffs can have toxicological effects; however, no safe level for the intake of polyamines in a

  12. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang. PMID:27303399

  13. Functional Characterization of Bacterial Communities Responsible for Fermentation of Doenjang: A Traditional Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo Yong; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-01-01

    Doenjang samples were prepared in triplicate and their microbial abundance, bacterial communities, and metabolites throughout fermentation were analyzed to investigate the functional properties of microorganisms in doenjang. Viable bacterial cells were approximately three orders of magnitude higher than fungal cells, suggesting that bacteria are more responsible for doenjang fermentation. Pyrosequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were applied for the analysis of bacterial communities and metabolites, respectively. Bacterial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that doenjang samples included Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Oceanobacillus, and Tetragenococcus. These genera were found either in doenjang-meju or solar salts, but not in both, suggesting two separate sources of bacteria. Bacillus and Enterococcus were dominant genera during the fermentation, but their abundances were not associated with metabolite changes, suggesting that they may not be major players in doenjang fermentation. Tetragenococcus was dominant in 108 day-doenjang samples, when lactate, acetate, putrescine, and tyramine increased quickly as glucose and fructose decreased, indicating that Tetragenococcus might be primarily responsible for organic acid and biogenic amine production. Lactobacillus was identified as a dominant group from the 179-day samples, associated with the increase of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the decrease of galactose, indicating a potential role for this genus as a major GABA producer during fermentation. The results of this study clarified the functional properties of major bacterial communities in the doenjang fermentation process, contributing to the production of safe and high-quality doenjang. PMID:27303399

  14. Effect of fermentation conditions on L-lactic acid production from soybean straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Xu, Zhong; Zhang, Wenyu; Xiang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Four types of straw, namely, soybean, wheat, corn, and rice, were investigated for use in lactic acid production. These straws were mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. After pretreatment with ammonia, the cellulose content increased, whereas the hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Analytical results also showed that the liquid enzymatic hydrolysates were primarily composed of glucose, xylose, and cellobiose. Preliminary experiments showed that a higher lactic acid concentration could be obtained from the wheat and soybean straw. However, soybean straw was chosen as the substrate for lactic acid production owing to its high protein content. The maximum lactic acid yield (0.8 g/g) and lactic acid productivity (0.61 g/(l/h)) were obtained with an initial reducing sugar concentration of 35 g/l at 30°C when using Lactobacillus casei (10% inoculum) for a 42 h fermentation period. Thus, the experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of using a soybean straw enzymatic hydrolysate as a substrate for lactic acid production. PMID:25152056

  15. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of naturally and lactic acid bacteria-fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna A; Mwangwela, Agnes M; Schüller, Reidar B; Østlie, Hilde M; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Fermented pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends were evaluated to determine sensory properties driving consumer liking. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and lactic acid bacteria fermented (LFP). Lactic acid bacteria fermentation was achieved through backslopping using a fermented cereal gruel, thobwa. Ten trained panelists evaluated intensities of 34 descriptors, of which 27 were significantly different (P < 0.05). The LFP were strong in brown color, sourness, umami, roasted soybean-and maize-associated aromas, and sogginess while NFP had high intensities of yellow color, pH, raw soybean, and rancid odors, fried egg, and fermented aromas and softness. Although there was consumer (n = 150) heterogeneity in preference, external preference mapping showed that most consumers preferred NFP. Drivers of liking of NFP samples were softness, pH, fermented aroma, sweetness, fried egg aroma, fried egg-like appearance, raw soybean, and rancid odors. Optimization of the desirable properties of the pastes would increase utilization and acceptance of fermented soybeans. PMID:24804070

  16. Analysis of bacterial and fungal communities in Japanese- and Chinese-fermented soybean pastes using nested PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Jun-Hwa; Park, Min-Hee; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-01

    The microbial diversity of Japanese- and Chinese-fermented soybean pastes was investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Five Japanese-fermented soybean paste samples and three Chinese-fermented soybean paste samples were analyzed for bacteria and fungi. Extracted DNA was used as a template for PCR to amplify 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. The nearly complete 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes were amplified using universal primers, and the resulting products were subsequently used as a template in a nested PCR to obtain suitable fragments for DGGE. Tetragenococcus halophilus and Staphylococcus gallinarum were found to dominate the bacterial microbiota in Japanese samples, whereas Bacillus sp. was detected as the predominant species in Chinese samples. DGGE analysis of fungi in soybean pastes determined the presence of Aspergillus oryzae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in most of the Chinese and Japanese samples. Some differences were observed in the bacterial diversity of Japanese- and Chinese-fermented soybean pastes. PMID:19924476

  17. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil in bottled foods].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoko; Kanno, Shinji; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-12-01

    A determination method for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in bottled foods was developed and used to survey bottled foods on the Japanese market. The amount of sample required was decreased to 20 g and the standard addition method was adopted for the quantification, because lipid in foods interrupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries were 87.1 and 98.9% and the determination limit was 5.0 microg/g for a 20 g sample, be cause lipid in foods interupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries using the internal standard method varied widely, because hydrolysis of the internal standard, cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid ethyl ester, was affected more than that of ESBO by coexisting lipid in the sample. ESBO was not detected in any of the bottled baby food samples examined (14 samples), though it had been frequently detected in previous European surveys. This difference may be related to the low fat content and low fluidity of the bottled baby foods retailed in Japan. On the other hand, ESBO was detected at levels of 25.7-494.0 microg/g in liver paste, pasta sauce, Sungan in spicy oil, and spicy oil. These foods had higher fat content and higher fluidity. However, ESBO intake from these foods appears unlikely to exceed the TDI in the EU (1 mg/kg bw/day). PMID:17228787

  18. Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soybeans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715.

    PubMed

    Juan, Ming-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a solid state fermentation of black soybeans with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715 was performed. The effect of fermentation on the changes of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability exerted by various solvent (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone) extracts of black soybeans was examined. It was found that fermentation enhanced the total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant activity of the black soybean extract. Among the various extracts examined, the acetone extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content. The acetone extract and the methanol extract of fermented black soybeans showed the highest DPPH free radical-scavenging effect and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, respectively. Analysis of extraction yields showed that the active principle associated with the DPPH radical-scavenging effect was most efficiently extracted from black soybeans using water, regardless of fermentation. Water and methanol effectively extract the Fe(2+)-chelating principles from non-fermented and fermented black soybeans, respectively. PMID:20510775

  19. Invited review: Fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Barrientos, L M; Hernández-Mendoza, A; Torres-Llanez, M J; González-Córdova, A F; Vallejo-Córdoba, B

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, interest has risen in fermented dairy foods that promote health and could prevent diseases such as hypertension. This biological effect has mainly been attributed to bioactive peptides encrypted within dairy proteins that can be released during fermentation with specific lactic acid bacteria or during gastrointestinal digestion. The most studied bioactive peptides derived from dairy proteins are antihypertensive peptides; however, a need exists to review the different studies dealing with the evaluation of antihypertensive fermented milk before a health claim may be associated with the product. Thus, the objective of this overview was to present available information related to the evaluation of fermented milk containing antihypertensive peptides by in vitro and in vivo studies, which are required before a fermented functional dairy product may be introduced to the market. Although commercial fermented milks with antihypertensive effects exist, these are scarce and most are based on Lactobacillus helveticus. Thus, a great opportunity is available for the development of functional dairy products with new lactic acid bacteria that support heart health through blood pressure- and heart rate-lowering effects. Hence, the consumer may be willing to pay a premium for foods with important functional benefits. PMID:26923047

  20. Effect of feeding fermented soybean meal on plasma concentration of cortisol in LPS-challenged nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the present study was to determine if feeding nursery pigs diets containing either plasma protein (PP) or fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would alter the overall stress response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge as indicated by plasma concentrations of cortisol. Pigs (n=24) were...

  1. South African rural community understanding of fermented foods preparation and usage

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K.; Mokgatle, Mathilda M.; Zungu, Lindiwe I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The benefits of fermented foods consumption have been demonstrated in a number of research reports. These qualities have been demonstrated, for example, to reduce childhood diseases such as diarrhea and malnutrition. Thus, fermented foods may be recommended for improving the health and nutritional quality of traditional African foods and regular inclusion of fermented foods as part of the daily diet would be desirable. Aims: Lack of knowledge and understanding toward fermented food preparation may limit their usage. This study explores the South African community's understanding of fermented foods preparation and usage. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews to determine the community's understanding and their perception of fermented foods preparation in the rural villages of Odi, in Gauteng Province between May and June 2012. The target population was the caregivers of children under 5 years, attending the hospital's antenatal clinic at the time of study. The information was transcribed, coded, and analyzed using NVivo software. Results: Most caregivers were aware of food fermentation process, and some of them could not clearly differentiate between fermented and unfermented foods. Although most participants knew what fermented foods were, there were misconceptions on how they were made. This was exemplified by the undesirable artifacts, labeled as ingredients, in the fermentation process. Conclusion: Caregivers demonstrated a fair knowledge of fermented foods but lack a standard preparation procedure for these foods. There is an urgent need to educate communities and conduct a health promotion campaign on the fermented foods and probiotics. PMID:27462624

  2. Effects of Replacing Soybean Meal with Fermented Rapeseed Meal on Performance, Serum Biochemical Variables and Intestinal Morphology of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, F. Z.; Zeng, X. G.; Ding, X. L.

    2012-01-01

    This trial was performed to study the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with fermented rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, serum biochemistry variable and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 640 d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments, 4 pens per treatment and 40 birds per pen for a 6-wk feeding trial. In the four treatment groups, fermented RSM replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, and 15%, respectively. On 21 d and 42 d, two birds from each pen were randomly selected and slaughtered. Blood samples and sections of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected for measurement of serum biochemical variables and intestinal morphology, respectively. Results showed that body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion (FC) were significantly (p<0.01) poorer for birds fed the 15% fermented RSM diet than those fed with 0, 5 and 10% fermented RSM diets during all periods. Compared with 0 and 5% fermented RSM groups, IgG content in the serum of birds in 10 and 15% fermented RSM groups was improved (p<0.01) urea nitrogen content of serum was reduced (p<0.01) during both growing and finishing periods. However, IgM, phosphorus and calcium levels increased (p<0.05) only during the growing period. Increased (p<0.05) villus height was observed in the duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM. In addition, villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was significantly higher (p<0.01) for birds fed the diet with 10% fermented RSM than for those fed diets with 0, 5 and 15% fermented RSM. The present results suggest that RSM fermented with Lactobacillus fermentum and Bacillus subtilis is a promising alternative protein source and that it could be safely used replace up to 10% SBM in broiler diets. PMID:25049539

  3. Screening and Characterization of Potential Bacillus Starter Cultures for Fermenting Low-Salt Soybean Paste (Doenjang).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hye Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Baek, Seong Yeol; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-28

    The bacterial strains were screened as potential starters for fermenting low-salt doenjang (a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste) using Korean doenjang based on proteolytic and antipathogenic activities under 6.5-7.5% NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they all belonged to the genus Bacillus. Proteolytic and antipathogenic activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus flavus, as well as fibrinolytic, amylase, and cellulase activities of the 10 strains were quantitatively evaluated. Of these, strains D2-2, JJ-D34, and D12-5 were selected, based on their activities. The functional, phenotypic, and safety-related characteristics of these three strains were additionally investigated and strains D2-2 and D12-5, which lacked antibiotic resistance, were finally selected. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 produced poly-γ-glutamic acid and showed various enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Growth properties of strains D2-2 and D12-5 included wide temperature and pH ranges, growth in up to 16% NaCl, and weak anaerobic growth, suggesting that they facilitate low-salt doenjang fermentation. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 were not hemolytic, carried no toxin genes, and did not produce biogenic amines. These results suggest that strains D2-2 and D12-5 can serve as appropriate starter cultures for fermenting low-salt doenjang with high quality and safety. PMID:26718466

  4. Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ong'ola-Manani, Tinna Austen; Østlie, Hilde Marit; Mwangwela, Agnes Mbachi; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean–maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h). PMID:25493196

  5. Poultry-beneficial solid-state Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 fermented soybean formulation

    PubMed Central

    CHISTYAKOV, Vladimir; MELNIKOV, Vyacheslav; CHIKINDAS, Michael L.; KHUTSISHVILI, Maiko; CHAGELISHVILI, Avtandil; BREN, Angelika; KOSTINA, Natalia; CAVERA, Veronica; ELISASHVILI, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Birds were given a new formulation of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 solid-state fermented soybean that retained the spores of the aforementioned organism. Mass dynamics, feed flow rate and broiler performance were observed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. At each time point, the live mass was greater than that of the control group, reaching a difference of 7–8% by day 28. A difference of 5.3–8.8% was observed in feed conversion per kilogram live mass (1.97 kg in the controls as compared with 1.81–1.87 kg in experimental groups). This indicates a positive effect of the B. amyloliquefaciens B-1895 formulation on the live mass of broilers as well as on feed consumption. PMID:25625034

  6. Assessment of antidiabetogenic potential of fermented soybean extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyu Hee; Han, Ji-Hui; Lee, Jae Yeon; Park, Young Shik; Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Kyung-Don; Yuk, Won Jeong; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, JungKee; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2012-11-01

    Most of the available drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) produce detrimental side effects, which has prompted an ongoing search for plant with the antidiabetic potential. The present study investigated the effect of soybean extracts fermented with Bacillus subtilis MORI, fermented soybean extracts (BTD-1) was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The possible effects of BTD-1 against hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated oxidative stress was investigated by assaying the plasma glucose level and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA). A significant increase in the levels of both plasma glucose and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in the diabetic rats when compared to normal control group. After administration of BTD-1 (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day), the elevated plasma glucose level was significantly reduced while the plasma insulin level and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and MDA were significantly increased. The results suggest that administration of BTD-1 can inhibit hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated oxidative stress. The administration of BTD-1 also inhibited the contractile response by norepinephrine (10(-10)-10(-5) M) in the presence of endothelium, and caused significant relaxation by carbachol (10(-8)-10(-5) M) in rat aorta. These findings indicate that BTD-1 improves vascular functions on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, subchronic administration of BTD-1 could prevent the functional changes in vascular reactivity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The collective findings support that administration of BTD-1 may prevent some diabetes-related changes in vascular reactivity directly and/or indirectly due to its hypoglycaemic effect and inhibition of production of ROS. PMID:22943971

  7. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. PMID:26300306

  8. Is lactate an undervalued functional component of fermented food products?

    PubMed Central

    Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been traditionally regarded as an intermediate of carbon metabolism and major component of fermented dairy products contributing to organoleptic and antimicrobial properties of food, there is evidence gathered in recent years that lactate has bioactive properties that may be responsible of broader properties of functional foods. Lactate can regulate critical functions of several key players of the immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells, being able to modulate inflammatory activation of epithelial cells as well. Intraluminal levels of lactate derived from fermentative metabolism of lactobacilli have been shown to modulate inflammatory environment in intestinal mucosa. The molecular mechanisms responsible to these functions, including histone deacetylase dependent-modulation of gene expression and signaling through G-protein coupled receptors have started to be described. Since lactate is a major fermentation product of several bacterial families with probiotic properties, we here propose that it may contribute to some of the properties attributed to these microorganisms and in a larger view, to the properties of food products fermented by lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26150815

  9. Physicochemical Properties of Roasted Soybean Flour Bioconverted by Solid-State Fermentation Using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Ju; General, Thiyam; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2012-01-01

    To produce novel cheese-like fermented soybean, the solid-state fermentation of roasted soybean flour (RSF) was performed using 1.0% inoculum Bacillus subtilis HA and Lactobacillus plantarum, with the initial 60% substrate moisture for 10 hr at 42°C, resulting in pH 6.5, 0.82% acidity, 3.5% mucilage, 14.3 unit/g protease activity, 7.6 unit/g fibrinolytic activity, 216 mg% tyrosine content and 1.7×1010 CFU/g of viable cell counts. After the second lactic acid fermentation with 10∼30% skim milk powder, the fermented RSF resulted in an increase in acidity with 1.64∼1.99%, tyrosine content with 246∼308 mg% and protease activity in the range of 5.2∼17.5 unit/g and 0.966 water activity. Viable cell counts as probiotics indicated 1.6×108 CFU/g of B. subtilis and 7.3×1010 CFU/g of L. plantarum. The firmness of the first fermented RSF with 2,491 g·ømm−1 greatly decreased to 1,533 g·ømm−1 in the second fermented RSF, although firmness was slightly increased by adding a higher content of skim milk. The consistency of the second fermented RSF also decreased greatly from 55,640 to 3,264∼3,998 in the presence of 10∼30% skim milk. The effective hydrolysis of soy protein and skim milk protein in the fermented RSF was confirmed. Thus, the second fermented RSF with a sour taste and flavor showed similar textural properties to commercial soft cheese. PMID:24471061

  10. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation. PMID:25582183

  11. Effect of sequential bio-processing conditions on the content and composition of vitamin K2 and isoflavones in fermented soy food.

    PubMed

    Puri, Alka; Mir, Showkat Rasool; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2015-12-01

    In the present research, effect of sequential addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus on content and composition of vitamin K2 and isoflavones in fermented soy foods have been investigated. Initially, soybeans were fermented with B. bifidum; then this fermented mass was re-fermented with co-culture of B. subtilis and R. oligosporus. The evolved sequence of microbes inoculation tended towards significantly (p < 0.5) higher enzymes levels (126.16 ± 2.23 IU/mg lipase, 36.52 ± 1.25 IU/mg phytase and 8.52 ± 1.12 IU/mg β-glucosidase); maximum menaquinone-7 production (9.3 ± 1.27 μg/g); and isoflavone content (84.64 ± 1.97 % daidzein, 99.29 ± 0.86 % genistein, 96.42 ± 1.32 % glycitein) after 72 h of solid-state fermentation. The study showed that co-fermentation of soybean with different microbes in a particular sequence can enhance nutritional value batter than the mono-culture fermentation due to the positive correlation between enzymes (lipase, phytase, β-glucosidase) levels, menaquinone-7 and soy isoflavones content. PMID:26604398

  12. A review on the fermentation of foods and the residues of pesticides-biotransformation of pesticides and effects on fermentation and food quality.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Jorge; López-Fernández, Olalla; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Residues of pesticides in food are influenced by processing such as fermentation. Reviewing the extensive literature showed that in most cases, this step leads to large reductions in original residue levels in the fermented food, with the formation of new pesticide by-products. The behavior of residues in fermentation can be rationalized in terms of the physical-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In addition, the presence of pesticides decrease the growth rate of fermentative microbiota (yeasts and bacterias), which provokes stuck and sluggish fermentations. These changes have in consequence repercussions on several aspects of food sensory quality (physical-chemical properties, polyphenolic content, and aromatic profile) of fermented food. The main aim of this review is to deal with all these topics to propose challenging needs in science-based quality management of pesticides residues in food. PMID:24915365

  13. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50 °C for 4 h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and then dried at 50 °C for 6 h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 % ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10 min), aged (4 °C for 6 h), cut, toasted (120 °C for 1 h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48 h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71 ± 0.06 to 6.11 ± 0.05, crude fibre from 36.62 ± 0.01 to 46.18 ± 0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50 ± 0.18 to 2.71 ± 0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29 ± 0.04 to 13.27 ± 0.22, ash from 1.41 ± 0.17 to 6.36 ± 0.17 and crude protein from 30.32 ± 0.21 to 33.53 ± 0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12 h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24 h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36 h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48 h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability

  14. Ethyl carbamate levels in selected fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Canas, B J; Havery, D C; Robinson, L R; Sullivan, M P; Joe, F L; Diachenko, G W

    1989-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC), also known as urethane, is an animal carcinogen and a by-product of fermentation. Because EC has been found in distilled spirits and wines, a variety of fermented foods and beverages were analyzed to assess its occurrence in other products. Previously described methods using a gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer with a nitrogen converter were modified for each matrix and gave recoveries of greater than 80%, with a limit of detection in the 1-2 micrograms/kg (ppb) range. A total of 152 test samples were analyzed; EC levels ranged from none found to 3 ppb in 15 cheeses, 6 teas, 12 yogurts, and 8 ciders; from none found to 13 ppb in 30 breads and 69 malt beverages; and from none found to 84 ppb in 12 soy sauces. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was used to confirm EC identity and to quantitate EC in selected food extracts. PMID:2592308

  15. Food fermentation: a safety and nutritional assessment. Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Assessment of Fermentation as a Household Technology for Improving Food Safety.

    PubMed Central

    Motarjemi, Y.; Nout, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment of the food-safety and nutritional aspects of lactic acid fermentation for the preparation of weaning food at the household level was carried out during a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop held in Pretoria, South Africa, in December 1995. In particular, lactic acid fermentation was evaluated as a part of food preparation processes involving other operations such as soaking, cooking, and the germination of cereal grains. The use of germinated cereals is of particular interest since they can be used to prepare semi-liquid porridges of high nutrient density. After reviewing the present state of knowledge concerning the antimicrobial effects of the lactic acid in fermented foods, and the nutritional benefits of fermentation and the use of germinated cereals, the Workshop made an inventory of gaps in current knowledge and priorities for further research. High priority areas for research include the following: the effect of lactic acid fermentation on viruses, parasites, certain bacteria, and mycotoxins; certain physiological and nutritional effects of the consumption of fermented foods; the characterization and optimization of fermentation processes and the development of appropriate fermentation starters; and risk mitigation using the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, the health education of food handlers, and efforts to change the consumer perception of fermented foods. PMID:9060215

  16. Traditional Indian fermented foods: a rich source of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Satish Kumar, R; Kanmani, P; Yuvaraj, N; Paari, K A; Pattukumar, V; Arul, V

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the diversity of Indian fermented food and its significance as a potential source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermented foods consumed in India are categorized based upon their base material. Fermented foods such as dahi, gundruk, sinki, iniziangsang, iromba, fermented rai, kanjika and handua were reported to have significant medicinal properties. Some fermented products such as koozh, dahi and kanjika are consumed unknowingly as, probiotic drinks, by local people. There are very few reports regarding isolation of LAB from Indian fermented foods available in the past; however, due to growing consciousness about potential health benefits of LAB, we now have scores of reports in this field. There is an abundant opportunity available for food microbiologists to explore the Indian fermented foods for the isolation of new LAB strains for their potential role in probiotic research. PMID:23181843

  17. Dietary fermented soybean suppresses UVB-induced skin inflammation in hairless mice via regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taek Hwan; Do, Moon Ho; Oh, Young Lyun; Cho, Dong Woon; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-10

    Soybean may be a promising ingredient for regulating UVB-induced inflammatory damage to the skin. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of diets supplemented with fermented soybean on UVB-induced skin photodamage and the effectiveness of soybean (S) and fermented soybean (FS) dietary supplementation. To investigate the effects of two major isoflavones-daidzein and genistein-from FS, we used cocultures with keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Genistein treatment strongly inhibited the production of IL-6 and MAPK signaling. Forty hairless male mice divided into four groups were fed with a control diet (group N: normal, group C; +UVB) or diets with 2.5% S+UVB or 2.5% FS+UVB (group S, group FS) for 8 weeks. Macrophage infiltration to the dermis was reduced more in groups S and FS than in group C. The expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 were significantly decreased in group FS (by 7.7% ± 0.4% and 21.2% ± 0.3%, respectively [p < 0.05]). PMID:25144532

  18. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Poungchompu, O; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials. PMID:26954119

  19. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    PubMed Central

    Polyorach, S.; Poungchompu, O.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (p<0.01) increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials. PMID:26954119

  20. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    PubMed

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. PMID:27012174

  1. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  2. Kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Minakshee; Vasantha, K Y; Sreerama, Y N; Haware, Devendra J; Singh, R P; Sattur, A P

    2015-12-01

    Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. It is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. Solid state fermentation of horse gram using Penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. The fermented material, termed Kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. A reduction in sodium and increased levels of potassium and calcium was observed in Kaulath. In addition, a higher free radical scavenging activity was noted in this product compared to unfermented horse gram. Anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors showed a reduction in Kaulath. Furthermore, Kaulath, upto 1 g per kg body weight, did not exhibit any mortality or toxic effects in experimental rats after 14 days of administration. The hematological and clinical parameters were within safe limits between the groups, supported by the histopathology of liver and kidney. These results indicate potential food use of Kaulath in diets and as functional ingredients in formulated foods. PMID:26604417

  3. [A CASE OF NATTOU (FERMENTED-SOYBEAN)-INDUCED LATE-ONSET ANAPHYLAXIS FOLLOWING SCUBA DIVING].

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Katsuichirou; Horikawa, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    We here report a 34-years old male who had nattou-(fermented-soybean) induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving to about 20 m in the ocean off a small remote Japanese island (Kuroshima, Okinawa). He had eaten nattou for breakfast at 7:30 am. He traveled by boat to the dive site, dove twice and then ate lunch at 12:30 on the diving boat (no nattou at lunch). After lunch at 14:30 he dove again (third dive of the day) during which time itchiness started. Back on the diving boat, urticarial was noticed. At 15:30, while washing his diving gear at the diving shop near the harbor, he fainted. A physician arrived on the scene at 15:45. Chest sound was clear and SpO2 was 98%, and blood pressure was 60/- mmHg. Intra-venous hydrocortisone was given, however, his recovery was not satisfactory. Then he was transferred to the Yaeyama Hospital by helicopter at 17:45. The examination of diving computer analysis reveals no sign of increased residual nitrogen, denying the possibility of decompression syndrome. Prick to prick test shows a strongly positive response to nattou. Nattou-induced late-onset anaphylaxis following SCUBA diving was suspected. PMID:26380912

  4. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    PubMed

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process. PMID:27207010

  5. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  6. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  7. Quantification of genistein and genistin in soybeans and soybean products.

    PubMed

    Fukutake, M; Takahashi, M; Ishida, K; Kawamura, H; Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that the isoflavone, genistein,, may have some role as a chemopreventive agent against cancer in humans. Levels of genistein and its beta-glucoside conjugate, genistin, ingested in soybeans and related bean products by the Japanese were quantified by HPLC, to estimate daily intake of these compounds. Amounts of genistein and genistin in soybeans, soy nuts and soy powder were in the range of 4.6 to 18.2 and 200.6 to 968.1 micrograms/g food, respectively. The values for soy milk and tofu (bean curd) were 1.9 to 13.9 and 94.8 to 137.7 micrograms/g food, respectively. Levels of isoflavones in fermented soybean products, miso (bean paste) and natto (fermented soybeans), were 38.5 to 229.1 micrograms/g food for genistein and 71.7 to 492.8 micrograms/g food for genistin. Thus, the level of genistein in the fermented soybean products was higher than in soy beans and soybean products such as soy milk and tofu. From these observations, it is suggested that the beta-glycosyl bond of genistin is cleaved to produce genistein by microbes during fermentation to yield miso and natto. Soy sauce was also found to contain both isoflavones, but at levels lower than in miso and natto. On the basis of these data for average annual consumption of soybeans and related products, daily intake of genistein and genistin by the Japanese is calculated to be 1.5-4.1 and 6.3-8.3 mg/person, respectively. These levels are much higher than those for Americans or Western Europeans, whose mortality rates for breast, colon and prostate cancers are greater than the Japanese. PMID:8655094

  8. Evaluation of enzyme activity and fiber content of soybean cotyledon fiber and distiller's dried grains with solubles by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengli; Lio, JunYi; Wang, Tong

    2012-05-01

    To increase the value of coproducts from corn ethanol fermentation and soybean aqueous processing, distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean cotyledon fiber were used as the substrates for solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve feed digestibility. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were chosen as they produce desirable enzymes and are widely used in SSF for feed. The results showed that the cellulase and xylanase activities were significantly increased after 7 days of fermentation, and cellulose and hemicellulose degradation was also greatly increased. When soybean fiber was used as SSF substrate, the maximum activities of the cellulase and xylanase were 10.3 and 84.2 IU/g substrate (dry weight basis) after SSF treatment, respectively. However, the enzyme activities were relatively low in DDGS, and the growth of the three fungi was poor. The fungi grew better when soybean cotyledon fiber was added to DDGS, and cellulase and xylanase activity increased with the increase of soybean fiber content. Porosity was identified as an important factor for SSF because the addition of inert soybean hull alone improved the fungi growth significantly. These data suggest that the nutritional value of DDGS and soybean cotyledon fiber as monogastric animal feed could be greatly enhanced by SSF treatment. PMID:22528656

  9. Mixed food waste as renewable feedstock in succinic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Mingji; Qi, Qingsheng; Gao, Cuijuan; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-11-01

    Mixed food waste, which was directly collected from restaurants without pretreatments, was used as a valuable feedstock in succinic acid (SA) fermentation in the present study. Commercial enzymes and crude enzymes produced from Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were separately used in hydrolysis of food waste, and their resultant hydrolysates were evaluated. For hydrolysis using the fungal mixture comprising A. awamori and A. oryzae, a nutrient-complete food waste hydrolysate was generated, which contained 31.9 g L(-1) glucose and 280 mg L(-1) free amino nitrogen. Approximately 80-90 % of the solid food waste was also diminished. In a 2.5 L fermentor, 29.9 g L(-1) SA was produced with an overall yield of 0.224 g g(-1) substrate using food waste hydrolysate and recombinant Escherichia coli. This is comparable to many similar studies using various wastes or by-products as substrates. Results of this study demonstrated the enormous potential of food waste as renewable resource in the production of bio-based chemicals and materials via microbial bioconversion. PMID:25149459

  10. A Soybean Education Curriculum for Preschoolers: Introducing New Foods to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, Renee A.; Branum, Judy

    1999-01-01

    Parents of 27 preschoolers completed pretests and 14 completed posttests assessing nutrition knowledge, food purchases, and children's food intake. Children who received snacks and soybean-related instruction found both soy and nonsoy snacks acceptable, compared to those who did not receive instruction. Home eating habits did not change. (SK)

  11. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P < 0.05) of water and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and increases (P < 0.005) in protein and fiber. Anaerobic fermentation of FWM with or without LAB seemed effective in both 10- and 30-day-storage. The addition of LAB inoculants to FWM showed a linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increase in the number of total and lactic acid bacteria and toward the nutritional improvement with WSC increased and fiber decreased. Long-term (30 days) storage resulted in consistent reduction (P < 0.05) in numbers of total and lactic acid bacteria and pH and showed little change in chemical components, compared with short-term (10 days) storage. On the basis of these results, LAB inoculation improved fermentative characteristics of FWM. Among anaerobic treatments, further WSC increase and NDF reduction did not occur (P > 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%. PMID:16257200

  12. Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov., a lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-huan; Chen, Yi-sheng; Lee, Tzu-tai; Chang, Yu-chung; Yu, Bi

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-reaction-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped lactic acid bacterium, designated strain S215(T), was isolated from fermented soybean meal. The organism produced d-lactic acid from glucose without gas formation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that strain S215(T) had 98.74-99.60 % sequence similarity to the type strains of three species of the genus Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus farciminis BCRC 14043(T), Lactobacillus futsaii BCRC 80278(T) and Lactobacillus crustorum JCM 15951(T)). A comparison of two housekeeping genes, rpoA and pheS, revealed that strain S215(T) was well separated from the reference strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strain S215(T) had DNA related to the three type strains of species of the genus Lactobacillus (33-66 % relatedness). The DNA G+C content of strain S215(T) was 36.2 mol%. The cell walls contained peptidoglycan of the d-meso-diaminopimelic acid type and the major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ω10c/C19 : 1ω6c. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus formosensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S215(T) ( = NBRC 109509(T) = BCRC 80582(T)). PMID:25281727

  13. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. PMID:25062659

  14. Effects of co-fermented Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues and soybean hulls by Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lai, L P; Lee, M T; Chen, C S; Yu, B; Lee, T T

    2015-12-01

    Soybean hulls are a by-product of soybean processing for oil and meal production; Pleurotus eryngii stalk residues (PESR) are by-products of the edible portion of the fruiting body enriched in bioactive metabolites. This study evaluated the effects of co-fermented PESR and soybean hulls with Aureobasidium pullulans on performance and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. The in vitro experimental results showed that xylananse and mannanase activity of solid-state fermented soybean hulls (100% SBH) and soybean hulls partially replaced with PESR (75:25, SHP) reached peak at day 12; solid-state fermentation (SSF) enhanced the total phenolic content and trolox equivalency in both products as well. Additionally, FSHP had higher xylotriose and mannobiose levels than fermented FSBH did. A total of 400 broilers (Ross 308) were assigned randomly into four groups receiving the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% fermented SBH (0.5% FSBH), 0.5% fermented SBHP (0.5% FSHP) and 1.0% fermented SBHP (1.0% FSHP) until 35 d of age, respectively. Results demonstrated that 0.5% FSHP addition increased body weight gain as compared with corresponding normal diet fed control in birds during entire experimental period. Compared with the control group, 0.5% FSHP group significantly increased the ratio of lactic acid bacteria to Clostridium perfringens in ceca as well as ileum villus height and jejunum villus height/crypt depth ratio of 35 d old birds. In conclusion, 0.5% FSHP supplementation in the diet could obtain not only improved body weight gain, but optimal intestinal morphology by exerting its bioactive metabolite properties when fed to broilers. PMID:26467005

  15. Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary vulnerability of soybean production to climate change is likely to be from the effects of drought, which may be exacerbated by high temperature events. Technological adaptation can likely take advantage of warming in some production areas and rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon ...

  16. Fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with Candida tropicalis to concentrate phytosterols and to produce sterols-rich yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoqun; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Lihua

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols have been recovered from the deodorizer distillate produced in the final deodorization step of vegetable oil refining by various processes. The deodorizer distillate contains mainly free fatty acids (FFAs), phytosterols, and tocopherols. The presence of FFAs hinders recovery of phytosterols. In this study, fermentation of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) with Candida tropicalis 1253 was carried out. FFAs were utilized as carbon source and converted into cellular components as the yeast cells grew. Phytosterols concentration in SODD increased from 15.2 to 28.43 % after fermentation. No significant loss of phytosterols was observed during the process. Microbial fermentation of SODD is a potential approach to concentrate phytosterols before the recovery of phytosterols from SODD. During SODD fermentation, sterols-rich yeast cells were produced and the content of total sterols was as high as 6.96 %, but its major sterol was not ergosterol, which is the major sterol encountered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Except ergosterol, other sterols synthesized in the cells need to be identified. PMID:24297326

  17. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. PMID:25269887

  18. Tea and soybean extracts in combination with milk fermentation inhibit growth and enterocyte adherence of selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties of pure plant extracts (PPEs) of green tea (GT), black tea (BT) and soybean individually or in combination with milk. Fermented phenolic enriched-milk (fPEM) was prepared by combining PPEs with milk and fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated by broth-dilution and agar diffusion assay. Anti-adhesive property of extracts was evaluated in Caco-2 cell model. Results from antibacterial tests showed that PPEs exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Tea extracts were more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria while soybean extract exhibited similar effects against all pathogens tested. For fPEM, although total phenolic contents decreased compared with those in PPEs, growth inhibitory effect of fPEM containing tea extracts was greatly enhanced. All extracts showed significant inhibition against pathogen adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In particular, adhesion inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was >89% when fPEM extracts were applied. PMID:25766833

  19. Protective Effect of Fermented Soybean Dried Extracts against TPA-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hairless Mice Skin

    PubMed Central

    Georgetti, Sandra R.; Casagrande, Rúbia; Vicentini, Fabiana T. M. C.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Fonseca, Maria J. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical properties (polyphenol and genistein contents) of soybean extracts obtained by biotransformation and dried by spray dryer at different conditions and their in vivo ability to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced biochemical alterations in the skin of hairless mice. By comparing the obtained data with that of the well-known active soybean extract Isoflavin beta, we evaluated the influence of the fermentation and drying process in the extracts efficacy. The results demonstrated that inlet gas temperature and adjuvant concentration for the extract drying process have significantly affected the total polyphenol contents and, to a minor degree, the genistein contents. However, the effect of topical stimulus with TPA, an oxidative stress inducer, which caused significant depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase, with increased levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the skin of hairless mice, was significantly prevented by the soybean extracts treatment. These results indicate that the spray drying processing resulted in a product capable of limiting the oxidative stress with possible therapeutic applicability as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical forms. PMID:24073399

  20. Strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation for production of nattokinase functional food.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xie, Yuchun; Yang, Liangrong; Li, Haojian; Xu, Lin; Liu, Huizhou

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a novel and integrated preparation technology for nattokinase functional food, including strain screening, fermentation, separation, and encapsulation. To rapidly screen a nattokinase-productive strain, PCR-based screening method was combined with fibrinolytic activity-based method, and a high productive strain, Bacillus subtilis LSSE-22, was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. Reduction of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) concentration may contribute to separation of nattokinase and reduction of late-onset anaphylaxis risk. Chickpeas were confirmed as the favorable substrate for enhancement of nattokinase production and reduction of γ-PGA yield. Using cracked chickpeas, the nattokinase activity reached 356.25 ± 17.18 FU/g (dry weight), which is much higher than previous reports. To further reduce γ-PGA concentration, ethanol fractional extraction and precipitation were applied for separation of nattokinase. By extraction with 50 % and precipitation with 75 % ethanol solution, 4,000.58 ± 192.98 FU/g of nattokinase powders were obtained, and the activity recovery reached 89 ± 1 %, while γ-PGA recovery was reduced to 21 ± 2 %. To improve the nattokinase stability at acidic pH condition, the nattokinase powders were encapsulated, and then coated with methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer. After encapsulation, the nattokinase was protected from being denatured under various acid conditions, and pH-responsible controlled release at simulated intestinal fluid was realized. PMID:22987066

  1. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  2. The effect of soybean based foods on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We would like to clarify statements printed in the editorial (1) accompanying our recent publication about the effect of different forms of soybean based foods on plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels, and other cardiovascular disease risk factors (2). It was written that "... when the change from ba...

  3. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kim, Won-Seok; Jang, Sungchan; Kerley, Monty S

    2009-02-11

    Soybeans are recognized as one of the "big 8" food allergens. IgE antibodies from soybean-sensitive patients recognize more than 15 soybean proteins. Among these proteins only the alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, but not the highly homologous alpha'- and beta-subunits, has been shown to be a major allergenic protein. The objective of this study was to examine if the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin can also serve as potential allergens. Immunoblot analysis using sera collected from soybean-allergic patients revealed the presence of IgE antibodies that recognized several soy proteins including 72, 70, 52, 34, and 21 kDa proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) analysis of trypsin-digested 72, 70, and 52 kDa proteins indicated that these proteins were the alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin, respectively. Additionally, purified alpha'-, alpha-, and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin were recognized by IgE antibodies present in the soybean-allergic patients. The IgE reactivity to the beta-subunit of beta-conglycinin was not abolished when this glycoprotein was either deglycosylated using glycosidases or expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli . The results suggest that in addition to the previously recognized alpha-subunit of beta-conglycinin, the alpha'- and beta-subunits of beta-conglycinin also are potential food allergens. PMID:19138084

  4. Effect of fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PJ69-4 on the phytic acid, raffinose, and stachyose contents of soybean meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of submerged fermentation procedures using Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain PJ69-4a on degradation of phytic acid and the raffinosaccharides, raffinose, and stachyose, in soybean meal. The goal of the research was to identify a n...

  5. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB. PMID:24456350

  6. MALDI based identification of soybean protein markers--possible analytical targets for allergen detection in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devreese, Bart

    2012-02-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is extensively used all over the world due to its nutritional qualities. However, soybean is included in the "big eight" list of food allergens. According to the EU directive 2007/68/EC, food products containing soybeans have to be labeled in order to protect the allergic consumers. Nevertheless, soybeans can still inadvertently be present in food products. The development of analytical methods for the detection of traces of allergens is important for the protection of allergic consumers. Mass spectrometry of marker proteolytical fragments of protein allergens is growingly recognized as a detection method in food control. However, quantification of soybean at the peptide level is hindered due to limited information regarding specific stable markers derived after proteolytic digestion. The aim of this study was to use MALDI-TOF/MS and MS/MS as a fast screening tool for the identification of stable soybean derived tryptic markers which were still identifiable even if the proteins were subjected to various changes at the molecular level through a number of reactions typically occurring during food processing (denaturation, the Maillard reaction and oxidation). The peptides (401)Val-Arg(410) from the G1 glycinin (Gly m 6) and the (518)Gln-Arg(528) from the α' chain of the β-conglycinin (Gly m 5) proved to be the most stable. These peptides hold potential to be used as targets for the development of new analytical methods for the detection of soybean protein traces in processed foods. PMID:22212959

  7. Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purposeful application of fermentation in food and beverage preparation, as a means to provide palatability, nutritional value, preservative, and medicinal properties, is an ancient practice. Fermented foods and beverages continue to make a significant contribution to the overall patterns of traditional dietary practices. As our knowledge of the human microbiome increases, including its connection to mental health (for example, anxiety and depression), it is becoming increasingly clear that there are untold connections between our resident microbes and many aspects of physiology. Of relevance to this research are new findings concerning the ways in which fermentation alters dietary items pre-consumption, and in turn, the ways in which fermentation-enriched chemicals (for example, lactoferrin, bioactive peptides) and newly formed phytochemicals (for example, unique flavonoids) may act upon our own intestinal microbiota profile. Here, we argue that the consumption of fermented foods may be particularly relevant to the emerging research linking traditional dietary practices and positive mental health. The extent to which traditional dietary items may mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress may be controlled, at least to some degree, by microbiota. It is our contention that properly controlled fermentation may often amplify the specific nutrient and phytochemical content of foods, the ultimate value of which may associated with mental health; furthermore, we also argue that the microbes (for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species) associated with fermented foods may also influence brain health via direct and indirect pathways. PMID:24422720

  8. Fermented milks and milk products as functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Shiby, V K; Mishra, H N

    2013-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L. acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number of more than 10⁶ cfu/g at the time of consumption. Yoghurt is redefined as a probiotic carrier food. Several food powders like yoghurt powder and curd (dahi) powder are manufactured taking into consideration the number of organisms surviving in the product after drying. Such foods, beverages and powders are highly acceptable to consumers because of their flavor and aroma and high nutritive value. Antitumor activity is associated with the cell wall of starter bacteria and so the activity remains even after drying. Other health benefits of fermented milks include prevention of gastrointestinal infections, reduction of serum cholesterol levels and antimutagenic activity. The fermented products are recommended for consumption by lactose intolerant individuals and patients suffering from atherosclerosis. The formulation of fermented dietetic preparations and special products is an expanding research area. The health benefits, the technology of production of fermented milks and the kinetics of lactic acid fermentation in dairy products are reviewed here. PMID:23391015

  9. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages

    PubMed Central

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  10. Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mokoena, Mduduzi Paul; Mutanda, Taurai; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-01-01

    Diverse African traditional fermented foods and beverages, produced using different types of fermentation, have been used since antiquity because of their numerous nutritional values. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from these products have emerged as a welcome source of antimicrobials and therapeutics, and are accepted as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microbial food supplements which beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Currently, popular probiotics are derived from fermented milk products. However, with the growing number of consumers with lactose intolerance that are affected by dietary cholesterol from milk products, there is a growing global interest in probiotics from other food sources. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of recent developments on the applications of probiotic LAB globally, and to specifically highlight the suitability of African fermented foods and beverages as a viable source of novel probiotics. PMID:26960543

  11. Food uses for soybean oil and alternatives to trans fatty acids in foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The approximately 20% oil in the soybean seed is considered a co-product of the protein fraction; however, that oil fraction is a valuable commodity itself. In the United States, soybean oil products account for approximately 80% of the 18 billion pounds of edible oils used every year. Home consum...

  12. Microbial transformation of bioactive compounds and production of ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein from natural fermented soybean paste.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds. PMID:25513748

  13. In vitro evaluation of celluloytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AMS1 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) as an animal probiotic.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Saikia, Devabrata; Bashir, Yasir; Mech, Reba K; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Konwar, Bolin K; Mandal, Manabendra

    2015-04-01

    A microorganism showing probiotic attributes and hydrolyzing carboxymethylcellulose was isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi) and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and named as B. amyloliquefaciens AMS1. The potentiality of this isolate as probiotic was investigated in vitro and it showed gastrointestinal transit tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, cell aggregation and antimicrobial activity. The isolate was found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthens its candidature as a potential probiotic. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96 hours of incubation. This study explores the possibility of combining the cellulase degrading ability of a microbe with its probiotic attributes to enhance gut health of animal and digestibility of the feed. PMID:25660401

  14. The Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria-fermented Soybean Milk Products on Carrageenan-induced Tail Thrombosis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    KAMIYA, Seitaro; OGASAWARA, Masayoshi; ARAKAWA, Masayuki; HAGIMORI, Masayori

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Lactic acid bacteria-fermented soybean milk products (FS-LAB) inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of FS-LAB against thrombosis has yet to be investigated. In this study, FS-LAB were administered subcutaneously into the tails of rats, with the subsequent intravenous administration of κ-carrageenan 12 hr after the initial injection. In general, administration of κ-carrageenan induces thrombosis. The length of the infarcted tail regions was significantly shorter in the rats administered a single-fold or double-fold concentration of the FS-LAB solution compared with the region in control rats. Therefore, FS-LAB exhibited significant antithrombotic effects. Our study is the first to characterize the properties of FS-LAB and, by testing their efficacy on an in vivo rat model of thrombosis, demonstrate the potency of their antithrombotic effect. PMID:24936368

  15. Stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation and its by-product accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Raw materials and pollution control are key issues for the ethanol fermentation industry. To address these concerns, food waste was selected as fermentation substrate, and stillage reflux was carried out in this study. Reflux was used seven times during fermentation. Corresponding ethanol and reducing sugar were detected. Accumulation of by-products, such as organic acid, sodium chloride, and glycerol, was investigated. Lactic acid was observed to accumulate up to 120g/L, and sodium chloride reached 0.14mol/L. Other by-products did not accumulate. The first five cycles of reflux increased ethanol concentration, which prolonged fermentation time. Further increases in reflux time negatively influenced ethanol fermentation. Single-factor analysis with lactic acid and sodium chloride demonstrated that both factors affected ethanol fermentation, but lactic acid induced more effects. PMID:26974357

  16. Effects of fermented soybean meal on innate immunity-related gene expressions in nursery pigs acutely challenged with lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sang-Gun; Carroll, Jeffery A; Kim, Sung Woo

    2015-05-01

    This experiment was to determine if replacing soybean meal with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) would reduce the innate immune response after lipopolysaccharide challenge and the changes of gene expression profiles associated with this response. Forty-eight 21 day-old pigs were housed individually and fed three diets for 15 days: CON (a diet without FSBM or spray-dried plasma protein; SDPP), PP7 (a diet with 7% SDPP), and FS10 (a diet with 10% FSBM). Pigs were fitted with a jugular vein catheters receiving lipopolysaccharide challenge (25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) on day 15. Blood was collected for 5 h at 30-min intervals to measure cortisol. Expressions of gene transcripts in total RNA from leukocytes were compared using an oligonucleotide microarray at 210 min after lipopolysaccharides injection. Cortisol of FS10 was lower (P < 0.05) than CON after lipopolysaccharides challenge. The expression levels of 17 transcripts, including cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 were increased (P < 0.05), whereas 23 genes including adiponectin, neonatal Fc receptor and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 5 were decreased (P < 0.05) in FS10. This study suggests that FSBM-fed pigs can modulate expression of genes related to inflammatory response and anti-oxidant activity which can be a potential reason for reduced serum cortisol. PMID:25440755

  17. Menaquinones, bacteria, and the food supply; the relevance of dairy and fermented food products to vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K exists in the food supply as phylloquinone, a plant-based form, and as menaquinones (MK), a collection of isomers mostly originating from bacterial synthesis. Though multiple bacterial species used as starter cultures for food fermentations synthesize MK, relatively little is known about ...

  18. Assessment of bacterial diversity in selected Philippine fermented food products through PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Dalmacio, L M M; Angeles, A K J; Larcia, L L H; Balolong, M P; Estacio, R C

    2011-12-01

    The bacterial population in several Philippine fermented food preparations was assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA). Genomic DNA was isolated directly from alamang (fermented shrimp paste), burong isda (fermented fish and rice), burong hipon (fermented shrimp and rice), burong mustasa (fermented mustard leaves), tuba (sugar cane wine), suka (vinegar) and sinamak (spiced vinegar) using one of two protocols, namely - MoBio DNA Extraction Kit procedure and a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-based method. Samples recalcitrant to both methods underwent enrichment in three culture broths prior to DNA isolation. Isolated DNA was amplified using nested primer pairs targeting the bacterial 16S rDNA. PCR products were subjected to DGGE to elucidate the bacterial diversity in each fermented food. 16S rDNA sequence analyses revealed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) were dominant in the food samples. The LAB identified were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus pontis and Weissella cibaria. Identified AAB were Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Among these, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and W. cibaria are established probiotic bacteria, while L. panis and L. pontis are potential probiotic bacteria. This finding would increase the appeal and significance of local fermented foods to consumers. Furthermore, the majority of the identified bacteria in the study have not been reported before in culture-dependent studies of similar food preparations. As such, some of the bacterial 16S rDNA obtained were cloned to have an initial partial bacterial 16S rDNA library for Philippine fermented foods. PMID:22146687

  19. Isolation and characterization of Pseudoalteromonas sp. from fermented Korean food, as an antagonist to Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Morya, V K; Choi, Wooyoung; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2014-02-01

    The microbial intervention for sustainable management of aquaculture, especially use of probiotics, is one of the most popular and practical approaches towards controlling pathogens. Vibrio harveyi is a well-known pathogenic bacterium, which is associated to a huge economic loss in the aquaculture system by causing vibriosis. The present study is crafted for screening and characterization of anti-Vibrio strains, which were isolated from various traditional fermented Korean foods. A total of 196 strains have been isolated from soybean paste (78 strains), red chili paste (49 strains), soy sauce (18 strains), jeotgal-a salted fish (34 strains), and the gazami crab-Portunus trituberculatus (17 strains). Fifteen strains showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of V. harveyi when subjected to coculture condition. Among the strains isolated, one has been identified as a significant anti-Vibrio strain. Further biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed it as Pseudoalteromonas aliena, which had been deposited at the Korean Culture Center of Microorganisms (KCCM), Korea and designated as KCCM 11207P. The culture supernatants did not have any antimicrobial properties either in pure or in coculture condition. The culture supernatant was not toxic when supplemented to the swimming crab, Zoea, and Artemia larvae in aquaculture system. The results were very encouraging and showed a significant reduction in accumulated mortality. Here, we reported that pathogenic vibriosis can be controlled by Pseudoalteromonas sp. under in vitro and in vivo conditions. The results indicated that the biotic treatment offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in crab aquaculture. PMID:23793257

  20. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment.

    PubMed

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A; Okorie, Chimezie P; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2-5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6-10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  1. The Biotechnology of Ugba, a Nigerian Traditional Fermented Food Condiment

    PubMed Central

    Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Okorie, Chimezie P.; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2–5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6–10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. PMID:27540371

  2. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Kee-Sun; Nam, Young-Do; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-03-01

    Strain M1-8(T) was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food. Cells were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-reaction-positive and rod-shaped. Colonies were cream-coloured and circular with entire margins. Strain M1-8(T) exhibited optimal growth at 25-30 °C and pH 7.0-8.0 and in 0-4  % (w/v) NaCl. The strain tolerated up to 10.0 mM Cr(VI). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M1-8(T) represents a novel species in the genus Leucobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of M1-8(T) exhibited 98.1  % similarity to that of Leucobacter chromiireducens subsp. chromiireducens L-1(T). The new isolate was clustered with Leucobacter species on a 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic tree. The chromosomal DNA G+C content of strain M1-8(T) was 62.8 %. Its cell-wall peptidoglycan contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid. The major menaquinone was MK-11 and the predominant fatty acids were anteiso-C₁₅:₀ (63.6 %), anteiso-C₁₇:₀ (16.7 %) and iso-C₁₆:₀ (14.2  %). The polar lipid profile of strain M1-8(T) contained diphosphatidylglycerol and one unknown glycolipid. Significant genotypic and phenotypic differences were found between strain M1-8(T) and other Leucobacter species. These differentiating characteristics indicate that strain M1-8(T) represents a novel species of the genus Leucobacter, for which the name Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M1-8(T) (=KACC 21127(T) =JCM 16362(T)). PMID:20363927

  3. Mindful Persistence: Literacies for Taking up and Sustaining Fermented-Food Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Christina; Kuznetsov, Stacey; Schmeckpeper, Sheri; Curry, Linda J.; Long, Elenore; Davis, Lauren; Koerner, Heidi; McQuarrie, Kimberly Butterfield

    2015-01-01

    Almost by definition, resisting the insidious convenience of the mainstream food supply requires persistence. This is especially true for food projects requiring fermentation--projects that unfold over days or weeks and require day-to-day science in kitchens where variables can be hard to control and where some degree of periodic failure is almost…

  4. Effect of co-products of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans on ethanol production in dry-grind corn fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Jasreen K; Jung, Stephanie; Wang, Tong; Rosentrater, Kurt A; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2015-09-01

    Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) is an environmentally-friendly alternative to solvent and mechanical oil extraction methods, and can achieve ∼ 97% oil recovery from soybeans. The present study utilized soy skim (protein rich) and insoluble fiber (IF; carbohydrate rich), both co-products of EAEP, in dry-grind corn fermentation. The effects of adding soy skim and untreated IF (UIF), either separately or together, and adding pretreated IF (TIF), on ethanol production were investigated. Maximum ethanol production was achieved when UIF and skim were slurried together (corn-to-UIF ratio 1:0.16; skim-to-UIF ratio 6.5:1) and when fiber-hydrolyzing enzymes were added to corn fermentation. This modification to corn fermentation increased ethanol yield by 20%, ethanol production rate by 3%, and decreased fermentation time by 38 h compared to corn-only fermentation. An attempt was also made to utilize pentoses (from soy skim and IF) in integrated corn-soy fermentation slurry by an additional Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation step. PMID:26080102

  5. Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using In vitro Rumen Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Chang-Dae; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Soriano, Alvin P.; Cho, Kwang Keun; Jeon, Che-Ok; Lee, Sung Sil; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean meal (SM) and soluble starch (SS) on biogenic amine production and microbial diversity using in vitro ruminal fermentation. Treatments comprised of incubation of 2 g of mixture (expressed as 10 parts) containing different ratios of SM to SS as: 0:0, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, or 0:10. In vitro ruminal fermentation parameters were determined at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h of incubation while the biogenic amine and microbial diversity were determined at 48 h of incubation. Treatment with highest proportion of SM had higher (p<0.05) gas production than those with higher proportions of SS. Samples with higher proportion of SS resulted in lower pH than those with higher proportion of SM after 48 h of incubation. The largest change in NH3-N concentration from 0 to 48 h was observed on all SM while the smallest was observed on exclusive SS. Similarly, exclusive SS had the lowest NH3-N concentration among all groups after 24 h of incubation. Increasing methane (CH4) concentrations were observed with time, and CH4 concentrations were higher (p<0.05) with greater proportions of SM than SS. Balanced proportion of SM and SS had the highest (p<0.05) total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) while propionate was found highest in higher proportion of SS. Moreover, biogenic amine (BA) was higher (p<0.05) in samples containing greater proportions of SM. Histamines, amine index and total amines were highest in exclusive SM followed in sequence mixtures with increasing proportion of SS (and lowered proportion of SM) at 48 h of incubation. Nine dominant bands were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and their identity ranged from 87% to 100% which were mostly isolated from rumen and feces. Bands R2 (uncultured bacterium clone RB-5E1) and R4 (uncultured rumen bacterium clone L7A_C10) bands were found in samples with higher proportions of SM while R3 (uncultured Firmicutes bacterium clone NI_52), R7 (Selenomonas sp. MCB2

  6. Parameter Estimation for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Food Waste Into Ethanol Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Rebecca Anne

    The increase in waste disposal and energy costs has provided an incentive to convert carbohydrate-rich food waste streams into fuel. For example, dining halls and restaurants discard foods that require tipping fees for removal. An effective use of food waste may be the enzymatic hydrolysis of the waste to simple sugars and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. As these wastes have complex compositions which may change day-to-day, experiments were carried out to test fermentability of two different types of food waste at 27° C using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (ATCC4124) and Genencor's STARGEN™ enzyme in batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments. A mathematical model of SSF based on experimentally matched rate equations for enzyme hydrolysis and yeast fermentation was developed in Matlab Simulink®. Using Simulink® parameter estimation 1.1.3, parameters for hydrolysis and fermentation were estimated through modified Michaelis-Menten and Monod-type equations with the aim of predicting changes in the levels of ethanol and glycerol from different initial concentrations of glucose, fructose, maltose, and starch. The model predictions and experimental observations agree reasonably well for the two food waste streams and a third validation dataset. The approach of using Simulink® as a dynamic visual model for SSF represents a simple method which can be applied to a variety of biological pathways and may be very useful for systems approaches in metabolic engineering in the future.

  7. Food use and health effects of soybean and sunflower oils.

    PubMed

    Meydani, S N; Lichtenstein, A H; White, P J; Goodnight, S H; Elson, C E; Woods, M; Gorbach, S L; Schaefer, E J

    1991-10-01

    This review provides a scientific assessment of current knowledge of health effects of soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO). SBO and SFO both contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (60.8 and 69%, respectively), with a PUFA:saturated fat ratio of 4.0 for SBO and 6.4 for SFO. SFO contains 69% C18:2n-6 and less than 0.1% C18:3n-3, while SBO contains 54% C18:2n-6 and 7.2% C18:3n-3. Thus, SFO and SBO each provide adequate amounts of C18:2n-6, but of the two, SBO provides C18:3n-3 with a C18:2n-6:C18:3n-3 ratio of 7.1. Epidemiological evidence has suggested an inverse relationship between the consumption of diets high in vegetable fat and blood pressure, although clinical findings have been inconclusive. Recent dietary guidelines suggest the desirability of decreasing consumption of total and saturated fat and cholesterol, an objective that can be achieved by substituting such oils as SFO and SBO for animal fats. Such changes have consistently resulted in decreased total and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to be favorable with respect to decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. Also, decreases in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol have raised some concern. Use of vegetable oils such as SFO and SBO increases C18:2n-6, decreases C20:4n-6, and slightly elevated C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 in platelets, changes that slightly inhibit platelet generation of thromboxane and ex vivo aggregation. Whether chronic use of these oils will effectively block thrombosis at sites of vascular injury, inhibit pathologic platelet vascular interactions associated with atherosclerosis, or reduce the incidence of acute vascular occlusion in the coronary or cerebral circulation is uncertain. Linoleic acid is needed for normal immune response, and essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency impairs B and T cell-mediated responses. SBO and SFO can provide adequate linoleic acid for maintenance of the immune response. Excess linoleic acid has supported tumor

  8. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Hui-Chung; Wang, Chiung-Mei; Lin, Chia-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Jhong, Yu-Jyun; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacillus pobuzihii is a novel species which has been previously found in pobuzihi (fermented cummingcordia), a traditional fermented food in Taiwan. However, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microflora in pobuzihi has not been studied in detail. In this study, LAB from pobuzihi were isolated, identified, and characterized. A total of 196 LAB were isolated; 79 cultures were isolated from the sample collected from a manufacturing factory, 38 from pobuzihi samples collected from 4 different markets, and 79 from 2 fresh cummingcordia samples. These isolates were characterized phenotypically and then divided into eight groups (A to H) by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Lactobacillus plantarum was the most abundant LAB found in most samples during the fermentation of pobuzihi. On the other hand, Enterococcus casseliflavus and Weissella cibaria were, respectively, the major species found in the two fresh cummingcordia samples. A potential novel species or subspecies of lactococcal strain was found. In addition, seven L. plantarum and five W. cibaria strains showed inhibitory activity against the indicator strain Lactobacillus sakei JCM 1157(T). This is the first report describing the distribution and varieties of LAB existing in the pobuzihi during its fermentation process and the final product on the market. PMID:23011950

  9. Effects of Soybean Small Peptides on Rumen Fermentation and on Intestinal and Total Tract Digestion of Luxi Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W. J.; Yang, W. R.; Wang, Y.; Song, E. L.; Liu, X. M.; Wan, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Four Luxi beef cattle (400±10 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square to assess the effects of soybean small peptide (SSP) infusion on rumen fermentation, diet digestion and flow of nutrient in the gastrointestinal tract. The ruminal infusion of SSP was 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 g/d. Ruminal SSP infusion linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased microbial protein synthesis and rumen ammonia-N concentration. Concentrations of total volatile fatty acid were linearly increased (p = 0.029) by infusion SSP. Rumen samples were obtained for analysis of microbial ecology by real-time PCR. Populations of rumen Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Streptococcus bovis, Ciliate protozoa, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Prevotella ruminicola were expressed as a proportion of total Rumen bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA). Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens populations which related to total bacterial 16S rDNA were increased (p<0.05), while Streptococcus bovis populations were linearly (p = 0.049) and quadratically (p = 0.020) decreased by infusion of SSP. Apparent rumen digestibility of DM and NDF were (Q, p<0.05; L, p<0.05) increased with infusion SSP. Total tract digestion of DM, OM and NDF were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased by infusing SSP. The flow of total amino acids (AA), essential amino acids (EAA) and individual amino acids were linearly (p<0.01) and quadratically (p<0.01) increased with infusion SSP. The digestibility of Lysine was quadratically (p = 0.033) increased and apparent degradability of Arginine was linearly (p = 0.032) and quadratically (p = 0.042) increased with infusion SSP. The results indicated that infusion SSP could improve nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and AA availability. PMID:25049708

  10. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability. PMID:23729852

  11. Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, In-Cheol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial strains isolated from meju samples showed that the dominant species were related to members of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. The community DNAs extracted from nine different meju samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting of the V1 to V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 132,374 sequences, with an average read length of 468 bp, were assigned to several phyla, with Firmicutes (93.6%) representing the predominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (4.5%) and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Other phyla accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial sequences. Most of the Firmicutes were Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc, whose ratio varied among different samples. In conclusion, this study indicated that the bacterial communities in meju were very diverse and a complex microbial consortium containing various microorganisms got involved in meju fermentation than we expected before. PMID:21717316

  12. Analysis of microbial communities in doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean paste, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Eon; Park, Min-Hee; Chang, Hae Choon; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2009-05-31

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean fermented soybean paste that provides a major source of protein. The microbial diversity of 10 samples of doenjang (5 commercially manufactured products and 5 homemade products) was investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In the first step, the nearly complete 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes were amplified using universal primers. Subsequently, these products were used as a template in a nested PCR to obtain fragments suitable for DGGE. The bacterial DGGE profile targeting the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that lactic acid bacteria such as Leuconostoc mesenteroide, Tetragenococcus halophilus, and Enterococcus faecium were the predominant species. However, bands corresponding to Bacillus species, known to be the main organisms in doenjang, were not detected under the conditions described above. When selective PCR was conducted using a primer specific for Bacillus species, Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis were detected in several doenjang samples. In analysis of fungi, Mucor plumbeus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Debaryomyces hansenii were the most common species in the doenjang samples. On the basis of DGGE, a few differences in community structure were found for different samples. Also, cluster analysis of the DGGE profile revealed that the microbial diversity did not differ clearly between commercially manufactured and homemade products. The nested PCR-DGGE technique was used for the first time in this study to asses a microbial community in doenjang and proved to be effective in profiling microbial diversity. PMID:19324443

  13. Production of Biomass-Degrading Multienzyme Complexes under Solid-State Fermentation of Soybean Meal Using a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Vitcosque, Gabriela L.; Fonseca, Rafael F.; Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Bertucci Neto, Victor; Couri, Sonia; Farinas, Cristiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass-degrading enzymes are one of the most costly inputs affecting the economic viability of the biochemical route for biomass conversion into biofuels. This work evaluates the effects of operational conditions on biomass-degrading multienzyme production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger. The fungus was cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean meal, using an instrumented lab-scale bioreactor equipped with an on-line automated monitoring and control system. The effects of air flow rate, inlet air relative humidity, and initial substrate moisture content on multienzyme (FPase, endoglucanase, and xylanase) production were evaluated using a statistical design methodology. Highest production of FPase (0.55 IU/g), endoglucanase (35.1 IU/g), and xylanase (47.7 IU/g) was achieved using an initial substrate moisture content of 84%, an inlet air humidity of 70%, and a flow rate of 24 mL/min. The enzymatic complex was then used to hydrolyze a lignocellulosic biomass, releasing 4.4 g/L of glucose after 36 hours of saccharification of 50 g/L pretreated sugar cane bagasse. These results demonstrate the potential application of enzymes produced under SSF, thus contributing to generate the necessary technological advances to increase the efficiency of the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. PMID:23365723

  14. Batch dark fermentation from enzymatic hydrolyzed food waste for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Ye, Min; Zhu, Ai Jun; Zhao, Hong Ting; Li, Yong Feng

    2015-09-01

    A combination bioprocess of solid-state fermentation (SSF) and dark fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was developed. Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae were utilized in SSF from food waste to generate glucoamylase and protease which were used to hydrolyze the food waste suspension to get the nutrients-rich (glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN)) hydrolysate. Both glucose and FAN increased with increasing of food waste mass ratio from 4% to 10% (w/v) and the highest glucose (36.9 g/L) and FAN (361.3mg/L) were observed at food waste mass ratio of 10%. The food waste hydrolysates were then used as the feedstock for dark fermentative hydrogen production by heat pretreated sludge. The best hydrogen yield of 39.14 ml H2/g food waste (219.91 ml H2/VSadded) was achieved at food waste mass ratio of 4%. The proposed combination bioprocess could effectively accelerate the hydrolysis rate, improve raw material utilization and enhance hydrogen yield. PMID:25978853

  15. Cellulolytic potential of probiotic Bacillus Subtilis AMS6 isolated from traditional fermented soybean (Churpi): An in-vitro study with regards to application as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Manhar, Ajay K; Bashir, Yasir; Saikia, Devabrata; Nath, Dhrubajyoti; Gupta, Kuldeep; Konwar, Bolin K; Kumar, Rahul; Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the probiotic attributes of Bacillus subtilis AMS6 isolated from fermented soybean (Churpi). This isolate exhibited tolerance to low pH (pH 2.0) and bile salt (0.3%), capability to autoaggregate and coaggregate. AMS6 also showed highest antibacterial activity against the pathogenic indicator strain Salmonella enterica typhimurium (MTCC 1252) and susceptibility towards different antibiotics tested. The isolate was effective in inhibiting the adherence of food borne pathogens to Caco-2 epithelial cell lines, and was also found to be non-hemolytic which further strengthen the candidature of the isolate as a potential probiotic. Further studies revealed B. subtilis AMS6 showed cellulolytic activity (0.54±0.05 filter paper units mL(-1)) at 37°C. The isolate was found to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper and maize (Zea mays) straw. The maize straw digestion was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy studies. The isolate was able to degrade filter paper within 96h of incubation. A full length cellulase gene of AMS6 was amplified using degenerate primers consisting of 1499 nucleotides. The ORF encoded for a protein of 499 amino acids residues with a predicted molecular mass of 55.04kDa. The amino acids sequence consisted of a glycosyl hydrolase family 5 domain at N-terminal; Glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core and a CBM-3 cellulose binding domain at its C terminal. The study suggests potential probiotic B. subtilis AMS6 as a promising candidate envisaging its application as an animal feed additive for enhanced fiber digestion and gut health of animal. PMID:27242144

  16. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  17. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. PMID:26981389

  18. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. PMID:26981386

  19. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Zhengrong; Liu, Ronghui; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. PMID:26981389

  20. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhao, Yang; Wei, Yan; Xu, Ruixiang; Yan, Lei; Li, Hongyu

    2016-03-01

    Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese), a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G + C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. PMID:26981386

  1. Microbial ecology and quality assurance in food fermentation systems. The case of kefir grains application.

    PubMed

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation technology has become a modern method for food production the last decades as a process for enhancing product stability, safety and sensory standards. The main reason for this development is the increasing consumers' demand for safe and high quality food products. The above has led the scientific community to the thorough study for the appropriate selection of specific microorganisms with desirable properties such as bacteriocin production, and probiotic properties. The main food products produced through fermentation activity are bread, wine, beer cheese and other dairy products. The microorganisms conducting the above processes are mainly yeasts and lactic acid bacteria. The end products of carbohydrate catabolism by these microorganisms contribute not only to preservation as it was believed years ago, but also to the flavour, aroma and texture and to the increase of the nutritional quality by thereby helping determine unique product characteristics. Thus, controlling the function of specific microorganisms or the succession of microorganisms that dominate the microflora is therefore advantageous, because it can increase product quality, functionality and value. Throughout the process of the discovery of microbiological diversity in various fermented food systems, the development of starter culture technology has gained more scientific attention, and it could be used for the control of the manufacturing operation, and management of product quality. In the frame of this review the presentation of the quality enhancement of most consumed fermented food products around the world is attempted and the new trends in production of fermented food products, such as bread is discussed. The review is focused in kefir grains application in bread production. PMID:21497663

  2. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

  3. Cheonggukjang, a soybean paste fermented with B. licheniformis-67 prevents weight gain and improves glycemic control in high fat diet induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Pichiah, P.B.Tirupathi; Kim, Min-Jung; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of soybean paste—Cheonggukjang, fermented with poly gamma glutamic acid producing Bacillus licheniformis-67 in diet induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Forty male C57BL/6J mice aged 4 weeks were divided into four dietary groups; normal diet control, high fat diet control, high fat diet containing 30% of unfermented soybean and high fat diet containing 30% Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67. After 13 weeks of dietary intervention the mice were sacrificed; serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin, leptin level were lower (<0.05) along with the body weight and epididymal fat pad weight in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared with the high fat diet control group. The expression level of lipid anabolic gene was significantly decreased; whereas the expression level of lipid catabolic genes were significantly increased in the 30% Cheonggukjang supplemented group compared to the high fat diet control group. Collectively, these results suggested that intake of Cheonggukjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis-67 significantly prevents obesity related parameters. PMID:27499576

  4. Effect of processing, fermentation, and aging treatment to content and profile of phenolic compounds in soybean seed, soy curd and soy paste.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Seo, Su-Hyun; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    This study reports the effect of processing, fermentation, and aging treatment on the content and profile of 43 phenolic compounds in soybean seeds, soy curd (tofu), and soy paste (ChungGukJang, CGJ). Mean content of phenolic compounds was ranked as soybean seed=CGJ aged for 3days (CGJ-3D)=CGJ aged for 6days (CGJ-6D)>tofu (P<0.0001). Low percent recovery (47.1%) of phenolic compounds in tofu was due to heating (boiling), leaching in water, filtering, coagulation, and whey exclusion during tofu making. Aging period did not affect the mean contents of 43 phenolic compounds in the CGJ, whereas it affected the phenolic acids contents in the CGJ (P<0.01). Benzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, gentisic, protocatechuic, or β-Resorculic acid was major phenolic compounds in soybean seeds, tofu, CGJ-3D, or CGJ-6D. Especially, the CGJ-3D contained large amounts of isoflavone aglucons and phenolic acids compared to soybean seeds or tofu. PMID:25214084

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus isolated from naturally fermented dairy foods

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Guo, Chenyi; Wu, Yarong; Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Menghe, Bilige; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the most widely used starter culture strains in industrial fermented dairy manufacture. It is also common in naturally fermented dairy foods made using traditional methods. The subsp. bulgaricus strains found in naturally fermented foods may be useful for improving current industrial starter cultures; however, little is known regarding its genetic diversity and population structure. Here, a collection of 298 L. delbrueckii strains from naturally fermented products in Mongolia, Russia, and West China was analyzed by multi-locus sequence typing based on eight conserved genes. The 251 confirmed subsp. bulgaricus strains produced 106 unique sequence types, the majority of which were assigned to five clonal complexes (CCs). The geographical distribution of CCs was uneven, with CC1 dominated by Mongolian and Russian isolates, and CC2–CC5 isolates exclusively from Xinjiang, China. Population structure analysis suggested six lineages, L1–L6, with various homologous recombination rates. Although L2–L5 were mainly restricted within specific regions, strains belonging to L1 and L6 were observed in diverse regions, suggesting historical transmission events. These results greatly enhance our knowledge of the population diversity of subsp. bulgaricus strains, and suggest that strains from CC1 and L4 may be useful as starter strains in industrial fermentation. PMID:26940047

  6. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on In vitro Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison.

    PubMed

    Alam, M J; Mamuad, L L; Kim, S H; Jeong, C D; Sung, H G; Cho, S B; Jeon, C O; Lee, K; Lee, Sang S

    2013-02-01

    The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1%) added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA) were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1), persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2), ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3), and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4). Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2 (-)-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N), sulfate (SO4 (--)), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05) propionate production but increased (p<0.05) the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3), II (Con and FA1), and III (FA4). Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T), Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T) were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production. PMID:25049786

  7. Effect of Phytogenic Feed Additives in Soybean Meal on In vitro Swine Fermentation for Odor Reduction and Bacterial Community Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. J.; Mamuad, L. L.; Kim, S. H.; Jeong, C. D.; Sung, H. G.; Cho, S. B.; Jeon, C. O.; Lee, K.; Lee, Sang S.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different phytogenic feed additives on reducing odorous compounds in swine was investigated using in vitro fermentation and analyzed their microbial communities. Soybean meal (1%) added with 0.1% different phytogenic feed additives (FA) were in vitro fermented using swine fecal slurries and anaerobically incubated for 12 and 24 h. The phytogenic FAs used were red ginseng barn powder (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, FA1), persimmon leaf powder (Diospyros virginiana L., FA2), ginkgo leaf powder (Ginkgo biloba L., FA3), and oregano lippia seed oil extract (Lippia graveolens Kunth, OL, FA4). Total gas production, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2−-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N), sulfate (SO4−−), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other metabolites concentration were determined. Microbial communities were also analyzed using 16S rRNA DGGE. Results showed that the pH values on all treatments increased as incubation time became longer except for FA4 where it decreased. Moreover, FA4 incubated for 12 and 24 h was not detected in NH3-N and H2S. Addition of FAs decreased (p<0.05) propionate production but increased (p<0.05) the total VFA production. Ten 16S rRNA DGGE bands were identified which ranged from 96 to 100% identity which were mostly isolated from the intestine. Similarity index showed three clearly different clusters: I (FA2 and FA3), II (Con and FA1), and III (FA4). Dominant bands which were identified closest to Eubacterium limosum (ATCC 8486T), Uncultured bacterium clone PF6641 and Streptococcus lutetiensis (CIP 106849T) were present only in the FA4 treatment group and were not found in other groups. FA4 had a different bacterial diversity compared to control and other treatments and thus explains having lowest odorous compounds. Addition of FA4 to an enriched protein feed source for growing swine may effectively reduce odorous compounds which are typically associated with swine production. PMID:25049786

  8. Aggravation of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants by tree nut-related foods and fermented foods in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Uehara, Masami

    2011-02-01

    Ninety-two exclusively breast-fed Japanese infants with atopic dermatitis were studied to see whether tree nut-related foods (chocolate and coffee) and fermented foods (cheese, yogurt, bread, soy sauce, miso soup and fermented soy beans) eaten by their mothers affected their skin condition. Of the 92 infants, 67 (73%) showed improvement of skin lesions when their mothers avoided these foods and showed aggravation of skin lesions when these foods were reintroduced. The predominant offending foods were chocolate, yogurt, soy sauce and miso soup. A long-term maternal exclusion of the trigger foods brought about progressive improvement of skin lesions in the majority of the infants. These findings suggest that tree nut-related foods and fermented foods are important offending foods of atopic dermatitis in breast-fed infants. PMID:21269309

  9. Soybean Overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean is a legume and oilseed as well. Its bushy plants grow annually, adapt to a wide range of soils and climates, and enrich soils with nitrogen. Its seeds are valued for unique composition and versatile end uses as food, feed, and industrial materials. Currently, the soybean is an importa...

  10. Molecular identification and quantification of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented dairy foods of Russia.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wang, H M; Zha, M S; Qing, Y T; Bai, N; Ren, Y; Xi, X X; Liu, W J; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P

    2015-08-01

    Russian traditional fermented dairy foods have been consumed for thousands of years. However, little research has focused on exploiting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) resources and analyzing the LAB composition of Russian traditional fermented dairy foods. In the present study, we cultured LAB isolated from fermented mare and cow milks, sour cream, and cheese collected from Kalmykiya, Buryats, and Tuva regions of Russia. Seven lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium genus were quantified by quantitative PCR. The LAB counts in these samples ranged from 3.18 to 9.77 log cfu/mL (or per gram). In total, 599 LAB strains were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. The identified LAB belonged to 7 genera and 30 species by 16S rRNA and murE gene sequencing and multiplex PCR assay. The predominant LAB isolates were Lactobacillus helveticus (176 strains) and Lactobacillus plantarum (63 strains), which represented 39.9% of all isolates. The quantitative PCR results revealed that counts of 7 lactobacilli species and Bifidobacterium spp. of 30 fermented cow milk samples ranged from 1.19±0.34 (Lactobacillus helveticus in Tuva) to 8.09±0.71 (Lactobacillus acidophilus in Kalmykiya) log cfu/mL of fermented cow milk (mean ± standard error). The numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Lb. plantarum, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. acidophilus revealed no significant difference between the 3 regions; nevertheless, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus exhibited different degrees of variation across 3 regions. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Russia have complex compositions of LAB species. The diversity of LAB might be related to the type of fermented dairy product, geographical origin, and manufacturing process. PMID:26004836

  11. Effects of corn and soybean meal types on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and productivity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shen, J S; Song, L J; Sun, H Z; Wang, B; Chai, Z; Chacher, B; Liu, J X

    2015-03-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  12. Immunostimulatory activity of isoflavone-glycosides and ethanol extract from a fermented soybean product in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Ho; Chung, Mi Ja; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-10-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine is a major branch of Korean traditional oriental medicine. Constitutions of Sasang medicine are classified into Taeyangin, Taeumin, Soyangin, and Soumin. We investigated immunostimulatory activities of fermented soybean product (FSP) extracts and their major bioactive compounds, isoflavone glycosides in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin, Taeumin, and Soeumin volunteers. Results showed that the cell proliferation, nitrite, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA, interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production of immune cells treated with a 70% ethanol Doenjang extract (DJ), a 70% ethanol Kochujang extract (KCJ), and a 70% ethanol Cheonggukjang extract (CGJ), respectively, were significantly increased, and its immunostimulatory activities by both DJ and CGJ was higher than that of KCJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers. However, the cell proliferation, nitrite, TNF-α mRNA, IL-6 mRNA, iNOS mRNA, COX-2 mRNA, TNF-α protein, and IL-6 protein production by both KCJ and CGJ was higher than that of DJ in primary immune cells isolated from the blood of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The major bioactive compounds, isoflavone-glycosides, in FSP were daidzin, glycitin, and genistin. Daidzin, glycitin, and genistin were used to treat primary immune cells in the same condition, the cell proliferation; iNOS mRNA expression and nitrite concentration of daidzin, glycitin, or genistin-treated immune cells isolated from the blood of Soyangin volunteers was higher than that of Taeumin and Soeumin volunteers. The effect of DJ and isoflavone glycosides on immunostimulatory activities showed similar trends. PMID:25230138

  13. Effects of Corn and Soybean Meal Types on Rumen Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Shen, J. S.; Song, L. J.; Sun, H. Z.; Wang, B.; Chai, Z.; Chacher, B.; Liu, J. X.

    2015-01-01

    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were selected for a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2 ×2 factorial arrangement to investigate the effects of corn and soybean meal (SBM) types on rumen fermentation, N metabolism and lactation performance in dairy cows. Two types of corn (dry ground [DGC] and steam-flaked corn [SFC]) and two types of SBM (solvent-extracted and heat-treated SBM) with different ruminal degradation rates and extents were used to formulate four diets with the same basal ingredients. Each period lasted for 21 days, including 14 d for adaptation and 7 d for sample collection. Cows receiving SFC had a lower dry matter (DM) and total N intake than those fed DGC. However, the milk yield and milk protein yield were not influenced by the corn type, resulting in higher feed and N utilization efficiency in SFC-fed cows than those receiving DGC. Ruminal acetate concentrations was greater and total volatile fatty acids concentrations tended to be greater for cows receiving DGC relative to cows fed SFC, but milk fat content was not influenced by corn type. The SFC-fed cows had lower ruminal ammonia-N, less urea N in their blood and milk, and lower fecal N excretion than those on DGC. Compared with solvent-extracted SBM-fed cows, cows receiving heat-treated SBM had lower microbial protein yield in the rumen, but similar total tract apparent nutrient digestibility, N metabolism measurements, and productivity. Excessive supply of metabolizable protein in all diets may have caused the lack of difference in lactation performance between SBM types. Results of the present study indicated that increasing the energy degradability in the rumen could improve feed efficiency, and reduce environmental pollution. PMID:25656206

  14. Liberation of fermentable sugars from soybean hull biomass using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and their bioconversion to ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Pereira, Fernanda; Rech, Rosane; Záchia Ayub, Marco Antônio; Pinheiro Dillon, Aldo; Dupont, Jairton

    2016-03-01

    Optimized hydrolysis of lignocellulosic waste biomass is essential to achieve the liberation of sugars to be used in fermentation process. Ionic liquids (ILs), a new class of solvents, have been tested in the pretreatment of cellulosic materials to improve the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass. Optimized application of ILs on biomass is important to advance the use of this technology. In this research, we investigated the effects of using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) on the decomposition of soybean hull, an abundant cellulosic industrial waste. Reaction aspects of temperature, incubation time, IL concentration, and solid load were optimized before carrying out the enzymatic hydrolysis of this residue to liberate fermentable glucose. Optimal conditions were found to be 75°C, 165 min incubation time, 57% (mass fraction) of [bmim][Ac], and 12.5% solid loading. Pretreated soybean hull lost its crystallinity, which eased enzymatic hydrolysis, confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass using an enzyme complex from Penicillium echinulatum liberated 92% of glucose from the cellulose matrix. The hydrolysate was free of any toxic compounds, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural. The obtained hydrolysate was tested for fermentation using Candida shehatae HM 52.2, which was able to convert glucose to ethanol at yields of 0.31. These results suggest the possible use of ILs for the pretreatment of some lignocellulosic waste materials, avoiding the formation of toxic compounds, to be used in second-generation ethanol production and other fermentation processes. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:312-320, 2016. PMID:26588200

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Kimchi, a Traditional Korean Fermented Food ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Park, Moon Su; Bae, Jin-Woo; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok

    2011-01-01

    Kimchi, a traditional food in the Korean culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, metagenomic approaches were used to monitor changes in bacterial populations, metabolic potential, and overall genetic features of the microbial community during the 29-day fermentation process. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from kimchi samples obtained periodically and was sequenced using a 454 GS FLX Titanium system, which yielded a total of 701,556 reads, with an average read length of 438 bp. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes from the metagenome indicated that the kimchi microbiome was dominated by members of three genera: Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella. Assignment of metagenomic sequences to SEED categories of the Metagenome Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (MG-RAST) server revealed a genetic profile characteristic of heterotrophic lactic acid fermentation of carbohydrates, which was supported by the detection of mannitol, lactate, acetate, and ethanol as fermentation products. When the metagenomic reads were mapped onto the database of completed genomes, the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 and Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 23K genomes were highly represented. These same two genera were confirmed to be important in kimchi fermentation when the majority of kimchi metagenomic sequences showed very high identity to Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus genes. Besides microbial genome sequences, a surprisingly large number of phage DNA sequences were identified from the cellular fractions, possibly indicating that a high proportion of cells were infected by bacteriophages during fermentation. Overall, these results provide insights into the kimchi microbial community and also shed light on fermentation processes carried out broadly by complex microbial communities. PMID:21317261

  16. Sample preparation for the analysis of isoflavones from soybeans and soy foods.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, M A; Villares, A; Guillamón, E; García-Lafuente, A; Martínez, J A

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript provides a review of the actual state and the most recent advances as well as current trends and future prospects in sample preparation and analysis for the quantification of isoflavones from soybeans and soy foods. Individual steps of the procedures used in sample preparation, including sample conservation, extraction techniques and methods, and post-extraction treatment procedures are discussed. The most commonly used methods for extraction of isoflavones with both conventional and "modern" techniques are examined in detail. These modern techniques include ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. Other aspects such as stability during extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography are also covered. PMID:19041977

  17. Characterization of soluble soybean polysaccharide film incorporated essential oil intended for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Salarbashi, Davoud; Tajik, Sima; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Shahidi Noghabi, Mostafa; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    This study examines the development of new bio-active polysaccharide-based bioplastics through casting and solvent-evaporation. Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) films incorporated with Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at various concentrations were prepared and characterized. The presence of ZEO and MEO improved polysaccharide interactions, reducing the films' water solubility and water vapor barrier properties, but did not markedly modify their moisture content or thickness. Differing amounts of ZEO or MEO had no significant effect on mechanical behavior, with the exception of 3% oil concentration, which decreased tensile strength and significantly increased elongation at break. DMTA curves revealed a single Tg, which may indicate the compatibility of essential oil and SSPS. The electron scanning micrograph for the composite film was homogeneous, without signs of phase separation between the components. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO can potentially be directly incorporated into SSPS to prepare active biodegradable films for food-packaging applications. PMID:23987454

  18. Caregivers’ Knowledge and Use of Fermented Foods for Infant and Young Children Feeding in a Rural Community of Odi, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chelule, Paul K; Mokgatle, Mathildah M; Zungu, Lindiwe I; Chaponda, Armelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fermented foods have positive health effects in adults and children if consumed regularly. However, lack of knowledge and perceptions to­wards fermented foods may limit their usage. This study aimed to assess the caregivers’ awareness and usage of fermented foods for feeding children in peri-urban/rural communities of Gauteng Province. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in June, 2012, in a peri-urban/rural community to assess the awareness and use of fermented foods by child caregivers attending a local antenatal clinic through focus group discussions. Results: Thirty three caregivers participated in the study; however 29 indicated their demographic profiles. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis included knowledge on fermented foods, perceived benefits of fermentation, varied views about fermentation and feeding practices. Fermented foods that caregivers, their families and community members consume include ting, fat cakes, dumplings, sorghum beer and mageu. Findings also showed that children consumed fermented foods in form of soft ting porridge; and yoghurt, marketed as Activia and Danone commercial brands. Also, caregivers were not comfortable feeding their children with fermented foods, indicating their limited knowledge on the nutri­tional value of these foods. Conclusion: It is critical to promote caregivers’ knowledge and use of fermented foods for feeding infants and young children in South African rural communities. PMID:25097837

  19. Reduction of Soybean Meal Non-Starch Polysaccharides and α-Galactosides by Solid-State Fermentation Using Cellulolytic Bacteria Obtained from Different Environments

    PubMed Central

    Opazo, Rafael; Ortúzar, Felipe; Navarrete, Paola; Espejo, Romilio; Romero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is an important protein source in animal feed. However, the levels of SBM inclusion are restricted in some animal species by the presence of antinutritional factors (ANFs), including non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and α-galactosides (GOSs). The aim of this study was to reduce the soybean meal NSPs and GOSs by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using a combination of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from different environments (termites, earthworms, corn silage and bovine ruminal content). To analyse the key enzymatic activities, the isolates were grown in minimal media containing NSPs extracted from SBM. The selected bacterial strains belonged to the genera Streptomyces, Cohnella and Cellulosimicrobium. SSF resulted in a reduction of nearly 24% in the total NSPs, 83% of stachyose and 69% of raffinose and an increase in the protein content. These results suggest that cellulolytic bacteria-based SSF processing facilitates SBM nutritional improvement. In addition, the use of fermented SBM in animal diets can be recommended. PMID:22984557

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Milk by Lactobacillus casei Strains.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhijie; Chi, Yujie

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of fermented soybean milk (FSM) by Lactobacillus casei strains in vitro was investigated in this study. Effects of fermented soybean milk administration by gavage on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was also evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) rats and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Results showed that, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM showed high ACE inhibitory activity in vitro test and ACE inhibitory activity of CICC 23184 FSM was higher than CICC 20280 FSM. The bioactive substances of FSM were peptide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Their contents in CICC 20280 FSM and CICC 23184 FSM were 3.97 ± 0.67 mg/ml (peptide), 1.71 ± 0.36 mg/ml (GABA) and 5.17 ± 0.22 mg/ml (peptide), 1.57 ± 0.21 mg/ml (GABA), respectively. Moreover, CICC 20280 and CICC 23184 FSM administration by gavage could effectively lower the blood pressure of SHR to a normal level, while there was no effect on blood pressure of WKY rats. This result indicated that the bioactive substances could play an antihypertensive role when the blood pressure was not within the normal levels (high levels). PMID:27139252

  1. β-Glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria: mechanisms, impact on fermented food and human health.

    PubMed

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Through the hydrolysis of plant metabolite glucoconjugates, β-glucosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) make a significant contribution to the dietary and sensory attributes of fermented food. Deglucosylation can release attractive flavour compounds from glucosylated precursors and increases the bioavailability of health-promoting plant metabolites as well as that of dietary toxins. This review brings the current literature on LAB β-glucosidases into context by providing an overview of the nutritional implications of LAB β-glucosidase activities. Based on biochemical and genomic information, the mechanisms that are currently considered to be critical for the hydrolysis of β-glucosides by intestinal and food-fermenting LAB will also be reviewed. PMID:24330034

  2. Recovery of total microbial RNA from lactic acid fermented foods with a high starch content.

    PubMed

    Ampe, F; ben Omar, N; Guyot, J P

    1998-11-01

    An optimized procedure for the recovery of RNA from micro-organisms involved in the fermentation of starchy foods (mainly hard-to-lyse lactic acid bacteria) is reported. Critical steps for the extraction were: cell recovery by differential centrifugation; cell wall digestion with both mutanolysin and lysozyme; and CTAB treatment for the elimination of starch. Digestion of starch with alpha-amylase did not improve extraction yields. The method yielded high amounts of RNA from pozol, a Mexican maize-based fermented food, and was found to extract total RNA efficiently from all the micro-organisms potentially present in these ecosystems. Both rRNA and mRNA recovered were of high quality and suitable for hybridization studies. PMID:9830143

  3. Valorisation of food waste via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Hu, Yunzi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2016-10-01

    Food waste recycling via fungal hydrolysis and lactic acid (LA) fermentation has been investigated. Hydrolysates derived from mixed food waste and bakery waste were rich in glucose (80.0-100.2gL(-1)), fructose (7.6gL(-1)) and free amino nitrogen (947-1081mgL(-1)). In the fermentation with Lactobacillus casei Shirota, 94.0gL(-1) and 82.6gL(-1) of LA were produced with productivity of 2.61gL(-1)h(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1) for mixed food waste and bakery waste hydrolysate, respectively. The yield was 0.94gg(-1) for both hydrolysates. Similar results were obtained using food waste powder hydrolysate, in which 90.1gL(-1) of LA was produced with a yield and productivity of 0.92gg(-1) and 2.50gL(-1)h(-1). The results demonstrate the feasibility of an efficient bioconversion of food waste to LA and a decentralized approach of food waste recycling in urban area. PMID:26873283

  4. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Mydhily R. B.; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10–20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  5. Fermented Foods: Are They Tasty Medicines for Helicobacter pylori Associated Peptic Ulcer and Gastric Cancer?

    PubMed

    Nair, Mydhily R B; Chouhan, Deepak; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    More than a million people die every year due to gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection in stomach is the most important reason for these diseases. Interestingly, only 10-20% of the H. pylori infected individuals suffer from these gastric diseases and rest of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic. The genotypes of H. pylori, host genetic background, lifestyle including smoking and diet may determine clinical outcomes. People from different geographical regions have different food habits, which also include several unique fermented products of plant and animal origins. When consumed raw, the fermented foods bring in fresh inocula of microbes to gastrointestinal tract and several strains of these microbes, like Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces are known probiotics. In vitro and in vivo experiments as well as clinical trials suggest that several probiotics have anti-H. pylori effects. Here we discuss the possibility of using natural probiotics present in traditional fermented food and beverages to obtain protection against H. pylori induced gastric diseases. PMID:27504109

  6. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level. PMID

  7. Evaluation of Safety of Iron-Fortified Soybean Sprouts, a Potential Component of Functional Food, in Rat.

    PubMed

    Kujawska, Małgorzata; Ewertowska, Małgorzata; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Szaefer, Hanna; Zielińska-Dawidziak, Magdalena; Piasecka-Kwiatkowska, Dorota; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2016-03-01

    Ferritin-iron is currently considered as one of the most promising iron forms to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. We found that the cultivation of soybean seeds in a solution of ferrous sulfate results in material with extremely high iron content - 560.6 mg Fe/100 g of dry matter, while ferritin iron content was 420.5 mg/100 g dry matter. To assess the potential adverse effects of a preparation containing such a high concentration of iron, male and female Wistar rats were exposed via diet to 10, 30, 60 g soybean sprouts powder/kg feed for 90 days. There were no differences in final body weight and mean food consumption between controls and rats administered sprouts. No statistically significant differences in haematology and clinical chemistry parameters were found between controls and treated rats. Microscopic examination of 22 tissues did not reveal any pathology due to soybean sprouts intake. Long term administration of the test material did not cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein in the liver as evidenced by the unchanged basal levels of DNA damage as well as carbonyl groups content. Lipid peroxidation was slightly increased only in females. The activity of several antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was increased, which substantially enhanced the antioxidant status in the liver from the rats treated with soybean sprouts. Hence, the material tested can be recommended as a component of food supplements for individuals with iron deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26880214

  8. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. PMID:25218204

  9. Energy and Ileal Digestible Amino Acid Concentrations for Growing Pigs and Performance of Weanling Pigs Fed Fermented or Conventional Soybean Meal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Lu, W. Q.; Li, D. F.; Liu, X. T.; Wang, H. L.; Niu, S.; Piao, X. S.

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy of co-inoculating Bacillus subtilis MA139 with Streptococcus thermophilus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to produce fermented soybean meal (FSBM). Three experiments were conducted to determine the concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) (Exp. 1), apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) (Exp. 2), and feeding value (Exp. 3) of FSBM produced by this new strategy (NFSB) compared with soybean meal (SBM) and conventionally available FSBM (Suprotein). In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows (initial body weight [BW] of 32.2 ±1.7 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets with 6 replicates per diet. A corn basal diet and 3 diets based on a mixture of corn and 1 of 3 soybean products listed above were formulated and the DE and ME contents were determined by the difference method. The results showed that there were no differences in DE and ME between SBM and either FSBM product (p>0.05). In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 26.8±1.5 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulaes and used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three corn-starch-based diets were formulated using each of the 3 soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. The results showed that the SID of all AA except arginine and histidine was similar for NFSB and SBM (p>0.05), but Suprotein had greater (p<0.05) SID of most AA except lysine, aspartate, glycine and proline than NFSB. In Exp. 3, a total of 144 piglets (initial BW of 8.8±1.2 kg) were blocked by weight and fed 1 of 4 diets including a control diet with 24% SBM as well as diets containing 6% and 12% NFSB or 12% Suprotein added at the expense of SBM. During d 15 to 28, replacing SBM with 6% NFSB significantly improved average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.05) for nursery piglets. During the overall experiment, ADG of piglets fed diets containing

  10. Functional Screening of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from a Representative Metagenomic Library of Food Fermenting Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Barile, Simona; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) represent the predominant microbiota in fermented foods. Foodborne LAB have received increasing attention as potential reservoir of antibiotic resistance (AR) determinants, which may be horizontally transferred to opportunistic pathogens. We have previously reported isolation of AR LAB from the raw ingredients of a fermented cheese, while AR genes could be detected in the final, marketed product only by PCR amplification, thus pointing at the need for more sensitive microbial isolation techniques. We turned therefore to construction of a metagenomic library containing microbial DNA extracted directly from the food matrix. To maximize yield and purity and to ensure that genomic complexity of the library was representative of the original bacterial population, we defined a suitable protocol for total DNA extraction from cheese which can also be applied to other lipid-rich foods. Functional library screening on different antibiotics allowed recovery of ampicillin and kanamycin resistant clones originating from Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus genomes. We report molecular characterization of the cloned inserts, which were fully sequenced and shown to confer AR phenotype to recipient bacteria. We also show that metagenomics can be applied to food microbiota to identify underrepresented species carrying specific genes of interest. PMID:25243126

  11. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  12. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  13. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  14. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna; Moon, Bo Reum

    2016-02-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  15. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DC-4 screened from douchi, a traditional Chinese soybean food.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong; Huang, Qing; Zhang, Ren-huai; Zhang, Yi-zheng

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DC-4, which produces a strongly fibrinolytic enzyme, was isolated from douchi, a traditional Chinese soybean-fermented food. A fibrinolytic enzyme (subtilisin DFE) was purified from the supernatant of B. amyloliquefaciens DC-4 culture broth and displayed thermophilic, hydrophilic and strong fibrinolytic activity. Subtilisin DFE was demonstrated to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, and has molecular mass of 28000 Da and a pI of 8.0. The optimal reaction pH value and temperature were 9.0 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Subtilisin DFE not only hydrolyzed fibrin but also several synthetic substrates, particularly Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and phenylmethylsulfony fluoride can completely inhibit its fibrinolytic activity. These results indicated that subtilisin DFE is a subtilisin-family serine protease, similar to nattokinase from Bacillus natto. The first 24 amino acid residues of the N-terminal sequence of subtilisin DFE were AQSVPYGVSQIKAPALHSQGFTGS, which is identical to that of subtilisin K-54, and different from that of NK and CK. Results from subtilisin DFE gene sequence analysis showed that subtilisin DFE is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:12524032

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei isolates from naturally fermented foods in China and Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiuhua; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Wenyi; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium used in manufacturing of many fermented food products. To investigate the genetic diversity and population biology of this food-related bacterium, 224 Lb. casei isolates and 5 reference isolates were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among them, 224 Lb. casei isolates were isolated from homemade fermented foods, including naturally fermented dairy products, acidic gruel, and Sichuan pickles from 38 different regions in China and Mongolia. The MLST scheme was developed based on the analysis of 10 selected housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, groEL, murE, pyrG, pheS, recA, rpoC, and uvrC). All 229 isolates could be allocated to 171 unique sequence types, including 25 clonal complexes and 71 singletons. The high index of association value (1.3524) and standardized index of association value (0.1503) indicate the formation of an underlying clonal population by all the isolates. However, split-decomposition, relative frequency of occurrence of recombination and mutation, and relative effect of recombination and mutation in the diversification values confirm that recombination may have occurred, and were more frequent than mutation during the evolution of Lb. casei. Results from Structure analyses (version 2.3; http://pritch.bsd.uchicago.edu/structure.html) demonstrated that there were 5 lineages in the Lb. casei isolates, and the overall relatedness built by minimum spanning tree showed no clear relationship between the clonal complexes with either the isolation sources or sampling locations of the isolates. Our newly developed MLST scheme of Lb. casei was an easy and valuable tool that, together with the construction of an MLST database, will contribute to further detailed studies on the evolution and population genetics of Lb. casei from various niches. PMID:27179867

  17. Efficient sorption of polyphenols to soybean flour enables natural fortification of foods.

    PubMed

    Roopchand, Diana E; Grace, Mary H; Kuhn, Peter; Cheng, Diana M; Plundrich, Nathalie; Poulev, Alexander; Howell, Amy; Fridlender, Bertold; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-04-15

    The present study demonstrated that defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb polyphenols from blueberry and cranberry juices while separating them from sugars. Depending on DSF concentration and juice dilution, the concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols sorbed to DSF ranged from 2 - 22 mg/g and 10 - 95 mg/g, respectively while the concentration of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF ranged from 2.5 - 17 mg/g and 21 - 101 mg/g, respectively. Blueberry polyphenols present in one serving of fresh blueberries (73g) were delivered in just 1.4 g of blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF. Similarly, one gram of cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF delivered the amount of proanthocyanidins available in three 240 ml servings of cranberry juice cocktail. The concentration of blueberry anthocyanins and total polyphenols eluted from DSF remained constant after 22 weeks of incubation at 37°C, demonstrating the high stability of the polyphenol-DSF matrix. LC-MS analysis of eluates confirmed DSF retained major cranberry and blueberry polyphenols remained intact. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF exhibited significant hypoglycemic activities in C57bl/6J mice, and cranberry polyphenol-enriched DSF showed anti-microbial and anti-UTI activities in vitro, confirming its efficacy. The described sorption process provides a means to create protein-rich food ingredients containing concentrated plant bioactives without excess sugars, fats and water that can be incorporated in a variety of scientifically validated functional foods and dietary supplements. PMID:23950619

  18. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  19. Solid-state fermentation of whole oats to yield a synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Li, Dan; Zhang, XiQing; Shi, Yan; Wang, HaiKuan

    2015-08-01

    This study developed a synbiotic food through the fermentation of whole oat flour with Lactobacillus plantarum TK9 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis V9. The physicochemical properties, changes in ingredients and peptide molecular weight distributions were determined during the whole oat fermentation. The highest viable counts of the fermented oats were 2.85 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) (L. plantarum TK9) and 3.17 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9), with the titratable acidity increased to 10.01 and 8.40 mL at the end of the fermentation. By comparing the nutrition compositions between the fermented and non-fermented oat flour, we found that there was almost no change in the soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content. However, the amounts of free amino nitrogen increased from 110.84 to 154.62 mg per 100 g (L. plantarum TK9) and 82.16 to 104.83 mg per 100 g (Bif. animalis subsp. lactis V9). The levels of oat peptides with molecular weights less than 6000 Da increased by 4.4 and 5.96%, respectively. The results suggest that the fermented whole oat flour has good potential for application in the production of a novel synbiotic food rich in lactic acid bacteria and β-glucan prebiotics. PMID:26130143

  20. Enhanced bioelectricity harvesting in microbial fuel cells treating food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho

    2015-05-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating the food waste leachate produced from biohydrogen fermentation were examined to enhance power generation and energy recovery. In batch mode, the maximum voltage production was 0.56 V and the power density reached 1540 mW/m(2). The maximum Coulombic efficiency (CEmax) and energy efficiency (EE) in the batch mode were calculated to be 88.8% and 18.8%, respectively. When the organic loading rate in sequencing batch mode varied from 0.75 to 6.2 g COD/L-d (under CEmax), the maximum power density reached 769.2 mW/m(2) in OLR of 3.1 g COD/L-d, whereas higher energy recovery (CE=52.6%, 0.346 Wh/g CODrem) was achieved at 1.51 g COD/L-d. The results demonstrate that readily biodegradable substrates in biohydrogen fermentation can be effectively used for the enhanced bioelectricity harvesting of MFCs and a MFC coupled with biohydrogen fermentation is of great benefit on higher electricity generation and energy efficiency. PMID:25723127

  1. Antimicrobial and Safety Properties of Lactobacilli Isolated from two Cameroonian Traditional Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Kaktcham, Pierre Marie; Zambou, Ngoufack François; Tchouanguep, Félicité Mbiapo; El-Soda, Morsi; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus isolates from "Sha'a" (a maize - based fermented beverage) and "Kossam" (traditionally fermented cow milk) were selected in accordance with their antagonistic activities and tested for their bacteriocinogenic potential as well as safety properties. These isolates were preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (62%), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (24%), Lactobacillus fermentum (10%) and Lactobacillus coprophilus (4%) based on phenotypic characteristics and rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting. Twelve (57.1%) out of the 21 strains tested were found to be bacteriocin producers, as revealed by the sensitivity of their antimicrobial substances to proteolytic enzymes (Trypsin, Proteinase K) and inhibition of other Lactobacillus spp. These bacteriocinogenic strains showed no positive haemolytic and gelatinase activities and proved to be sensitive to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and doxycyclin, but resistant to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The bacteriocins showed a broad inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, several of which are classified as especially dangerous by the World Health Organization, as well as Multidrug-resistant strains. These include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovare Typhi, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri. These Lactobacillus strains are promising candidates for use as protective cultures in food fermentation. PMID:22396914

  2. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Shin, Il-Seung; Hong, Sung-Moon; Kim, Cheol-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 10(9) CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  3. Production of Functional High-protein Beverage Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Korean Traditional Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture functional high protein fermented beverage, using whey protein concentrate (WPC) and Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 isolated from kimchi, and to evaluate the physicochemical, functional, and sensory properties of the resulting product. The fermented whey beverage (FWB) was formulated with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC 80), skim milk powder, and sucrose; and fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DK211 as single, or mixed with Lactococcus lactis R704, a commercial starter culture. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts during fermentation and storage were evaluated. It was found that the mixed culture showed faster acid development than the single culture. The resulting FWB had high protein (9%) and low fat content (0.2%). Increased viscosity, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activity were observed after fermentation. A viable cell count of 109 CFU/mL in FWB was achieved within 10 h fermentation, and it remained throughout storage at 15℃ for 28 d. Sensory analysis was also conducted, and compared to that of a commercial protein drink. The sensory scores of FWB were similar to those of the commercial protein drink in most attributes, except sourness. The sourness was highly related with the high lactic acid content produced during fermentation. The results showed that WPC and vegetable origin lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi might be used for the development of a high protein fermented beverage, with improved functionality and organoleptic properties. PMID:26761827

  4. Acid adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes can enhance survival in acidic foods and during milk fermentation.

    PubMed Central

    Gahan, C G; O'Driscoll, B; Hill, C

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that tolerance to severe acid stress (pH 3.5) can be induced in Listeria monocytogenes following a 1-h adaptation to mild acid (pH 5.5), a phenomenon termed the acid tolerance response (ATR) (B. O'Driscoll, C. G. M. Gahan, and C. Hill, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1693-1698, 1966). In an attempt to determine the industrial significance of the ATR, we have examined the survival of adapted and nonadapted cells in a variety of acidic foods. Acid adaptation enhanced the survival of L. monocytogenes in acidified dairy products, including cottage cheese, yogurt, and whole-fat cheddar cheese. Acid-adapted L. monocytogenes cultures also demonstrated increased survival during active milk fermentation by a lactic acid culture. Similarly, acid-adapted cells showed greatly improved survival in low-pH foods (orange juice and salad dressing) containing acids other than lactic acid. However, in foods with a marginally higher pH, such as mozzarella cheese, a commercial cottage cheese, or low-fat cheddar cheese, acid adaptation did not appear to enhance survival. We have previously isolated mutants of L. monocytogenes that are constitutively acid tolerant in the absence of an induction step (O'Driscoll et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1693-1698, 1996). In the present study, one such mutant, ATM56, demonstrated an increased ability to survive in low-pH foods and during milk fermentation when compared with the wild-type strain. Significant numbers of ATM56 could be recovered even after 70 days in both whole-fat and low-fat cheddar cheese. Collectively, the data suggest that ATR mechanisms, whether constitutive or induced, can greatly influence the survival of L. monocytogenes in low-pH food environments. PMID:8795199

  5. Identification of natural lactoylcholine in lactic acid bacteria-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kozo; Okitsu, Sho; Ishida, Ryuya; Tian, Su; Igari, Naoki; Amano, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-15

    Acetylcholine (AcCh) is a major neurotransmitter and an agonist of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in non-neuronal systems. Artificially synthesized lactoylcholine (LaCh) has potent nicotinic activity equal to that of AcCh. In this study, we report the isolation and purification of natural AcCh and LaCh from a lactic-fermented food known to reduce blood pressure. To our knowledge, we are the first to isolate natural LaCh. The choline esters were isolated using a novel purification procedure combining a weak cation-exchange cartridge with ODS and pentafluorophenyl HPLC columns, and the structure of LaCh was identified via various analyses. Assessment of D- and L-LaCh showed that the isolated LaCh was an enantiomer mixture with a D/L ratio of 1.6. D-LaCh induced vasorelaxation of thoracic aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (EC50=3.83×10(-7) M), while L-LaCh did not. Our results suggest that choline esters could be new functional ingredients in lactic-fermented foods. PMID:26868564

  6. Probiotic properties of Pediococcus strains isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-food.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Wook; Park, Ji Yeong; Sa, Hyun Deok; Jeong, Ji Hee; Jin, Dong Eun; Heo, Ho Jin; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Three Pediococcus pentosaceus strains were isolated from jeotgals, salted and fermented Korean sea-foods, and their probiotic potentials were examined. After 2 h exposure to pH 3.0, P. pentosaceus F66 survived with the survival ratio of 32.6% followed by P. pentosaceus D56 (17.2%) and P. pentosaceus A24 (7.5%). P. pentosaceus F66 also survived better (26.6%) than P. pentosaceus A24 (13.7%) and P. pentosaceus D56 (5.8%) after 2 h exposure to 0.3% bile salts. Three strains grew slowly on MRS broth with 15% NaCl (w/v), reaching the OD600 values of 0.4-0.8 in 36 h. They adhered to Caco-2 cells (10.9-13.9 CFU/cell) with similar degree of adherence of a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (12.8 ± 0.5 CFU/cell). Three strains possess some desirable enzyme activities such as β-galactosidase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosidase. From these results, P. pentosaceus F66 seems qualified as a probiotic and can be utilized for fermented foods including jeotgals. PMID:24979684

  7. Genotypic characterization and safety assessment of lactic acid bacteria from indigenous African fermented food products

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous fermented food products play an essential role in the diet of millions of Africans. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are among the predominant microbial species in African indigenous fermented food products and are used for different applications in the food and biotechnology industries. Numerous studies have described antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of LAB from different parts of the world. However, there is limited information on antimicrobial resistance profiles of LAB from Africa. The aim of this study was to characterize 33 LAB previously isolated from three different African indigenous fermented food products using (GTG)5-based rep-PCR, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and species-specific PCR techniques for differentiation of closely related species and further evaluate their antibiotic resistance profiles by the broth microdilution method and their haemolytic activity on sheep blood agar plates as indicators of safety traits among these bacteria. Results Using molecular biology based methods and selected phenotypic tests such as catalase reaction, CO2 production from glucose, colonies and cells morphology, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus ghanensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus salivarius, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella confusa. The bacteria were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin but resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. Variable sensitivity profiles to tetracycline and gentamicin was observed among the isolates with Lb. plantarum, Lb. salivarius, W. confusa (except strain SK9-5) and Lb. fermentum strains being susceptible to tetracycline whereas Pediococcus strains and Lb. ghanensis strains were resistant. For gentamicin, Leuc. pseudomesenteroides, Lb. ghanensis and Ped. acidilactici strains were resistant to 64 mg/L whereas some W. confusa

  8. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  9. Open fermentative production of fuel ethanol from food waste by an acid-tolerant mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Shui, Zongxia; Wang, Yanwei; Hu, Guoquan; He, Mingxiong

    2016-03-01

    The aim of present study was to develop a process for open ethanol fermentation from food waste using an acid-tolerant mutant of Zymomonas mobilis (ZMA7-2). The mutant showed strong tolerance to acid condition of food waste hydrolysate and high ethanol production performance. By optimizing fermentation parameters, ethanol fermentation with initial glucose concentration of 200 g/L, pH value around 4.0, inoculum size of 10% and without nutrient addition was considered as best conditions. Moreover, the potential of bench scales fermentation and cell reusability was also examined. The fermentation in bench scales (44 h) was faster than flask scale (48 h), and the maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol yield (99.78 g/L, 0.50 g/g) higher than that of flask scale (98.31 g/L, 0.49 g/g). In addition, the stable cell growth and ethanol production profile in five cycles successive fermentation was observed, indicating the mutant was suitable for industrial ethanol production. PMID:26744803

  10. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  11. Harnessing functional food strategies for the health challenges of space travel—Fermented soy for astronaut nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Nicole D.; Champagne, Claude P.; Masotti, Adriana I.; Wagar, Lisa E.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Green-Johnson, Julia M.

    2011-04-01

    Astronauts face numerous health challenges during long-duration space missions, including diminished immunity, bone loss and increased risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Changes in the intestinal flora of astronauts may contribute to these problems. Soy-based fermented food products could provide a nutritional strategy to help alleviate these challenges by incorporating beneficial lactic acid bacteria, while reaping the benefits of soy isoflavones. We carried out strain selection for the development of soy ferments, selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria showing the most effective growth and fermentation ability in soy milk ( Streptococcus thermophilus ST5, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and Lactobacillus helveticus R0052). Immunomodulatory bioactivity of selected ferments was assessed using an in vitro challenge system with human intestinal epithelial and macrophage cell lines, and selected ferments show the ability to down-regulate production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 following challenge with tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The impact of fermentation on vitamin B1 and B6 levels and on isoflavone biotransformation to agluconic forms was also assessed, with strain variation-dependent biotransformation ability detected. Overall this suggests that probiotic bacteria can be successfully utilized to develop soy-based fermented products targeted against health problems associated with long-term space travel.

  12. Virulence and toxigenicity of coagulase-negative staphylococci in Nigerian traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Fowoyo, P T; Ogunbanwo, S T

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may render food unsafe, as the clinical isolates have been reported to exude virulent traits. A total of 255 CoNS isolates from 6 traditional fermented foods (nono, kunu, wara, iru, ogi, and kindirmo) from North Central Nigeria, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus caprae, were investigated for virulence traits. The strains were examined for biofilm formation and production of hyaluronidase, DNase, TNase, haemolysins, and superantigenic toxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and TSST-1) using standard and genotypic methods. The analysis of virulence factors revealed the production of slime in 200 isolates (78.4%); α-haemolysin in 136 (53.3%); β-haemolysin in 43 (16.9%); DNase in 199 (78.0%); TNase in 29 (11.4%); hyaluronidase in 125 (49.0%); TSST-1 in 119 (46.7%); and enterotoxin-producing isolates SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED in 61 (23.9%), 19 (7.5%), 9 (3.5%), and 8 (3.1%), respectively. PCR analysis detected tsst-1, sea, seb, and sec genes. The ability of these microorganisms to exhibit virulence evokes the potential to cause disease especially under determinate conditions or in immune-compromised patients. The occurrence of CoNS in food should not be ignored nor their pathogenic potential considered as insignificant, rather safety measures should be taken to reduce or totally eliminate their occurrence in foods. PMID:27192326

  13. Thermal and refining processes, not fermentation, tend to reduce lipotropic capacity of plant-based foods.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Martin, Jean-François; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2011-08-01

    Plant-based foods (PBF) are relevant and diversified sources of lipotropes, which are compounds preventing excess hepatic fat deposits. In a first study, we defined the lipotropic capacity (LC, %) of raw PBF as the means of 8 lipotrope densities (LD, mg/100 kcal), each expressed relative to that of a reference food ranking the highest considering its mean 8 LD ranks (LC(raw asparagus)=100%) (A. Fardet, J.-F. Martin and J. M. Chardigny, J. Food Comp. Anal., 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2011.1003.1013). We showed that vegetables appeared as the best source of lipotropes on a 100 kcal-basis compared to legumes, cereals, fruits and nuts. The main objective of this second study was to quantify the effect of processing on LD and LC of raw PBF based on lipotrope contents collected in a USDA (United State Department of Agriculture) database and the literature, i.e. betaine, choline, myo-inositol, methionine, magnesium, niacin, pantothenic acid and folate contents. Choline and betaine densities were not significantly affected by processing while methionine and lipotropic micronutrient densities were significantly decreased, especially for magnesium, pantothenate and folates. Myo-inositol density decreases were insignificant due to lower product number resulting from limited literature data. Lipotropic micronutrient densities were more affected by processing than other densities. Fermentations increased betaine (median change of +32%) and choline (+34%) densities. Canning and boiling vegetables increased choline densities (+26%). Globally, processing significantly reduced LC by ∼20%, fermentations being less drastic (median change of -5%) than refining (-33%) and thermal treatments (-16%). More specifically, canning increased LC of beetroot (536 vs 390%) and common bean (40 vs 36%) as fermentation towards LC grape (14 vs 7% for wine). Results were then mainly discussed based on percentages of lipotrope content changes on a dry-weight basis. Results of this study also showed

  14. Characterization of a novel galactan produced by Weissella confusa KR780676 from an acidic fermented food.

    PubMed

    Kavitake, Digambar; Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Singh, Sanjay Pratap; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-05-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain PUFSTM055 isolated from Idli batter (an Indian traditional cereal-legume based fermented food) was identified as Weissella confusa KR780676. The strain was shown to produce 17.2g/L (dry weight) of EPS in 2% sucrose supplemented MRS broth and the EPS was characterized. HPTLC analysis confirmed the presence of galactose monomers, indicating the homopolysaccharide nature of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the EPS was found to be a novel linear galactan containing α-(1→6)-linked galactose units. Scanning electron microscopy of the EPS revealed the presence of porous and spongy starch-like granules. Topographical examination of EPS by atomic force microscopy revealed that the EPS formed densely packed mesh-like structure with irregular spherical lumps. The EPS also showed high thermal stability with a degradation temperature of 287.5 °C and melting point at 274.65 °C. EPS was semi-crystalline with crystallinity index of 0.23 and showed 100% water solubility index. These characteristics of the EPS would make it a promising hydrocolloid for food industries as bio-thickeners, stabilizers and also as an encapsulating material for delivery of food bioactive compounds. This is the first study reporting the galactan compose of the EPS from lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26836614

  15. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G A; Jensen, L K; Fankhauser, A; Biedermann, S; Petersen, J H; Fabech, B

    2008-04-01

    Nineteen samples of food in glass jars with twist closures were collected by the national food inspectors at Danish food producers and a few importers, focusing on fatty food, such as vegetables in oil, herring in dressing or pickle, soft spreadable cheese, cream, dressings, peanut butter, sauces and infant food. The composition of the plasticizers in the gaskets was analysed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates were determined in the homogenized food samples. ESBO was the principal plasticizer in five of the gaskets; in 14 it was phthalates. ESBO was found in seven of the food samples at concentrations from 6 to 100 mg kg(-1). The highest levels (91-100 mg kg(-1)) were in oily foods such as garlic, chilli or olives in oil. Phthalates, i.e. di-iso-decylphthalate (DIDP) and di-iso-nonylphthalates (DINP), were found in seven samples at 6-173 mg kg(-1). The highest concentrations (99-173 mg kg(-1)) were in products of garlic and tomatoes in oil and in fatty food products such as sauce béarnaise and peanut butter. For five of the samples the overall migration from unused lids to the official fatty food simulant olive oil was determined and compared with the legal limit of 60 mg kg(-1). The results ranged from 76 to 519 mg kg(-1) and as a consequence the products were withdrawn from the market. PMID:18348048

  16. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa. PMID:27073601

  17. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, S S; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  18. Fermentation of Apple Juice with a Selected Yeast Strain Isolated from the Fermented Foods of Himalayan Regions and Its Organoleptic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, S. S.; Keshani

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different fermented foods of Western Himalayas have been studied for strain level and functional diversity in our department. Among these 23 strains, 10 S. cerevisiae strains on the basis of variation in their brewing traits were selected to study their organoleptic effect at gene level by targeting ATF1 gene, which is responsible for ester synthesis during fermentation. Significant variation was observed in ATF1 gene sequences, suggesting differences in aroma and flavor of their brewing products. Apple is a predominant fruit in Himachal Pradesh and apple cider is one of the most popular drinks all around the world hence, it was chosen for sensory evaluation of six selected yeast strains. Organoleptic studies and sensory analysis suggested Sc21 and Sc01 as best indigenous strains for soft and hard cider, respectively, indicating their potential in enriching the local products with enhanced quality. PMID:27446050

  19. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Yang, Dar-Yu; Ho, Shu-Peng; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Jung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Chang, Ming-Hong; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines prevented the apoptosis of transplanted stem cells in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Suppression of inflammatory cytokines by fermented soybean extracts (Natto) was also beneficial to nerve regeneration. In this study, the effect of Natto on transplanted human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFS) was evaluated. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in SD rats by crushing a sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. Animals were categorized into four groups: Group I: no treatment; Group II: fed with Natto (16 mg/day for 7 consecutive days); Group III: AFS embedded in fibrin glue; Group IV: Combination of group II and III therapy. Transplanted AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis, inflammatory cell deposits and associated cytokines, motor function, and nerve regeneration were evaluated 7 or 28 days after injury. The deterioration of neurological function was attenuated by AFS, Natto, or the combined therapy. The combined therapy caused the most significantly beneficial effects. Administration of Natto suppressed the inflammatory responses and correlated with decreased AFS and Schwann cell apoptosis. The decreased AFS apoptosis was in line with neurological improvement such as expression of early regeneration marker of neurofilament and late markers of S-100 and decreased vacuole formation. Administration of either AFS, or Natto, or combined therapy augmented the nerve regeneration. In conclusion, administration of Natto may rescue the AFS and Schwann cells from apoptosis by suppressing the macrophage deposits, associated inflammatory cytokines, and fibrin deposits. PMID:19698158

  20. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the activities of serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activities of lysozyme, alkaline phosphatase and total superoxide dismutase among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  1. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community in soy-daddawa, a Nigerian fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment.

    PubMed

    Ezeokoli, Obinna T; Gupta, Arvind K; Mienie, Charlotte; Popoola, Temitope O S; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius C

    2016-03-01

    Soy-daddawa, a fermented soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) condiment, plays a significant role in the culinary practice of West Africa. It is essential to understand the microbial community of soy-daddawa for a successful starter culture application. This study investigated the microbial community structure of soy-daddawa samples collected from Nigerian markets, by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi. Six bacterial and 16 fungal (nine yeasts and seven molds) operational taxonomic units (OTUs)/species were obtained at 97% sequence similarity. Taxonomic assignments revealed that bacterial OTUs belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and included species from the genera Atopostipes, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Nosocomiicoccus. Densitometric analysis of DGGE image/bands revealed that Bacillus spp. were the dominant OTU/species in terms of population numbers. Fungal OTUs belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, and included species from the genera, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, Dokmaia, Issatchenkia, Kodamaea, Lecythophora, Phoma, Pichia, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces and Starmerella. The majority of fungal species have not been previously reported in soy-daddawa. Potential opportunistic human pathogens such as Atopostipes suicloacalis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis, and Kodamaea ohmeri were detected. Variation in soy-daddawa microbial communities amongst samples and presence of potential opportunistic pathogens emphasises the need for starter culture employment and good handling practices in soy-daddawa processing. PMID:26796580

  2. Bacterial, SCFA and gas profiles of a range of food ingredients following in vitro fermentation by human colonic microbiota.

    PubMed

    Beards, Emma; Tuohy, Kieran; Gibson, Glenn

    2010-08-01

    It is now apparent that there is a strong link between health and nutrition and this can be seen clearly when we talk of obesity. The food industry is trying to capitalise on this by adapting high sugar/fat foods to become healthier alternatives. In confectionery food ingredients can be used for a range of purposes including sucrose replacement. Many of these ingredients may also evade digestion in the upper gut and be fermented by the gut microbiota upon entering the colon. This study was designed to screen a range of ingredients and their activities on the gut microbiota. In this study we screened a range of these ingredients in triplicate batch culture fermentations with known prebiotics as controls. Changes in bacteriology were monitored using FISH. SCFA were measured by GC and gas production was assessed during anaerobic batch fermentations. Bacterial enumeration showed significant increases (P < or = 0.05) in bifidobacteria and lactobacilli with polydextrose and most polyols with no significant increases in Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens. SCFA and gas formation indicated that the substrates added to the fermenters were being utilised by the gut microbiota. It therefore appears these ingredients exert some prebiotic activity in vitro. Further studies, particularly in human volunteers, are necessary. PMID:20553905

  3. Reduction in phytic acid content and enhancement of antioxidant properties of nutricereals by processing for developing a fermented baby food.

    PubMed

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    Cereal blends containing pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and oat (Avena sativa) in different ratios were processed (roasted and germinated) and also used as unprocessed flours followed by fermentation with Lactobacillus sp. (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum). They were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), phytic acid content (PAC) and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA). A formulation with the highest TPC, FRSA and the lowest PAC was selected to optimize a nutricereal based fermented baby food containing selected fermented cereal blends (FCB), rice-corn cooked flour (RCF), whole milk powder (WMP), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sugar. The optimized baby food formulation contained 37.41 g 100 g(-1) FCB, 9.75 g 100 g(-1) RCF, 27.84 g 100 g(-1) WMP, 5 g 100 g(-1) WPC and 20 g 100 g(-1) sugar. It had high protein, vitamin, minerals, as well as good quantity of carbohydrates and fat, to fulfil the nutritional needs of preschool children of age 1-3 years. The nutricereal based fermented baby food showed high water absorption capacity, dispersibility, wettability and flowability indicating good reconstitution properties. PMID:26028703

  4. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism. PMID:26658825

  5. Digestibility and utilization of protein and energy from Nasha, a traditional Sudanese fermented sorghum weaning food.

    PubMed

    Graham, G G; MacLean, W C; Morales, E; Hamaker, B R; Kirleis, A W; Mertz, E T; Axtell, J D

    1986-06-01

    Whole grain sorghum flour was fermented into Nasha, a traditional Sudanese food, and freeze-dried or drum-dried. It was cooked and fed to convalescent malnourished infants and small children as 61% of total diet calories and all of 6.4% protein calories, with (Lys+) and without lysine supplementation to 3% of protein. Apparent absorptions of nitrogen were 73 +/- 5 and 74 +/- 6% of intake, significantly (P less than 0.01) less than those from preceding (Cas-1, 86 +/- 3%) and following (Cas-2, 85 +/- 3%) isonitrogenous casein diets. Apparent retentions of nitrogen from Nasha (26 +/- 10%) were significantly lower than those from Lys + (34 +/- 9%, P less than 0.05), Cas-1 (35 +/- 11%, P less than 0.01) or Cas-2 (49 +/- 9%, P less than 0.01). Retentions from Cas-2 were higher than those from Cas-1 or Lys + (P less than 0.01). Fecal wet and dry weights were higher (P less than 0.02) during both Nasha diets and Cas-2 than during Cas-1. Fecal energy and carbohydrate were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher from either Nasha diet than from either casein diet; fecal fat was not different. Two children received drum-dried Nasha without further cooking; digestibilities were not different from those of the cooked product but biological value was much lower. When properly cooked and consumed along with small amounts of a good source of lysine, Nasha is a satisfactory weaning food. PMID:3088228

  6. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism. PMID:26658825

  7. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  8. Action of AferBio (fermented food) in a rat inflammatory model

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Anna Eliza Maciel de Faria Mota; de Medeiros, Benedito Junior Lima; Favacho, Hugo Alexandre; Tavares Carvalho, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background AferBio is a fermented prebiotic food that contains beta-glucans, which are oligosaccharides capable of stimulating the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of this functional food on the inflammatory response in rats. Methods and results AferBio (900 mg/kg) inhibited edema formation by 34% compared to the control group. We also observed inhibition of the primary and secondary reactions of inflammation after the injection of Freund’s adjuvant in the animals fed AferBio. Daily administration of AferBio for 6 d inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 37%; additionally, inhibition of 31% of neutrophil migration downstream of carrageenan-induced peritonitis was observed. An ulcerogenic potency assay revealed that indomethacin produced a higher number of lesions compared to treatment with AferBio. Anti-inflammatory potency analysis showed that indomethacin inhibited 39% of carrageenan-induced edema but produced a higher number of lesions. However, animals treated with AferBio had areas of hyperemia without ulcerative lesions and 21% of edema was inhibited. Conclusion Based on the results obtained in this study, AferBio appears to have anti-inflammatory activity during acute and chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:27186123

  9. Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Bacillus pumilus 2.g Isolated from Gembus, an Indonesian Fermented Food

    PubMed Central

    Afifah, Diana Nur; Sulchan, Muhammad; Syah, Dahrul; Yanti; Suhartono, Maggy Thenawidjaja; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus 2.g isolated from gembus, an Indonesian fermented soybean cake, secretes several proteases that have strong fibrinolytic activities. A fibrinolytic enzyme with an apparent molecular weight of 20 kDa was purified from the culture supernatant of B. pumilus 2.g by sequential application of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and hydrophobic chromatography. The partially purified enzyme was stable between pH 5 and pH 9 and temperature of less than 60°C. Fibrinolytic activity was increased by 5 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 but inhibited by 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The partially purified enzyme quickly degraded the α and β chains of fibrinogen but was unable to degrade the γ chain. PMID:25320719

  10. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-08-15

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products. In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from afitin (cluster 1). Highly similar PM13 profiles were obtained for seven of the isolates, one from afitin, one from iru and five from sonru (cluster 2). Four of the isolates, one from afitin and three from sonru, did not form any particular cluster. The PM13 profiles of cluster 2 isolates were identical to those which are specific to emetic toxin producers. Cereulide production of these isolates was confirmed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. This is the first report on cereulide producing B. cereus in African fermented foods. Occurrence of the opportunistic human pathogen B. cereus, which is able to produce emetic toxin in afitin, iru and sonru, could impose a health hazard. Interestingly, no reports on food poisoning from the consumption of the fermented condiments exist. PMID:20599285

  11. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet.

    PubMed

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Tsushima, H; Mihara, H; Muraki, H

    1987-10-15

    A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:3478223

  12. Effect of corn inclusion on soybean hull-based diet digestibility and growth performance in continuous culture fermenters and beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted using soybean hull (SH) diets with increasing corn proportions to determine increasing corn inclusion effects on fermentation characteristics, diet digestibility, and feedlot performance. The hypothesis was that fiber digestibility would quadratically respond to starch proportion in the diet with a break point where starch inclusion improved fiber digestion and feedlot performance. Proportionately, the diets contained 100:0 (SH100), 90:10 (SH90), 80:20 (SH80), 60:40 (SH60), or 20:80 SH:corn (SH20). In Exp. 1, diets were randomly distributed over 24 continuous culture fermenters and fed for 7 d. In Exp. 2, forty steers (347 ± 29 kg BW) and 50 heifers (374 ± 24 kg BW) were blocked by gender, stratified by BW, and distributed across diets. Cattle were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diet for the final 14 d and fecal samples collected to measure digestibility. Individual DMI was measured using GrowSafe Feed Intake system. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with diet evaluated as the fixed effect. In Exp. 1, NDF digestibility (NDFd) linearly decreased ( = 0.04) and ADF digestibility (ADFd) tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.09) as corn increased. Dry matter digestibility (DMd) was cubic ( = 0.01) and OM digestibility (OMd) was quadratic ( = 0.03), and among the 4 SH-based diets, DMd and OMd were greatest for SH90. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH were quadratic ( < 0.01) and greatest for SH80. In Exp. 2, ADG and G:F linearly increased ( < 0.01) as corn inclusion increased. Among the 4 SH-based diets, ADG was numerically greatest for SH80. There was no DMI difference ( ≥ 0.4) due to diet. As corn inclusion increased, DMd tended to linearly increase (P = 0.06), as did OMd ( = 0.05). Both NDFd and ADFd were quadratic ( = 0.04) and greatest for SH80. Overall, feedlot performance increased and fiber digestibility decreased as corn inclusion increased. However, based on continuous culture digestibility and

  13. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  14. Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC²) method for the analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Qi, Ningli; Wang, Xiaoxi; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    A rapid ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) method for the determination of eight biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine and tyramine) in fermented foods was developed. The amines were pre-column derivatized with dansyl chloride and separated on UPC(2) system with a HSS C18 SB column (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) using gradient elution with a binary system of CO2 and n-hexane:isopropanol:ammonium hydroxide (70:30:0.15, v/v/v), back pressure of 2,000 psi, flow rate of 2.0 ml/min and DAD detection at 254 nm. The result showed excellent linearity (r=0.9995-1.0000). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 21-67 ng/L and 72-224 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.21-0.87% and 1.98-4.02%, respectively. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to analysis of biogenic amines in Yulu and Sufu samples. PMID:24874373

  15. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  16. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  17. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. PMID:25682230

  18. Alishewanella jeotgali sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented food, and emended description of the genus Alishewanella.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do; Chang, Ho-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Jung, Mi-Ja; Choi, Jung-Hye; Park, Eun-Jin; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2009-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative and facultative anaerobic strain, designated MS1T, was isolated from gajami sikhae, a traditional fermented food in Korea made from flatfish. Strain MS1T was motile, rod-shaped and oxidase- and catalase-positive, and required 1-2% (w/v) NaCl for growth. Growth occurred at temperatures ranging from 4 to 40 degrees C and the pH range for optimal growth was pH 6.5-9.0. Strain MS1T was capable of reducing trimethylamine oxide, nitrate and thiosulfate. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain MS1T within the genus Alishewanella. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MS1T was related closely to Alishewanella aestuarii B11T (98.67% similarity) and Alishewanella fetalis CCUG 30811T (98.04% similarity). However, DNA-DNA reassociation experiments between strain MS1T and reference strains showed relatedness values<70% (42.6 and 14.8% with A. aestuarii B11T and A. fetalis CCUG 30811T, respectively). Genotypic, physiological and biochemical analyses allowed the differentiation of strain MS1T from type strains of species belonging to the genus Alishewanella. Therefore, we propose that strain MS1T (=KCTC 22429T=JCM 15561T) is assigned to a novel species, Alishewanella jeotgali sp. nov. PMID:19620373

  19. Specific oligopeptides in fermented soybean extract inhibit NF-κB-dependent iNOS and cytokine induction by toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Wu, Hong Min; Lee, Chan Gyu; Sung, Dae Il; Song, Hye Jung; Matsui, Toshiro; Kim, Han Bok; Kim, Sang Geon

    2014-11-01

    The ethanol extract of fermented soybean from Glycine max (chungkookjang, CHU) has been claimed to have chemopreventive and cytoprotective effects. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of CHU on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokine induction by toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands treatment and attempted to identify the responsible active components. Nitric oxide (NO) content and iNOS levels in the media or RAW264.7 cells were measured using the Griess reagent and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. CHU treatment inhibited NO production and iNOS induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4L) in a concentration-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 productions were also diminished. Peptidoglycans (TLR2/6L) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (TLR9L) from CHU inhibited iNOS induction, but not poly I:C (TLR3L) or loxoribine (TLF7L). The anti-inflammatory effect resulted from the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) through the inhibition of inhibitory-κB degradation. Of the representative components in CHU, specific oligopeptides (AFPG and GVAWWMY) had the ability to inhibit iNOS induction by LPS, whereas others failed to do so. Daidzein, an isoflavone used for comparative purposes, was active at a relatively higher concentration. In an animal model, oral administration of CHU to rats significantly diminished carrageenan-induced paw edema and iNOS induction. Our results demonstrate that CHU has anti-inflammatory effects against TLR ligands by inhibiting NF-κB activation, which may result from specific oligopeptide components in CHU. Since CHU is orally effective, dietary applications of CHU and/or the identified oligopeptides may be of use in the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25184943

  20. Selection of potential probiotic Enterococcus faecium isolated from Portuguese fermented food.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Borges, Sandra; Teixeira, Paula

    2014-11-17

    Four Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. In addition to efaAfm gene, commonly found in E. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. All of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °C. E. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of the target bacteria investigated. E. faecium 85 and 101 inhibited Listeria innocua and E. faecium DSMZ 13590. The strain E. faecium 120 inhibited seven target bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes 7946, L. monocytogenes 7947, L. innocua 2030c, L. innocua NCTC 11286, E. faecium DSMZ 13590, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213) and was chosen as the representative to assess the ability to survive gastrointestinal tract passage simulation, as well as the protective role of two food matrices (skim milk and Alheira) during its passage. For both matrices used, no significant differences (p<0.05) were obtained between the types of digestion - quick and slow passage simulation. In the skim milk matrix the isolate was reduced to values below the detection limit of the enumeration technique by the end of the two digestions, in contrast to the Alheira matrix, for which isolate 120 showed a reduction of only ca. 1 log CFU/ml. The E. faecium strain 120 was shown to be a potential candidate for further investigations as a potential probiotic culture. PMID:25268323

  1. Different types of soluble fermentable dietary fibre decrease food intake, body weight gain and adiposity in young adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary fibre-induced satiety offers a physiological approach to body weight regulation, yet there is lack of scientific evidence. This experiment quantified food intake, body weight and body composition responses to three different soluble fermentable dietary fibres in an animal model and explored underlying mechanisms of satiety signalling and hindgut fermentation. Methods Young adult male rats were fed ad libitum purified control diet (CONT) containing 5% w/w cellulose (insoluble fibre), or diet containing 10% w/w cellulose (CELL), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), oat beta-glucan (GLUC) or apple pectin (PECT) (4 weeks; n = 10/group). Food intake, body weight, and body composition (MRI) were recorded, final blood samples analysed for gut satiety hormones, hindgut contents for fermentation products (including short-chain fatty acids, SCFA) and intestinal tissues for SCFA receptor gene expression. Results GLUC, FOS and PECT groups had, respectively, 10% (P < 0.05), 17% (P < 0.001) and 19% (P < 0.001) lower food intake and 37% (P < 0.01), 37% (P < 0.01) and 45% (P < 0.001) lower body weight gain than CONT during the four-week experiment. At the end they had 26% (P < 0.05), 35% (P < 0.01) and 42% (P < 0.001) less total body fat, respectively, while plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was 2.2-, 3.2- and 2.6-fold higher (P < 0.001) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) was 2.3-, 3.1- and 3.0-fold higher (P < 0.001). There were no differences in these parameters between CONT and CELL. Compared with CONT and CELL, caecal concentrations of fermentation products increased 1.4- to 2.2-fold in GLUC, FOS and PECT (P < 0.05) and colonic concentrations increased 1.9- to 2.5-fold in GLUC and FOS (P < 0.05), with no consistent changes in SCFA receptor gene expression detected. Conclusions This provides animal model evidence that sustained intake of three different soluble dietary fibres decreases food intake, weight gain and adiposity, increases circulating satiety

  2. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value. PMID:26880215

  3. Probiotic potential of lactobacillus strains isolated from sorghum-based traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Poornachandra; Chennappa, G; Suraj, U; Nagaraja, H; Raj, A P Charith; Sreenivasa, M Y

    2015-06-01

    Sorghum-based traditional fermented food was screened for potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species identification was done by 16s rRNA sequence analysis. The functional probiotic potential of the two Lactobacillus species viz., Lactobacillus plantarum (Lact. plantarum) and Lactobacillus pentosus (Lact. pentosus) was assessed by different standard parameters. The strains were tolerant to pH 2 for 1 h and resistant to methicillin, kanamycin, vancomycin and norfloxacin. Two (Lact. plantarum COORG-3 and Lact. pentosus COORG-8) out of eight isolates recorded the cell surface hydrophobicity to be 59.12 and 64.06%, respectively. All the strains showed tolerance to artificial duodenum juice (pH 2) for 3 h, positive for bile salt hydrolase test and negative for haemolytic test. The neutralized cell-free supernatant of the strains Lact. pentosus COORG-4, Lact. plantarum COORG-1, Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-8 and Lact. plantarum COORG-3 showed good antibiofilm activity. Lact. pentosus COORG-8 exhibited 74% activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-MTCC 7903 and Lact. plantarum COORG-7 showed 68% inhibition of biofilm against Klebsiella pneumonia MTCC 7407. Three (Lact. plantarum COORG-7, Lact. pentosus COORG-5 and Lact. pentosus COORG 8) out of eight isolates exhibited a good antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and five isolates (Lact. pentosus COORG 2, Lact. plantarum COORG 1, Lact. plantarum COORG 4, Lact. pentosus COORG 3 and Lact. plantarum COORG 6) are active against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis. The study also evaluated the cholesterol lowering property of the Lactobacillus strains using hen egg yolk as the cholesterol source. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was assimilated by 74.12 and 68.26% by Lact. plantarum COORG 4 and Lact. pentosus COORG 7

  4. Hydrogen and electricity production from a food processing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel cell technologies.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Eun; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from fermentation of sugars in wastewaters, but much of the organic matter remains in solution. We demonstrate here that hydrogen production from a food processing wastewater high in sugar can be linked to electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to achieve more effective wastewater treatment. Grab samples were taken from: plant effluent at two different times during the day (Effluents 1 and 2; 735+/-15 and 3250+/-90 mg-COD/L), an equalization tank (Lagoon; 1670+/-50mg-COD/L), and waste stream containing a high concentration of organic matter (Cereal; 8920+/-150 mg-COD/L). Hydrogen production from the Lagoon and effluent samples was low, with 64+/-16 mL of hydrogen per liter of wastewater (mL/L) for Effluent 1, 21+/-18 mL/L for Effluent 2, and 16+/-2 mL/L for the Lagoon sample. There was substantially greater hydrogen production using the Cereal wastewater (210+/-56 mL/L). Assuming a theoretical maximum yield of 4 mol of hydrogen per mol of glucose, hydrogen yields were 0.61-0.79 mol/mol for the Cereal wastewater, and ranged from 1 to 2.52 mol/mol for the other samples. This suggests a strategy for hydrogen recovery from wastewater based on targeting high-COD and high-sugar wastewaters, recognizing that sugar content alone is an insufficient predictor of hydrogen yields. Preliminary tests with the Cereal wastewater (diluted to 595 mg-COD/L) in a two-chambered MFC demonstrated a maximum of 81+/-7 mW/m(2) (normalized to the anode surface area), or 25+/-2 mA per liter of wastewater, and a final COD of <30 mg/L (95% removal). Using a one-chambered MFC and pre-fermented wastewater, the maximum power density was 371+/-10 mW/m(2) (53.5+/-1.4 mA per liter of wastewater). These results suggest that it is feasible to link biological hydrogen production and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. PMID:16289673

  5. Preparation of curcumin microemulsions with food-grade soybean oil/lecithin and their cytotoxicity on the HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Chuan; Lin, Hung-Yin; Chi, Ming-Hung; Shen, Chin-Min; Chen, Hwan-Wen; Yang, Wen-Jen; Lee, Mei-Hwa

    2014-07-01

    The choice of surfactants and cosurfactants for preparation of oral formulation in microemulsions is limited. In this report, a curcumin-encapsulated phospholipids-based microemulsion (ME) using food-grade ingredients soybean oil and soybean lecithin to replace ethyl oleate and purified lecithin from our previous study was established and compared. The results indicated soybean oil is superior to ethyl oleate as the oil phase in curcumin microemulsion, as proven by the broadened microemulsion region with increasing range of surfactant/soybean oil ratio (approx. 1:1-12:1). Further preparation of two formula with different particle sizes of formula A (30nm) and B (80nm) exhibited differential effects on the cytotoxicity of hepatocellular HepG2 cell lines. At 15μM of concentration, curcumin-ME in formula A with smaller particle size resulted in the lowest viability (approx. 5%), which might be explained by increasing intake of curcumin, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of curcumin-ME is exclusively prominent on HepG2, not on HEK293, which showed over 80% of viability at 15μM. The results from this study might provide an innovative applied technique in the area of nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:24518344

  6. Haloterrigena jeotgali sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from salt-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do; Chang, Ho-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Sung, Youlboong; Kim, Min-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2009-09-01

    A novel red-pigmented halophilic archaeon, strain A29T, was isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional salt-fermented food from Korea. This strain grows in the ranges 10-30% (w/v) NaCl, 17-50 degrees C and pH 6.5-8.5, with optimal growth occurring at 15-20% NaCl, 37-45 degrees C and pH 7.0-7.5. The isolate is Gram-negative and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain A29T is associated with the genus Haloterrigena and closely related to the species Haloterrigena thermotolerans (99.0% similarity). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed that the level of hybridization between strain A29T and related strains of Haloterrigena is less than 70%. The polar lipid fraction consists of phosphatidylglyerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me) and mannose-2,6-disulfate(1-2)-glucose glycerol diether (S2-DGD). The G+C content of genomic DNA of the type strain is 62.3 mol%. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic study, strain A29T should be placed in the genus Haloterrigena as a novel species, for which the name Haloterrigena jeotgali sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the new species is A29T (=KCTC 4020T=DSM 18794T=JCM 14585T=CECT 7218T). PMID:19620363

  7. An integrated biohydrogen refinery: synergy of photofermentation, extractive fermentation and hydrothermal hydrolysis of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Redwood, Mark D; Orozco, Rafael L; Majewski, Artur J; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2012-09-01

    An Integrated Biohydrogen Refinery (IBHR) and experimental net energy analysis are reported. The IBHR converts biomass to electricity using hydrothermal hydrolysis, extractive biohydrogen fermentation and photobiological hydrogen fermentation for electricity generation in a fuel cell. An extractive fermentation, developed previously, is applied to waste-derived substrates following hydrothermal pre-treatment, achieving 83-99% biowaste destruction. The selective separation of organic acids from waste-fed fermentations provided suitable substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production, which enhanced the gross energy generation up to 11-fold. Therefore, electrodialysis provides the key link in an IBHR for 'waste to energy'. The IBHR compares favourably to 'renewables' (photovoltaics, on-shore wind, crop-derived biofuels) and also emerging biotechnological options (microbial electrolysis) and anaerobic digestion. PMID:22763044

  8. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. PMID:27394991

  9. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  10. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source. PMID:26988362

  11. Production of autoinducer-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria isolated from the West African fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yang; Kando, Christine Kere; Thorsen, Line; Larsen, Nadja; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a quorum-sensing (QS) molecule which mediates interspecies signaling and affects various bacterial behaviors in food fermentation. Biosynthesis of AI-2 is controlled by S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase encoded by the luxS gene. The objective of this study was to investigate production of AI-2 by aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) isolated from the West African alkaline fermented seed products Mantchoua and Maari. The study included 13 AEB strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. altitudinis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. aryabhattai, B. safensis, Lysinibacillus macroides and Paenibacillus polymyxa. All the tested strains harbored the luxS gene and all strains except for P. polymyxa B314 were able to produce AI-2 during incubation in laboratory medium. Production of AI-2 by AEB was growth phase dependent, showing maximum activity at the late exponential phase. AI-2 was depleted from the culture medium at the beginning of the stationary growth phase, indicating that the tested AEB possess a functional AI-2 receptor that internalizes AI-2. This study provides the evidences of QS system in Bacillus spp. and L. macroides and new knowledge of AI-2 production by AEB. This knowledge contributes to the development of QS-based strategies for better control of alkaline fermentation. PMID:26449556

  12. Birch pulp xylan works as a food hydrocolloid in acid milk gels and is fermented slowly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Sibakov, Natalia; Hakala, Terhi K; Sözer, Nesli; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-12-10

    The objective was to evaluate the potential of birch xylan as a food hydrocolloid and dietary fibre. High-molecular weight xylan was isolated from birch kraft pulp by alkaline extraction, and enzymatically hydrolysed. Fermentability of xylans was evaluated using an in vitro colon model and performance as a hydrocolloid was studied in low-fat acid milk gels (1.5% and 3% w/w). Texture of the gels and water holding capacity of xylans were compared with inulin, fructooligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide. Xylans showed slower fermentation rate by faecal microbiota than the references. Xylan-enriched acid milk gels (3% w/w) had improved water holding capacity (over 2-fold) and showed lower spontaneous syneresis, firmness and elasticity when compared to control (no hydrocolloids) or to references. In conclusion, birch xylan improved texture of low-fat acid milk gel applications, and the slow in vitro fermentation rate predicts lower incidence of intestinal discomfort in comparison to the commercial references. PMID:27577922

  13. The influence of slaughterhouse waste on fermentative H{sub 2} production from food waste: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Sbaffoni, Silvia; Tuccinardi, Letizia

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Co-digestion process finalized to bio-H{sub 2} production was tested in batch tests. • Slaughterhouse waste (SHW) and food waste (FW) were co-digested in different proportions. • The presence of SHW affected the H{sub 2} production from FW. • When SHW ranging between 50% and 70% the H{sub 2} production is improved. • SHW percentages above 70%, led to a depletion in H{sub 2} production. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of slaughterhouse waste (SHW; essentially the skin, fats, and meat waste of pork, poultry, and beef) in a fermentative co-digestion process for H{sub 2} production from pre-selected organic waste taken from a refectory (food waste [FW]). Batch tests under mesophilic conditions were conducted in stirred reactors filled with different proportions of FW and SHW. The addition of 60% and 70% SHW to a mixture of SHW and FW improved H{sub 2} production compared to that in FW only, reaching H{sub 2}-production yields of 145 and 109 ml gVS{sub 0}{sup -1}, respectively, which are 1.5–2 times higher than that obtained with FW alone. Although the SHW ensured a more stable fermentative process due to its high buffering capacity, a depletion of H{sub 2} production occurred when SHW fraction was higher than 70%. Above this percentage, the formation of foam and aggregated material created non-homogenous conditions of digestion. Additionally, the increasing amount of SHW in the reactors may lead to an accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which are potentially toxic for anaerobic microorganisms and may inhibit the normal evolution of the fermentative process.

  14. Effects of milk components and food additives on survival of three bifidobacteria strains in fermented milk under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ziarno, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Background In the dairy industry, probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium are introduced into the composition of traditional starter cultures intended for the production of fermented foods, or sometimes are the sole microflora responsible for the fermentation process. In order to be able to reach the intestines alive and fulfil their beneficial role, probiotic strains must be able to withstand the acidity of the gastric juices and bile present in the duodenum. Objective The paper reports effects of selected fermented milk components on the viability of three strains of bifidobacteria in fermented milk during subsequent incubation under conditions representing model digestive juices. Design The viability of the bifidobacterial cells was examined after a 3-h incubation of fermented milk under simulated gastric juice conditions and then after 5-h incubation under simulated duodenum juice conditions. The Bifidobacterium strains tested differed in their sensitivity to the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal juices. Results Bifidobacterial cell viability in simulated intestinal juices was dependent on the strain used in our experiments, and product components acted protectively towards bifidobacterial cells and its dose. Conclusions Bifidobacterial cells introduced into the human gastrointestinal tract as food ingredients have a good chance of survival during intestinal transit and to reach the large intestine thanks to the protective properties of the food components and depending on the strain and composition of the food. PMID:26546945

  15. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice. PMID:27002546

  16. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter. PMID:26621111

  17. Effect of fermentation liquid from food waste as a carbon source for enhancing denitrification in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-02-01

    Food wastes were used for anaerobic fermentation to prepare carbon sources for enhancing nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. Under anaerobic conditions without pH adjustment, the fermentation liquid from food wastes (FLFW) with a high organic acid content was produced at room temperature (25 °C) and initial solid concentration of 13%. Using FLFW as the sole carbon source of artificial wastewater for biological treatment by sequence batch operation, maximized denitrification (with a denitrification rate of V(DN) = 12.89 mg/gVSS h and a denitrification potential of P(DN) = 0.174 gN/gCOD) could be achieved at a COD/TN ratio of 6. The readily biodegradable fraction in the FLFW was evaluated as 58.35%. By comparing FLFW with glucose and sodium acetate, two commonly used chemical carbon sources, FLFW showed a denitrification result similar to sodium acetate but much better than glucose in terms of total nitrogen removal, V(DN), P(DN), organic matter consumption rate (V(COD)) and heterotrophy anoxic yield coefficient (Y(H)). PMID:26408975

  18. Soilless cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems: a literature review and the experience of the MELiSSA Project - Food characterisation Phase I.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, R; De Micco, V; Buonomo, R; Aronne, G; Barbieri, G; De Pascale, S

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants play a key role in Bioregenerative Life-Support Systems (BLSS) for long-term missions in space, by regenerating air through photosynthetic CO2 absorption and O2 emission, recovering water through transpiration and recycling waste products through mineral nutrition. In addition, plants could provide fresh food to integrate into the crew diet and help to preserve astronauts' wellbeing. The ESA programme Micro-Ecological Life-Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) aims to conceive an artificial bioregenerative ecosystem for resources regeneration, based on both microorganisms and higher plants. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the four candidate species studied for soilless (hydroponic) cultivation in MELiSSA, because of the high nutritional value of the seeds. Within the MELiSSA programme - Food characterisation Phase I, the aim of the research carried out on soybean at the University of Naples was to select the most suitable European cultivars for cultivation in BLSS. In this context, a concise review on the state-of-the-art of soybean cultivation in space-oriented experiments and a summary of research activity for the preliminary theoretical selection and subsequent agronomical evaluation of four cultivars will be presented in this paper. PMID:23889907

  19. Investigation of ethyl carbamate levels in some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Dennis, M J; Howarth, N; Key, P E; Pointer, M; Massey, R C

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of ethyl carbamate in fermented foodstuffs and alcoholic beverages. Concentrations were generally below the 1-5 micrograms/kg detection limit in bread, cheese, yoghurt, beer, gin and vodka. Higher concentrations were found in the other alcoholic beverages examined, which included whisky, fruit brandy, liqueur, wine, sherry and port. PMID:2721787

  20. Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Honghong; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Changqing; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Huang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs. PMID:22408431

  1. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge. PMID:26150291

  2. Use of Schizosaccharomyces strains for wine fermentation-Effect on the wine composition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Mylona, A E; Del Fresno, J M; Palomero, F; Loira, I; Bañuelos, M A; Morata, A; Calderón, F; Benito, S; Suárez-Lepe, J A

    2016-09-01

    Schizosaccharomyces was initially considered as a spoilage yeast because of the production of undesirable metabolites such as acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, or acetaldehyde, but it currently seems to be of great value in enology.o ced Nevertheless, Schizosaccharomyces can reduce all of the malic acid in must, leading to malolactic fermentation. Malolactic fermentation is a highly complicated process in enology and leads to a higher concentration of biogenic amines, so the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe can be an excellent tool for assuring wine safety. Schizosaccharomyces also has much more potential than only reducing the malic acid content, such as increasing the level of pyruvic acid and thus the vinylphenolic pyranoanthocyanin content. Until now, few commercial strains have been available and little research on the selection of appropriate yeast strains with such potential has been conducted. In this study, selected and wild Sc. pombe strains were used along with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain to ferment red grape must. The results showed significant differences in several parameters including non-volatile and volatile compounds, anthocyanins, biogenic amines and sensory parameters. PMID:27261767

  3. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: a review.

    PubMed

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article. PMID:24267060

  4. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  5. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia. PMID:24915349

  6. Genome sequence of the haloarchaeon Haloterrigena jeotgali type strain A29(T) isolated from salt-fermented food.

    PubMed

    Cha, In-Tae; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kim, Byung-Yong; Cho, Yong-Joon; Kim, Dae-Won; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Seo, Myung-Ji; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Jong-Soon; Choi, Hak-Jong; Yoon, Changmann; Roh, Seong Woon; Nam, Young-Do

    2015-01-01

    Haloterrigena jeotgali is a halophilic archaeon within the family Natrialbaceae that was isolated from shrimp jeotgal, a traditional Korean salt-fermented food. A29(T) is the type strain of H. jeotgali, and is a Gram-negative staining, non-motile, rod-shaped archaeon that grows in 10 %-30 % (w/v) NaCl. We present the annotated H. jeotgali A29(T) genome sequence along with a summary of its features. The 4,131,621 bp genome with a GC content of 64.9 % comprises 4,215 protein-coding genes and 127 RNA genes. The sequence can provide useful information on genetic mechanisms that enable haloarchaea to endure a hypersaline environment. PMID:26380637

  7. Risk-based control of food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in the Italian fermented sausages Cacciatore and Felino.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Bellio, A; Rovetto, F; Astegiano, S; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-05-01

    Fermentation is the most important killing step during production of fermented meats to eliminate food-borne pathogens. The objective was to evaluate whether the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica may survive during the production of two Italian fermented sausages. Sausage batter was inoculated with five strains of L. monocytogenes or S. enterica (ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and their kinetic behavior was monitored during production. Both pathogens survived relatively well (in Cacciatore L. monocytogenes and S. enterica inactivation was ca. 0.38±0.23 and 1.10±0.24 log cfu/g, respectively; in Felino was ca. 0.39±0.25 and 1.62±0.38 log cfu/g, respectively) due to the conditions prevailing during production (slow dehydration rate, small reduction of water activity and fermentation temperature mainly below 20 °C during the first 48 h of fermentation). Quantitative analysis of data originating from challenge tests provide critical information on which combinations of the process parameters would potentially lead to better control of the pathogens. PMID:25612557

  8. [Usefulness of an immunoassay test TRAIT for detection of genetically modified Roundup ready soybean in food products].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Fonberg-Broczek, M; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, D; Badowski, P; Jedra, M

    2001-01-01

    The test based on immunoassay TRAIT Test for the specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean was used for reference material in the form of dried powdered soy beans contained 0, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5% of genetically modified material, for soy beans declared as Roundup Ready and for soy products from Warsaw market. The detection limit was approximately 0.1% GMO on dry weight basis. Experiment was also carried out on heated soybeans. The positive results was obtained since temperature was under 65 degrees C during 15 minutes of heating grounded beans; above this temperature specific protein was not recognisable by the antibody. The TRAIT Test should be regarded as a qualitative method and could be recommended for screening purposes. Investigation demonstrated that above mentioned test was useful for detection of protein of genetically modified soybean in unprocessed products. PMID:11878012

  9. Development of a Solid-State Fermentation System for Producing Bioethanol from Food Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Akihiro; Fujimoto, Naoshi; Suzuki, Masaharu

    Liquid fermentation is the a conventional method of producing bioethanol. However, this method results in the formation of high concentrations waste after distillation and futher treatment requires more energy and is costly(large amounts of costly energy).Saccharification of dried raw garbage was tested for 12 types of Koji starters under the following optimum culture conditions: temperature of 30°C and initial moisture content of 50%.Among all the types, Aspergillus oryzae KBN650 had the highest saccharifying power. The ethanol-producing ability of the raw garbage was investigated for 72 strains of yeast, of which Saccharomyces cerevisiae A30 had the highest ethanol production(yield)under the following optimum conditions: 1 :1 ratio of dried garbage and saccharified garbage by weight, and initial moisture content of 60%. Thus, the solid-state fermentation system consisted of the following 4 processes: moisture control, saccharification, ethanol production and distillation. This system produced 0.6kg of ethanol from 9.6kg of garbage. Moreover the ethanol yield from all sugars was calculated to be 0.37.

  10. Analysis of microbial community adaptation in mesophilic hydrogen fermentation from food waste by tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Kanchanasuta, Suwimon; Mhuanthong, Wuttichai; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn; Pisutpaisal, Nipon; Champreda, Verawat

    2014-11-01

    Dark fermentation is an attractive process for generation of biohydrogen, which involves complex microbial processes on decomposition of organic wastes and subsequent conversion of metabolic intermediates to hydrogen. The microbes present in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for waste water treatment were tested for application in batch dark fermentation of food waste at varying ratios of feedstock to heat-treated microbial inoculum (F/M) of 1-8 (g TVS/g TVS). Biohydrogen yields between 0.39 and 2.68 mol H2/mol hexose were obtained, indicating that the yields were highly dependent on the starting F/M ratio. The highest H2 purity of 66% was obtained from the first 8 h of fermentation at the F/M ratio of 2, whereas the highest H2 production was obtained after 35 h of fermentation at the F/M ratio of 5. Tagged 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that the seed culture comprised largely of uncultured bacteria with various Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, while the starting food waste contained mainly lactic acid bacteria. Enrichment of Firmicutes, particularly Clostridia and lactic acid bacteria occurred within 8 h of the dark fermentation and the H2 producing microcosm at 35 h was dominated >80% by Clostridium spp. The major H2 producer was identified as a Clostridial strain related to Clostridium frigidicarnis. This work demonstrated the adaption of the microbial community during the dark fermentation of complex food waste and revealed the major roles of Clostridia in both substrate degradation and biohydrogen production. PMID:24945701

  11. Migration of epoxidised soybean oil from PVC gaskets of commercial lids: simulation of migration under various conditions and screening of food products from Czech markets.

    PubMed

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Vrbík, Karel; Rajchl, Aleš; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Sosnovcová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a large number of polyvinylchloride (PVC) lid gaskets exceed the existing migration limits for epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) and correct prediction of ESBO release into food therefore appears to be a difficult issue. ESBO migration from PVC gaskets of metal closures into food simulants and food products from the Czech market is evaluated during a survey in 2009 and subsequently one in 2012 to assess progress in lid manufacturing and official testing conditions. ESBO migration from lids into various food simulants was studied at various temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C) during storage times up to 12 months. ESBO released into food simulants or food products was transmethylated, derivatised and analysed by GC-MS. The levels of ESBO migration in foodstuffs in 2012 exceeded the specific migration limit (SML) in fewer products in comparison with the previous survey. However, most of the products were analysed at a time far from the expiry date and exceedance of the SML at the end of the product shelf life is not therefore excluded. More severe test conditions (60°C for 10 days) for specific migration given by the current European Union legislation (Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011) still seem to be insufficient for the simulation of ESBO migration during long-term storage. PMID:25685888

  12. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum, and high 11S/7S ratio are favored by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, twenty-two soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Coll...

  13. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD. PMID:26826428

  14. Utilization of Early Soybeans for Food and Reproduction by the Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in the Delta of Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially produced maturity group IV soybeans, Glycine max L., in bloom were sampled for tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), in May and June of 1999 (3 fields) and 2001 (18 fields). The adults and nymphs found in the fields both produced single population peaks in both ...

  15. Lactic acid fermentation from food waste with indigenous microbiota: Effects of pH, temperature and high OLR.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jialing; Wang, Xiaochang; Hu, Yisong; Zhang, Yongmei; Li, Yuyou

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pH, temperature and high organic loading rate (OLR) on lactic acid production from food waste without extra inoculum addition were investigated in this study. Using batch experiments, the results showed that although the hydrolysis rate increased with pH adjustment, the lactic acid concentration and productivity were highest at pH 6. High temperatures were suitable for solubilization but seriously restricted the acidification processes. The highest lactic acid yield (0.46g/g-TS) and productivity (278.1mg/Lh) were obtained at 37°C and pH 6. In addition, the lactic acid concentration gradually increased with the increase in OLR, and the semi-continuous reactor could be stably operated at an OLR of 18g-TS/Ld. However, system instability, low lactic acid yield and a decrease in VS removal were noticed at high OLRs (22g-TS/Ld). The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the fermentation mixture were relatively low but slightly increased with OLR, and acetate was the predominant VFA component. Using high-throughput pyrosequencing, Lactobacillus from the raw food waste was found to selectively accumulate and become dominant in the semi-continuous reactor. PMID:27040090

  16. Enhancement of propionic acid fraction in volatile fatty acids produced from sludge fermentation by the use of food waste and Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be used as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR), and the increase of propionic acid percentage in VFA has been reported to facilitate the performance of BNR. In this study a new method for significantly improving the propionic acid fraction in VFA derived from waste activated sludge was reported, which included (1) mixing food waste with sludge and pre-fermenting the mixture (first stage), and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the pre-fermentation liquid and fermenting it after inoculating Propionibacterium acidipropionici (second stage). By optimizing the first stage with response surface methodology, a propionic acid content of 68.4% with propionic acid concentration of 7.13 g COD/L could be reached in the second stage, which was much higher than that reported previously. Lactic acid was found to be the most abundant product of the first stage and it served as the substrate for propionic acid production in the second stage. Further investigation showed that during the first stage the addition of food waste to the pre-fermentation system of sludge significantly increased the generation of lactic acid due to the synergistic effect, which resulted in the improvement of propionic acid production in the second stage. Finally, the use of propionic acid-enriched VFA as a superior carbon source of BNR was tested, and its performance was observed to be much better than using acetic acid-enriched VFA derived from sludge by the previously documented method. PMID:23219005

  17. Inhibition of angiotensin I converting enzyme by subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) in natto, a Japanese traditional fermented food.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Yamanaka, Naoki; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshino, Masataka

    2012-06-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) was inhibited by the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto, which ferments boiled soy beans to natto, a Japanese traditional food. Subtilisin NAT (nattokinase) produced by B. subtilis also inhibited ACE, and the inhibition was markedly stimulated by heat treatment of subtilisin at 120 °C for 15 min. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin was of a mixed type: the decrease in V(max) and the increase in K(m) value. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that heat treatment of subtilisin caused inactivation with fragmentation of the enzyme protein into small peptides. The inhibitory action of subtilisin was not due to an enzymatic action of protease, but may be ascribed to the potent ACE-inhibitory peptides such as LY and FY, amino acid sequences in subtilisin. HPLC-MS analysis of heat-inactivated subtilisin confirmed that LY and FY were liberated by fragmentation of the enzyme. Inhibition of ACE by subtilisin and its degradation peptides such as LY and FY may participate in the suppression of blood pressure by ingestion of natto. PMID:22453301

  18. Effect of phosphoric acid as a catalyst on the hydrothermal pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation of food waste.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Kun; Yin, Jun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Xiaoqin

    2016-05-01

    The hydrothermal method was applied to food waste (FW) pretreatment with phosphoric acid as a catalyst. The content of soluble substances such as protein and carbohydrate in the FW increased after the hydrothermal pretreatment with phosphoric acid addition (⩽5%). The SCOD approached approximately 29.0g/L in 5% phosphoric acid group, which is almost 65% more than the original FW. The hydrothermal condition was 160°C for 10min, which means that at least 40% of energy and 60% of reaction time were saved to achieve the expected pretreatment effect. Subsequent fermentation tests showed that the optimal dosage of phosphoric acid was 3% with a VFA yield of 0.763g/gVSremoval, but the increase in salinity caused by phosphoric acid could adversely affect the acidogenesis. With an increase in the quantity of phosphoric acid, among the VFAs, the percentage of propionic acid decreased and that of butyric acid increased. The PCR-DGGE analysis indicated that the microbial diversity could decrease with excessive phosphoric acid, which resulted in a low VFA yield. PMID:26965213

  19. Continuous fermentation of food waste leachate for the production of volatile fatty acids and potential as a denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hakchan; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and pH on the continuous production of VFAs from food waste leachate using response surface analysis. The response surface approximations (R(2)=0.895, p<0.05) revealed that pH has a dominant effect on the specific VFA production (PTVFA) within the explored space (1-4-day HRT, pH 4.5-6.5). The estimated maximum PTVFA was 0.26g total VFAs/g CODf at 2.14-day HRT and pH 6.44, and the approximation was experimentally validated by running triplicate reactors under the estimated optimum conditions. The mixture of the filtrates recovered from these reactors was tested as a denitrification carbon source and demonstrated superior performance in terms of reaction rate and lag length relative to other chemicals, including acetate and methanol. The overall results provide helpful information for better design and control of continuous fermentation for producing waste-derived VFAs, an alternative carbon source for denitrification. PMID:26922002

  20. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  1. Enhancement of acidogenic fermentation for volatile fatty acid production from food waste: Effect of redox potential and inoculum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Yu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Yeer; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Long, Yuyang; Chen, Ting

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of redox potential (ORP) and inoculum on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from food waste by acidogenic fermentation. Four experimental conditions with two ORP levels were tested: limited aeration conditions with ORP level of -100 to -200mV inoculating anaerobic sludge (LA+AnS) or aerobic sludge (LA+AeS), and anaerobic conditions with ORP level of -200 to -300mV inoculating anaerobic sludge with 2-bromoethanosulfophate (AN+BES) and without BES (AN). The maximal VFA yield (0.79g COD/g VS) was attained in LA+AnS reactor due to enhanced hydrolysis of substrates, especially proteins (degradation efficiency 78.3%). A higher frequency of phylum Firmicutes under limited aeration conditions (42.2-48.2%) was observed than that under anaerobic conditions (21.1%). The microbial community was more diverse in LA+AnS reactors than LA+AeS. We conclude that appropriate ORP level (from -100 to -200mV) and inoculum play essential roles in VFA production. PMID:27343452

  2. Metagenomic approach reveals microbial diversity and predictive microbial metabolic pathways in Yucha, a traditional Li fermented food

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Xiaoru; Huo, Dongxue; Li, Wu; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Yucha is a typical traditional fermented food of the Li population in the Hainan province of China, and it is made up of cooked rice and fresh fish. In the present study, metagenomic approach and culture-dependent technology were applied to describe the diversity of microbiota and identify beneficial microbes in the Yucha. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus (43.82% of the total reads), followed by Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Vibrio, Weissella, Pediococcus, Enterobacter, Salinivibrio, Acinetobacter, Macrococcus, Kluyvera and Clostridium; this result was confirmed by q-PCR. PCoA based on Weighted UniFrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern for Yucha samples from different locations, and Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus saniviri and Staphylococcus sciuri represented OTUs according to the major identified markers. At the microbial functional level, it was observed that there was an enrichment of metabolic functional features, including amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, which implied that the microbial metabolism in the Yucha samples tended to be vigorous. Accordingly, we further investigated the correlation between the predominant microbes and metabolic functional features. Thirteen species of Lactobacillus (147 strains) were isolated, and Lactobacillus plantarum (60 isolates) and Lactobacillus pentosus (34 isolates) were isolated from every sample. PMID:27578483

  3. Screening of Indigenous Oxalate Degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria from Human Faeces and South Indian Fermented Foods: Assessment of Probiotic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Murugan; Selvi, M. S.; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have the potential to degrade intestinal oxalate and this is increasingly being studied as a promising probiotic solution to manage kidney stone disease. In this study, oxalate degrading LAB were isolated from human faeces and south Indian fermented foods, subsequently assessed for potential probiotic property in vitro and in vivo. Based on preliminary characteristics, 251 out of 673 bacterial isolates were identified as LAB. A total of 17 strains were found to degrade oxalate significantly between 40.38% and 62.90% and were subjected to acid and bile tolerance test. Among them, nine strains exhibited considerable tolerance up to pH 3.0 and at 0.3% bile. These were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus salivarius using 16S rDNA sequencing. Three strains, Lactobacillus fermentum TY5, Lactobacillus fermentum AB1, and Lactobacillus salivarius AB11, exhibited good adhesion to HT-29 cells and strong antimicrobial activity. They also conferred resistance to kanamycin, rifampicin, and ampicillin, but were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. The faecal recovery rate of these strains was observed as 15.16% (TY5), 6.71% (AB1), and 9.3% (AB11) which indicates the colonization ability. In conclusion, three efficient oxalate degrading LAB were identified and their safety assessments suggest that they may serve as good probiotic candidates for preventing hyperoxaluria. PMID:24723820

  4. Possibility of breast cancer prevention: use of soy isoflavones and fermented soy beverage produced using probiotics.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Akimitsu; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Kaga, Chiaki

    2015-01-01

    The various beneficial effects of soybeans, which are rich in phytochemicals, have received much attention because of increasing health awareness. Soy milk that has been fermented using lactic acid bacteria has been used to prepare cheese-like products, tofu (bean-curd), and yogurt-type products. However, the distinct odor of soybeans has limited the acceptance of such foods, particularly in Western countries. In Japan, while tofu and soy milk have long been habitually consumed, the development of novel, palatable food products has not been easy. The unpleasant odor of soy milk and the absorption efficiency for isoflavones can be improved using a recently developed fermented soy milk beverage. Cancer has been the leading cause of death, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women. The most common type of breast cancer is estrogen-dependent, and the anti-estrogenic effects of isoflavones are known. The present review focuses on the characteristics of soy milk fermented using probiotics, an epidemiological study examining the incidence of breast cancer and soy isoflavone consumption, and a non-clinical study examining breast cancer prevention using fermented soy milk beverage. PMID:25984609

  5. Quantitation and Enantiomeric Ratios of Aroma Compounds Formed by an Ehrlich Degradation of l-Isoleucine in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Matheis, Katrin; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-01-27

    The conversion of parent free amino acids into alcohols by an enzymatic deamination, decarboxylation, and reduction caused by microbial enzymes was first reported more than 100 years ago and is today known as the Ehrlich pathway. Because the chiral center at the carbon bearing the methyl group in l-isoleucine should not be prone to racemization during the reaction steps, the analysis of the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid as well as in the compounds formed by secondary reactions, such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutyl acetate, are an appropriate measure to follow the proposed degradation mechanism in the Ehrlich reaction. On the basis of a newly developed method for quantitation and chiral analysis, the enantiomers of the five metabolites were determined in a great number of fermented foods. Whereas 2-methylbutanol occurred as pure (S)-enantiomer in nearly all samples, a ratio of almost 1:1 of (S)- and (R)-2-methylbutanal was found. These data are not in agreement with the literature suggesting the formation of 2-methylbutanol by an enzymatic reduction of 2-methylbutanal. Also, the enantiomeric distribution in 2-methylbutanoic acid was closer to that in 2-methylbutanol than to that found in 2-methylbutanal, suggesting that also the acid is probably not formed by oxidation of the aldehyde as previously proposed. Additional model studies with (S)-2-methylbutanal did not show a racemization under the conditions of food production or during workup of the sample for volatile analysis. Therefore, the results establish that different mechanisms might be responsible for the formation of aldehydes and acids from the parent amino acids in the Ehrlich pathway. PMID:26717969

  6. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P < 0.05) inhibit aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., and lactic acid bacteria, with the lowest microbial counts observed in L.3. The addition of freeze-dried FBF resulted in concentration-dependent decreases in total volatile basic nitrogen values and pH values but increases in lipid oxidation and color instability. Based on the criteria regarding microbiological and physicochemical parameters, the shelf life was 9 to 12 days for L.1, 12 to 15 days for L.2, and over 15 days for L.3, while the shelf-lives of the control and nisin treatments were 3 to 6 days, indicating that freeze-dried FBF could extend the shelf life by more than 3 days. Although the shelf life of L.1 was shorter than those of L.2 and L.3, the appearance of L.1 was much better than those of L.2 and L.3. Overall, treatment with 4 or 8% freeze-dried FBF could be improved if color and lipid oxidation could be improved by appropriate stabilizers, and a lower concentration (2%) of freeze-dried FBF has great potential as a natural and safe preservative in chilled pork patties. PMID:24674438

  7. [Transgenic technology and soybean quality improvement].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao; Jin, Hang-Xia; Gai, Jun-Yi; Yu, De-Yue

    2011-05-01

    Soybean is an important source of edible oil, protein and protein diet. The breeding process of high quality soybean can be accelerated via employment of transgenic technology, by which the key genes for soybean quality traits could be directly manipulated. Thus, various soybean varieties could be bred to fulfill different needs for specific consumers. Here, we reviewed the contribution of transgenic technology to improvement of soybean qualities in recent years. We also introduce some newly developed safe transgenic technologies and hope this information could relieve some concerns on the GM food. PMID:21586389

  8. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  9. Continuous H2 and CH4 production from high-solid food waste in the two-stage thermophilic fermentation process with the recirculation of digester sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Xu, Kai-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Inamori, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic two-stage fermentation process using 10% total solids (TS) food waste was tested at varying organic loading rates (OLRs). The system was configured to produce H(2) and CH(4) in conjugation with the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen removal, and adjustment of the pH by returning sludge as an alkali buffer from the sludge storage tank for denitrification. The pH in the H(2) fermentation reactor was maintained in the range of 5.4-5.7 using sludge recirculation (Q(r)/Q(i) ratio 1). The average H(2) (11.1l-H(2) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) and CH(4) (47.4l-CH(4) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) production rates were achieved at OLRs of 39 (H(2) fermentation reactor) and 4.16 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) (CH(4) fermentation reactor), respectively. These results suggest that long-term stability of the continuous two-stage process can be successfully achieved by recirculation of high-alkalinity sludge of 6.7-7.5 g l(-1) as CaCO(3), without any added external chemical buffer. PMID:19410447

  10. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  11. Antimicrobial activity against Shigella sonnei and probiotic properties of wild lactobacilli from fermented food.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Zhang, Lanwei; Du, Ming; Yi, Huaxi; Guo, Chunfeng; Tuo, Yanfeng; Han, Xue; Li, Jingyan; Zhang, Lili; Yang, Lin

    2011-12-20

    Four lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subp. paracasei M5-L, Lactobacillus rhamnosus J10-L, Lactobacillus casei Q8-L and L. rhamnosus GG (LGG), were systematically assessed for the production of antimicrobial substances active towards Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Agar-well assay showed that the four lactobacilli strains displayed strong antibacterial activity towards S. sonnei. The nature of antimicrobial substances was also investigated and shown to be dependent on the production of organic acids, in particular the lactic acid. Time-kill assay showed that the viability of the S. sonnei was decreased by 2.7-3.6logCFU/ml after contact with CFCS (cell-free culture supernatants) of four lactobacilli for 2h, which confirmed the result of the agar-well assay. Further analysis of the organic acid composition in the CFCS revealed that the content of lactic acid range from 227 to 293mM. In addition, the aggregations properties, adherence properties and tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were also investigated in vitro tests. The result suggested that the M5-L, J10-L and Q8-L strains possess desirable antimicrobial activity towards S. sonnei and probiotic properties as LGG and could be potentially used as novel probiotic strains in the food industry. PMID:21466951

  12. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    PubMed

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P < 0.01) for SD and further reduced (P < 0.01) for SA. Hay intake was 1.54, 1.19, and 1.02% of BW (SEM ± 0.036) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. There was a treatment (P < 0.01) × day interaction for mean ruminal pH. On the day of supplementation, ruminal pH for SA (6.13) was lower (P < 0.01) than those for both SD (6.29) and NS (6.52). However, on the day the SA treatment did not receive supplement, ruminal pH of SA (6.53) did not differ (P = 0.87) from ruminal pH of NS and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of SD. Ruminal pH of SD was lower (P < 0.01) than that of NS. Diet DM digestibility was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation but did not differ (P = 0.58) because of frequency. Dry matter digestibility was 57.9, 64.1, and 64.6% (SEM ± 0.65) for NS, SD, and SA, respectively. The amount of N retained did not differ (P = 0.47) because of frequency (24.9 ± 5.61 and

  13. Vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction of biogenic amines in fermented foods before their simultaneous analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Donthuan, Jaruwan; Yunchalard, Sirinda; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-11-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method, based on modified dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five biogenic amines in fermented food samples. Biogenic amines were derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate, extracted by vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction, and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Five biogenic amine compounds were separated within 30 min using a C18 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile and 1% acetic acid. Factors influencing the derivatization and extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, type, and concentration of surfactant, pH, salt addition, and vortex time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method provided the enrichment factors in the range of 161-553. Good linearity was obtained from 0.002-0.5 mg/L for cadaverine and tyramine, 0.003-1 mg/L for tryptamine and histamine, and 0.005-1 mg/L for spermidine with coefficient of determination (R(2) ) > 0.992. The limits of detection ranged from 0.0010 to 0.0026 mg/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of biogenic amines in fermented foods such as fermented fish (plaa-som), wine and beer where good recoveries were obtained in the range of 83.2-112.5% PMID:25142110

  14. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species. PMID:27554157

  15. Effects of utilization of local food by-products as total mixed ration silage materials on fermentation quality and intake, digestibility, rumen condition and nitrogen availability in sheep.

    PubMed

    Yani, Srita; Ishida, Kyohei; Goda, Shuzo; Azumai, Shigeyoshi; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Okano, Kanji; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate in vivo digestibility of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products for dairy cows, and the ruminal condition and nitrogen (N) balance were examined. Five by-products (i.e. potato waste, noodle waste, soybean curd residue, soy sauce cake and green tea waste) were obtained. Four types of TMR silage were used: control (C) containing roughage and commercial concentrate, T1:20% and T1:40% containing the five by-products replacing 20% and 40% of the commercial concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, and T2:40% containing three by-products (potato waste, noodle waste and soybean curd residue) replacing 40% of the commercial concentrate on a DM basis. The ingredients were mixed and preserved in oil drum silos for 4 months. The TMR silages showed 4.02-4.44% and 1.75-2.19% for pH and lactic acid contents, respectively. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient content were higher (P < 0.05) for T2:40% feeding than for C feeding. Urinary nitrogen excretion tended to be lower (P = 0.07) for T2:40% than for C. The results suggested 40% replacing of commercial concentrate by using the three food by-products can be most suitable for TMR silage. PMID:25354430

  16. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  17. Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 increases the protective effect of soybean against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae-Hyoung; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological activities of soybean saponins are dependent on their metabolism by gut microbiota, which generate absorbable bioactive metabolites. Therefore, to enhance the pharmacological effect of soybean, we fermented defatted soybean powder (SP) with Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum C29 and measured its protective effect against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Fermentation increased soyasapogenol B, genistein and daidzein content of soybean and enhanced the protective effect of soybean against scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Additionally, compared with the exthanol extract of soybean, fermented SP (FSP) increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi of scopolamine-treated mice. Furthermore, FSP inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro and ex vivo. These findings suggest that C29 fermentation might increase the ameliorating effect of soybean against memory impairments by inhibiting AChE activity and increasing BDNF expression. PMID:26171634

  18. Bioenergy and biofuels from soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils and animal fats provide some of nature’s most concentrated sources of energy. Plants and animals utilize this energy through metabolic process but non-food uses for these materials focus on combustion to produce heat or work. Historically, food uses have kept the price of soybean oi...

  19. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced during dark fermentation of food waste by adsorption on Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Ahasa; Bonk, Fabian; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2016-10-01

    Amberlite IRA-67 and activated carbon were tested as promising candidates for carboxylic acid recovery by adsorption. Dark fermentation was performed without pH control and without addition of external inoculum at 37°C in batch mode. Lactic, acetic and butyric acids, were obtained, after 7days of fermentation. The maximum acid removal, 74%, from the Amberlite IRA-67 and 63% from activated carbon was obtained from clarified fermentation broth using 200gadsorbent/Lbroth at pH 3.3. The pH has significant effect and pH below the carboxylic acids pKa showed to be beneficial for both the adsorbents. The un-controlled pH fermentation creates acidic environment, aiding in adsorption by eliminating use of chemicals for efficient removal. This study proposes simple and easy valorization of waste to valuable chemicals. PMID:26898679

  20. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. PMID:26159472

  1. Optimization of fermentation parameters to study the behavior of selected lactic cultures on soy solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Olmos, A; Bru, E; Garro, M S

    2015-03-01

    The use of solid fermentation substrate (SSF) has been appreciated by the demand for natural and healthy products. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play a leading role in the production of novel functional foods and their behavior is practically unknown in these systems. Soy is an excellent substrate for the production of functional foods for their low cost and nutritional value. The aim of this work was to optimize different parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using selected lactic cultures to improve soybean substrate as a possible strategy for the elaboration of new soy food with enhanced functional and nutritional properties. Soy flour and selected lactic cultures were used under different conditions to optimize the soy SSF. The measured responses were bacterial growth, free amino acids and β-glucosidase activity, which were analyzed by applying response surface methodology. Based on the proposed statistical model, different fermentation conditions were raised by varying the moisture content (50-80%) of the soy substrate and temperature of incubation (31-43°C). The effect of inoculum amount was also investigated. These studies demonstrated the ability of selected strains (Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei and Bifidobacterium longum) to grow with strain-dependent behavior on the SSF system. β-Glucosidase activity was evident in both strains and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei was able to increase the free amino acids at the end of fermentation under assayed conditions. The used statistical model has allowed the optimization of fermentation parameters on soy SSF by selected lactic strains. Besides, the possibility to work with lower initial bacterial amounts to obtain results with significant technological impact was demonstrated. PMID:25498472

  2. Phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Valenzuela, Antonio; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2013-02-01

    A collection of 55 enterococci (41 Enterococcus faecium and 14 E. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. Lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. However, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin (8/14) in E. faecalis strains. Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to rifampicin (25/41), ciprofloxacin (23/41), erythromycin (18/41), levofloxacin (16/41), and nitrofurantoin (15/41). One Enterococcus faecalis and two E. faecium strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC>16 μg/mL). Among 55 isolates, 27 (19 E. faecium and eight E. faecalis) were resistant to at least three antibiotics. High level of multidrug resistance to clinically important antibiotics was detected in E. faecalis strains (57% of E. faecalis versus 46% of E. faecium), which showed resistance to six to seven antibiotics, especially those isolated from foods of animal origin. So, it is necessary to re-evaluate the use of therapeutic antibiotics in stock farms at both regional and international levels due to the high number of multiple resistant (MR) bacteria. Fifty-six MR E. faecalis and E. faecium strains selected from this and previous studies (Valenzuela et al., 2008, 2010) were screened by polymerase chain reaction for antibiotic resistance genes, revealing the presence of tet(L), tet(M), ermB, cat, efrA, efrB, mphA, or msrA/B genes. The ABC Multidrug Efflux Pump EfrAB was detected in 96% of E. faecalis strains and also in 13% of E. faecium strains; this is the first report describing EfrAB in this enterococcal species. The efflux pump-associated msrA/B gene was detected in 66.66% of E. faecium strains, but not in E. faecalis strains. PMID:23259502

  3. Enhancement of volatile fatty acid production by co-fermentation of food waste and excess sludge without pH control: The mechanism and microbial community analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Zheng, He-Shan; Luo, Hai-Chao; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Yin, Ren-Li; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The study provided a cost-effective and high-efficiency volatile fatty acid (VFA) production strategy by co-fermentation of food waste (FW) and excess sludge (ES) without artificial pH control. VFA production of 867.42mg COD/g-VS was obtained under the optimized condition: FW/ES 5, solid retention time 7d, organic loading rate 9g VS/L-d and temperature 40°C. Mechanism exploration revealed that the holistic biodegradability of substrate was greatly enhanced, and proper pH range (5.2-6.4) was formed by the high buffering capacity of the co-fermentation system itself, which effectively enhanced hydrolysis yield (63.04%) and acidification yield (83.46%) and inhibited methanogenesis. Moreover, microbial community analysis manifested that co-fermentation raised the relative abundances of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria including Clostridium, Sporanaerobacter, Tissierella and Bacillus, but suppressed the methanogen Anaerolineae, which also facilitated high VFA production. These results were of great guiding significance aiming for VFA recovery from FW and ES in large-scale. PMID:27289056

  4. Synthesis of the cancer preventive peptide lunasin by lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Nionelli, Luana; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to exploit the potential of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release lunasin during fermentation of cereal and nonconventional flours. The peptidase activities of a large number of sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened using synthetic substrates. Selected lactic acid bacteria were used as sourdough starters to ferment wholemeal wheat, soybean, barley, amaranth, and rye flours. Proteinase activity during fermentation was characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis of the water-soluble extracts. Albumins having molecular masses of 18 to 22 kDa, which included the size of lunasin precursors, were markedly affected by proteolysis of lactic acid bacteria. After fermentation, lunasin from the water-soluble extracts was quantified, purified, and identified through RP-HPLC and nano-LC-ESI-MS analyses. Compared to control doughs, the concentration of lunasin increased up to 2-4 times during fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus SAL33 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7 synthesized the highest concentrations of lunasin in all the flours. Besides the presence of the entire lunasin sequence, fragments containing the immunoreactive epitope RGDDDDDDDDD were also found. This study shows that fermentation by lactic acid bacteria increased the concentration of lunasin to levels that would suggest new possibilities for the biological synthesis and for the formulation of functional foods. PMID:22098174

  5. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Seed Hardness in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean seeds with undesirable texture cause processing complications in soyfood production. Seed hardness is an important quality attribute for food-grade soybeans. The objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with seed hardness in soybean. Three generations of F2-derived lines (159 F...

  6. Fermented broth in tyrosinase- and melanogenesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Ching-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed. PMID:25255749

  7. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line. PMID:27407213

  8. Determination of biogenic amines in traditional Chinese fermented foods by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoxi; Qi, Ningli; Li, Jihua; Lin, Lijing; Han, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    A survey of biogenic amine content of traditional Chinese fermented foods (douchi, sufu, fermented sausage, yulu, and shrimp paste) was carried out. Eight major biogenic amines including putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tyramine, spermine, spermidine and tryptamine were separated by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD on Inertsil ODS-SP column after pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride. The results showed that spermine (1.65-3.96 mg 100 g(-1)), putrescine (0.20-10.89 mg 100 g(-1)), cadaverine (3.60-12.14 mg 100 g(-1)), and histamine (0.57-20.24 mg 100 g(-1)) were the most represented amines. All amines were detected in yulu, while sufu showed a much higher content of most amines. Shrimp paste showed the lowest level of total biogenic amines. Moreover, the composition and content of eight biogenic amines in the selected samples varied among different food types, origins and batches. Although the average content for each amine is within the range that may elicit direct adverse reactions, consumers should be aware of the potential synergistic effect among different amines and limit their consumption at each meal. PMID:24844287

  9. Selection and Characterization of Cheonggukjang (Fast Fermented Soybean Paste)-Originated Bacterial Strains with a High Level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine Production and Probiotics Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods. PMID:25268945

  10. Selection and characterization of Cheonggukjang (fast fermented soybean paste)-originated bacterial strains with a high level of S-adenosyl-L-methionine production and probiotics efficacy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Hong, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Yi, Sung-Hun; Lee, Myung-Ki

    2014-11-01

    This study was executed to develop probiotics producing S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl group donor in the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate methylation reaction in animal cells. SAMe is an essential substance in the synthesis, activation, and metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and cell membranes of animals. SAMe is also known as a nutritional supplement for improving human brain function. In this study, SAMe-producing strains were identified in six kinds of Cheonggukjang, and strains with excellent SAMe production were identified, with one strain in the Enterococcus genus and six strains in the Bacillus genus. Strains with a large amount of SAMe production included lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, and Enterococcus sanguinicola, as well as various strains in the Bacillus genus. The SAMe-overproducing strains showed antibacterial activity against some harmful microbes, in addition to weak acid resistance and strong bile resistance, indicating characteristics of probiotics. Cheonggukjang-originated beneficial bacterial strains overproducing SAMe may be commercially useful for manufacturing SAMe-rich foods. PMID:25268945

  11. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  12. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  13. Developing host-plant resistance for hemipteran soybean pests: lessons from soybean aphid and stink bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the world’s leading agricultural crops with multiple uses, including human food, animal feed, edible oil, biofuel, industrial products, cosmetics, etc. In soybean production, United States is the leading country with 33% of world’s total production of 251.5 million Metric tons. How...

  14. A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method for the detection and quantification of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae in the dairy and other food industries.

    PubMed

    Martín, M C; Martínez, N; del Rio, B; Ladero, V; Fernández, M; Alvarez, M A

    2010-03-01

    The presence of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms is routinely assessed to determine the hygienic quality of water and foods, particularly dairy products. This paper reports the use of lacZ-specific primers in an SYBR green I-based real-time PCR method for the easy and rapid detection of coliforms in dairy products. A large number of bacterial species were assayed to establish the specificity of the method. The sensitivity of the method was assessed using artificially contaminated cheeses. The limit of detection was 1 coliform cell in cheese samples enriched for 8h in a culture medium. The entire procedure, including sample processing, enrichment, DNA extraction, and real-time PCR amplification, can be completed within 10 to 12h, making it a single-day assay. PMID:20172205

  15. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria exhibiting high scavenging activity for environmental hydrogen peroxide from fermented foods and its two scavenging enzymes for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akio; Kaneko, Chiaki; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Kouji; Kimata, Shinya; Matsumoto, Takashi; Abe, Akira; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae; Uchino, Masataka; Satoh, Junichi; Nakagawa, Junichi; Niimura, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    To obtain lactic acid bacteria that scavenge environmental hydrogen peroxide, we developed a specialized enrichment medium and successfully isolated Pediococcus pentosaceus Be1 strain from a fermented food. This strain showed vigorous environmental hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity over a wide range of hydrogen peroxide concentrations. High Mn-catalase and NADH peroxidase activities were found in the cell-free extract of the P. pentosaceus Be1 strain, and these two hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes were purified from the cell-free extract of the strain. Mn-catalase has been purified from several microorganisms by several researchers, and the NADH peroxidase was first purified from the original strain in this report. After cloning the genes of the Mn-catalase and the NADH peroxidase, the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of known related enzymes. PMID:27118075

  16. Effect of soy-fortification method on the fermentation characteristics and nutritional quality of fermented maize meal.

    PubMed

    Plahar, W A; Nti, C A; Annan, N T

    1997-01-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an appropriate household/small-scale enterprise level technique for the production of soy-fortified fermented maize dough (or meal) by comparing different treatments, processing methods and fortification levels. The effects of fortification method of the Ghanaian traditional fermented maize dough with raw or heat-treated whole soybeans and full-fat soyflour at 0%, 10% and 20% replacement levels, on the rate of fermentation and product quality were investigated. Sensory characteristics, trypsin inhibitor activity, amino acid pattern, proximate composition and hot paste viscosity were used as the indices of quality. Addition of whole soybeans to maize before milling and fermentation reduced the fermentation time by 60% while increasing the protein content by 24% and 70% respectively for 10% and 20% levels of fortification. A significant improvement was also achieved in the amino acids pattern of the fortified dough. However, raw whole soybeans imparted an undesirable color and beany flavor and an appreciable concentration of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) to the dough. Boiling soybeans for 20 min before incorporation into the maize for milling and fermentation was found necessary for desirable flavor and low levels of TIA. Little or no changes in the pasting viscosity characteristics occurred in samples containing boiled soybeans, while the usual method of fortifying maize meal with soy flour was found to severely depress the pasting viscosity characteristics and drastically reduced the acidity of the fermented dough. Based on the findings of the study, the most appropriate technique for the production of soy-fortified high protein fermented maize dough has been suggested to involve incorporation of boiled whole soybeans in soaked maize before milling and fermentation for improved sensory characteristics, enhanced nutritive value and optimal functional properties. PMID:9650729

  17. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Monascus Fermented Product in the Absence of Monacolins with Partial Purification for Functional Food Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds. PMID:24701147

  18. Hypocholesterolemic activity of monascus fermented product in the absence of monacolins with partial purification for functional food applications.

    PubMed

    Ajdari, Zahra; Abd Ghani, Maaruf; Khan Ayob, Mohd; Bayat, Saadi; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Abbasiliasi, Sahar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ajdari, Daniel; Ariff, Arbakariya B

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most common chronic diseases in human. Along with chemical therapy traditional medication is used as hypocholesterolemic remedy, however, with unfavorable side effects. Recently, Monascus fermented product (MFP) has become a popular hypocholesterolemic natural supplement. In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic activity of Monascus purpureus FTC5391 fermented product ethanolic extract (MFPe) was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Results showed that MFPe not only reduced the serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG concentration, and TC/HDL-C ratio but also increased the HDL-C. Further, solid phase extraction (SPE) was carried out to obtain the hypocholesterolemic bioactive fraction. The high polar fraction of SPE increased the HDL-C (42%) and decreased the TC (53.3%), LDL-C (47%), and TG (50.7%) levels as well as TC/HDL-C ratio (69.1%) in serum. The GC-MS results of the active fraction revealed two main compounds, isosorbide and erythritol, which act as coronary vasodilator compounds. PMID:24701147

  19. Purification and characterization of a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese natto, a popular soybean fermented food in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Nomura, K; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Asada, A; Nishimuro, S

    1993-12-30

    A strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) was purified from the vegetable cheese natto. Nattokinase was extracted from natto with saline and isolated by sequential use of hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl-Toyopearl, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Toyopearl, and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-50. The isolated protein gave a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE either before or after reduction. The sequence, as determined by automated Edman degradation of the uncleaved molecule and its enzymatically derived peptide, consisted of a total 275 amino acid residues (M.W = 27,728) and exhibited a high homology with the subtilisins. The purified nattokinase digested not only fibrin but also several synthetic substrates. Among the synthetic substrates, the most sensitive substrate was Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA for subtilisin. PMSF inhibited both the fibrinolytic activity and the amidolytic activity. The results indicate that nattokinase is a subtilisin-like serine protease. PMID:8280151

  20. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. PMID:24360425

  1. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products. PMID:25575046

  2. Breakdown of food waste by anaerobic fermentation and non-oxygen producing photosynthesis using a photosynthetic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Mekjinda, N; Ritchie, R J

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of food waste are produced by restaurants, hotels, etc generating problems in its collection, processing and disposal. Disposal as garbage increases the organic matter in landfills and leachates. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris (CGA 009) easily broke down food waste. R. palustris produces H2 under anaerobic conditions and digests a very wide range of organic compounds. R. palustris reduced BOD by ≈70% and COD by ≈33%, starch, ammonia, nitrate, was removed but had little effect on reducing sugar or the total phosphorus, lipid, protein, total solid in a 7-day incubation. R. palustris produced a maximum of 80ml H2/g COD/day. A two-stage anaerobic digestion using yeast as the first stage, followed by a R. palustris digestion was tested but production of H2 was low. PMID:25465509

  3. Cacao Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, H. L.; Dittmar, H. F. K.

    1961-01-01

    Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

  4. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends

    PubMed Central

    Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  5. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  6. Management of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages using the Food Safety Objective concept underpinned by stochastic modeling and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Alessandria, V; Rantsiou, K; Cocolin, L

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, a demonstration is made on how the risk from the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages can be managed using the concept of Food Safety Objective (FSO) aided by stochastic modeling (Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation) and meta-analysis. For this purpose, the ICMSF equation was used, which combines the initial level (H0) of the hazard and its subsequent reduction (ΣR) and/or increase (ΣI) along the production chain. Each element of the equation was described by a distribution to investigate the effect not only of the level of the hazard, but also the effect of the accompanying variability. The distribution of each element was determined by Bayesian modeling (H0) and meta-analysis (ΣR and ΣI). The output was a normal distribution N(-5.36, 2.56) (log cfu/g) from which the percentage of the non-conforming products, i.e. the fraction above the FSO of 2 log cfu/g, was estimated at 0.202%. Different control measures were examined such as lowering initial L. monocytogenes level and inclusion of an additional killing step along the process resulting in reduction of the non-conforming products from 0.195% to 0.003% based on the mean and/or square-root change of the normal distribution, and 0.001%, respectively. PMID:25846913

  7. Weissella confusa: problems with identification of an opportunistic pathogen that has been found in fermented foods and proposed as a probiotic

    PubMed Central

    Fairfax, Marilynn R.; Lephart, Paul R.; Salimnia, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Weissella confusa is found in fermented foods and has been suggested as a probiotic, but also causes sepsis and other serious infections in humans and animals. The incidence of human infections is underestimated partly due to confusion with viridans streptococci and partly due to difficulty making a definitive identification, even if the organism is recognized to belong to another genus, owing to the inability of commercial organism systems to identify it. We report our experiences identifying W. confusa isolated from two immune-compromised patients, both of whom developed sepsis with this organism. Two MicroScan gram positive combination panels, could not identify the organism because they did not have W. confusa in their data bases, but did not provide a false identification. Other laboratorians have reported failure to identify or false identifications of W. confusa with other commercial systems. W. confusa is in the data base of the RapID™ Str panel (Remel), which gave three incorrect, high probability results (≥95%). 16S rDNA sequencing identified the isolates as W. confusa. Maldi-Tof, performed by two of our reference laboratories, also correctly identified both isolates. Use of W. confusa as a probiotic should be approached with caution because its true incidence as an opportunisitic pathogen is unknown. PMID:24971076

  8. Cloning and Expression of Plantaricin W Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum U10 Isolate from "Tempoyak" Indonesian Fermented Food as Immunity Protein in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Lages, Aksar Chair; Mustopa, Apon Zaenal; Sukmarini, Linda; Suharsono

    2015-10-01

    Plantaricins, one of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, are already known to have activities against several pathogenic bacterium. L. plantarum U10 isolated from "tempoyak," an Indonesian fermented food, produced one kind of plantaricin designated as plantaricin W (plnW). The plnW is suggested as a putative membrane location of protein and has similar conserved motif which is important as immunity to bacteriocin itself. Thus, due to study about this plantaricin, several constructs have been cloned and protein was analyzed in Lactococcus lactis. In this study, plnW gene was successfully cloned into vector NICE system pNZ8148 and created the transformant named L. lactis NZ3900 pNZ8148-WU10. PlnW protein was 25.3 kDa in size. The concentration of expressed protein was significantly increased by 10 ng/mL nisin induction. Furthermore, PlnW exhibited protease activity with value of 2.22 ± 0.05 U/mL and specific activity about 1.65 ± 0.03 U/mg protein with 50 ng/mL nisin induction. Immunity study showed that the PlnW had immunity activity especially against plantaricin and rendered L. lactis recombinant an immunity broadly to other bacteriocins such as pediocin, fermentcin, and acidocin. PMID:26276444

  9. Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 Isolated from Batter of Dosa, a South Indian Fermented Food.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aabha; Tiwari, Santosh Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum LD1 was isolated from dosa batter and identified by biochemical, physiological and genetic methods. Species level identification was done by 16S rDNA amplification and sequencing. The probiotic potential of strain LD1 was assessed by different standard parameters. Cell surface hydrophobicity was recorded to be 62% with SAT value <0.007 M. Seventy-eight percent of viable count was found after treatment with simulated gastric juice containing pepsin (pH 2.0). Bile salt tolerance and bile salt hydrolase activity were also demonstrated by strain LD1. The culture supernatant was able to inhibit food-borne as well as clinical pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, urogenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. Strain LD1 was found to be sensitive to most of the antibiotics used in the study. Since strain has been isolated from food source that is most typical of Southern India, it would be safe for further consumption in probiotic products. PMID:24676724

  10. Establishment of a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) transposon-based mutagenesis repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a major crop species providing valuable feedstock for food, feed and biofuel. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in developing genomic resources for soybean, including on-going efforts to sequence the genome. These efforts have identified a large number of soybean genes...

  11. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-01-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage’s quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l’Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  12. Beneficial Effects of Traditional Seasonings on Quality Characteristics of Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba

    2016-08-01

    Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (p<0.05). The treatment with seasonings did not cause color or texture defects in the products whereas the sausages made with gochu-jang had significantly higher Commission International de l'Eclairagea* (redness) value in comparison with the control. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136

  13. Fermentation of seeds of Teff (Eragrostis teff), grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures: aspects of nutrition and food safety.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Yirgalem; Gorton, Lo; Solomon, Theodoros; Akalu, Girma

    2004-03-10

    Fermentation of pure teff (Eragrostis teff), pure grass-pea (Lathyrus sativus), and their mixtures, 9:1 and 8:2 (teff/grass-pea) has been done at two temperatures (room temperature and 35 degrees C) in duplicate using the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, for bacterial fermentation, and Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus in succession for solid-state fungal fermentation as inocula. In addition, the natural or spontaneous and back-slopping methods of bacterial fermentation have been done on the above four substrate groups. The pH and essential amino acid profiles of the different fermentation processes were compared. The back-slopping in teff at a temperature of 35 degrees C gave the sharpest pH drop. All fermentations done at 35 degrees C showed a steeper slope in their pH versus time plot compared to their room temperature counterpart. Fungal fermentation gave an improved amino acid profile for the essential ones in all of the substrate groups, except in pure grass-pea. Fermented teff/grass-pea (8:2) in this fungal fermentation has been found to be quite comparable in essential amino acid profile to an ideal reference protein recommended for children of 2-5 years of age. None of the bacterial fermentations produced a net change in their essential amino acid profile in any of the substrate groups investigated. Solid state fungal fermentation on pure grass-pea using the fungal strains R. oligosporous and A. oryzae in succession has shown that the neurotoxin beta-N-oxalyl-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP) in grass-pea has been removed by 80% on average for the high-toxin variety and by up to 97% for the low-toxin variety as determined by an improved chromatographic method with bioelectrochemical detection coupled on-line with refractive index detection. PMID:14995115

  14. Utilization of Molecular Detection Techniques to Find Soybean Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans continue to rise in prominence as a source of feed, food, oil, and renewable energy. Of many factors impacting yield, microbial pathogens alone can cause significant losses in production. Management of soybean diseases and pests involves many approaches including cultural aspects like crop ...

  15. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  16. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  17. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  18. Processing and characteristics of soybean-fortified gari.

    PubMed

    Sanni, M O; Sobamiwa, A O

    1994-05-01

    Two cassava cultivars were fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of soybean residue or full-fat flour at 25% (w/w) to produce gari. Unfortified gari was superior in taste (P<0.05) to the soybean-fortified gari, though consumers still accepted the latter. Fortified samples from two of the three procedures used, in which soybean was added at different stages of the fermentation, were rated similarly (P>0.05). The water activity of soybean-fortified gari was <0.7, the swelling capacity was 2.5 to 3.3, pH was 5.1±0.2 and total cyanide was 0.8 to 1.3 mg/100 g. The crude protein content of soybean-fortified gari was 8 to 12% (w/w), much higher than the 1 to 2% (w/w) of the unfortified gari. Soybean-fortified gari is recommended for use in areas where cassava is consumed and protein intake is inadequate. PMID:24421008

  19. Isolation and characterization of lactobacilli from human faeces and indigenous fermented foods for their potential application as probiotics.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Hemanti; Jariwala, Ruchi; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to select Lactobacillus strains from various sources on the basis of their probiotic attributes, such as acid and bile tolerance, binding to intestinal cells, and antimicrobial activity. Twelve isolates were obtained from human and food sources and were evaluated against standard probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Isolates were also studied for their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolate Lactobacillus fermentum GPI-6 showed the best survival profile at 0.3% and 1% bile salt, as compared with LGG. Isolates Lactobacillus plantarum GRI-2 and Lactobacillus salivarius GPI-4 showed no reduction in survival rate at pH 2.5. As expected, isolates showed strain-specific differences when comparing various attributes. Isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed better adhesion to HT-29, while isolate GPI-4 adhered better to Caco-2 cells than did LGG. However, when studying their ability to compete with Escherichia coli O26:H11, isolates GPI-6 and GPI-7 significantly inhibited E. coli adhesion to both HT-29 and Caco-2 cells compared with LGG. In conclusion, isolates GPI-4, GPI-7, and FA-5 showed excellent binding ability and antagonistic activity and better tolerance to acidic pH (pH 2.5) and to different bile salt concentrations in comparison with LGG, and hence, they could be considered as potential probiotic candidates. PMID:26928011

  20. Hydrogen fermentation of food waste by alkali-shock pretreatment: microbial community analysis and limitation of continuous operation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujin; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Moon, Chungman; Kang, Won-Seok; Kwak, Seung-Shin; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2015-06-01

    In the study, at first, batch tests were performed to investigate the effect of alkali-shock on H2 production from food waste (FW). After alkali-pretreatment of FW at pH 9.0-13.0, the FW was cultivated under mesophilic condition at pH 6.0 for 30 h without external inoculum addition. The amount of H2 production from FW pretreated at pH 11.0 and 12.0 was higher than that achieved in other pretreatment pH. The main metabolite was butyrate, and Clostridium were dominant at pH 11.0 and 12.0. Meanwhile, lactate was the main metabolite with Enterococcus and Streptococcus being the dominant genus at other pretreatment pH. When the batch process was switched to a continuous mode, H2 production was significantly dropped due to the increased activity of H2-consumers. The reliability of alkali-pretreatment at pH 11.0 was proven by repeating the scale-up batch process, recording 1.57±0.11 mol H2/mol hexose(added) (17±2LH2/kg FW) and 4.39±0.32LH2/L/d. PMID:25817032

  1. Application of the biorefinery concept to produce L-lactic acid from the soybean vinasse at laboratory and pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Karp, Susan G; Igashiyama, Adriana H; Siqueira, Paula F; Carvalho, Júlio C; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Coral, Jefferson; Tholozan, Jean-Luc; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos R

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid is a product that finds several applications in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The main objective of this work was the development of a bioprocess to produce L(+)-lactic acid using soybean vinasse as substrate. Among ten strains, Lactobacillus agilis LPB 56 was selected for fermentation, due to its ability to metabolize the complex oligosaccharides. Fermentation was conducted without need for supplementary inorganic nitrogen sources or yeast extract. Kinetic and yield parameters determined at laboratory scale were 0.864 and 0.0162 for YP/S and YX/S, 0.0145 g/L h (rx), 1.32 g/L h (rs) and 1.13 g/L h (rp). The use of vinasse enriched with soybean molasses provided higher lactic acid concentration (138 g/L), the best proportion of inoculum being 25% (v/v). After scale-up to a pilot plant, kinetic and yield parameters were 0.849 and 0.0353 for YP/S and YX/S, 0.0278 g/L h (rx), 0.915 g/L h (rs) and 0.863 g/L h (rp). PMID:20933391

  2. Preparation and characterization of fine powdered whole soybean curd

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junghee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficacy and comparative characteristics of fine powdered whole soybean curd. [Methods] Ground dried soybean to a fine powder (700 mesh) containing bean components in its entirety, and then produced whole soybean curd. Analysed its nutritive components, bioactive substances, antioxidant activities and texture compared with pressed soybean curd. [Results] Compared with pressed soybean curd, the nutrients and isoflavone in whole soybean curd were slightly decreased, but antioxidant activities, dietary fibers and moisture content were increased. Also, the yield rate of the total process was improved 1.9 times. [Conclusion] Fine powdered whole bean curd has antioxidant effects, contains dietary fiber and possesses soft characteristics, hence has development potential in the diet market and as food for patients. PMID:27274462

  3. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  4. Polyamines in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Wang, L C

    1972-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms. PMID:16658112

  5. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  6. Role of foods in irregular aggravation of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Uenishi, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Hisashi; Uehara, Masami

    2003-02-01

    Although it is well known that patients with atopic dermatitis often show unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions, there are no previously published studies examining trigger factors for such unpredictable aggravation. We investigated whether foods play a role in the unpredictable, irregular worsening of atopic dermatitis. The patient group included 195 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis who showed unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions. They were hospitalized and openly challenged with suspected foods. Photographs of representative skin lesion sites were taken at baseline and before and after the challenge. Challenge-positive foods were determined by evaluating the comparable before-after challenge photographs. One to three (average: 1.7) challenge-positive foods were confirmed in 86 (44%) of the 195 patient examined. Predominant offending foods were chocolate, cheese, coffee, yogurt and some Japanese foods such as glutinous rice cake, soy sauce and fermented soybeans. Specific IgE values to the offending foods were mostly negative. Patients were asked to exclude challenge-positive foods from their diets. They were then discharged and followed up for 3 months at our outpatient clinic. Exclusion of the offending foods for 3 months brought about a progressive improvement of the disease. These results suggest that foods play an important role in unpredictable, irregular aggravation of skin lesions in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:12692374

  7. Safety Analysis of Soybean Processing for Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hentges, Dawn L.

    1999-01-01

    Soybeans (cv. Hoyt) is one of the crops planned for food production within the Advanced Life Support System Integration Testbed (ALSSIT), a proposed habitat simulation for long duration lunar/Mars missions. Soybeans may be processed into a variety of food products, including soymilk, tofu, and tempeh. Due to the closed environmental system and importance of crew health maintenance, food safety is a primary concern on long duration space missions. Identification of the food safety hazards and critical control points associated with the closed ALSSIT system is essential for the development of safe food processing techniques and equipment. A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) model was developed to reflect proposed production and processing protocols for ALSSIT soybeans. Soybean processing was placed in the type III risk category. During the processing of ALSSIT-grown soybeans, critical control points were identified to control microbiological hazards, particularly mycotoxins, and chemical hazards from antinutrients. Critical limits were suggested at each CCP. Food safety recommendations regarding the hazards and risks associated with growing, harvesting, and processing soybeans; biomass management; and use of multifunctional equipment were made in consideration of the limitations and restraints of the closed ALSSIT.

  8. Fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Crickenberger, R.G.; Henderson, H.E.; Reddy, C.A.

    1981-04-01

    Four feeding trials were conducted to evaluate fermented ammoniated condensed whey as a crude protein supplement for finishing cattle fed corn silage or corn - corn silage diets. Feed efficiencies and daily gains with protein treatments were noted. The trials indicate that fermented ammoniated condensed whey is comparable to soybean meal as a crude protein source for feedlot cattle. (Refs. 18).

  9. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  10. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  11. Hydrolysis of soybean protein improves iron bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...

  12. Food Sources of Important Nutrients (for Vegetarians)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Soybeans Some dark green, leafy greens Beans Eggs Protein Protein is found in most plant foods as well ... foods. Your body will make its own complete protein if a variety of foods and enough calories ...

  13. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance from soybean PI 71506

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) continually establish populations of economic importance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production areas. Insecticide application costs and yield losses prompt the development of resistant varieties. The soybean germplasm accession PI 71506 has been s...

  14. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  15. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  16. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    PubMed

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P < 0.05) from their initial levels to 2930, 2422, and 1573 mg/mL after 30 d of fermentation for PRF, PSF, and CF fish pastes, respectively, of which, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, lysine, and leucine were the major amino acids (>100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P < 0.05) during fermentation, following the order of PRF > PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (<25 ppm) were produced in all samples. Sensory panel evaluation showed that PRF fish pastes had desirable aroma and taste. The douchi-inoculated fermentation could be a novel technique for expanding the utilization, consumption, and the economic values of silver carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to

  17. Characterization of the fan1 locus in soybean line A5 and development of molecular assays for high-throughput genotyping of FAD3 genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is one of the most important oil crops in the world, and reduced linolenic acid content of soybean oil will provide increased stability of the oil to consumers and food manufacturers and limit the amount of trans-fat to be used in the processed foods. The linolenic content in soybean seeds i...

  18. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole seeds, which can pass through undigested. Flaxseed oil comes from pressed flax seeds. ... get them from foods like seafood and flaxseeds. Oils, such as canola and soybean oil, contain the ...

  19. Metabolism of carbon in soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; McManus, E.E.; Conboy, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution and metabolism of {sup 14}C-carboxin [5,6 dihydro-2-methyl-N-phenyl-1,4-oxathiin-3-carboxamide] in the food and feed commodities of soybean were determined. Soybeans were grown to maturity indoors from seeds treated with {sup 14}C-carboxin at the normal use rate (1X) and two exaggerated rates (5X and 10X). The level of radioactivity was highest in the foliage, (12.5 ppm, 110 ppm, and 169 ppm for the low to high dose groups, respectively), and lowest in the seeds, (0.51 ppm, 2.077 ppm and 4.63 ppm, respectively). Extractable radioactivity accounted for approx. 75, 80, and 90% in the pods, seed, and foliage, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the post extracted solids released an additional 10, 15, and 5% radioactivity for the sum matrices, respectively. The major routes of metabolism were characterized by the oxidation of sulfur, cleavage of the oxathiim ring, and conjugation with glucose as shown below. These metabolites in soybean represent the most extensive modifications of carboxin observed in any plant system studied.

  20. Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production; effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard soybean meal is produced by toasting to reduce trypsin inhibitor levels and hexane extraction to remove the valuable soybean oil. The extracted oil is used primarily in human foods, with its use as a feedstock for production of biodiesel growing rapidly. A new method of soybean meal proce...

  1. Quantitative trait locus analysis of seed sulfur containing amino acids in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major source of plant protein for humans and livestock. Low levels of sulfur containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine) in soybean protein is the main limitation of soybean meal as animal food. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate Q...

  2. Mutations in SACPD-C result in a range of elevated stearic acid concentration in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil has a wide variety of uses, and stearic acid, which is a relatively minor component of soybean oil is increasingly desired for both industrial and food applications. New soybean mutants containing high levels of the saturated fatty acid stearate in seeds were recently identified from a c...

  3. Microbial bioinformatics for food safety and production

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Wynand; Boekhorst, Jos; Wels, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    In the production of fermented foods, microbes play an important role. Optimization of fermentation processes or starter culture production traditionally was a trial-and-error approach inspired by expert knowledge of the fermentation process. Current developments in high-throughput ‘omics’ technologies allow developing more rational approaches to improve fermentation processes both from the food functionality as well as from the food safety perspective. Here, the authors thematically review typical bioinformatics techniques and approaches to improve various aspects of the microbial production of fermented food products and food safety. PMID:26082168

  4. Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2″-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process. PMID:21897039

  5. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

  6. Heat and mass transfer effects in static solid-substrate fermentations: Design of fermentation chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, B.L.; Shuler, M.L.

    1983-04-01

    An experimental device was constructed to allow nearly simultaneous measurements to be made on temperature and gas composition at different depths in a solid-substrate fermentation bed. The time-dependent values of temperature, mol % O/sub 2/ and mol % CO/sub 2/ were measured at five positions in beds 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) deep. With a tempeh fermentation (Rhiopus oligosporus growing on soybeans) the temperature gradient could be as steep as 3/sup 0/C/cm during active mold growth and concentration of CO/sub 2/ could reach 21 vol. % in the bottom layer.

  7. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  9. Survival and bioactivities of selected probiotic lactobacilli in yogurt fermentation and cold storage: New insights for developing a bi-functional dairy food.

    PubMed

    Rutella, Giuseppina Sefora; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Solieri, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    In previous work, we demonstrated that two probiotic strains, namely Lactobacillus casei PRA205 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus PRA331, produce fermented milks with potent angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Here, we tested these strains for the survivability and the release of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides in yogurt fermentation and cold storage. For these purposes three yogurt batches were compared: one prepared using yogurt starters alone (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus 1932 and Streptococcus thermophilus 99), and the remaining two containing either PRA205 or PRA331 in addition to yogurt starters. Despite the lower viable counts at the fermentation end compared to PRA331, PRA205 overcame PRA331 in survivability during refrigerated storage for 28 days, leading to viable counts (>10(8) CFU/g) higher than the minimum therapeutic threshold (10(6) CFU/g). Analyses of in vitro ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions revealed that yogurt supplemented with PRA205 displays higher amounts of antihypertensive and antioxidant peptides than that produced with PRA331 at the end of fermentation and over storage. Two ACE-inhibitory peptides, Valine-Proline-Proline (VPP) and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline (IPP), were identified and quantified. This study demonstrated that L. casei PRA205 could be used as adjunct culture for producing bi-functional yogurt enriched in bioactive peptides and in viable cells, which bring health benefits to the host as probiotics. PMID:27554146

  10. Food preparation with mucoralean fungi: A potential biosafety issue?

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Scherlach, Kirstin; Figge, Marian; Hertweck, Christian; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Menken, Steph B J; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-03-01

    Mucorales have been used for production of fermented food in Asia and Africa since time immemorial. Particularly Rhizopus species are rapidly growing, active producers of lipases and proteases and occur naturally during the first stages of soybean fermentation. Two biosafety issues have been raised in recent literature: (1) pathogenicity, Rhizopus species being prevalent opportunists causing erosive infections in severely compromised patients, and (2) toxicity, strains harbouring endosymbiotic Burkholderia producing toxic secondary metabolites. At the molecular level, based on different gene markers, species identity was found between strains used for food processing and clinical strains. In this study, we screened for bacterial symbionts in 64 Rhizopus strains by light microscopy, 16S rRNA sequencing, and HPLC. Seven strains (11 %) carried bacteria identified as Burkholderia rhizoxinica and Burkholderia endofungorum, and an unknown Burkholderia species. The Burkholderia isolates proved to be able to produce toxic rhizoxins. Strains with endosymbionts originated from food, soil, and a clinical source, and thus their presence could not be linked to particular habitats. The presence of Burkholderia in Rhizopus producing toxins could not be excluded as a potential risk for human health. In contrast, given the type of diseases caused by Rhizopus species, we regard the practical risk of infection via the food industry as negligible. PMID:26895868

  11. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    PubMed

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied. PMID:18474404

  12. Stability of isoflavone isomers in steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji stored under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ru-Yue; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2009-03-11

    Steamed black soybeans and black soybean koji, a potentially functional food additive, were stored at 4 or 25 degrees C with or without deoxidant and desiccant for 120 days. After storage, steamed black soybeans and koji showed various extents of reduction in isoflavone contents dependent on storage temperature, packaging condition, and the kind of isoflavone isomer. Generally, black soybeans and koji showed the highest residual of isoflavone when they were stored at 4 degrees C with deoxidant and desiccant. Under this storage condition, beta-glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistein), acetyl glucosides (acetyldaidzin, acetylglycitin, and acetylgenistin), manlonyl glucosides (malonyldaidzin, malonglycitin, and malonylgenistin), and aglycones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistin) in steamed black soybeans exhibited residuals of 100.1-100.9, 92.0-99.4, 90.0-94.0, and 77.2-78.8%, respectively, of their original contents after 120 days of storage. Meanwhile, the residuals found in black soybean koji were 77.8-90.0, 13.1-88.9, 66.7-85.5, and 76.4-80.6%, respectively. PMID:19256558

  13. Soybean irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is an important crop and a major component of the agricultural economy in the Missouri Bootheel and throughout Missouri. USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported that in 2012, 960 thousand acres of soybeans were harvested in Southeast Missouri (Butler, Cape Girardeau, ...

  14. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  15. Evaluating the Potential Use of Winter Cover Crops in Corn-soybean Systems for Sustainable Co-production of Food and Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change and economic concerns have motivated intense interest in the development of renewable energy sources, including fuels derived from plant biomass. However, the specter of massive biofuel production has raised other worries, specifically that by displacing food production it will lead t...

  16. Koji--where East meets West in fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Tramper, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Almost all biotechnological processes originate from traditional food fermentations, i.e. the many indigenous processes that can be found already in the written history of thousands of years ago. We still consume many of these fermented foods and beverages on a daily basis today. The evolution of these traditional processes, in particular since the 19th century, stimulated and influenced the development of modern biotechnological processes. In return, the development of modern biotechnology and related advanced techniques will no doubt improve the process, the product quality and the safety of our favourite fermented foods and beverages. In this article, we describe the relationship between these traditional food fermentations and modern biotechnology. Using Koji and its derived product soy sauce as examples, we address the mutual influences that will provide us with a better future concerning the quality, safety and nutritional effect of many fermented food products. PMID:23850857

  17. Gel-free proteomic analysis of soybean root proteins affected by calcium under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Oh, MyeongWon; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress and exhibits reduced growth under flooding conditions. To better understand the flooding-responsive mechanisms of soybean, the effect of exogenous calcium on flooding-stressed soybeans was analyzed using proteomic technique. An increase in exogenous calcium levels enhanced soybean root elongation and suppressed the cell death of root tip under flooding stress. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-day-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress without or with calcium for 2 days and analyzed using gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis/posttranslational modification, hormone/cell wall metabolisms, and DNA synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, their reductions were recovered by calcium treatment. Development, lipid metabolism, and signaling-related proteins were increased in soybean roots when calcium was supplied under flooding stress. Fermentation and glycolysis-related proteins were increased in response to flooding; however, these proteins were not affected by calcium supplementation. Furthermore, urease and copper chaperone proteins exhibited similar profiles in 4-day-old untreated soybeans and 4-day-old soybeans exposed to flooding for 2 days in the presence of calcium. These results suggest that calcium might affect the cell wall/hormone metabolisms, protein degradation/synthesis, and DNA synthesis in soybean roots under flooding stress. PMID:25368623

  18. Effect of germination on bioactive compounds of soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Germination is the practice of soaking, draining, and keeping seeds until they produce sprouts. The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated soybean flour in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. It is well known that germination induce...

  19. Characterization and Determination of Origin of Lactic Acid Bacteria from a Sorghum-Based Fermented Weaning Food by Analysis of Soluble Proteins and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Kunene, Nokuthula F.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; von Holy, Alexander; Hastings, John W.

    2000-01-01

    The group that includes the lactic acid bacteria is one of the most diverse groups of bacteria known, and these organisms have been characterized extensively by using different techniques. In this study, 180 lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from sorghum powder (44 strains) and from corresponding fermented (93 strains) and cooked fermented (43 strains) porridge samples that were prepared in 15 households were characterized by using biochemical and physiological methods, as well as by analyzing the electrophoretic profiles of total soluble proteins. A total of 58 of the 180 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum strains, 47 were Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, 25 were Lactobacillus sake-Lactobacillus curvatus strains, 17 were Pediococcus pentosaceus strains, 13 were Pediococcus acidilactici strains, and 7 were Lactococcus lactis strains. L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides strains were the dominant strains during the fermentation process and were recovered from 87 and 73% of the households, respectively. The potential origins of these groups of lactic acid bacteria were assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprint analysis. PMID:10698775

  20. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. PMID:23313221

  1. Soybean defense responses to the soybean aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcript profiles in resistant (cv. Dowling) and susceptible (cv. Williams 82) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes were compared at 6 and 12 h with and without aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) infestation using cDNA microarrays. One hundred and sixteen genes showed specific responses in r...

  2. Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Han-Nah; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor related to atherosclerosis, and it may be influenced by our diet. This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with the live, heat-killed (HK) bacteria, bacterial cell wall extracts and metabolites; mRNA level and protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells showed lower NPC1L1 expression in the presence of the live test strains than the control, elucidating down-regulation of cholesterol uptake, and were compared well with the positive control, L. rhamnosus GG. This effect was also observed with HK bacteria and cell wall fractions but not with their metabolites. The potential of some Lactobacillus strains associated with traditional fermented foods to suppress cholesterol uptake and promote its efflux in enterocytes has been suggested from these data. PMID:22816655

  3. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  4. Soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode interactions in the field and effects on soybean yield.

    PubMed

    Hong, S C; MacGuidwin, A; Gratton, C

    2011-10-01

    How above- and belowground plant pests interact with each other and how these interactions affect productivity is a relatively understudied aspect of crop production. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a root parasite of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is the most threatening pathogen in soybean production and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an aboveground phloem-feeding insect that appeared in North America in 2000, is the key aboveground herbivore of soybean in the midwestern United States. Now, both soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode co-occur in soybean-growing areas in the Upper Midwest. The objectives of this study were to examine aphid colonization patterns and population growth on soybean across a natural gradient of nematode density (range, approximately 900 and 27,000 eggs per 100 cm3 soil), and to investigate the effect of this pest complex on soybean productivity. Alate (winged) soybean aphid colonization of soybean was negatively correlated to soybean cyst nematode egg density (r = -0.363, P = 0.0095) at the end of July, at the onset of peak alate colonization. However, both a manipulative cage study and openly colonized plants showed that soybean cyst nematode density below ground was unrelated to variation in aphid population growth (r approximately -0.01). Based on regression analyses, soybean aphids and cyst nematodes had independent effects on soybean yield through effects on different yield components. High soybean cyst nematode density was associated with a decline in soybean yield (kg ha(-1)), whereas increasing soybean aphid density (both alate and apterous) significantly decreased seed weight (g 100 seeds(-1)). PMID:22066186

  5. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  6. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

  7. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. PMID:22784965

  8. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis. PMID:23571124

  9. METABOLIC REDESIGN OF VITAMIN E BIOSYNTHESIS IN SOYBEAN FOR ENHANCED ANTIOXIDANT CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oxidative stability of soybean oil is determined by its fatty acid composition and antioxidant content. Oxidative stability is a critical factor for the use of vegetable oils in food processing and industrial lubricant applications. The primary antioxidants in soybean oil are tocopherols. Toc...

  10. Creating Conventional Soybeans with the High Oleic Acid Seed Oil Trait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commodity soybeans are poised to undergo a revolutionary change. Major shifts in market expectations for the nutritional quality of the oil, brought about in part through food labeling requirements and the suitability for biodiesel, are driving the commodity soybean to embrace new seed compositiona...

  11. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  12. Genetic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions for charcoal rot in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and it is contributing to food and agricultural security with expanding production in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is attacked by several diseases and pests, and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and...

  13. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  14. Soybean Seed Lipoxygenase Genes: Molecular Characterization and Development of Molecular Marker Assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background - Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase enzymes that are controlled by three separate genes, Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3. Lipoxygenases play a role in the development of unpleasant flavors in foods containing soybean by oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Null alleles for all three enz...

  15. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) seed composition response to soil flooding stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean is a valuable commodity due to its high oil and protein content and its nutritional and functional food value. Changes in soybean seed composition by environmental stressess including heat and drought have been documented, but the effects of flooding are not yet known. This study profiles th...

  16. Control of ammonia formation during Bacillus subtilis fermentation of legumes.

    PubMed

    Allagheny, N; Obanu, Z A; Campbell-Platt, G; Owens, J D

    1996-04-01

    The control of ammonia formation during the Bacillus subtilis fermentation of autoclaved, roasted soybean cotyledons (Glycine max) and of autoclaved African locust bean cotyledons (Parkia spp.) was investigated. Addition of NaCl, 1.5 mol (kg wet cotyledons)-1, part way through the fermentation inhibited ammonia formation and softening of the cotyledons. Addition of glycerol, 1.7 mol (kg wet cotyledons)-1 part way through the fermentation inhibited alkalinisation and ammonia formation while allowing enzymic activity and softening of the cotyledons to continue. Restriction of the oxygen supply by incubating the cotyledons in a sealed container also prevented excessive ammonia production and increase in pH value. Fermentations conducted in sealed containers with an air to cotyledons ratio of approximately 130-175 ml air (g wet cotyledons)-1 supported good microbial growth and proteolysis without the formation of detectable ammonia aroma. PMID:8796432

  17. Dissecting the molecular response of soybean to Asian soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) is now a threat to soybean production in all major growing regions in the world. This potentially devastating disease is caused by the obligate fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi and resistance in soybean germplasm is limited. Moreover, this resistance is generally obse...

  18. Relationships between soybean shoot nitrogen components and soybean aphid populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Defining the relationships between soybean (Glycine max [L.] merr.) shoot nitrogen (N) components and soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) populations will increase understanding of the biology of this important insect pest. In this 2-year field study, caged soybean plants were infested with so...

  19. Soybean Aphid Feeding Injury and Soybean Yield and Seed Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate prediction of the level of yield loss caused by soybean aphid feeding is considered to be the crux of integrated pest management for these pests. Despite the accumulating literature on the soybean aphid, there are currently few published data on the effects of soybean aphid populations on ...

  20. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Stacey, Gary

    2011-04-26

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  1. Soybean (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Gary

    2010-03-24

    Gary Stacey, associate director of the National Center for Soybean Biotechnology at the University of Missouri, gives a talk simply titled "Soybean" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  2. Production of Fungal Mycelial Protein in Submerged Culture of Soybean Whey

    PubMed Central

    Falanghe, Helcio; Smith, A. K.; Rackis, J. J.

    1964-01-01

    Various soybean whey media were tested as substrate for seven species of fungi in submerged culture. Very little mycelial growth was obtained with Morchella hybrida, Collybia velutipes, Cantharellus cibarius, and Xylaria polymorpha. Agaricus campestris failed to grow. Tricholoma nudum and Boletus indecisus showed the greatest rate of growth and production of mycelial protein and the best utilization of soybean whey solids, with much shorter incubation times compared with those of the other species. T. nudum developed as spheres having diameters of about 5 to 8 mm, instead of the usual slurry or yeastlike form, in the presence of added ammonium acetate. B. indecisus always developed as spheres. Mycelial yields and production of protein by T. nudum greatly decreased with the addition of more than 1% glucose to soybean whey, whereas with B. indecisus the yield of protein almost doubled when up to 3% glucose was added. The effect of minerals on mycelial growth was determined. With soybean whey concentrated to 50%, the rate of mycelial growth of T. nudum was nearly doubled, but protein content of mycelia was greatly reduced. Mycelial growth and yield of protein of B. indecisus grown in concentrated whey were increased greatly. About 4 to 6 g of mycelial protein per liter can be obtained from fermentation in soybean whey, depending upon the medium used. Utilization of soybean whey by fungal fermentation may have economic value in whey disposal and in the production of products of high protein content. PMID:14199023

  3. Disruption of Rpp1-mediated soybean rust immunity by virus-induced gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; McMahon, Michael B; Luster, Douglas G

    2013-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, a fungus that causes rust disease on soybean, has potential to impart significant yield loss and disrupt food security and animal feed production. Rpp1 is a soybean gene that confers immunity to soybean rust, and it is important to understand how it regulates the soybean defense system and to use this knowledge to protect commercial crops. It was previously discovered that some soybean proteins resembling transcription factors accumulate in the nucleus of Rpp1 soybeans. To determine if they contribute to immunity, Bean pod mottle virus was used to attenuate or silence the expression of their genes. Rpp1 plants subjected to virus-induced gene silencing exhibited reduced amounts of RNA for 5 of the tested genes, and the plants developed rust-like symptoms after subsequent inoculation with fungal spores. Symptoms were associated with the accumulation of rust fungal RNA and protein. Silenced plants also had reduced amounts of RNA for the soybean Myb84 transcription factor and soybean isoflavone O-methyltransferase, both of which are important to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and lignin formation, crucial components of rust resistance. These results help resolve some of the genes that contribute to Rpp1-mediated immunity and improve upon the knowledge of the soybean defense system. It is possible that these genes could be manipulated to enhance rust resistance in otherwise susceptible soybean cultivars. PMID:24401541

  4. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the

  5. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  6. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J.; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M.; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A.; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible. PMID:26963815

  7. Antagonistic effects of soybean viruses on soybean aphid performance.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Jack R; Gratton, Claudio

    2007-08-01

    Although there is long-standing recognition that pest complexes require different management approaches than individual pests, relatively little research has explored how pests interact. In particular, little is known of how herbivorous insects and plant pathogens interact when sharing the same host plant. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Mastumura, a recently introduced pest of soybean in the upper midwestern United States, and a complex of plant viruses vectored to soybean by insects have become a major concern for growers in the region. Given the abundance of soybean aphid and the increase in virus incidence in recent years, soybean aphids often use soybean infected by plant viral pathogens. We tested the hypothesis that soybean aphid performance is affected by virus infection of soybean plants. We conducted a series of field and laboratory experiments that examined how infection of soybeans with the common plant viruses, alfalfa mosaic, soybean mosaic, and bean pod mottle viruses, influenced soybean aphid performance. Soybean plants (in the field and laboratory) were hand inoculated with individual viruses, and aphids were allowed to colonize plants naturally in field experiments or added to the plants in clip-cages or within mesh bags in laboratory assays. In the field, aphid density on uninfected control soybean plants was nearly double that on infected plants. In laboratory assays, aphid population growth rates were on average 20% lower for aphids on virus infected compared with uninfected plants. Life table analyses showed that increased mortality on virus-infected plants likely explain differences in aphid population growth. Although there was some heterogeneity in the significance of treatment effects among different experiments, when independent experiments are taken together, there is on average an overall negative effect of these viruses on soybean aphids. PMID:17716484

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

  9. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  10. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  11. Management Affects Soybean Nodulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation may contribute 40 – 70% of the nitrogen required by soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] during the growing season. Therefore, sustaining nitrogen input is critical for profitable grain yield and sustaining long-term soil productivity. We evaluated management practices used...

  12. Sunflowers versus soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.D.C.

    1980-10-01

    While both soybeans and sunflowers provide oil and protein, sunflowers offer the higher potential yield of oil per hectare. Research to modify vegetable oils to improve their fuel properties is suggested, particularly on improving the characteristics of the oil as a fuel for diesel engines.

  13. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  14. SOYBEAN APHID ABUNDANCE AMONG CONTEMPORARY SOYBEAN LINES IN A GROWTH-CHAMBER TEST, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The abundance of soybean aphid was compared among eight contemporary soybean lines in a growth chamber test. All soybean lines had >500 soybean aphids per plant 2 wks after infestation. The number of soybean aphids per plant differed among lines, with Surge and 91B91 having more soybean aphids tha...

  15. Identifying physiological gains in the historic Midwest soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yields in the US have steadily increased throughout the past century due to advances made in breeding and management practices. Despite these historical gains, producers will face a significant challenge to provide sufficient food, fiber, and fuel to supply a growing world population, which ...

  16. Preparation of microemulsions with soybean oil-based surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emulsions are widely applied in food, cosmeceutical and medicinal formulations. Smaller and highly stable droplets of emulsions are important for their application. This research reports that by using soybean oil-based surfactants, the higher stabilized oil-in-water emulsions were obtained via an ul...

  17. Identifying physiological gains in the historic Midwest soybean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yields in the US have steadily increased throughout the past century due to advances made in breeding and management practices. Despite these historical gains, world food production must increase by 50% by 2030 to meet population demands according to the UN, raising the question of whether t...

  18. Korean space food development: Ready-to-eat Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, sterilized with high-dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. It was confirmed that the space food was sterilized by an irradiation at 25 kGy through incubation at 37 °C for 30 days. The hardness of the Space Kimchi (SK) was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated Kimchi (IR). Also, this result was supported by the scanning electron microscopic observation. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. According to the Ames test, Kimchi sterilized with a high-dose irradiation exerted no mutagenic activity in the bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium. And, the SK was certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems.

  19. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. Fermented products with probiotic qualities.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, G

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an acceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which beneficially effects the human or the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Nearly all probiotics currently on the market contain Lactobacilli, Streptococci, Enterococci or Bifidobacteria. In contrast to Japan, where freeze-dried microorganisms are consumed by a substantial part of the human population, in Europe, probiotic action towards humans are only claimed for certain fermented dairy products (e.g. yoghurts). Those species that have been extensively studied so far, with several experimental trials on man, are the two yoghurt bacteria Streptocaccus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei and Bifidobacteria. L. acidophilus has also received important scientific interest, however, only a few human studies have been carried out. From the technological point of view a good probiotic should be stable and viable for long periods under storage, should be able to survive the low pH levels of the stomach, be able to colonise the epithelium of the gastro-intestinal tract of the host, should not be pathogenic and, last but not least, must be capable of exerting a growth promoting effect or a resistance to infectious diseases. The beneficial effects of probiotics are mainly contributed to a direct antagonistic effect against specific groups of microorganisms (Enteropathogenes), by an effect on the metabolism in the gut or by a stimulation of systemic or mucosal immunity. We will present major proven health benefits of milks fermented with those bacterial species and discuss, where possible, the impact of the specific selection and utilisation of particular strains. PMID:16887587

  2. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. PMID:26538176

  3. Irradiating of Bulk Soybeans: Influence on Their Functional and Sensory Properties for Soyfood Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chia, Chiew-Ling; Wilson, Lester A.; Boylston, Terri; Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Soybeans were chosen for lunar and planetary missions, where soybeans will be supplied in bulk or grown locally, due to their nutritive value and ability to produce oil and protein for further food applications. However, soybeans must be processed into foods prior to consumption. Radiation that soybeans would be exposed to during bulk storage prior to and during a Mars mission may influence their germination and functional properties. The influence of radiation includes the affect of surface pasteurization to ensure the astronauts safety from food-borne illnesses (HACCP, CCP), and the affect of the amount of radiation the soybeans receive during a Mars mission. Decreases in the amount of natural antioxidants free radical formation, and oxidation-induced changes in the soybean will influence the nutritional value, texture, color, and aroma of soyfoods. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pasteurization and sterilization surface radiation on whole soybeans using gamma and electron beam radiation. The influence of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 30kGy on microbial load, germination rate, ease of processing, and quality of soymilk and tofu were determined. Surface radiation of whole dry soybeans using electron beam or gamma rays from 1-30kGy did provide microbial safety for the astronauts. However, the lower dose levels had surviving yeasts and molds. These doses caused oxidative changes that resulted in soymilk and tofu with rancid aromas. GC-MS of the aroma compounds using SPME Headspace confirmed the presence of lipid oxidation compounds. Soybean germination ability was reduced as radiation dosage increased. While lower doses may reduce these problems, the ability to insure microbial safety of bulk soybeans will be lost. Counter measures could include vacuum packaging, nitrogen flushing, added antioxidants, and radiating under freezing conditions. Doses below 1kGy need to be investigated further to determine the influence of the radiation encountered

  4. Alkylating activity in food products--especially sauerkraut and sour fermented dairy products--after incubation with nitrite under quasi-gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Groenen, P J; Busink, E

    1988-03-01

    N-Nitroso compounds may well rank high among the genotoxic carcinogens present in our environment. Small amounts of such compounds may be formed in the human stomach after consumption of high-nitrate vegetables. Volatile nitrosamines can be conveniently determined but reliable methods of analysis for non-volatile N-nitroso compounds are still lacking. In this study we have used the 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine test to look for the formation of alkylating compounds such as N-nitroso-N-methylurea in a wide range of food products after incubation with nitrite under simulated gastric conditions. Our results indicate that many food products do not form alkylating compounds in appreciable amounts, even though the nitrite concentration used was five to ten times that found in saliva after a high-nitrate meal. Comparatively strong alkylating activity, however, was detected after incubation of samples of sauerkraut, certain dairy products (yoghurt, biogarde, quark, buttermilk and milk), wine and smoked mackerel. Samples of sauerkraut incubated with simulated gastric fluid, but without (added) nitrite, also displayed appreciable alkylating activity. The formation of alkylating substances in non-fat yoghurt was markedly inhibited by addition of ascorbic acid. The identity of the alkylating agents remains unknown. The isolation procedure was optimized for N-nitroso-N-methylurea, but will certainly result in the isolation of other compounds, such as C-nitroso-, C-nitro- or perhaps even C-nitroso-C'-nitro-compounds as well. Biogenic amines, glucosinolates, indole derivatives or other compounds may be involved as precursors. If alkylating agents are formed in vivo after ingestion of high-nitrate vegetables or drinking water, this is likely to occur only when the food products mentioned above are ingested simultaneously with or shortly after the nitrate load and not appreciably (except perhaps in the case of sauerkraut) when they are ingested alone, without a nitrate source. The

  5. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  6. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  7. Fighting Asian Soybean Rust

    PubMed Central

    Langenbach, Caspar; Campe, Ruth; Beyer, Sebastian F.; Mueller, André N.; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several R genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR. PMID:27375652

  8. Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry for online monitoring of submerged fermentations: a case study of sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Vercammen, Joeri; Wuyts, Roel; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-01-28

    Selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) has recently gained interest as an alternative method to traditional GC-MS for the detection of targeted volatile sample compounds, due to its ease of use, its speed and sensitivity, and its potential for real-time quantification. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated using the case of the production of ethanol during sourdough fermentation. The potential of SIFT-MS as an online monitoring device for food fermentations was further demonstrated by the detection of acetoin in certain sourdough fermentations. This allowed discrimination between sourdough fermentation processes and illustrated the importance of real-time monitoring of food fermentations. PMID:25549013

  9. Beta-conglycinin and gut histology of sunshine bass fed diets with new varieties of non-GM soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is reported that the soybean protein (Beta-conglycinin) might cause inflammation of the distal intestine and stimulate endogenous cholecystokinin release that suppresses food intake in fish. We are studying the effects of meals made from new strains of non-GMO soybeans with high protein and redu...

  10. Quantitative trait loci underlying seed sugars content in MD96-5722 by spencer recombinant inbred line population of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose are important soluble sugars in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds, and soybean seeds with higher sucrose and lower raffinose and stachyose are desirable. Therefore, optimizing sugars biosynthesis is a major goal for soy food industry. The objective of this stud...

  11. The genetic architecture of seed composition in soybean is refined by genome-wide association scans across multiple populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean oil and meal are major contributors to world-wide food production. Consequently, the genetic basis for soybean seed composition has been intensely studied using family-based mapping. Population-based mapping approaches, in the form of genome-wide association (GWA) scans, have been able to re...

  12. Mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil - a healthful new alternative to hydrogenated oils for frying

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the frying stability of mid-oleic/ultra low linolenic acid soybean oil (MO/ULLSBO) and the storage stability of food fried in it, tortilla chips were fried in MO/ULLSBO, soybean oil (SBO), hydrogenated SBO (HSBO) and ultra low linolenic SBO (ULLSBO). Intermittent batch frying tests wer...

  13. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  14. Sensory quality of soymilk and tofu from soybeans lacking lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Aijun; Smyth, Heather; Chaliha, Mridusmita; James, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation of unsaturated lipids by lipoxygenases in soybeans causes undesirable flavors in soy foods. Using a traditional and a nontraditional soy food user group, we examined the cultural difference in perceiving the sensory characteristics of soymilk and tofu produced from soybeans with or without lipoxygenases (Lx123). The two groups described the samples using similar terms. The traditional users preferred the control soy milk and lipoxygenase-free tofu while the nontraditional users preferred the lipoxygenase-free soymilk with no preference for tofu. In a separate study, a trained descriptive taste panel compared the odor of soymilk and tofu from control soybeans or those lacking lipoxygenase-1 and lipoxygenase-2 (Lx12) or all three isomers (Lx123). The rancid/grassy odor was rated the lowest in Lx123 products, followed by Lx12 products with the control products given the highest rating. The Lx12 and Lx123 products were also sweeter and less bitter than the controls. Taken together, our results demonstrated that soybeans lacking lipoxygenases can produce soy foods with less undesirable aromas and are therefore likely more acceptable to the consumers. PMID:27004110

  15. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  16. Attempts to Shorten the Time of Lactic Fermentation by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2002-05-01

    In recent years, applications of ultrasound to food processing have been of interest. Fermentation is a typical example of food processing which has been used, since ancient times, on milk and is utilized for processing various dairy products, e.g., yoghurt. In this study, ultrasonic irradiation to shorten the time of fermentation in yoghurt production is attempted. It is proven that shortening the fermentation time is possible by employing ultrasonic irradiation.

  17. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573.500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food...

  19. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  20. Inheritance of soybean aphid resistance in 21 soybean plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is one of the most important insect pests on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] in the northern USA and southern Canada, and four resistance loci (Rag1 to 4) have been discovered since the pest was identified in the USA in 2000. The ob...

  1. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  2. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-jun; Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. PMID:27080886

  3. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  4. Production of high docosahexaenoic acid by Schizochytrium sp. using low-cost raw materials from food industry.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaojin; Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost substrates from food industry, including maize starch hydrolysate and soybean meal hydrolysate, were used to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88. Glucose derived from maize starch hydrolysate was used as the carbon source and soybean meal hydrolysate as the nitrogen sources. In 10L bioreactor fermentation, by using the soybean meal hydrolysate as the main nitrogen source, the biomass of Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 reached 85.27 g L(-1), and the yields of DHA was 20.7g L(-1). As a comparison, when yeast extract was used as the main nitrogen source, the yields of biomass and DHA were 68.93 g L(-1) and 13.3 g L(-1), respectively. From the results of this study, these hydrolysates can provide all the nutrients required for high-density cultivation of S. limacinum OUC88 and DHA production, that will improve the economical and competitive efficiency of commercial DHA production. PMID:25748379

  5. EVALUATION OF SOYBEAN CULTIVARS, 'WILLIAMS' ISOGENIC LINES, AND OTHER SELECTED SOYBEAN LINES FOR RESISTANCE TO TWO SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS STRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cultivars grown in the U.S. have a relatively narrow genetic base. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most common soybean viruses worldwide. The resistance/susceptibility of most commercial cultivars to SMV is not known. Commercial and pre-commercial soybean cultivars were screene...

  6. DISEASES OF SOYBEAN: CHARCOAL ROT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean yield losses due to charcoal rot occur regularly. Yield losses of 20-30% due to root and stem infections of soybean caused by the soil-inhabiting fungus Macrophomina phaseolina have been reported in some fields in years highly favorable for disease development. This bulletin summarizes the...

  7. SOYBEAN.APHID.LH.2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of soybean aphid (SA) resistance was characterized among 496 soybean lines in a twice-replicated field-plot test at the Eastern South Dakota Soil and Water Research Farm near Brookings, SD, in 2009. Natural infestations of SA occurred but were supplemented by placing individual stems of ...

  8. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  9. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  10. Nutrient comparison of fresh and field-dried, green-seeded soybeans.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, A I

    1978-06-01

    Nutrient composition and biologic utilization of cooked, dried, and ground meals prepared from fresh and field-dried, green-seeded edible soybeans were evaluated. On a dry-weight basis, nutrient content of the fresh and field-dried meals were comparable for protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and iron; fresh beans tended to have higher zinc content than the field-dried beans. Nutrient values for the green-seeded soybean meals were comparable to published values for full-fat soybean flour. Bioassay results indicated that protein efficiency ratios (PER) for rats fed casein were significantly better than those for the soybean-fed animals. Fresh, green-seeded soybean meal supported significantly better growth than did the field-dried, green-seeded soybean meal. Though significantly lower than that for the reference casein diet, the mean PER for fresh, green-seeded soybean meal was 90 per cent of that obtained with the reference casein. The nutrient analysis and protein bioassay data both indicate that green-seeded soybeans used as a vegetable item in the diet are a potentially significant food source of several important nutrients. PMID:566776

  11. Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

  12. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in α-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C. PMID:26390371

  13. Effect of Aspergillus oryzae-challenged germination on soybean isoflavone content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hee Young; Seo, Dae Bang; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-03-21

    Application of microbial stress to soybean during germination induces the accumulation of phytoalexins, which have many health benefits. In this study, the effects of stress induced by Aspergillus oryzae on the phytochemical composition of germinating soybeans were investigated, and their radical scavenging activity was compared with those of ungerminated (US) and germinated (GS) soybeans. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of coumestrol, a soybean phytoalexin, against hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in HepG2 cells. A. oryzae exposure significantly decreased the total isoflavone content and induced coumestrol and glyceollin I. A. oryzae-challenged germinated soybeans exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 0.55 mg/mL) as compared to US and GS. Coumestrol exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging activity than daidzein and genistein. Furthermore, coumestrol significantly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation and inhibited decreases in cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These results indicate that using food-grade A. oryzae to elicit the biosynthesis of phytoalexins alters the secondary metabolite profiles of the soybeans and offers enhanced bioactivity of soybean as a functional food ingredient. PMID:22409158

  14. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  15. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The...

  9. THE ZONES PROJECTS: UNDERSTANDING SOYBEAN YIELD VARIABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two regional projects funded by the North Central Soybean Research Program and the United Soybean Board are entitled Mapping of Soil and Field Characteristics to Understand Soybean Yield and Using Remotely Sensed Data to Diagnose Soybean Yield Limiting Factors. These projects were developed in resp...

  10. Soybean aphids making their summer appearance early

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two small, soft-bodied insects have begun showing up in South Dakota soybean. One is the soybean aphid, and the other is a mealybug. Soybean aphids are yellow to yellow/green and are usually found feeding on the underside of leaves. Incidence of soybean aphid has been a bit higher than typical fo...

  11. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reina, L. D.; Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Breidt, F.; Azcarate-Peril, M. A.; Medina, E.; Butz, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, which dominated the fermentation. The fermentation of yacon by Leuconostoc spp. is thus presented as a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root. PMID:25777679

  12. Airflow resistance in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenghe, R. N.; Nimkar, P. M.; Shirkole, S. S.; Shinde, K. J.

    2012-04-01

    Resistance of material to airflow is an important factor to consider in the design of a dryer or an aeration system. The airflow resistance of soybean was determined with the modified airflow resistance apparatus. It was found that pressure drop increased with increase in airflow rate, bulk density, bed depth and decreased with moisture content. Modified Shedd equation, Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation were examined for pressure drop prediction. Airflow resistance was accurately described by modified Shedd equation followed by Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation. The developed statistical model comprised of airflow rate, moisture content and bulk density could fit pressure drop data reasonably well.

  13. Plastid transformation in soybean.

    PubMed

    Dubald, Manuel; Tissot, Ghislaine; Pelissier, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnological potential of plastid genetic engineering has been illustrated in a limited number of higher plant species. We have developed a reproducible method to generate plastid transformants in soybean (Glycine max), a crop of major agronomic importance. The transformation vectors are delivered to embryogenic cultures by the particle gun method and selection performed using the aadA antibiotic resistance gene. Homoplasmy is established rapidly in the selected events without the need for further selection or regeneration cycles, and genes of interest can be expressed at a high level in green tissues. This is a significant step toward the commercial application of this technology. PMID:24599865

  14. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B.; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Vuong, Tri D.; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with “omics” technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of “omics tools” is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in “omics” approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. PMID:26635846

  15. Expanding Omics Resources for Improvement of Soybean Seed Composition Traits.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Juhi; Patil, Gunvant B; Sonah, Humira; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Vuong, Tri D; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    Food resources of the modern world are strained due to the increasing population. There is an urgent need for innovative methods and approaches to augment food production. Legume seeds are major resources of human food and animal feed with their unique nutrient compositions including oil, protein, carbohydrates, and other beneficial nutrients. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with "omics" technologies have considerably strengthened soybean research. The availability of well annotated soybean genome sequence along with hundreds of identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with different seed traits can be used for gene discovery and molecular marker development for breeding applications. Despite the remarkable progress in these technologies, the analysis and mining of existing seed genomics data are still challenging due to the complexity of genetic inheritance, metabolic partitioning, and developmental regulations. Integration of "omics tools" is an effective strategy to discover key regulators of various seed traits. In this review, recent advances in "omics" approaches and their use in soybean seed trait investigations are presented along with the available databases and technological platforms and their applicability in the improvement of soybean. This article also highlights the use of modern breeding approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), genomic selection (GS), and marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) for developing superior cultivars. A catalog of available important resources for major seed composition traits, such as seed oil, protein, carbohydrates, and yield traits are provided to improve the knowledge base and future utilization of this information in the soybean crop improvement programs. PMID:26635846

  16. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Kleerebezem, M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. PMID:24580073

  17. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate. PMID:12045422

  18. Dual cropping winter camelina with soybean in the northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainably balancing biofuel crop production with food, feed, and fiber on agricultural lands will require developing new cropping strategies. Double- and/or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] may be a means to produce an energy and food crop o...

  19. A wild and tolerant yeast suitable for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Thalagala, Thalagala Arachchige Tharanga Piyamali; Isono, Naoto; Hisamatsu, Makoto

    2013-05-01

    Ethanol fermentation from food wastes containing mainly starch without carrying out sterilization was investigated by using wild and tolerant yeast, Issatchenkia orientalis MF-121. The MF-121 strain is not a suitable choice for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass because it is only capable of fermenting hexoses of glucose, mannose, and fructose to ethanol. Therefore, we first isolated acid- and salt-tolerant yeast that are capable of fermenting various monosaccharides to ethanol, and the isolated yeast that showed the ability to ferment ethanol from glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, and xylose, was identified as Zygoascus hellenicus LK-5G on the basis of the 26S rRNA sequence analysis. PMID:23273910

  20. Protein and quality analyses of accessions from the USDA soybean germplasm collection for tofu production.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shi; Chang, Sam; Gillen, Anne M; Zhang, Yan

    2016-12-15

    Food-grade soybeans with large seed size, uniformity, clear hilum and a high 11S/7S ratio are favoured by the food industry for making tofu. In order to search for soybean lines with desirable characteristics for making foods, 22 soybean lines were selected from the USDA-Soybean Germplasm Collection, were grown in Stoneville, MS for biochemical analysis and tofu texture and sensory quality tests. Eight lines were identified, from 22 lines harvested in 2014, to be suitable for tofu making, as judged by chemical composition and sensory quality of pressed tofu. In the filled tofu making and texture analysis study, the correlation between A3 subunit content and filled tofu firmness was significant (N=22, r=0.77, P<0.001). The results indicated that the A3 subunit could be an indicator for predicting the firmness of tofu. The results provided important food quality information for the selection of soybean genotypes for improving food quality. PMID:27451152

  1. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze.

    PubMed

    Han, Bei-Zhong; Kuijpers, Angelina F A; Thanh, Nguyen V; Nout, M J Robert

    2004-04-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several months. The present report deals with the identity and phylogenetic relationships of mould starter cultures used for the preparation ofpehtze. Starter cultures used in commercial pehtze fermentation were obtained from factories located in several provinces of China and Vietnam, isolated from their pehtze and some were obtained from culture collections. They were identified as Actinomucor repens, Actinomucor taiwanensis, Mucor circinelloides, Mocur hiemalis, Mocur racemosus, and Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus. Phylogenetic relations based on sequencing of genomic DNA of these starters and of relevant control strains from collections indicate that the genera Mucor, Actinomucor and Rhizopus form distinct and homogenous clusters, with Mucor and Actinomucor showing a slightly closer relationship with each other than with Rhizopus. PMID:15028872

  2. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. PMID:24128586

  3. Glycosylated Benzoxazinoids Are Degraded during Fermentation of Wheat Bran.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Otto; Pekkinen, Jenna; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, Kati

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids are plant secondary metabolites found in whole grain cereal foods including bread. They are bioavailable and metabolized in humans, and therefore their potential bioactivity is of interest. However, effects of food processing on their content and structure are not yet studied. This study reports effects of bioprocessing on wheat bran benzoxazinoid content. Benzoxazinoid glycosides were completely degraded during fermentation, whereas metabolites of benzoxazinoid aglycones were formed. Fermentation conditions did not affect the conversion process, as both yeast and yeast/lactic acid bacteria mediated fermentations had generally similar impacts. Likewise, enzymatic treatment of the bioprocess samples did not affect the conversion, suggesting that these compounds most likely are freely bioavailable from the grain matrix and not linked to the cell wall polymers. Additionally, the results show that benzoxazinoids undergo structural conversion during the fermentation process, resulting in several unknown compounds that contribute to the phytochemical intake and necessitate further analysis. PMID:26040909

  4. Indigenous bacteria and fungi drive traditional kimoto sake fermentations.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan; Mills, David A

    2014-09-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. PMID:24973064

  5. Indigenous Bacteria and Fungi Drive Traditional Kimoto Sake Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Ohta, Moe; Lee, Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Sake (Japanese rice wine) production is a complex, multistage process in which fermentation is performed by a succession of mixed fungi and bacteria. This study employed high-throughput rRNA marker gene sequencing, quantitative PCR, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism to characterize the bacterial and fungal communities of spontaneous sake production from koji to product as well as brewery equipment surfaces. Results demonstrate a dynamic microbial succession, with koji and early moto fermentations dominated by Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae, succeeded by Lactobacillus spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae later in the fermentations. The microbiota driving these fermentations were also prevalent in the production environment, illustrating the reservoirs and routes for microbial contact in this traditional food fermentation. Interrogating the microbial consortia of production environments in parallel with food products is a valuable approach for understanding the complete ecology of food production systems and can be applied to any food system, leading to enlightened perspectives for process control and food safety. PMID:24973064

  6. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  7. Produce from Africa's Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa's populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa's resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  8. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Luth, Diane; Warnberg, Katey; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we describe an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method of soybean that utilizes mature half seeds and regeneration from the cotyledonary node region. This method results in fertile transformed soybean plants and transgenic seed in approximately 9 months. Using mature half seeds as starting material has proven to be a reliable method that does not require additional wounding for infection to occur. We have continued to make improvements in the protocol, resulting in an efficient plant regeneration system. PMID:25300848

  9. The response of lactating dairy cows to increasing levels of whole roasted soybeans.

    PubMed

    Knapp, D M; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1991-08-01

    Twenty-four Holstein cows, including four primiparous and four ruminally cannulated, were in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods to determine the effects of feeding level of whole roasted soybeans on lactation performance and rumen function. Cows were fed rations containing a 50:50 forage:concentrate ratio with 0, 12, 18, or 24% of diet DM as whole roasted soybeans. Rations contained 16.8, 16.9, 18.6, and 19.7% CP and 1.68, 1.71, 1.72, and 1.74 Mcal NEL/kg DM, respectively. Milk production and milk fat percentages for diets containing 0, 12, 18, or 24% whole roasted soybeans were 34.9, 37.5, 38.5, and 38.8 kg/d and 3.23, 3.20, 3.32, and 3.37%, respectively. Milk protein percentage was depressed at all levels of whole roasted soybeans. Ruminal pH, VFA molar percentages except valerate, and DM disappearance of forage from dacron bags did not differ among treatments. Responses were similar among primiparous and multiparous cows. Results suggest benefit from feeding whole roasted soybeans at levels up to 18% of ration DM without adversely affecting DMI, milk fat, or rumen fermentation. PMID:1918534

  10. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress. PMID:24702262

  11. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  12. [Development of a new type soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase isozymes].

    PubMed

    Han, Fen-Xia; Ding, An-Lin; Sun, Jun-Ming; Li, Gui-Ying

    2005-02-01

    Soybean protein is a kind of high-quality protein composed of balanced amino acids. It contains all kinds of amino acids, especially eight amino acids necessary for human, but also contains some components that are not good for human and affect food quality, such as Lipoxygenase (Lox) and Trypsin inhibitor (Ti). Nutritional value and processing quality of soybean can be improved by means of development of new variety with null Lox and Ti. In this paper, a new type soybean germplasm with null lipoxygenase isozymes was developed by Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences through years of biochemical marker assistant selection for null lipoxygenase by means of isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) in the hybrid progenies of "96P17" (Female parent, a null lipoxygenase 2.3 line) and "93704" (Male parent, a null lipoxygenase 1.3 line). It is the first new soybean germplasm with null Lox1.2.3 genes in our country, which will contribute to soybean breeding for high quality, soybean production and utilization. In this paper, the development process of new type soybean germplasm is described. PMID:15759868

  13. Antiresorptive Activity of Bacillus-Fermented Antler Extracts: Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Moon, Seong-Hee; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Son, Young-Jin; Yu, Ri; Kim, Young Su; Kim, So I.; Chae, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang-Joon; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to elucidate the antiresorptive activity of Bacillus-fermented antler and its mode of action. We found that Bacillus-fermented antler extract strongly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by downregulating the expression and activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1). This extract also inhibited the activation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a signaling molecule that could regulate NFATc1 transcriptional activity. This suggested that Bacillus-fermented antler extract could inhibit PLCγ2-NFATc1 signaling required for bone resorption and cell fusion. Consequently, Bacillus-fermented antler extract might benefit osteoclast-related disorders, including osteoporosis; furthermore, it may improve gastrointestinal activity. PMID:23509596

  14. Hypolipidaemic foods in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, J

    1996-12-01

    With the changes in dietary pattern in China, in recent years, hyperlipidaemia has become an important problem in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, especially the cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. From studies on laboratory animals and people with hyperlipidaemia, a number of hypolipidaemic foods and beverages have been identified, of relevance to traditional Chinese food culture. Their absence from the diet may, in part account for the increasing prevalence of hyperlipidaemia in China. The several groups of foods used in China with hypolipidaemic effects include: •Cereals: oats, naked oats (Avena stiva L. var. nuda Mordv.), millet, buckwheat, wheat germ, maize germ. •Beans: soybean, kidney bean, hyacinth bean, red bean, mung bean, broad bean, pea, Phaseolus L., soy dregs. •Aquatic: prawn, Greater croaker, Crucian carp, squid, mussel, scallop, Silvery pomfret. •Fungi and algae: mushroom, algin, kelp, laver (Porphyra yezoensis Veda), (Enteromorpha prolifera), (Auricularia polytricha). •Vegetables: garlic, celery, onion, spring onion, chives, pepper. •Nuts and fruits: peanut seed, walnut seed. Splinar pear (Rosa voxburghi Tratt), kiwifruit (Achinida chinensis planch). •Oil: soybean oil, rice bran oil, tea seed oil, rubber seed oil, grape seed oil. fish oil, soybean phospholipid. •Others: tea, brown sugar, Cr-enriched yeast, iodine-enriched eggs. The present enquiry into a range of factors in food which may influence lipoprotein metabolism encouraging new ways of thinking about the pathogenesis, prevention and management of lipid disorders and their sequelae. PMID:24394619

  15. The effect of soybean meal processing method and diet inclusion level on growth and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard soybean meal is produced by toasting to reduce trypsin inhibitor levels and hexane extraction to remove the valuable soybean oil. The extracted oil is used primarily in human foods, with its use as a feedstock for production of biodiesel, a replacement for conventional petroleum diesel fue...

  16. Identification of a plant introduction soybean line with genetic lesions affecting two distinct glycinin subunits and evaluation of impacts on protein content and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike other oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr) is also valuable due to its direct conversion into human food. One notable example is the cheese-like product tofu. The quality of tofu is derived from the protein composition of soybean seeds used in preparation, and reduction in protein subuni...

  17. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars, as well as...

  18. New mutation in Delta-9-Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein desaturase gene associated with enhanced stearic acid levels in soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] oil from conventional cultivars typically contains ~3% stearic acid of the total seed oil. Increased stearic acid concentration in the seed oil of soybeans is desirable from both food and industrial use stand-points. To date a small number of mutants have been develop...

  19. Proteomic Techniques and Management of Flooding Tolerance in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Tougou, Makoto; Nanjo, Yohei

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is considered a major threat to world agriculture and food security. To improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, the development of high-yielding stress-tolerant, and climate-resilient crops is essential. Of the abiotic stresses, flooding stress is a very serious hazard because it markedly reduces plant growth and grain yield. Proteomic analyses indicate that the effects of flooding stress are not limited to oxygen deprivation but include many other factors. Although many flooding response mechanisms have been reported, flooding tolerance mechanisms have not been fully clarified for soybean. There were limitations in soybean materials, such as mutants and varieties, while they were abundant in rice and Arabidopsis. In this review, plant proteomic technologies are introduced and flooding tolerance mechanisms of soybeans are summarized to assist in the improvement of flooding tolerance in soybeans. This work will expedite transgenic or marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in crops for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant lines or varieties under abiotic stress. PMID:26234743

  20. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.