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Sample records for fernald soils annual

  1. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of Fernald soils. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    A combination of backscattered electron imaging and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) with electron diffraction have been used to determine the physical and chemical properties of uranium contamination in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. The information gained from these studies has been used in the development and testing of remediation technologies. Most chemical washing techniques have been reasonably effective with uranyl [U(VI)] phases, but U(IV) phases have proven difficult to remove from the soils. Carbonate leaching in an oxygen environment (heap leaching) has removed some of the U(IV) phases, and it appears to be the most effective technique developed in the program. The uranium metaphosphate, which was found exclusively at an incinerator site, has not been removed by any of the chemical methods. We suggest that a physical extraction procedure (either a magnetic separation or aqueous biphasic process) be used to remove this phase. Analytical electron microscopy has also been used to determine the effect of the chemical agents on the uranium phases. It has also been used to examine soils from the Portsmouth site in Ohio. The contamination there took the form of uranium oxide and uranium calcium oxide phases. Technology transfer efforts over FY 1994 have led to industry-sponsored projects involving soil characterization.

  2. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    SciTech Connect

    Delwiche, M.E.; Wey, J.E.; Torma, A.E.

    1994-12-31

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils.

  3. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  4. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1994-10-01

    A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

  6. Uranium speciation in Fernald soils. Progress report, October 1, 1992--May 31, 1993: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.; Conradson, S.D.

    1993-07-16

    This interim progress report describes new experimental data collected from October 1, 1992 through May 31, 1993 as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the United States Department of Energy. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopies have been used to analyze the uranium remaining in contaminated soils from the Fernald site after these samples were treated by various decontamination technologies under development within this Integrated Demonstration. The treatment technologies included soil washes with carbonate, citrate, Tiron, and Tiron/dithionite mixtures. The effectiveness of these procedures is discussed in a separate report from the Decontamination Task group. The characterization results indicate that following the application of all of these treatment strategies the uranium remaining in the soil is still best characterized as being primarily in the hexavalent oxidation state. However, for the A-series soils from the Incinerator Area, the speciation of this remaining uranium is different than seen previously based on the x-ray absorption data. The luminescence data for these treated soils also demonstrate that there is a decrease in size and quantity of the particulate hexavalent uranium that gives rise to the structured green emission. Thus, all treatment technologies do seem to generate a more dispersed, finer-grained form of uranium. For several treated samples a characteristic luminescence signal was found indicative of a schoepite phase of uranium. New results are also reported for untreated Fernald soil samples and reference uranium mineral phases.

  7. Soils and groundwater cleanup at Fernald: A status update on Operable Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Yerace, P.J.; Bomberger, A.K.; Brettschneider, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses a status update on the cleanup operations at FERNALD. Discussed is the regulatory framework for FERNALD cleanup; overview of the FERNALD site; description of operable unit 5;remedial investigation; pattern of contamination; feasibility studies; and tangible progress to date.

  8. Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.; Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-12-31

    The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach provides a framework for evaluating the trade-offs among remedial investigation, the remedial design, and the risk of regulatory penalties. The approach explicitly recognizes the value of information provided by remedial investigation; additional measurements are only valuable to the extent that the information they provide reduces total cost.

  9. Integrating removal actions and remedial actions: Soil and debris management at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goidell, L.C.; Hagen, T.D.; Strimbu, M.J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Taylor, A.C.; Weese, T.E.; Yerace, P.J.

    1996-02-01

    Since 1991, excess soil and debris generated at the Fernald Environmental management Project (FEMP) have been managed in accordance with the principles contained in a programmatic Removal Action (RvA) Work Plan (WP). This plan provides a sitewide management concept and implementation strategy for improved storage and management of excess soil and debris over the period required to design and construct improved storage facilities. These management principles, however, are no longer consistent with the directions in approved and draft Records of Decision (RODs) and anticipated in draft RODs other decision documents. A new approach has been taken to foster improved management techniques for soil and debris that can be readily incorporated into remedial design/remedial action plans. Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. This paper describes the methods that were applied to address the issues associated with keeping the components of the new work plan field implementable and flexible; this is especially important as remedial design is either in its initial stages or has not been started and final remediation options could not be precluded.

  10. Technical approach to finalizing sensible soil cleanup levels at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.; Hertel, B.; Jewett, M.; Janke, R.; Conner, B.

    1996-02-01

    The remedial strategy for addressing contaminated environmental media was recently finalized for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) following almost 10 years of detailed technical analysis. The FEMP represents one of the first major nuclear facilities to successfully complete the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) phase of the environmental restoration process. A critical element of this success was the establishment of sensible cleanup levels for contaminated soil and groundwater both on and off the FEMP property. These cleanup levels were derived based upon a strict application of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations and guidance, coupled with positive input from the regulatory agencies and the local community regarding projected future land uses for the site. The approach for establishing the cleanup levels was based upon a Feasibility Study (FS) strategy that examined a bounding range of viable future land uses for the site. Within each land use, the cost and technical implications of a range of health-protective cleanup levels for the environmental media were analyzed. Technical considerations in driving these cleanup levels included: direct exposure routes to viable human receptors; cross- media impacts to air, surface water, and groundwater; technical practicality of attaining the levels; volume of affected media; impact to sensitive environmental receptors or ecosystems; and cost. This paper will discuss the technical approach used to support the finalization of the cleanup levels for the site. The final cleanup levels provide the last remaining significant piece to the puzzle of establishing a final site-wide remedial strategy for the FEMP, and positions the facility for the expedient completion of site-wide remedial activities.

  11. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G.; Janke, R.; Nelson, K.

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  12. In-situ mineralization of actinides for groundwater cleanup: Laboratory demonstration with soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into less mobile forms by remote treatment. The process described herein relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term. The cation exchanger is designed to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms as the medium of stable long-term isolation. This material can be generated in situ in the subsurface thus eliminating the need for excavation to immobilize the actinide ions. Previous investigations have identified a suitable organophosphorus reagent and profiled its decomposition kinetics, verified the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, determined solubility limits for appropriate metal phosphates under groundwater conditions, and examined the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus reagent. In this report, the focus is on a laboratory-scale demonstration of the concept using a soil sample from the Fernald Environmental Management Plant.

  13. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  14. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}]: 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}]: 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  15. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  16. TRANSITION & CLOSEOUT OF THE FERNALD CLOSURE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    BILSON, H.E.

    2007-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Fluor Fernald have completed the majority of the cleanup of the Fernald Site. The over 1000 acre complex for processing uranium has been demolished and soil contamination has been remediated. With acres of wetlands and prairies replacing the buildings and waste pits. At the end of the project the focus shifted to developing demonstrating the completion of the project and the contract, as well as ensuring a smooth transition of the facility from the DOE's Environmental Management (EM) Program to the DOE's Legacy Management (LM) Program.

  17. Celebrating success at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Ofte, D.; Baublitz, J.E.; Chaney, K.; Hansen, R.

    1995-01-30

    Restoration of the Fernald Environmental Management Project is now moving from the environmental investigation stage to real, tangible remediation progress. Using a variety of programmatic innovations, DOE and FERMCO continue to strengthen an effective partnership that supports a mutually-developed mission of safe, least-cost, earliest final remediation of the Fernald Site while complying with all applicable DOE Orders, regulatory requirements and commitments and addressing the concerns of the many stakeholders who have an interest in how remediation at Fernald progresses. The progress that is occurring at Fernald is testimony to a productive DOE/FERMCO partnership that will continue to be an essential part of the difficult environmental restoration task at this site.

  18. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer ({mu}m) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg{sup -1}). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 {mu}m (sand) or less than 53 {mu}m (silt and clay) soil fraction.

  19. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  20. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily disturbed soils, Fernald will use

  1. Office of Inspector General audit report on Fluor Daniel Fernald`s use of temporary services subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) and Fluor Daniel Fernald (Fluor Daniel) implemented two work force restructurings at the Fernald Environmental Management Project between Fiscal Years (FY) 1994 and 1996. During the restructurings, the Department`s cost for temporary service subcontracts increased from $2.8 million to $9.8 million annually. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Fluor Daniel utilized temporary service agreements in an economical and efficient manner and in accordance with the policy and goals of the Department`s Work Force Restructuring Program.

  2. Uranium in soils integrated demonstration site characterization at Fernald, Ohio. Report of uranium concentrations in soil determined by in situ LA-ICP-AES

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.; Zamzow, D.; Bajic, S.J.

    1993-02-02

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry was used for in situ determination of uranium and thorium concentrations in soil at 80 sampling sites in the Sewage Treatment Plant area. This work was performed by the Environmental Technology Development Program of the Ames Laboratory using a completely self-contained mobile laboratory. This laboratory, the mobile demonstration laboratory for environmental screening technologies and the robotic sampling accessory, were designed and constructed by the Ames Laboratory during FY 1992. The instrumentation is capable of analyzing each sample for twenty operator-defined elements simultaneously. Using the MDLEST/RSA, the uranium concentrations in the soil at the 80 sampling sites were found to range from <20 parts-per-million (ppM)(<13.5 pCi/g) to 303 ppM (205 pCi/g). The 95% confidence interval for these field determined values range from 80 to 110 ppM. Bore hole samples from two sites were analyzed. No measurable uranium concentration was detected below the one foot depth. Seven samples taken from sites within an area currently under remediation were analyzed and found to contain uranium concentrations ranging from 101 ppM (68.3 pCi/g) to 788 ppM (532 pCi/g). Soil samples were taken from twelve of the 80 sampling sites in the field, using conventional sampling techniques. These samples were prepared by microwave digestion, using the wet chemistry capability in the MDLEST, and field analyzed using solution nebulization ICP-AES. The laboratory procedure followed for microwave digestion required the samples to be diluted by a factor of 100. This dilution resulted in uranium intensities too low to be accurately quantitated in the field. Optimization of the instrumentation and sample preparation will make this field capability useful in determining near real-time the soil matrix, and enable the performance of this quality assurance process in the field with greater sensitivity and accuracy.

  3. Transition and closeout of the Fernald Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bilson, H.E.; Terry, T.; Reising, J.; Powell, J.; Miller, M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Fluor Fernald have completed the majority of the cleanup of the Fernald Site. The over 1,000 acre complex for processing uranium has been demolished and soil contamination has been remediated. With acres of wetlands and prairies replacing the buildings and waste pits. At the end of the project the focus shifted to developing demonstrating the completion of the project and the contract, as well as ensuring a smooth transition of the facility from the DOE's Environmental Management (EM) Program to the DOE's Legacy Management (LM) Program. Working with the DOE, each portion of the closure contract was examined for specific closure definition. From this negotiation effort the Comprehensive Exit and Transition Plan (CE/T Plan) was written. The CE/T Plan is intended to assist DOE in the analysis that the site is ready for transfer into long-term stewardship (LTS) (also referred to as legacy management) and that Fluor Fernald, Inc. has satisfactorily completed the closure contract statement of work elements. Following the Lessons Learned from the closure of the Rocky Flats Site, the DOE's Legacy Management Program created a matrix of Transition Elements required to ensure adequate information was in place to allow the new prime contractor to perform the Legacy Management scope of work. The transition plan included over 1,000 elements broken down into functional areas and relied on specific Fernald Responsibility Transition Packages (RTPs) for detailed transition actions. The template for Closure and Transition Planning used at the Fernald Site was developed using the best Lessons Learned from across the DOE Complex. The template could be used for other sites, and lessons learned from this closure and transition will be appropriate for all closure projects. (authors)

  4. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

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    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration.

  5. Measurements of radon, thoron, isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and risk at Fernald Feed Materials Production Center. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.

    1998-06-01

    'The research objectives of this report are: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure during remediation. This personal monitor is a miniaturization and modification of the area {sup 222}Rn monitor that has proven accuracy and precision. (2) To develop a personal aerosol particle size sampler, based on the principles of the novel sampler the author has developed. The sampler measures not only {sup 222}Rn decay product aerosol size but long lived nuclides. There are, as yet, no size distribution data on the aerosol particle size distribution of these nuclides during remediation, yet the aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample for {sup 228,230,232}Th, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 234,235,238}U and {sup 210}Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry to accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment. To obtain historic and present radiochemical data to understand the need for supplemental soil/water etc. measurements.'

  6. 1992 Fernald Site Environmental Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the Fernald site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This report covers the reporting period from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992, with the exception of Chapter Three, which provides information from the first quarter of 1993 as well as calendar year 1992 information. This 1992 report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Use included in this report are summary data of the sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. Finally, this report provides general information on the major waste management and environmental restoration activities during 1992.

  7. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap-filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. While many gap-filling methodologies have been employed, there is ...

  8. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    PubMed Central

    Bahn, M.; Reichstein, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Grünzweig, J.; Jung, M.; Carbone, M. S.; Epron, D.; Misson, L.; Nouvellon, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Savage, K.; Trumbore, S. E.; Gimeno, C.; Yuste, J. Curiel; Tang, J.; Vargas, R.; Janssens, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Soil respiration (SR) constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT), irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10). We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P) is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET), annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle. PMID:23293656

  9. The SWAMI inspection robot: Fernald site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.

    1993-09-28

    The purpose of this document is to introduce and describe the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) robot project and to identify issues that will need to be addressed prior to its field demonstration at Fernald in mid-1995. SWAMI is a mobile robotic vehicle that will perform mandated weekly inspections of waste containers. Fernald has a large inventory of these containers and a need to protect workers from radiation hazards while enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspections. Fernald`s role in this project is to supply the demonstration site and make all necessary preparations. This includes identification of the test areas and plans, and identification and compliance to Federal, State, DOE, and Site regulations on system safety and quality. In addition, Fernald will link SWAMI output images to off-line mass data storage, and also to an on-line ORACLE database. The authors shall initiate a dialog with State and Federal regulators towards the near term goal of acceptance of the SWAMI test plan and a longer term goal of acceptance of SWAMI as a supplement and improvement to present mandated RCRA inspections.

  10. Characterization of Fernald Silo 3 Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2001-04-04

    This report summarizes characterization results for uranium residues from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit (OU-4). These residues are currently stored in a one-million-gallon concrete silo, Silo 3, at the DOE Fernald Site, Ohio. Characterization of the Silo 3 waste is the first part of a three part study requested by Rocky Mountain Remedial Services (RMRS) through a Work for others Agreement, WFO-00-007, between the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and RMRS. Parts 2 and 3 of this effort include bench- and pilot-scale testing.

  11. Gap filling strategies for annual estimates of soil respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Zeri, M.; Bernacchi, C. J.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon cycle. Quantifying the contribution of Rsoil to the global carbon cycle requires calculating annual fluxes from measurements that often are made sporadically. Rsoil records generally contain gaps. Filling data gaps is therefore requisite to accurately predict Rsoil. However, the reliability of various strategies for filling gaps in Rsoil records and scaling survey respiration measurements to an annual time scale has not yet been assessed. Here, we: 1) conducted a literature survey for gap filling strategies used to estimate annual Rsoil, and 2) evaluated the performance of different gap filling methods by analyzing the errors introduced when filling artificial gaps in annual Rsoil datasets for various ecosystem types. Gap filling methods evaluated included linear and cubic interpolation, monthly average, and exponential temperature-dependence models assuming a) a single temperature sensitivity (E) and reference Rsoil (Rref, Rsoil at 10°C) over the entire year, b) constant E and varying Rref, and c) varying E and Rref, and soil temperature and moisture-dependence methods. Artificial gaps were introduced to the datasets at 11 gap fractions (0-95% of existing data) and in a pattern replicating bi-monthly survey measurements (>99% "gap") and filled using each method. In addition, we analyzed how the timing of survey measurements (>99% gap) affected gap-filling performance, considering two time frames for measurement (9AM-5PM and 9AM-12PM) and two portions of the year (entire year and growing season only). Our literature survey identified a wide variety of gap filling methods that have been used in Rsoil records. The linear interpolation method along with the temperature-dependence Rsoil model assuming a single E and Rref over the entire year were the gap filling methods most widely used. All methods performed best at lower gap fractions and had relatively high, systematic errors for

  12. Gap filling strategies and error in estimating annual soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina; Zeri, Marcelo; Bernacchi, Carl J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-06-01

    Soil respiration (Rsoil ) is one of the largest CO2 fluxes in the global carbon (C) cycle. Estimation of annual Rsoil requires extrapolation of survey measurements or gap filling of automated records to produce a complete time series. Although many gap filling methodologies have been employed, there is no standardized procedure for producing defensible estimates of annual Rsoil . Here, we test the reliability of nine different gap filling techniques by inserting artificial gaps into 20 automated Rsoil records and comparing gap filling Rsoil estimates of each technique to measured values. We show that although the most commonly used techniques do not, on average, produce large systematic biases, gap filling accuracy may be significantly improved through application of the most reliable methods. All methods performed best at lower gap fractions and had relatively high, systematic errors for simulated survey measurements. Overall, the most accurate technique estimated Rsoil based on the soil temperature dependence of Rsoil by assuming constant temperature sensitivity and linearly interpolating reference respiration (Rsoil at 10 °C) across gaps. The linear interpolation method was the second best-performing method. In contrast, estimating Rsoil based on a single annual Rsoil - Tsoil relationship, which is currently the most commonly used technique, was among the most poorly-performing methods. Thus, our analysis demonstrates that gap filling accuracy may be improved substantially without sacrificing computational simplicity. Improved and standardized techniques for estimation of annual Rsoil will be valuable for understanding the role of Rsoil in the global C cycle. PMID:23504959

  13. The highly successful safe remediation of the Fernald waste pits undertaken under the privatization model

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Mark; Lojek, Dave; Murphy, Con

    2003-02-23

    Remediation of eight waste pits at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, located northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, involves excavating approximately one million tonnes in-situ of low-level waste which were placed in pits during Fernald's production era. This unique project, one of the largest in the history of CERCLA/Superfund, includes uranium and thorium contaminated waste, soils and sludges. These wet soils and sludges are thermally dried in a processing facility to meet Department of Transportation (DOT) transportation and disposal facility waste acceptance criteria, loaded into railcars and shipped to the Envirocare waste disposal facility at Clive, Utah. This project is now approximately 60% complete with more than 415,000 tonnes (460,000 tons) of waste material safely shipped in 74 unit trains to Envirocare. Work is scheduled to be completed in early 2005. Success to date demonstrates that a major DOE site remediation project can be safely and successfully executed in partnership with private industry, utilizing proven commercial best practices, existing site labor resources and support of local stakeholders. In 1997 under the DOE's privatization initiative, Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald) solicited the services of the remediation industry to design, engineer, procure, construct, own and operate a facility that would undertake the remediation of the waste pits. The resulting procurement was awarded to IT Corporation, currently Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw). The contractor was required to finance the procurement and construction of its facilities and infrastructure. The contract was performance-based and payment would be made on the successful loadout of the waste from the facility on a per-ton basis meeting the Envirocare waste acceptance criteria. This paper details the performance to date, the challenges encountered, and the seamless partnering between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Fluor Fernald, Shaw, labor

  14. Technology development and applications at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, P.J.; Skriba, M.C.; Warner, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio, the U.S. Department of Energy and contractor Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) are aggressively pursuing both the development and the application of improved, innovative technology to the environmental restoration task. Application of emerging technologies is particularly challenging in a regulatory environment that places pressure on operational managers to develop and meet tight schedules. The regulatory and operational needs make close communication essential between technology developers and technology users (CERCLA/RCRA Unit managers). At Fernald this cooperation and communication has led, not only to the development and demonstration of new technologies with applications at other sites, but also to application of new technologies directly to the Fernald clean up. New technologies have been applied to improve environmental safety and health, improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts, and to cut restoration costs. The paper will describe successful efforts to develop and apply new technologies at the FEMP and will emphasize those technologies that have been applied and are planned for use in the clean up of this former uranium production facility.

  15. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Emilie R; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R; Linquist, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  16. Estimating Annual Soil Carbon Loss in Agricultural Peatland Soils Using a Nitrogen Budget Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Emilie R.; van Kessel, Chris; Horwath, William R.; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM) oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa) production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 – 4 % combined). Shallow groundwater contributed 24 – 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 – 81 % of plant N uptake (129 – 149 kg N ha-1) was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 – 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 – 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices. PMID:25822494

  17. Root traits and soil properties in harvested perennial grassland, annual wheat, and never-tilled annual wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Root functional traits are determinants of soil carbon storage; plant productivity; and ecosystemproperties. However, few studies look at both annual and perennial roots, soil properties, and productivity in the context of field scale agricultural systems. Methods: In Long Term...

  18. Development and testing of the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) system for Fernald wastes. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.S.; Matlack, K.S.; Mohr, R.K.; Brandys, M. Hojaji, H.; Bennett, S.; Ruller, J.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents results of a treatability study for the evaluation of the MAWS process for wastes stored at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. Wastes included in the study were FEMP Pit 5 sludges, soil-wash fractions, and ion exchange media from a water treatment system supporting a soil washing system. MAWS offers potential for treating a variety of waste streams to produce a more leach resistant waste form at a lower cost than, say, cement stabilization.

  19. Characterization of reproduction and growth of American robins at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Ambrose, D.M.; Simpson, J.C. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a Biological and Ecological Site Characterization of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), suppressed growth in onsite American robin nestlings was discovered in 1987 and in 1990. However, the causal factors relating to suppressed growth were not investigated. This study was initiated to determine if growth suppression still existed, and if so, the possible relationship of FEMP land management practices and soil contaminants through food chains to growth and reproductive fitness. This study was expanded to include five offsite sampling sites, as well as analyses of soils and earthworms for uranium, pesticides/herbicides, and heavy metals.

  20. Phytoremediation of high phosphorus soil by annual ryegrass and common bermudagrass harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of soil phosphorus (P) in crop harvest is a remediation option for soils high in P. This four-year field-plot study determined P uptake by annual ryegrass (ARG, Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and common bermudagrass (CB, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) from Ruston soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic...

  1. The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J.; Deyo, Y.

    2008-07-01

    At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

  2. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-05-18

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations.

  3. An annual model of SSM/I radiobrightness for dry soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Yuei-An; England, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    An annual model is presented of the temperature structure within a homogeneous, dry soil halfspace that is subject to both diurnal and annual insolation, radiant heating from the atmosphere, sensible heat exchange with the atmosphere, and radiant cooling. The thermal constitutive properties of the soil are assumed to be constant so that the heat flow equation can be solved analytically. For computational economy, a variable time interval Laplace transform method is developed to predict the temperature.

  4. Followup on audit of depleted uranium metal production at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-23

    On November 29, 1989, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Inspector General issued audit report No. DOE/IG-0277, Depleted Uranium Metal Production at Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio.'' The audit concluded that DOE could save about $101 million by (1) completing a program to qualify commercial vendors to produce depleted uranium metal, (2) preproducing depleted uranium for future years, and (3) cancelling planned capital expenditures for projects not required for preproduction. The purpose of the current audit was to follow up on the previous audit report recommendations to determine whether corrective actions were taken and the intended results were achieved. Management adequately addressed most of the prior audit report recommendations that resulted in cost avoidances of $119.3 million. However, all planned capital expenditures for production processes were not cancelled, and a Fernald site development plan was not completed. This was attributed to not developing an action plan to implement prior audit report recommendations. As a result, $17.5 million was spent during Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 for the purchase and installation of production equipment that will never be used for production at Fernald. Management concurred with the findings and recommendations. Details of the findings are the subject of Part II of the report. Management and auditor comments are in Part III.

  5. Followup on audit of depleted uranium metal production at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-23

    On November 29, 1989, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Inspector General issued audit report No. DOE/IG-0277, ``Depleted Uranium Metal Production at Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio.`` The audit concluded that DOE could save about $101 million by (1) completing a program to qualify commercial vendors to produce depleted uranium metal, (2) preproducing depleted uranium for future years, and (3) cancelling planned capital expenditures for projects not required for preproduction. The purpose of the current audit was to follow up on the previous audit report recommendations to determine whether corrective actions were taken and the intended results were achieved. Management adequately addressed most of the prior audit report recommendations that resulted in cost avoidances of $119.3 million. However, all planned capital expenditures for production processes were not cancelled, and a Fernald site development plan was not completed. This was attributed to not developing an action plan to implement prior audit report recommendations. As a result, $17.5 million was spent during Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 for the purchase and installation of production equipment that will never be used for production at Fernald. Management concurred with the findings and recommendations. Details of the findings are the subject of Part II of the report. Management and auditor comments are in Part III.

  6. HARVESTING ANNUAL RYEGRASS TO REMOVE EXCESS SOIL NUTRIENTS IN A BERMUDAGRASS PASTURE FERTILIZED WITH BROILER LITTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage producers in the southeast USA often overseed bermudagrass with annual ryegrass in order to enhance annual dry matter (DM) production. As a result, this practice has potential to increase the removal rate of excess phosphorus (P) from manure-impacted soils. This research compared the fate of ...

  7. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  8. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  9. The Fernald wet records recovery project: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, H.J.; Devir, B.R.; Hawley, R.A.; Freesmeyer, M.T.

    1995-06-22

    This paper discusses a project performed to recover wet records discovered in January 1995 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This paper discusses the emergency and record recovery phases of the project, the technical options considered for records recovery, and special measures which were required due to radiological contamination of the records. Also, the root causes and lessons learned from the incident, and path forward for future records management operations at Fernald, are discussed.

  10. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the 1995 Site Environmental Report for the Fernald site. It describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. An overview is presented of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment.

  11. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  12. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  13. Comparison of soil microbial respiration and carbon turnover under perennial and annual biofuel crops in two agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, L. M.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Sanford, G. R.; Jackson, R. D.; Heckman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to provide a low carbon-intensive alternative to fossil fuels. More than a century of agricultural research has shown that conventional cropping systems can reduce soil organic matter (SOM) reservoirs, which cause long-term soil nutrient loss and C release to the atmosphere. In the face of climate change and other human disruptions to biogeochemical cycles, identifying biofuel crops that can maintain or enhance soil resources is desirable for the sustainable production of bioenergy. The objective of our study was to compare the effects of four biofuel crop treatments on SOM dynamics in two agricultural soils: Mollisols at Arlington Agricultural Research Station in Wisconsin and Alfisols at Kellogg Biological Station in Michigan, USA. We used fresh soils collected in 2013 and archived soils from 2008 to measure the effects of five years of crop management. Using a one-year long laboratory soil incubation coupled with a regression model and radiocarbon measurements, we separated soils into three SOM pools and their corresponding C turnover times. We found that the active pool, or biologically available C, was more sensitive to management and is an earlier indicator of changes to soil C dynamics than bulk soil C measurements. There was no effect of treatment on the active pool size at either site; however, the percent C in the active pool decreased, regardless of crop type, in surface soils with high clay content. At depth, the response of the slow pool differed between annual and perennial cropping systems. The distribution of C among SOM fractions varied between the two soil types, with greater C content associated with the active fraction in the coarser textured-soil and greater C content associated with the slow-cycling fraction in the soils with high clay content. These results suggest that the effects of bioenergy crops on soil resources will vary geographically, with implications for the carbon-cost of biocrop production.

  14. Estimation of radon exposures to workers at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center 1952-1988.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Richard W; Pinney, Susan M; Lodwick, Jeffrey; Killough, George G; Brewer, David E; Nasuta, James

    2008-09-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio produced uranium metal products for use in Department of Energy defense programs. Radium-contaminated waste material was stored on-site in two K-65 silos on the west side of the facility and provided a source of 222Ra. The initial objective of this study was to estimate radon exposures to employees at FMPC working from 1952 to 1988. A modified Gaussian plume model was used to estimate exposures to workers. In an effort to validate these model-based estimates, we used 138 CR-39 film assays from window glass sampled in buildings throughout the site. Results from the CR-39 assays indicated a second substantial source of radon, the smaller Q-11 silos located in the production area. A response-surface regression analysis using a cubic spline model was fit to the CR-39 data to estimate 210Po surface activity levels at geographic coordinates throughout the facility. Knowledge of the age of the glass, the amount of contaminated waste in the Q-11 silos, and 210Po decay rates were used to estimate annual exposures to radon decay products (WLM: working level months). Estimated WLM levels associated with the Q-11 source term indicated that employees working in the vicinity during the period when they were filled with radium-contaminated waste (1952-1958) received substantially higher radon exposures than those from the K-65 source during this period. Results of the two models, corresponding to the K-65 and Q-11 sources, were combined to estimate WLM levels by year for each of the 7143 Fernald workers during the period 1952-1988. Estimated cumulative exposures to individual workers ranged from <0.5 to 751 WLM. Estimated radon exposures from this newly discovered source have important implications for future epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in workers at the Fernald facility. PMID:18183043

  15. Annual Soil CO2 efflux Across Three Climatically-distinct Forest Chronsequences in Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Sun, O.; Law, B.

    2002-12-01

    As advances in earth science and terrestrial ecology bring these fields closer together, the search for drivers underlying forest processes is being succeeded by a need to understand how these processes manifest themselves over broader spatial domains. Because 60-80% of all CO2 released into the atmosphere by forests emanates from the soil surface, assessing global carbon cycles demands an understanding of how forest soil respiration is regulated not only at individual sites but also over broad spatial scales. To assess soil CO2 efflux over the full range of western Oregon's forest conditions, annual soil CO2 efflux, and a suit of other physical and biological indices was determined measured for 36 study plots arranged as three independent replicates of four age classes blocked by three climatically-distinct cover types. Forest ages range from 10 to 300 years and were subjectively classified as either initiation, young, mature or old. The three cover types spanned a 200 km transect and included 1) wet coastal hemlock-Sitka spruce 2) montane Douglas fir, and 3) rain shadow ponderosa pine. Annual soil CO2 efflux for the year 2001 was computed by combining periodic chamber measurements with continuous soil temperature measurements, which were used along with site-specific temperature response curves to interpolate daily soil C-efflux between dates of direct measurement. Results indicate significant cover type, age, and cover type x age interaction effects on annual soil CO2 efflux. Average annual soil CO2 efflux was 1232, 1805, and 666 g C m-2 yr-1 for the spruce, fir, and pine sites respectively. At the pine site, where root biomass averages 22% of belowground C, variation in annual soil CO2 efflux among age classes is explained largely by aboveground production rates, with the youngest stands having the lowest rates and the mature stands having the highest rates. At the spruce site, where root biomass averages only 13% of belowground C, differences between age

  16. Effects of rainfall seasonality and soil moisture capacity on mean annual water balance for Australian catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, N.J.; Zhang, L.; Milly, P.C.D.; McMahon, T.A.; Jakeman, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    An important factor controlling catchment-scale water balance is the seasonal variation of climate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the seasonal distributions of water and energy, and their interactions with the soil moisture store, on mean annual water balance in Australia at catchment scales using a stochastic model of soil moisture balance with seasonally varying forcing. The rainfall regime at 262 catchments around Australia was modeled as a Poisson process with the mean storm arrival rate and the mean storm depth varying throughout the year as cosine curves with annual periods. The soil moisture dynamics were represented by use of a single, finite water store having infinite infiltration capacity, and the potential evapotranspiration rate was modeled as an annual cosine curve. The mean annual water budget was calculated numerically using a Monte Carlo simulation. The model predicted that for a given level of climatic aridity the ratio of mean annual evapotranspiration to rainfall was larger where the potential evapotranspiration and rainfall were in phase, that is, in summer-dominant rainfall catchments, than where they were out of phase. The observed mean annual evapotranspiration ratios have opposite results. As a result, estimates of mean annual evapotranspiration from the model compared poorly with observational data. Because the inclusion of seasonally varying forcing alone was not sufficient to explain variability in the mean annual water balance, other catchment properties may play a role. Further analysis showed that the water balance was highly sensitive to the catchment-scale soil moisture capacity. Calibrations of this parameter indicated that infiltration-excess runoff might be an important process, especially for the summer-dominant rainfall catchments; most similar studies have shown that modeling of infiltration-excess runoff is not required at the mean annual timescale. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Managing Claypan Soils: Annual Grain Crops vs. Perennial Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Topsoil depth and landscape position are important factors in the claypan region of Missouri for agricultural productivity and soil-water conservation. Shallow topsoil reduces grain productivity and causes yield inconsistencies, while traditional grain cropping increases soil erosion and nonpoint so...

  18. Antibacterial compounds from Salvia adenophora Fernald (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Bisio, Angela; Schito, Anna Maria; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Hamburger, Matthias; Mele, Giacomo; Piatti, Gabriella; Romussi, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2015-02-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia adenophora Fernald four derivatives of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1-4) together with five clerodane diterpenoids (5, 6, 8-10), and one known diterpene (7) have been isolated. Compounds 1-6 and 8-10 are described for the first time. The structures were established by extensive 1D, 2D NMR and HRESI-TOFMS spectroscopic methods. Finally, the absolute configuration has been established by comparing of experimental and quantum chemical calculation of ECD spectra. Despite a total lack of antimicrobial activity of the plant extract, hinting to the existence of antagonistic interactions in the crude material, three oxylipins (2-4) displayed a promising inhibition on Gram-positive multidrug-resistant clinical strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and, particularly, Staphylococcus epidermidis, while the compounds 9 and 10 revealed a specific and strain-dependent activity against S. epidermidis. Interestingly, the inhibition provided by these compounds was independent of the resistance patterns of these pathogens to classic antibiotics. No action was reported on Gram-negative strains nor on Candida albicans. These results confirm that clerodanes and, particularly, prostaglandin-like compounds can be considered as interesting antimicrobial agents deserving further study. PMID:25435172

  19. Vitrification development and experiences at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Gimpel, R.F.; Paine, D.; Roberts, J.L.; Akgunduz, N.

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification of radioactive wastes products have proven to produce an extremely stable waste form. Vitrification involves the melting of wastes with a mixture of glass-forming additives at high temperatures; when cooled, the wastes are incorporated into a glass that is analogous to obsidian. Obsidian is a volcanic glass-like rock, commonly found in nature. A one-metric ton/day Vitrification Pilot Plant (VITPP) at Fernald, Ohio, simulated the vitrification of radium and radon bearing silo residues using representative non-radioactive surrogates. These non-radioactive surrogates contained high concentrations of lead, sulfates, and phosphates. The vitrification process was carried out at temperatures of 1150 to 1350 C. Laboratory and bench-scale treatability studies were conducted before initiation of the VITPP. Development of the glass formulas, containing up to 90% waste, will be discussed in the paper. The VITPP processed glass for seven months, until a breach of the melter containment vessel suspended operations. More than 70,000 pounds of good surrogate glass were produced by the VITPP. Experiences, lessons learned, and the planned path forward will be presented.

  20. Organizing for public involvement in Fernald decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, K.L.; Hoopes, J.

    1993-10-24

    Fernald is returning to the basics of interpersonal communication as a cornerstone of its public involvement program. The guiding premise behind this concept is the belief that face-to-face interaction between people is more likely to build trust and confidence than public meetings, news releases and other traditional public information techniques. A network of project spokespersons, called ``envoys,`` is being organized to develop person-to-person relationships with people interested in the future of Fernald. To support this approach, public affairs personnel are adopting roles as management consultants and communications coaches in addition to serving in their traditional role as public information specialists. Early observations seem to show signs of improvement in the level of public trust in Fernald decision-makers.

  1. Winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to annual soil respiration in different ecosystems of Ebinur Lake Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Lv, G. H.; He, X. M.; Yang, J. J.; Wang, H. L.; Zhang, X. N.; Ma, H. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Arid and semiarid areas account for about one-third of the total land surface, and which play an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate system. However, up to now, compare with plenty knowledge information on winter soil efflux of forest ecosystems in mid-latitude ecosystems, winter soil efflux of arid areas at mid-latitude ecosystems is scare, Ebinur Lake Area, which is the study area of the present study, is located in arid regions of Northern China, with a vulnerable ecological environment suffering from extreme weather and climate. The objectives of this study were: (1) measure the winter soil respiration rate in our study area and determine its major environmental factors; (2) determine the winter soil CO2 efflux and its contribution to annual soil CO2 efflux in different ecosystems; and (3) discuss the estimated method of soil respiration that is most suitable to arid areas. We measured winter soil CO2 efflux and the associated environment factors in a farmland ecosystem (50a and 9a cotton fields), an abandoned land ecosystem (7a and 3a abandoned lands) and desert ecosystem ( Populus euphratica, Phragmites australis communities and sandy desert) in Ebinur Lake Area, China. The average winter soil respiration rate in the arid areas in the mid-latitude was 0.063 μmol m-2 s-1 to 0.730 μmol m-2 s-1. Specifically, the average winter soil respiration rate in the farmland ecosystems, abandoned land ecosystems and desert ecosystems were 0.686 μmol m-2 s-1, 0.443 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.276 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Range of annual Q 10 (known as the increase in soil respiration rate per 10°C increase in temperature) in the three ecosystems were 0.989 to 4.962, 1.971 to 2.096 and 0.947 to 5.173, respectively. The relatively higher Q 10 values in the different ecosystems were all obtained in winter. We found that water (in the form of soil moisture or atmospheric humidity) was the primary factor that affected the change of soil respiration rate in the

  2. Suppression of annual Bromus tectorum by perennial Agropyron cristatum: roles of soil nitrogen availability and biological soil space

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Robert R.; Morgan, Tye; Allen, Fay

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, exotic invasive grasses have caused numerous ecosystem perturbations. Rangelands of the western USA have experienced increases in the size and frequency of wildfires largely due to invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum. Rehabilitation of invaded rangelands is difficult; but long-term success is predicated on establishing healthy and dense perennial grass communities, which suppress B. tectorum. This paper reports on two experiments to increase our understanding of soil factors involved in suppression. Water was not limiting in this study. Growth of B. tectorum in soil conditioned by and competing with the exotic perennial Agropyron cristatum was far less relative to its growth without competition. When competing with A. cristatum, replacing a portion of conditioned soil with fresh soil before sowing of B. tectorum did not significantly increase its growth. The ability of conditioned soil to suppress B. tectorum was lost when it was separated from growing A. cristatum. Soil that suppressed B. tectorum growth was characterized by low mineral nitrogen (N) availability and a high molar ratio of NO2− in the solution-phase pool of NO2−+NO3−. Moreover, resin availability of NO2−+NO3− explained 66 % of the variability in B. tectorum above-ground mass, attesting to the importance of A. cristatum growth in reducing N availability to B. tectorum. Trials in which B. tectorum was suppressed the most were characterized by very high shoot/root mass ratios and roots that have less root hair growth relative to non-suppressed counterparts, suggesting co-opting of biological soil space by the perennial grass as another suppressive mechanism. Greater understanding of the role of biological soil space could be used to breed and select plant materials with traits that are more suppressive to invasive annual grasses. PMID:25603967

  3. Evaluating Soil Compaction for an Annual Winter Grazing/Vegetable Production Rotation in North-Central

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degraded soils of Alabama have demonstrated the ability to respond well to conservation tillage in a large variety of crops. Winter annual grazing/sod-based rotations with summer vegetable production can offer reduced economic risks for producers but may change tillage requirements for vegetable pro...

  4. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Native Prairie, Perennial Grass, and No-Tilled and Cultivated Annual Crops in Palouse Silt Loam Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial vegetation and annual cropping with low soil disturbance are often considered the best alternatives to tillage-based cropping systems for increasing C sequestration in soil. Our main objective was to evaluate soil organic C (SOC) and various measures of SOC characteristics in Palouse silt ...

  6. Non-native plant litter enhances soil carbon dioxide emissions in an invaded annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Hong; Zou, Jianwen; Rogers, William E; Siemann, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a fundamental ecosystem process in which breakdown and decay of plant detritus releases carbon and nutrients. Invasive exotic plants may produce litter that differs from native plant litter in quality and quantity. Such differences may impact litter decomposition and soil respiration in ways that depend on whether exotic and native plant litters decompose in mixtures. However, few field experiments have examined how exotic plants affect soil respiration via litter decomposition. Here, we conducted an in situ study of litter decomposition of an annual native grass (Eragrostis pilosa), a perennial exotic forb (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and their mixtures in an annual grassland in China to examine potential invasion effects on soil respiration. Alternanthera litter decomposed faster than Eragrostis litter when each was incubated separately. Mass loss in litter mixes was more rapid than predicted from rates in single species bags (only 35% of predicted mass remained at 8 months) showing synergistic effects. Notably, exotic plant litter decomposition rate was unchanged but native plant litter decomposition rate was accelerated in mixtures (decay constant k = 0.20 month(-1)) compared to in isolation (k = 0.10 month(-1)). On average, every litter type increased soil respiration compared to bare soil from which litter was removed. However, the increases were larger for mixed litter (1.82 times) than for Alternanthera litter (1.58 times) or Eragrostis litter (1.30 times). Carbon released as CO2 relative to litter carbon input was also higher for mixed litter (3.34) than for Alternathera litter (2.29) or Eragrostis litter (1.19). Our results indicated that exotic Alternanthera produces rapidly decomposing litter which also accelerates the decomposition of native plant litter in litter mixtures and enhances soil respiration rates. Thus, this exotic invasive plant species will likely accelerate carbon cycling and increase soil respiration

  7. Climate, interseasonal storage of soil water, and the annual water balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annual totals and seasonal variations of precipitation and potential evaporation on the annual water balance are explored. It is assumed that the only other factor of significance to annual water balance is a simple process of water storage, and that the relevant storage capacity is the plant-available water-holding capacity of the soil. Under the assumption that precipitation and potential evaporation vary sinusoidally through the year, it is possible to derive an analytic solution of the storage problem, and this yields an expression for the fraction of precipitation that evaporates (and the fraction that runs off) as a function of three dimensionless numbers: the ratio of annual potential evaporation to annual precipitation (index of dryness); an index of the seasonality of the difference between precipitation and potential evaporation; and the ratio of plant-available water-holding capacity to annual precipitation. The solution is applied to the area of the United States east of 105??W, using published information on precipitation, potential evaporation, and plant-available water-holding capacity as inputs, and using an independent analysis of observed river runoff for model evaluation. The model generates an areal mean annual runoff of only 187 mm, which is about 30% less than the observed runoff (263 mm). The discrepancy is suggestive of the importance of runoff-generating mechanisms neglected in the model. These include intraseasonal variability (storminess) of precipitation, spatial variability of storage capacity, and finite infiltration capacity of land. ?? 1994.

  8. Sonoran Desert winter annuals affected by density of red brome and soil nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salo, L.F.; McPherson, G.R.; Williams, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    Red brome [Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens (L.) Husn.] is a Mediterranean winter annual grass that has invaded Southwestern USA deserts. This study evaluated interactions among 13 Sonoran Desert annual species at four densities of red brome from 0 to the equivalent of 1200 plants ma??2. We examined these interactions at low (3 I?g) and high (537 I?g NO3a?? g soila??1) nitrogen (N) to evaluate the relative effects of soil N level on survival and growth of native annuals and red brome. Red brome did not affect emergence or survival of native annuals, but significantly reduced growth of natives, raising concerns about effects of this exotic grass on the fecundity of these species. Differences in growth of red brome and of the three dominant non nitrogen-fixing native annuals at the two levels of soil N were similar. Total species biomass of red brome was reduced by 83% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 42 to 95%. Mean individual biomass of red brome was reduced by 87% at low, compared to high, N levels, whereas that of the three native species was reduced by from 72 to 89%.

  9. A multiisotope C and N modeling analysis of soil organic matter turnover and transport as a function of soil depth in a California annual grassland soil chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baisden, W.T.; Amundson, Ronald; Brenner, D.L.; Cook, A.C.; Kendall, C.; Harden, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We examine soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and transport using C and N isotopes in soil profiles sampled circa 1949, 1978, and 1998 (a period spanning pulse thermonuclear 14C enrichment of the atmosphere) along a 3-million-year annual grassland soil chronosequence. Temporal differences in soil ??14C profiles indicate that inputs of recently living organic matter (OM) occur primarily in the upper 20-30 cm but suggest that OM inputs can occur below the primary rooting zone. A three-pool SOM model with downward transport captures most observed variation in ??14C, percentages of C and N, ??13C, and ??15N, supporting the commonly accepted concept of three distinct SOM pools. The model suggests that the importance of the decadal SOM pool in N dynamics is greatest in young and old soils. Altered hydrology and possibly low pH and/or P dynamics in highly developed old soils cause changes in soil C and N turnover and transport of importance for soil biogeochemistry models.

  10. Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, Walid; Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D; Yang, Chao; Bazghaleh, Navid; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hanson, Keith; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  11. Soil Fungal Resources in Annual Cropping Systems and Their Potential for Management

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Taheri, Ahmad; Bainard, Luke D.; Yang, Chao; Navarro-Borrell, Adriana; Hamel, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils. PMID:25247177

  12. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems. 2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America. 3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3.2 g N m-2 year-1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium. 4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens. 5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among individual

  13. Soils and climate: redness and weathering as indicators of mean annual precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Paleosols can be used as archives of past changes of climate and landscapes, but their interpretation has to be based on modern analogies such as Budyko's law of soil zonality. These can be very useful if the respective processes of soil formation are sufficiently well understood. However, some soils such as the Terra Rossa or Red Mediterranean Soils, that are widespread at the fringes of the steppes and deserts, are still disputed with regard to their genesis and environmental significance. In particular, there is no agreement whether they resemble current environmental conditions, or are inherited from climates or sediments of the past. In this context, a remarkable change of the color of surface soils can be observed when driving from the city of Irbid in Jordan towards the east. Soil color apparently changes slowly, but steadily from dark red to yellow colors. However, attempting to express these color changes in numerical form is challenging, and it seemed questionable whether color is indeed connected with soil weathering intensity, or an optical illusion. However, a systematic comparison of different approaches of calculating soil redness found that the CIELAB-color system is suited for numerical expressions of soil redness and performs better than the Munsell charts. Along the investigated transect in Jordan, soil color seems strongly connected with weathering intensity, since various weathering indicators point to a steady increase of soil development with moisture. This suggests that such indices can well be used in semi-arid areas of 250-600 mm of mean annual precipitation. A very strong correlation of magnetic enhancement and rainfall indicates that the investigated soils are forming in equilibrium with current climatic conditions, and regressions based on this gradient might be suited for estimating paleorainfalls recorded by buried paelosols. It seems therefore that surface Terra Rossa soils in Jordan can be in equilibrium with current climate

  14. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Lianhong; Huang, Ni; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-23

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this article, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest).

  15. Increases in the annual range of soil water storage at northern middle and high latitudes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Ying; Lan, Chia-Wei; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2015-05-01

    Soil water storage is a fundamental signal in the land hydrological cycle and changes in soil moisture can affect regional climate. In this study, we used simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to investigate changes in the annual range of soil water storage under global warming at northern middle and high latitudes. Results show that future warming could lead to significant declines in snowfall, and a corresponding lack of snowmelt water recharge to the soil, which makes soil water less available during spring and summer. Conversely, more precipitation as rainfall results in higher recharge to soil water during its accumulating season. Thus, the wettest month of soil water gets wetter, and the driest month gets drier, resulting in an increase of the annual range and suggesting that stronger heterogeneity in global water distribution (changing extremes) could occur under global warming; this has implications for water management and water security under a changing climate.

  16. Airborne Particle Size Distribution Measurements at USDOE Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Chittaporn, P.; Heikkinen, M.; Medora, R.; Merrill, R.

    2003-03-27

    There are no long term measurements of the particle size distribution and concentration of airborne radionuclides at any USDOE facility except Fernald. Yet the determinant of lung dose is the particle size, determining the airway and lower lung deposition. Beginning in 2000, continuous (6 to 8 weeks) measurements of the aerosol particle size distribution have been made with a miniature sampler developed under EMSP. Radon gas decays to a chain of four short lived solid radionuclides that attach immediately to the resident atmospheric aerosol. These in turn decay to long lived polonium 210. Alpha emitting polonium is a tracer for any atmospheric aerosol. Six samplers at Fernald and four at QC sites in New Jersey show a difference in both polonium concentration and size distribution with the winter measurements being higher/larger than summer by almost a factor of two at all locations. EMSP USDOE Contract DE FG07 97ER62522.

  17. Fernald vacuum transfer system for uranium materials repackaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushiva, Shirley; Weekley, Clint; Molecke, Martin; Polansky, Gary

    2002-02-24

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the site of a former Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing plant. When production was halted, many materials were left in an intermediate state. Some of this product material included enriched uranium compounds that had to be repackaged for shipment of off-site storage. This paper provides an overview, technical description, and status of a new application of existing technology, a vacuum transfer system, to repackage the uranium bearing compounds for shipment. The vacuum transfer system provides a method of transferring compounds from their current storage configuration into packages that meet the Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping requirements for fissile materials. This is a necessary activity, supporting removal of nuclear materials prior to site decontamination and decommissioning, key to the Fernald site's closure process.

  18. Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1992-11-01

    This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

  19. CLOSING IN ON CLOSURE PERSPECTIVES FROM HANFORD & FERNALD AN UPDATE

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, J.D.

    2004-12-22

    In World War II, the arms dramatically changed from machine guns and incendiary bombs to nuclear weapons. Hanford and Fernald, two government-run sites, were part of the infrastructure established for producing the fissile material for making these weapons, as well as building a nuclear arsenal to deter future aggression by other nations. This paper compares and contrasts, from a communications point of view, these two Department of Energy (DOE) closure sites, each with Fluor as a prime contractor. The major differences between the two sites--Hanford in Washington state and Fernald in Ohio--includes the following: size of the site and the workforce, timing of closure, definition of end state, DOE oversight, proximity to population centers, readiness of local population for closure, and dependence of the local economy on the site's budget. All of these elements affect how the sites' communication professionals provide information even though the objectives are the same: build public acceptance and support for DOE's mission to accelerate cleanup, interface with stakeholders to help ensure that issues are addressed and goals are met, help workers literally work themselves out of jobs--faster, and prepare the ''host'' communities to deal with the void left when the sites are closed and the government contractors are gone. The 12-months between January 04 and January 05 have seen dramatic transformations at both sites, as Fernald is now just about a year away from closure and FLuor's work at Hanford has made the transition from operations to deactivation and demolition. While Fernald continues to clean out silos of waste and ship it off site, Hanford is dealing with recent state legislation that has the potential to significantly impact the progress of cleanup. These changes have even further accentuated the differences in the content, distribution, and impact of communications.

  20. Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

  1. Use of passive alpha detectors to screen for uranium contamination in a field at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, C.S.; Meyer, K.E.; Gammage, R.B.; Wheeler, R.V.; Salasky, M.; Kotrappa, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper reports the results from a field test of newly developed techniques for inexpensive, in situ screening of soil for alpha contamination. Passive alpha detectors that are commercially available for the detection indoor airborne alpha activity (i.e., {sup 222}Rn) have been modified so they can be applied to the detection of alpha contamination on surfaces or in soils. Results reported here are from an intercomparison involving several different techniques with all measurements being made at the same sites in a field near the formerly used uranium processing facility at Fernald, Ohio, during the summer of 1994. The results for two types of passive alpha detector show that the quality of calibration is improved if soils samples are milled to increase homogeneity within the soil matrices. The correlation between laboratory based radiochemical analyses and quick, field-based screening measurements is acceptable and can be improved if the passive devices are left for longer exposure times in the field. The total cost per measurement for either type of passive alpha detector is probably less than $25 and should provide a cost-effective means for site managers to develop the information needed to find areas with remaining alpha contamination so resources can be allocated efficiently.

  2. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  3. The Future of Fernald: Community-Based Stewardship Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, D.; Sarno, D. J.

    2003-02-27

    For more than a decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has managed an environmental remediation project at its former uranium processing facility near Fernald, Ohio. To address public concerns about what will happen at the site once remediation is completed, the Site- Specific Advisory Board for the site, the Fernald Citizens Advisory Board (FCAB), designed and implemented the Future of Fernald. process to involve the public in planning for the site's future. The FCAB recently coordinated a feasibility study of post-remediation public access to site information. Information is a key component of Community-Based Stewardship, a system in which the public plays an integral role in long-term stewardship of a site. This study found that has just begun to address community needs for information during long-term stewardship. Through a public workshop, conducted as part of the study, the public was able to identify the kinds of information that are needed and how that information should be presented.

  4. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush steppe: the relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L

    2016-06-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km(2) area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives. PMID:26920900

  5. The impact of roots on soil organic carbon dynamics in annual and perennial agricultural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniston, J.; Dupont, T.; Glover, J.; Lal, R.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying and developing agricultural systems capable of transferring large quantities of carbon (C) to the soil and sustaining ecosystem processes and services is a priority for ecological researchers and land managers. Temperate grasslands have extensive root systems and transfer large quantities of C to the soil organic C (SOC) pool, which has lead to widespread interest in utilizing perennial grasses as both bioenergy crops and as a model for perennial grains. This study examined five sites in north central Kansas (U.S.A.) that contain the unique land use pairing of tall grass prairie meadows (PM) that have been harvested annually for hay for the past 75 years and annual grain (wheat) production fields (AG) that have been cultivated for a similar length of time, all on deep alluvial soils. Specific research objectives included: 1) To quantify below-ground biomass pools and root C contributions in the two systems; 2) To analyze and compare SOC pools and SOC concentration in primary particle size fractions in the two systems; 3) To utilize natural abundance δ13C signatures to determine the source and turnover of SOC in the soils of the AG sites; and 4) To elucidate the relationship of roots to both SOC pools and nematode food webs. Soil core samples were collected to a depth of 1 m in May and June 2008. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC, microbial biomass C (MBC), nematodes, and a particle size fractionation of SOC in coarse (>250 μm), particulate organic matter (POM) (53-250 μm), silt (2-53 μm), and clay (<2 μm) sized fractions. Root biomass, root length and root C were also analyzed to a depth of 1 m. Natural abundance δ13C values were obtained for all C parameters. Soils under PM had 4 times as much root C as AG soils to 1 m depth in mid May (PM 2.8 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.7 Mg ha-1) and 7 times as much root C to 1 m depth in late June (PM 3.5 Mg ha-1 and AG 0.5 Mg ha-1). The MBC pools were significantly larger in grassland soils to a depth of 60 cm in May

  6. Intraspecific and interspecific pair-wise seedling competition between exotic annual grasses and native perennials: Plant-soil relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined plant-soil relationships in competitive arenas between exotic and native plants in the western United States. A pair-wise competitive design was used to evaluate plant-soil relationships between seedings of the exotic annual grasses Bromus tectorum and Taentherium caput-med...

  7. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  8. A comparative study of AMF diversity in annual and perennial plant species from semiarid gypsum soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Roldán, A.; Díaz, G.; Torres, P.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities composition regulate plant interactions and determine the structure of plant communities. In this study we analysed the diversity of AMF in the roots of two perennial gypsophyte plant species, Herniaria fruticosa and Senecio auricula, and an annual herbaceous species, Bromus rubens, growing in a gypsum soil from a semiarid area. The objective was to determine whether perennial and annual host plants support different AMF communities in their roots and whether there are AMF species that might be indicators of specific functional plant roles in these ecosystems. The roots were analysed by nested PCR, cloning, sequencing of the ribosomal DNA small subunit region and phylogenetic analysis. Twenty AMF sequence types, belonging to the Glomus group A, Glomus group B, Diversisporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Archaeosporaceae and Paraglomeraceae, were identified. Both gypsophyte perennial species had differing compositions of the AMF community and higher diversity when compared with the annual species, showing preferential selection by specific AMF sequences types. B. rubens did not show host specificity, sharing the full composition of its AMF community with both perennial plant species. Seasonal variations in the competitiveness of AM fungi could explain the observed differences in AMF community composition, but this is still a working hypothesis that requires the analysis of further data obtained from a higher number of both annual and perennial plant species in order to be fully tested.

  9. Remote sensing-based estimation of annual soil respiration at two contrasting forest sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ni; Gu, Lianhong; Black, T. Andrew; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    Soil respiration (Rs), an important component of the global carbon cycle, can be estimated using remotely sensed data, but the accuracy of this technique has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we proposed a methodology for the remote estimation of annual Rs at two contrasting FLUXNET forest sites (a deciduous broadleaf forest and an evergreen needleleaf forest). A version of the Akaike's information criterion was used to select the best model from a range of models for annual Rs estimation based on the remotely sensed data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and root-zone soil moisture product derived from assimilation of the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer soil moisture products and a two-layer Palmer water balance model. We found that the Arrhenius-type function based on nighttime land surface temperature (LST-night) was the best model by comprehensively considering the model explanatory power and model complexity at the Missouri Ozark and BC-Campbell River 1949 Douglas-fir sites. In addition, a multicollinearity problem among LST-night, root-zone soil moisture, and plant photosynthesis factor was effectively avoided by selecting the LST-night-driven model. Cross validation showed that temporal variation in Rs was captured by the LST-night-driven model with a mean absolute error below 1 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at both forest sites. An obvious overestimation that occurred in 2005 and 2007 at the Missouri Ozark site reduced the evaluation accuracy of cross validation because of summer drought. However, no significant difference was found between the Arrhenius-type function driven by LST-night and the function considering LST-night and root-zone soil moisture. This finding indicated that the contribution of soil moisture to Rs was relatively small at our multiyear data set. To predict intersite Rs, maximum leaf area index (LAImax) was used as an upscaling factor to calibrate the site-specific reference respiration

  10. Monitoring Mediterranean Annual Grassland Response to the Changing Soil Moisture Using Digital Webcam Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Chadwick, O.; Roberts, D.; Still, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Annual grasses are more sensitive to water availability than other plant functional types since they have shallow root systems. Monitoring the relationship between soil-water availability and grass growth can improve our knowledge of the phenological timing of water needs and physiological activities such as flowering and senescence. Webcams have proven useful in providing fine resolution documentation of seasonal changes in plant morphology. Here we investigated whether digital webcam images could be used to monitor grass response to soil moisture fluctuations in southern California. Specifically, we quantified the relationship between grass greenness derived from digital images and soil water content measured at 20 cm. Three images were collected each day by a standard commercial webcam in the annual grassland in Coal Oil Point reserve and Sedgwick Ranch in Santa Barbara County, California. Red, green, and blue color channel brightness data of the region-of-interest were extracted from image taken at noon beginning on May 20th, 2008. Relative brightness of each color (red %, green %, and blue %) and the normalized difference index [(green %-red %)/(green %+red %)] were calculated based on brightness data. Soil moisture, temperature, vapor pressure, longwave and shortwave radiation were measured every fifteen minutes at both sites, and actual evapotranspiration was calculated using Bowen ratio method. The preliminary results in Coal Oil Point reserve showed that the green % was relatively stable in the summer but began to rise after the first major rain and then declined as soon as it reached the maximum. This pronounced change coincides with the phenological stage of the grasses. The green % was then compared with soil water content at 20 cm, and we found that the decline of green % lagged soil moisture by about 26 days, which implies that senescence rate of grasses is determined by the drying rate of soil moisture. However, before the point when green % started

  11. Repeated annual paper mill and alkaline residuals application affects soil metal fractions.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Bernard; Robichaud, Annie; Ziadi, Noura; Karam, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    The application of industrial residuals in agriculture may raise concerns about soil and crop metal accumulation. A complete study using a fractionation scheme would reveal build-up in metal pools occurring after material addition and predict the transformation of metals in soil between the different forms and potential metal release into the environment. An experimental study was conducted from 2000 to 2008 on a loamy soil at Yamachiche, Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the effects of repeated annual addition of combined paper mill biosolids when applied alone or with several liming by-products on soil Cu, Zn, and Cd fractions. Wet paper mill biosolids at 0, 30, 60, or 90 Mg ha and calcitic lime, lime mud, or wood ash, each at 3 Mg ha with 30 Mg paper mill biosolids ha, were surface applied after seeding. The soils were sampled after 6 (soybean [ (L.) Merr.]) and 9 [corn ( L.)] crop years and analyzed using the Tessier fractionation procedure. Results indicated that biosolids addition increased exchangeable Zn and Cd, carbonate-bound Cd, Fe-Mn oxide-bound Zn and Cd, organically bound Cu and Zn, and total Zn and Cd fractions but decreased Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cu in the uppermost 30-cm layer. With liming by-products, there was a shift from exchangeable to carbonate-bound forms. Even with very small metals addition, paper mill and liming materials increased the mobility of soil Zn and Cd after 9 yr of application, and this metal redistribution resulted into higher crop grain concentrations. PMID:25602653

  12. Annual input fluxes of heavy metals in agricultural soil of Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Yu, Tao; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Yi; Fu, Yangrong

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in farmland has become an important issue related to food security and environmental risk. The annual inputs of heavy metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) to agricultural soil for a full year in Hainan Island have been studied. Three fluxes through the cultivated horizon were considered: (1) atmospheric depositions, (2) fertilization, and (3) irrigation water. The corresponding samples were collected and analyzed on a large regional scale. The total input fluxes show obvious spatial variability among different regions. The inventory of heavy metal inputs to agricultural land demonstrates that agricultural soil is potentially at risk of heavy metal accumulation from irrigation water. The potential at risk of heavy metal accumulation from atmospheric deposition and fertilizer is relatively low compared to irrigation. The results indicate that Hg is the element of prior concern for agricultural soil, followed by Cd and As, and other heavy metal elements represent little threat to the environment in the study area. This work provides baseline information to develop policies to control and reduce toxic elements accumulated in agricultural soil. PMID:24643385

  13. Upscaling of annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in German organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Belting, Susanne; Laggner, Andreas; Leppelt, Thomas; Frahm, Enrico; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Water table depth is the key parameter controlling the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from organic soils (peatlands and other organic soils). Therefore, a good estimation of the spatial distribution of water table depth is crucial in any upscaling approach for these greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is further the prerequisite to assess the effects of re-wetting measures. There are attempts to obtain maps of water table depth at large scales (e.g. national or continental) by using process-based hydrological model concepts. However, major problem of the process-based approach is the representation of the water management (ditches, tile drains, pumping and weir management), which is at the best known spatially just for the ditch patterns. Thus, this approach is hardly applicable to the diversely-drained and -used organic soils in central Europe. Here, we present an alternative, data-driven approach for upscaling annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in organic soils. Groundwater level data of a unique dataset from about 60 peatlands, 1100 dipwells and around 8000 annual data sets, is the basis of this approach. Time series were used to calculate long-term annual means, average annual amplitudes and ponding durations. In case of continuous observations, shape parameters of the annual frequency distribution of water table depths were calculated. For each well, numerous site characteristics were collected as possible explanatory variables. This collection was restricted to nationally-available data. For each dipwell, land use is taken from official land use maps (German database ATKIS), and the soil type from the national geological map (1:200.000). In case of reliable site information, maps were corrected accordingly. Additionally, from these maps, topological indicators such as the ditch distance and density, the distance to the edge of the peatland and the peatland area within different buffers were calculated. Meteorological data (precipitation, potential

  14. Mobile Work Platform - A Fluor Fernald innovative dismantlement technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mark S. Peters; Paul R. Cromer; Robert Danner

    2000-06-16

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, has been charged with finding new and innovative D&D technologies and then validating through field demonstration that the technologies are safer, faster and/or more cost-effective. The D&D Focus Area's approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them at DOE sites in large-scale demonstration and deployment (LSDD) projects. The DOE's Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), near Cincinnati Ohio, was host for a LSDD Project overseen by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal; and is now currently undergoing active environmental restoration, including removal of major process facilities. As observed during the D&D of Fernald's Plant 1, the baseline method for removing piping required laborers to work above the floor on ladders, scaffolding, ardor man-lifts with hand-held power tools. The pipe must first be rigged to prevent falling when cut. After cutting, the pipe is manually lowered to the ground and placed in a storage/disposal container. The Mobile Work Platform (MWP) consists of a mobile chassis, telescoping arm and a dual crimper/shear ''end-effecter''. It has the capability to grab and hold a pipe, crimp and shear the pipe (up to a ten-foot section) on either side of where it is being held and then lower and place the pipe section into a storage/disposal container. The MWP can crimp/shear up to a 6-inch diameter, schedule 401, carbon steel pipe. A single operator using a radio remote control operates the MWP. The paper will describe the results (productivity, safety advantages and lessons learned) during the Mobile Work Platform demonstration at Fernald.

  15. Mineral cycling in soil and litter arthropod food chains. Annual progress report, February 1, 1983-January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-09-30

    This annual report describes progress in research on the influence of soil fauna on the general process of terrestrial decomposition. The major goal is to investigate the regulation of decomposition by soil arthropods. Methods have included radioactive tracer measurements of food chain dynamics, rates of nutrient or mineral element flow during decomposition, and simulation modeling. This year's report describes significant progress in defining the influence of soil arthropods in stimulating microbial immobilization of nutrients. Preliminary efforts to define the importance of the soil-litter macroarthropods are also reported.

  16. Fernald Environmental Management Project 1995 site environmental report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Fernald site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This 1995 Site Environmental Report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA.

  17. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  18. Evolution of Safety Basis Documentation for the Fernald Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Kohler, S.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F.; Klein, B.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project (FCP), in suburban Cincinnati, Ohio, is to safely complete the environmental restoration of the Fernald site by 2006. Over 200 out of 220 total structures, at this DOE plant site which processed uranium ore concentrates into high-purity uranium metal products, have been safely demolished, including eight of the nine major production plants. Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) for these facilities have gone through a process of simplification, from individual operating Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) to a single site-wide Authorization Basis containing nuclear facility Bases for Interim Operations (BIOs) to individual project Auditable Safety Records (ASRs). The final stage in DSA simplification consists of project-specific Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs) and Nuclear Health and Safety Plans (N-HASPs) that address all aspects of safety, from the worker in the field to the safety basis requirements preserving the facility/activity hazard categorization. This paper addresses the evolution of Safety Basis Documentation (SBD), as DSAs, from production through site closure.

  19. Elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients alter competitive performance of California annual grassland species

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, H.L.; Chapin, F.S. III; Field, C.B.

    1995-06-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} and soil nutrients altered interspecific competitive performance of three grassland annuals, all exhibiting the C{sub 3} metabolic pathway. Plantago erecta, an herbaceous dicot dominant in low-fertility serpentine grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at low soil nutrients. Bromus hordeaceus, an introduced grass dominant in higher fertility sandstone grassland, was the superior interspecific competitor at high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Plantago was slightly enhanced under elevated CO{sub 2}, but only at high soil nutrients, whereas interspecific competitive ability of Bromus was stimulated under elevated CO{sub 2} at both low and high soil nutrients. Interspecific competitive ability of Lasthenia californica, another herbaceous dicot common in serpentine grassland, was low in all treatments, and tended to decrease with elevated CO{sub 2} at low soil nutrients. Our results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} may shift plant species abundance of serpentine grassland in favor of Bromus hordeaceus.

  20. Carbonate and citric acid leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Pilot-scale studies (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.H.; Chernikoff, R.; DeMarco, W.D.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the results of the soil decontamination demonstration conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site by the Fernald Environmental Restoration and Management Corporation (FERMCO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This demonstration, which began in November 1993 and ended in October 1994, involved the removal of uranium from contaminated soil sampled from two FEMP sites. The demonstration was conducted so as to meet the requirements of the Fernald Site Integrated Demonstration program, as well as all environmental, safety, and health requirements of the site.

  1. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  2. Long term effects of annual additions of animal manure on soil chemical, physical, and biological properties in the Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of long-term annual beef manure amendments and wheat and rye cover crops on selected chemical, physical and biological properties of a typical Midwest U.S. soil under corn silage production. The treatments included: manure application/cover cr...

  3. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  4. Tillage systems for cotton-peanut rotations following winter-annual grazing: impact on soil carbon, nitrogen and physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrating livestock with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production systems by grazing winter-annuals can offer additional income for producers provided it does not result in excessive soil compaction. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand (fine-loa...

  5. Plant-Soil Relationships of the Invasive Annual Grass Taeniatherum caput-meduseae: A reciprocal transplant experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The annual grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) is highly invasive on rangelands of the western United States. It originates from the Mediterranean basin and was introduced accidentally into North America in the late 1800s. To increase our knowledge of the soil factors that may contribute t...

  6. Deployment of Porous Crystalline Matrix (Gubka) Technology for Stabilizing Radioactive Standard Solutions at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D. A.; Tranter, T. J.; Macheret, J.; Meyer, A.; Yesso, D.; Daniels, T.; Aloy, A. S.; Sapozhnikova, N. V.; Anshits, A. G.; Sharonova, O. M.; Tretyakov, A. A.

    2002-02-26

    Radioactive solutions requiring stabilization exist in various compositions throughout the DOE complex. Future cleanup could generate additional actinide residue solutions requiring stabilization at facilities where processing capabilities have been dismantled. Radiological laboratory standard solutions (liquid technical standards) have recently been identified at the Fernald site, which require stabilization and disposal before the laboratory facilities at Fernald can be decommissioned. The Fernald solutions consist of approximately 25 liters of acidic solutions containing isotopes of Cs, Ba, Ra, Eu, U, Am, Po, Ru, Sr, Th, Pb, Pu, and Np and in some cases small quantities of added salts. After stabilization and waste acceptance approval, the resulting waste forms will be disposed at the Nevada Test Site. This paper describes the technology and progress in using the Russian ''Gubka'' technology to stabilize the Fernald liquid technical standards for disposal by September 2002 to meet the facility D&D schedule.

  7. Linking annual N2O emission in organic soils to mineral nitrogen input as estimated by heterotrophic respiration and soil C/N ratio.

    PubMed

    Mu, Zhijian; Huang, Aiying; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2014-01-01

    Organic soils are an important source of N2O, but global estimates of these fluxes remain uncertain because measurements are sparse. We tested the hypothesis that N2O fluxes can be predicted from estimates of mineral nitrogen input, calculated from readily-available measurements of CO2 flux and soil C/N ratio. From studies of organic soils throughout the world, we compiled a data set of annual CO2 and N2O fluxes which were measured concurrently. The input of soil mineral nitrogen in these studies was estimated from applied fertilizer nitrogen and organic nitrogen mineralization. The latter was calculated by dividing the rate of soil heterotrophic respiration by soil C/N ratio. This index of mineral nitrogen input explained up to 69% of the overall variability of N2O fluxes, whereas CO2 flux or soil C/N ratio alone explained only 49% and 36% of the variability, respectively. Including water table level in the model, along with mineral nitrogen input, further improved the model with the explanatory proportion of variability in N2O flux increasing to 75%. Unlike grassland or cropland soils, forest soils were evidently nitrogen-limited, so water table level had no significant effect on N2O flux. Our proposed approach, which uses the product of soil-derived CO2 flux and the inverse of soil C/N ratio as a proxy for nitrogen mineralization, shows promise for estimating regional or global N2O fluxes from organic soils, although some further enhancements may be warranted. PMID:24798347

  8. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  9. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braendholt, Andreas; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Ibrom, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic effect of low atmospheric turbulence on continuous hourly Rs measurements with closed chambers throughout one year in a temperate Danish beech forest. Using friction velocity (u⋆) measured at the site above the canopy, we filtered out chamber flux data measured at low atmospheric turbulence. The non-filtered data showed a clear diurnal pattern of Rs across all seasons with highest fluxes during night time suggesting an implausible negative temperature sensitivity of Rs. When filtering out data at low turbulence, the annually averaged diurnal pattern changed, such that the highest Rs fluxes were seen during day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when including all data and it decreased with an increasing u⋆ filter threshold. Our results show that Rs was overestimated at low atmospheric turbulence throughout the year and that this overestimation considerably biased the diurnal pattern of Rs and led to an overestimation of the annual Rs budget. Thus we recommend that that any analysis of the diurnal pattern of Rs must consider overestimation of Rs at low atmospheric turbulence, to yield unbiased diurnal patterns. This is crucial when investigating temperature responses and potential links between CO2 production and Rs on a short time scale, but also for correct estimation of annual Rs budgets. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the free Danish Ministry for Research, Innovation and higher Education, the free Danish Research

  10. Modeling the annual soil erosion rate in the mouth of river Pineios' sub-basin in Thessaly County, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilia, Ioanna; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas

    2015-04-01

    Erosion is a natural - geomorphological phenomenon, active through geological time that is considered as one of the main agents that forms the earth surface. Soil erosion models estimate the rates of soil erosion and provide useful information and guidance for the development of appropriate intervention and soil conservation practices and strategies. A significant number of soil erosion models can be found in literature; however, the most extensively applied model is the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) established in 1997 by Renard KG, Foster GR, Weesies GA, McCool DK and Yoder DC. RUSLE is an empirically based model that enables the estimation of the average annual rate of soil erosion for an area of interest providing several alternative scenarios involving cropping systems, management methods and erosion control strategies. According to RUSLE model's specifications five major factors (rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system, and management practices) are utilized for estimating the average annual erosion through the following equation: A=RxKxLxSxCxP, PIC where A is the computed spatial average soil loss and temporal average soil loss per unit area (tons ha-1 year-1), R the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (MJ mm ha-1h-1 year-1), K the soil erodibility factor (tons h MJ-1 mm-1), L the slope - length factor, S the slope steepness factor, C the cover management factor and P the conservation support practice factor. L, S, C and P factors are all dimensionless. The present study aims to utilize a GIS-based RUSLE model in order to estimate the average annual soil loss rate in the sub-basin extending at the mouth of Pineios river in Thessaly County, Greece. The area covers approximate 775.9 km2 with a mean slope angle of 7.8o. The rainfall data of 39 gauge station from 1980 to 2000 where used in order to predict the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R). The K-factor was estimated using soil maps available from the European Soil Portal with a

  11. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Peña-Fernández, A.; Lobo-Bedmar, M.C.; González-Muñoz, M.J.

    2015-01-15

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. - Highlights: • Anthropogenic activities may affect the seasonal metal variation in Alcalá's soils. • Weather characteristics may also influence the seasonal metal variation in soils. • Alcalá's continual urban growth may have increased the levels of metals in its soils. • Metal variability in Alcalá's industrial soils might be dependent on their sources. • High soil metal content might make it difficult to identify temporal variation.

  12. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management: soil attributes, soybean mineral nutrition, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of sustainable and intensive agricultural systems would result in profitable farms producing greater yields while maintaining or enhancing natural resources. Development of sustainable crop and soil management systems depends on understanding complex relationships between soil managem...

  13. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document.

  14. The Effects of Nitrogen Enrichment and a Simulated Rainfall Event on Soil Carbon Dioxide Efflux in an Annual California Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. P.; Strong, A. L.; Chiariello, N.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Previous studies have shown that enhanced precipitation (projected by climate models) and human activities (such as increased fertilizer use) may alter this cycle by enhancing soil microbial activity, although effects are often variable. Soils in semi-arid grasslands play a vital role in the global carbon cycle and may be responsive to environmental perturbations. Previous studies have demonstrated that wet-up treatments positively influence soil carbon dioxide efflux rates, which are otherwise low during dry summers. A preliminary study performed in a semi-arid annual grassland has shown that long-term nitrogen enrichment (equivalent to 70kg N per hectare) positively influences soil carbon dioxide efflux during peak biomass in the wet season. However, the combined effect and seasonal dynamics of these environmental changes is poorly understood. In order to assess this interaction, we explore the short-term response of soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in a semi-arid grassland to a combination of long-term nitrogen enrichment and a simulated 20-mm rainfall event in the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRCGE), a long-term, multi-factorial experiment in a semi-arid annual grassland located in the foothills of the Santa Cruz mountains in central California. We measured soil carbon dioxide efflux rates from pre-installed soil respiration collars for forty-eight hours after a simulated rainfall event (20mm) during the dry season in late July 2013. Both the enhanced and non-enhanced nitrogen treatments had an immediate pronounced response to the wet-up stimulation in which efflux rates increased by an average of more than six-fold. In contrast with previous studies of soil carbon dioxide efflux at JRGCE during the wet season in which N enrichment elevated efflux rates relative to controls, however, the soil carbon dioxide efflux rates in response

  15. Annual nitrous oxide emissions from intensively managed soils in Maui, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariassen, J.; Matson, P.A.; Vitousek, P.M. NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1993-06-01

    High inputs of fertilizer N and other intensive cropping practices have become widespread in many agricultural areas of the tropics. In an effort to examine the effects of these practices on trace gas-atmosphere exchange we measured N[sub 2]O, CO[sub 2], and CH[sub 4] flux in a range of heavily fertilized sugar cane systems. Annual N[sub 2]O fluxes during 1992 appeared to be highest on the leeward or dry side of the island ranging from 20-40 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; roughly 50% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. On the windward wet side of the island N[sub 2]O fluxes ranged from about 11-30 mgN m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]; from 10 to 30% of these emissions occurred during fertilization events. Methane was usually taken up by these soils and variability was slightly higher on the wet side vs. the dry side; although the CO[sub 2] data set was small, flux appeared to be higher on the wet side vs. the dry side.

  16. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald`s mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost.

  17. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    SciTech Connect

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC.

  18. Radiological contamination penetration depth in Fernald transite panels

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, W.R.; Valentine, J.D.; Chung, Wei

    1995-12-06

    To characterize the penetration depth of radiological contamination through the thickness of transite (an asbestos-cement building material) from the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site, both destructive and non-destructive analysis techniques were used. The destructive techniques were based on progressively removing layers of material and subsequent direct analysis of successive surfaces. These laminar analyses included quantitative measurements using a Geiger-Mueller (G-M) detector and qualitative measurements based on autoradiography and ultraviolet photography. G-M detector measurements during layer removal provided quantitative distributions consistent with diffusion theory and have served to validate a novel non-destructive technique. The ultraviolet analysis provided qualitative information with the advantage of instantaneous results that may be useful for screening samples. The autoradiographic analysis also provided qualitative results for comparison and image analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative results from this study indicated that the contamination did penetrate into the volume of the transite. However, this penetration depth was observed to be strongly dependent on the manner in which the transite was exposed to the contamination. Consequently, it is likely that significantly different penetration depths will be observed for different processes, buildings, and sites.

  19. Remediation activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Danner, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began manufacturing uranium products in the early 1950`s and continued processing uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to produce uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Since the facility manufactured uranium metals for over thirty years, various amounts of radiological contamination exists at the site. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were also generated at the site. In 1989. the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper discusses the proposed remediation activities at the five Operable Units (OUs) designated at the FEMP. In addition, the paper also examines the ongoing CERCLA response actions and RCRA closure activities at the facility.

  20. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  1. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1993-02-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on nutrient uptake in annual rye grass grown in surface mine soil

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.; Aharrah, E.C.

    1984-12-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on the growth, along with the Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations found in a common revegetation species, annual rye grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. Annual rye grass seeds were planted in two sets of pots. One set was filled with potting soil and the other with surface mine soil. Both sets were divided into three groups, each receiving applications of simulated acid rain of either pH 5.7, 4.0, or 3.0. After five weeks of growth, grasses from each pot were harvested. Dry weight, root length, leaf blade length, plant number, and concentrations of Al, Mn, and Fe were determined for each sample. There was an observable decrease in plant growth and number as the pH decreased. Seed germination ranged from six to ten days longer in pots receiving waterings of pH 3.0 compared to those with a pH of 5.7. The concentrations of Al and Fe increased in the plants between treatments 4.0 and 3.0. Mn concentrations were unaffected by pH. Plants grown in mine soil produced less biomass and showed an increase in Al, Mn, and Fe content as compared to those plants grown in potting soil.

  3. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush-steppe: The relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bansal, Sheel; Sheley, Roger L.

    2016-01-01

    The invasion by winter-annual grasses (AGs) such as Bromus tectorum into sagebrush steppe throughout the western USA is a classic example of a biological invasion with multiple, interacting climate, soil and biotic factors driving the invasion, although few studies have examined all components together. Across a 6000-km2 area of the northern Great Basin, we conducted a field assessment of 100 climate, soil, and biotic (functional group abundances, diversity) factors at each of 90 sites that spanned an invasion gradient ranging from 0 to 100 % AG cover. We first determined which biotic and abiotic factors had the strongest correlative relationships with AGs and each resident functional group. We then used regression and structural equation modeling to explore how multiple ecological factors interact to influence AG abundance. Among biotic interactions, we observed negative relationships between AGs and biodiversity, perennial grass cover, resident species richness, biological soil crust cover and shrub density, whereas perennial and annual forb cover, tree cover and soil microbial biomass had no direct linkage to AG. Among abiotic factors, AG cover was strongly related to climate (increasing cover with increasing temperature and aridity), but had weak relationships with soil factors. Our structural equation model showed negative effects of perennial grasses and biodiversity on AG cover while integrating the negative effects of warmer climate and positive influence of belowground processes on resident functional groups. Our findings illustrate the relative importance of biotic interactions and climate on invasive abundance, while soil properties appear to have stronger relationships with resident biota than with invasives.

  4. Invasion of a semi-arid shrubland by annual grasses increases autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration rates due to altered soil moisture and temperature patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritz, M.; Hale, I.; Lipson, D.

    2010-12-01

    Shrub <-> grassland conversions are a globally occurring phenomenon altering habitat structure, quality and nutrient cycling. Grasses and shrubs differ in their above and belowground biomass allocation, root architecture, phenology, litter quality and quantity. Conversion affects soil microbial communities, soil moisture and temperature and carbon (C) allocation patterns. However, the effect of conversion on C storage is regionally variable and there is no consistent direction of change. In Southern California invasion by annual grasses is a major threat to native shrub communities and it has been proposed that grass invasion increases NPP and ecosystem C storage (Wolkovich et al, 2009). In order to better understand how this shrub <-> grassland conversion changes ecosystem C storage it is important to understand the partitioning of soil respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Respiration was measured in plots under shrubs and grasses from February when it was cold and wet to July when it was hot and dry, capturing seasonal transitions in temperature and water availability. Roots were excluded under shrubs and grasses with root exclusion cores to quantify heterotrophic respiration. Using total soil respiration (Rt) = autotrophic respiration (root) (Ra)+ heterotrophic respiration (microbial) (Rh) the components contributing to total soil respiration can be evaluated. Respiration, soil moisture and temperature were measured daily at four hour intervals using Licor 8100 automated chamber measurements. Throughout the measurement period, Rt under grasses exceeded Rt under shrubs. Higher Rt levels under grasses were mainly due to higher Ra in grasses rather than changes in Rh. On average grass Ra was almost double shrub Ra. Higher grass respiration levels are partially explained by differences in soil moisture and temperature between shrubs and grasses. Respiration rates responded similarly to seasonal transitions regardless of treatment although Ra

  5. Audit of work force restructuring at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-23

    The Department of Energy (Department) restructured its work force at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (Fernald Project) to reduce staffing levels and to modify the mix of workers` skills in response to budget cuts, facility closures, and changes in the Fernald Project`s mission. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the work force restructurings were effective in reducing staffing levels and in changing the mix of workers` skills. As of September 30, 1995, the restructurings were not effective in reducing staffing levels or in improving the mix of workers` skills. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) spent $2.9 million to separate 255 employees in October 1993. However, by September 30, 1994, all but 14 of the employees separated were either rehired or replaced by new employees with similar skills. The second restructuring began in October 1994 and is not expected to be completed until May 1996. The Department expects the second restructuring to reduce FERMCO`s work force by 476 employees at a cost of $12.9 million. However, since the second restructuring began, FERMCO has hired 265 new employees and at September 30, 1995, had open job announcements seeking 82 additional employees. Many of these new employees have essentially the same skills as employees who separated under the two restructurings. The Department`s objectives were not met because the Fernald Area Office did not (1) require FERMCO to perform the skills analysis necessary to identify which employees were needed to perform the Fernald Project`s current mission, and (2) effectively monitor FERMCO`s restructuring efforts to ensure that the Department`s objectives were met.

  6. Short-term soil inorganic N pulse after experimental fire alters invasive and native annual plant production in a Mojave Desert shrubland.

    PubMed

    Esque, Todd C; Kaye, Jason P; Eckert, Sara E; Defalco, Lesley A; Tracy, C Richard

    2010-09-01

    Post-fire changes in desert vegetation patterns are known, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Theory suggests that pulse dynamics of resource availability confer advantages to invasive annual species, and that pulse timing can influence survival and competition among species. Precipitation patterns in the American Southwest are predicted to shift toward a drier climate, potentially altering post-fire resource availability and consequent vegetation dynamics. We quantified post-fire inorganic N dynamics and determined how annual plants respond to soil inorganic nitrogen variability following experimental fires in a Mojave Desert shrub community. Soil inorganic N, soil net N mineralization, and production of annual plants were measured beneath shrubs and in interspaces during 6 months following fire. Soil inorganic N pools in burned plots were up to 1 g m(-2) greater than unburned plots for several weeks and increased under shrubs (0.5-1.0 g m(-2)) more than interspaces (0.1-0.2 g m(-2)). Soil NO(3) (-)-N (nitrate-N) increased more and persisted longer than soil NH(4) (+)-N (ammonium-N). Laboratory incubations simulating low soil moisture conditions, and consistent with field moisture during the study, suggest that soil net ammonification and net nitrification were low and mostly unaffected by shrub canopy or burning. After late season rains, and where soil inorganic N pools were elevated after fire, productivity of the predominant invasive Schismus spp. increased and native annuals declined. Results suggest that increased N availability following wildfire can favor invasive annuals over natives. Whether the short-term success of invasive species following fire will direct long-term species composition changes remains to be seen, yet predicted changes in precipitation variability will likely interact with N cycling to affect invasive annual plant dominance following wildfire. PMID:20419316

  7. Aerial and soil seed banks enable populations of an annual species to cope with an unpredictable dune ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruiru; Yang, Xuejun; Yang, Fan; Wei, Lingling; Huang, Zhenying; Walck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Simultaneous formation of aerial and soil seed banks by a species provides a mechanism for population maintenance in unpredictable environments. Eolian activity greatly affects growth and regeneration of plants in a sand dune system, but we know little about the difference in the contributions of these two seed banks to population dynamics in sand dunes. Methods Seed release, germination, seedling emergence and survival of a desert annual, Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), inhabiting the Ordos Sandland in China, were determined in order to explore the different functions of the aerial and soil seed banks. Key Results The size of the aerial seed bank was higher than that of the soil seed bank throughout the growing season. Seed release was positively related to wind velocity. Compared with the soil seed bank, seed germination from the aerial seed bank was lower at low temperature (5/15 °C night/day) but higher in the light. Seedling emergence from the soil seed bank was earlier than that from the aerial seed bank. Early-emerged (15 April–15 May) seedlings died due to frost, but seedlings that emerged during the following months survived to reproduce successfully. Conclusions The timing of seed release and different germination behaviour resulted in a temporal heterogeneity of seedling emergence and establishment between the two seed banks. The study suggests that a bet-hedging strategy for the two seed banks enables A. squarrosum populations to cope successfully with the unpredictable desert environment. PMID:24918206

  8. Quantitative Relationship of Soil Texture with the Observed Population Density Reduction of Heterodera glycines after Annual Corn Rotation in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Hernández, Oscar; Giesler, Loren J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil texture has been commonly associated with the population density of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode: SCN), but such an association has been mainly described in terms of textural classes. In this study, multivariate analysis and a generalized linear modeling approach were used to elucidate the quantitative relationship of soil texture with the observed SCN population density reduction after annual corn rotation in Nebraska. Forty-five commercial production fields were sampled in 2009, 2010, and 2011 and SCN population density (eggs/100 cm3 of soil) for each field was determined before (Pi) and after (Pf) annual corn rotation from ten 3 × 3-m sampling grids. Principal components analysis revealed that, compared with silt and clay, sand had a stronger association with SCN Pi and Pf. Cluster analysis using the average linkage method and confirmed through 1,000 bootstrap simulations identified two groups: one corresponding to predominant silt-and-clay fields and other to sand-predominant fields. This grouping suggested that SCN relative percent population decline was higher in the sandy than in the silt-and-clay predominant group. However, when groups were compared for their SCN population density reduction using Pf as the response, Pi as a covariate, and incorporating the year and field variability, a negative binomial generalized linear model indicated that the SCN population density reduction was not statistically different between the sand-predominant field group and the silt-and-clay predominant group. PMID:24987160

  9. Suppression of annual Bromus tectorum by perennial Agropyon cristatum: roles of soil N availability and biological soil space

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, exotic invasive grasses have caused numerous ecosystem perturbations. Rangelands of the western United States have experienced increases in the size and frequency of wildfires largely due to invasion by the annual grass Bromus tectorum. Rehabilitation of invaded rangelands is difficult; b...

  10. Annual cycle of magmatic CO2 in a tree-kill soil at Mammoth Mountain, California: implications for soil acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-series sensor data reveal significant short-term and seasonal variations of magmatic CO2 in soil over a 12 month period in 1995-1996 at the largest tree-kill site on Mammoth Mountain, central-eastern California. Short-term variations leading to ground-level soil CO2 concentrations hazardous and lethal to humans were triggered by shallow faulting in the absence of increased seismicity or intrusion, consistent with tapping a reservoir of accumulated CO2, rather than direct magma degassing. Hydrologic processes closely modulated seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations, which rose to 65%-100% in soil gas under winter snowpack and plunged more than 25% in just days as the CO2 dissolved in spring snowmelt. The high efflux of CO2 through the tree-kill soils acts as an open-system CO2 buffer causing infiltration of waters with pH values commonly of < 4.2, acid loading of up to 7 keqH+.ha-1.yr-1, mobilization of toxic Al3+, and long-term decline of soil fertility.

  11. Germination traits explain soil seed persistence across species: the case of Mediterranean annual plants in cereal fields

    PubMed Central

    Saatkamp, Arne; Affre, Laurence; Dutoit, Thierry; Poschlod, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Seed persistence in the soil under field conditions is an important issue for the maintenance of local plant populations and the restoration of plant communities, increasingly so in the light of rapidly changing land use and climate change. Whereas processes important for dispersal in space are well known, knowledge of processes governing dispersal in time is still limited. Data for morphological seed traits such as size have given contradictory results for prediction of soil seed persistence or cover only a few species. There have been few experimental studies on the role of germination traits in determining soil seed persistence, while none has studied their predictive value consistently across species. Delayed germination, as well as light requirements for germination, have been suggested to contribute to the formation of persistent seed banks. Moreover, diurnally fluctuating temperatures can influence the timing of germination and are therefore linked to seed bank persistence. Methods The role of germination speed measured by T50 (days to germination of 50 % of all germinated seeds), light requirement and reaction to diurnally fluctuating temperatures in determining seed persistence in the soil was evaluated using an experimental comparative data set of 25 annual cereal weed species. Key Results It is shown that light requirements and slow germination are important features to maintain seeds ungerminated just after entering the soil, and hence influence survival of seeds in the soil. However, the detection of low diurnally fluctuating temperatures enhances soil seed bank persistence by limiting germination. Our data further suggest that the effect of diurnally fluctuating temperatures, as measured on seeds after dispersal and dry storage, is increasingly important to prevent fatal germination after longer burial periods. Conclusions These results underline the functional role of delayed germination and light for survival of seeds in the soil

  12. Linking microbial comunity composition and soil processes in acalifornia annual grassland and mixed-conifer forest

    SciTech Connect

    Balser, T.C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2003-07-21

    To investigate the potential role of microbial community composition in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling, we transplanted soil cores between a grassland and a conifer ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada California and measured soil process rates (N-mineralization, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide flux, nitrification potential), soil water and temperature, and microbial community parameters (PLFA and substrate utilization profiles) over a 2 year period. Our goal was to assess whether microbial community composition could be related to soil process rates independent of soil temperature and water content. We performed multiple regression analyses using microbial community parameters and soil water and temperature as X-variables and soil process rates and inorganic N concentrations as Y-variables. We found that field soil temperature had the strongest relationship with CO2 production and soil NH4+ concentration, while microbial community characteristics correlated with N2O production, nitrification potential, gross N-mineralization, and soil NO3 concentration, independent of environmental controllers. We observed a relationship between specific components of the microbial community (as determined by PLFA) and soil processes, particularly processes tightly linked to microbial phylogeny (e.g. nitrification). The most apparent change in microbial community composition in response to the 2 year transplant was a change in relative abundance of fungi (there was only one significant change in PLFA biomarkers for bacteria during 2years). The relationship between microbial community composition and soil processes suggests that prediction of ecosystem response to environmental change may be improved by recognizing and accounting for changes in microbial community composition and physiological ecology.

  13. Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halgeton glomeratus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freeman, D. Carl; Emlen, John M.; Belnap, Jayne; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Zak, John C.; Sobek, Edward; Tracy, Mary; Montante, James

    2003-01-01

    Various biotic and abiotic components of soil ecology differed significantly across an area whereHalogeton glomeratus is invading a native winterfat, [ Krascheninnikovia (= Ceratoides) lanata] community. Nutrient levels were significantly different among the native, ecotone, and exotic-derived soils. NO3, P, K, and Na all increased as the cover of halogeton increased. Only Ca was highest in the winterfat area. A principal components analysis, conducted separately for water-soluble and exchangeable cations, revealed clear separation between halogeton- and winterfat-derived soils. The diversity of soil bacteria was highest in the exotic, intermediate in the ecotone, and lowest in the native community. Although further studies are necessary, our results offer evidence that invasion by halogeton alters soil chemistry and soil ecology, possibly creating conditions that favor halogeton over native plants.

  14. Annual carbon dioxide cycle in a montane soil: observations, modeling, and implications for weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.K.; Cerling, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    Profiles of CO/sub 2/ concentrations in soil and snow, soil respiration, soil and snow temperatures, and shallow ground water chemistry were monitored from March 1984 to July 1985 in a montane region neat Brighton, Utah. Significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in soil and snow occurred, and two principal rise-decline cycles were observed. During the first cycle the concentration of soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm rose from 4200 ppmv in July to a maximum of 12,400 ppmv in August and then declined to 4300 ppmv by October. This cycle is attributed to the changing production rate of soil CO/sub 2/ during the growing season. During the second cycle the concentration of CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm began to rise in November, reached a maximum of 7200 ppmv in early spring, and quickly declined to 3200 ppmv by late spring shortly after the snow cover had melted. This cycle is attributed to deterioration in the exchange of CO/sub 2/ between the soil and atmosphere due to a deep snowpack. A model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was developed to account for the temporal and spatial distribution of soil CO/sub 2/. The model predicts that soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm is increased by as much as 15 times due to the deep snowpack. The elevated concentration of soil CO/sub 2/, abundance of water, and above-freezing soil temperatures imply that significant soil weathering occurs during the winter in montane regions.

  15. Soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities are altered by global change factors in a California annual grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niboyet, A.; Le Roux, X.; Barthes, L.; Hungate, B.; Dijkstra, P.; Blankinship, J. C.; Brown, J. R.; Field, C. B.; Leadley, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrification and denitrification are key mediators of nitrogen (N) cycling, especially N losses, in terrestrial ecosystems, yet little is known about the long-term, in situ responses of these two microbial processes to the simultaneous and interacting global changes likely to occur this century. We investigated the responses of the two steps of nitrification - ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation - and of denitrification to the interactive effects of elevated CO2, warming, increased precipitation and N deposition as part of the Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment. We followed these responses over two growing seasons of the experiment using measures of potential rates of ammonia oxidation, nitrite oxidation, and denitrification, along with key correlates of these activities (gross N mineralization, gross nitrification, soil moisture, soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, soil pH, soil temperature, soil CO2 and N2O effluxes, and root and shoot biomass). Across all dates, soil ammonia and nitrite oxidizing capacities responded very differently to global change treatments: soil ammonia oxidizing capacities were increased by 59% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for ammonia-oxidizers), while soil nitrite oxidizing capacities did not respond to the N deposition treatment but were reduced by 10% in the increased precipitation treatment. Soil denitrifying capacities were increased by 26% in the high N deposition treatment (likely as a result of higher substrate availability for denitrifiers) and by 15% in the increased precipitation treatment (likely as a result of higher soil water content). Overall, elevated CO2 and warming were found to have little effects on soil nitrifying and denitrifying capacities, and interactive effects between global change components were rare when analyzed across multiple sampling dates. Thus, our results suggest that increased atmospheric N deposition and changes in precipitation

  16. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  17. Inter-Annual Variability of Soil Moisture Stress Function in the Wheat Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuraju, V. R.; Ryu, D.; George, B.; Ryu, Y.; Dassanayake, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    Root-zone soil moisture content is a key variable that controls the exchange of water and energy fluxes between land and atmosphere. In the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) schemes, the influence of root-zone soil moisture on evapotranspiration (ET) is parameterized by the soil moisture stress function (SSF). Dependence of actual ET: potential ET (fPET) or evaporative fraction to the root-zone soil moisture via SSF can also be used inversely to estimate root-zone soil moisture when fPET is estimated by remotely sensed land surface states. In this work we present fPET versus available soil water (ASW) in the root zone observed in the experimental farm sites in Victoria, Australia in 2012-2013. In the wheat field site, fPET vs ASW exhibited distinct features for different soil depth, net radiation, and crop growth stages. Interestingly, SSF in the wheat field presented contrasting shapes for two cropping years of 2012 and 2013. We argue that different temporal patterns of rainfall (and resulting soil moisture) during the growing seasons in 2012 and 2013 are responsible for the distinctive SSFs. SSF of the wheat field was simulated by the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM was able to reproduce the observed fPET vs. ASW. We discuss implications of our findings for existing modeling and (inverse) remote sensing approaches relying on SSF and alternative growth-stage-dependent SSFs.

  18. Statistical analysis of real-time, environmental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Spitz, H B; Tomczak, L

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses of radon measurement results were conducted to determine what impact, if any, radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Fernald Environmental Management Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: 1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; 2) the production/administration area; 3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and 4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed in these 4 areas to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant

  19. Managing soil nitrogen to restore annual grass infested plant communities: an effective strategy or incomplete framework?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theoretical and empirical work has established a positive relationship between resource availability and habitat invasibility. For invasive annual grasses, similar to other invasive species, invader success has been most often tied to increases in nitrogen (N) availability. These observations have...

  20. Crop rotations with annual and perennial forages under no-till soil management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] stover dry weig...

  1. Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.

    1998-06-01

    'This research project is to develop electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Specifically, it is to study electrokinetic (EK) and electro-Fento (EF) processes and to integrate these processes for the treatment of soils containing mixed contaminants. The objectives are: (1) To study important parameters controlling the mobilization and the transport of selected organics and metals in soils by the electrokinetic (EK) process. Factors to be studied include field strength, pH, ionic strength, soil washing agents, types of organic and metal contaminants, and soil surface properties such as cation exchange capacity(CEC), soil organic content, soil moisture content, soil composition, and surface charge. (2) To study the important factors governing the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton (EF) process. Parameters such as pH, surface area and the configuration of working electrode, oxygen concentration, ferrous ion, and temperature that may affect the performance of the EF process will be investigated. (3) To understand the mechanism of the oxidation of selected organic contaminants by the electro-Fenton oxidation process.'

  2. ANNUAL REPORT. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL SEQUESTRATION IN SOILS: PLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS AND ORGANIC MATTER AGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the factors that influence metal availability to soil-grown plants, one of the least understood is the influence of root/soil interfaces on metal mobilization and subsequent transport into the root. These include root exudation for chelating and reducing metal ions, cell wa...

  3. Biofuel feedstock from claypan soils for annual grain and perennial switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop production on the claypan region soils of the U.S. Midwest is an important contributor for agricultural production. However, because of their tendency for grain yield fluctuations caused by water stress, claypan soils may have potential for conversion from grain to grass production in support o...

  4. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task.

  5. MEASUREMENTS OF RADON, THORON, ISOTOPIC URANIUM AND THORIUM TO DETERMINE OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE & RISK AT FERNALD FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research at the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) site will provide radionuclide data, and realistic risk evaluation for isotopic radon, thorium, uranium and lead exposure.We have developed and tested a passive radon monitor with proven accur...

  6. Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux of a maturing boreal forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; O'Neill, K. P.; Trumbore, S.E.; Veldhuis, H.; Stocks, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    We used input and decomposition data from 14C studies of soils to determine rates of vertical accumulation of moss combined with carbon storage inventories on a sequence of burns to model how carbon accumulates in soils and moss after a stand-killing fire. We used soil drainage - moss associations and soil drainage maps of the old black spruce (OBS) site at the BOREAS northern study area (NSA) to areally weight the contributions of each moderately well drained, feathermoss areas; poorly drained sphagnum - feathermoss areas; and very poorly drained brown moss areas to the carbon storage and flux at the OBS NSA site. On this very old (117 years) complex of black spruce, sphagnum bog veneer, and fen systems we conclude that these systems are likely sequestering 0.01-0.03 kg C m-2 yr-' at OBS-NSA today. Soil drainage in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba, controls carbon storage and flux by controlling moss input and decomposition rates and by controlling through fire the amount and quality of carbon left after burning. On poorly drained soils rich in sphagnum moss, net accumulation and long-term storage of carbon is higher than on better drained soils colonized by feathermosses. The carbon flux of these contrasting ecosystems is best characterized by soil drainage class and stand age, where stands recently burned are net sources of CO2, and maturing stands become increasingly stronger sinks of atmospheric CO2. This approach to measuring carbon storage and flux presents a method of scaling to larger areas using soil drainage, moss cover, and stand age information.

  7. Determination of total and isotopic uranium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, F.L.; Bolin, R.N.; Feller, M.T.; Danahy, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in southwestern Ohio, ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with sample introduction by peristaltic pumping, is used to determine total and isotopic uranium (U-234, U-235, U-236 and U-238) in soil samples. These analyses are conducted in support of the environmental cleanup of the FEMP site. Various aspects of the sample preparation and instrumental analysis will be discussed. Initial sample preparation consists of oven drying to determine moisture content, and grinding and rolling to homogenize the sample. This is followed by a nitric/hydrofluoric acid digestion to bring the uranium in the sample into solution. Bismuth is added to the sample prior to digestion to monitor for losses. The total uranium (U-238) content of this solution and the U{sup 235}/U{sup 238} ratio are measured on the first pass through the ICP-MS. To determine the concentration of the less abundant U{sup 234} and U{sup 236} isotopes, the digestate is further concentrated by using Eichrom TRU-Spec extraction columns before the second pass through the ICP-MS. Quality controls for both the sample preparation and instrumental protocols will also be discussed. Finally, an explanation of the calculations used to report the data in either weight percent or activity units will be given.

  8. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Clive A; Richardson, Alan E; Wade, Len J; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur-C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0-10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  9. Inorganic Nutrients Increase Humification Efficiency and C-Sequestration in an Annually Cropped Soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Alan E.; Wade, Len J.; Conyers, Mark; Kirkegaard, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and storing the carbon (C) in resistant soil organic matter (SOM) is a global priority to restore soil fertility and help mitigate climate change. Although it is widely assumed that retaining rather than removing or burning crop residues will increase SOM levels, many studies have failed to demonstrate this. We hypothesised that the microbial nature of resistant SOM provides a predictable nutrient stoichiometry (C:nitrogen, C:phosphorus and C:sulphur–C:N:P:S) to target using supplementary nutrients when incorporating C-rich crop residues into soil. An improvement in the humification efficiency of the soil microbiome as a whole, and thereby C-sequestration, was predicted. In a field study over 5 years, soil organic-C (SOC) stocks to 1.6 m soil depth were increased by 5.5 t C ha-1 where supplementary nutrients were applied with incorporated crop residues, but were reduced by 3.2 t C ha-1 without nutrient addition, with 2.9 t C ha-1 being lost from the 0–10 cm layer. A net difference of 8.7 t C ha-1 was thus achieved in a cropping soil over a 5 year period, despite the same level of C addition. Despite shallow incorporation (0.15 m), more than 50% of the SOC increase occurred below 0.3 m, and as predicted by the stoichiometry, increases in resistant SOC were accompanied by increases in soil NPS at all depths. Interestingly the C:N, C:P and C:S ratios decreased significantly with depth possibly as a consequence of differences in fungi to bacteria ratio. Our results demonstrate that irrespective of the C-input, it is essential to balance the nutrient stoichiometry of added C to better match that of resistant SOM to increase SOC sequestration. This has implications for global practices and policies aimed at increasing SOC sequestration and specifically highlight the need to consider the hidden cost and availability of associated nutrients in building soil-C. PMID:27144282

  10. Radiological release criteria at the Fernald Environmental Management Project theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrter, R.W.

    1995-01-17

    As environmental restoration activities progress at the DOE`s Fernald site, and across the country, large volumes of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) are being generated. Despite the existence of ``free-release`` guidelines from DOE. The strategy of onsite decontamination and release of RSM for unrestricted use has been generally overlooked in recent years. A pilot project was completed at Fernald in which 120 tons of RSM were decontaminated onsite and released for unrestricted use. This paper compares that strategy to more traditional DOE RSM management practices. Many options exist for managing RSM. DOE orders dictate that contractors demonstrate flexibility in utilizing a combination of techniques to optimize the benefits of waste management activates. The FERMCO Recycling Department led an effort to provide their customer with an economical alternative to the traditional approach of burying contaminated metal as LLW, based on established DOE free-release guidelines.

  11. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Fernald, Ohio, conducted from October 15 through October 25, 1991. The Secretary of Energy directed that small, focused, ES&H Progress Assessments be performed as part of the continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process in the areas of ES&H. The FEMP assessment is the pilot assessment for this new program. The objectives for the FEMP ES&H Progress Assessment were to assess: (1) how the FEMP has progressed since the 1989 Tiger Assessment; (2) how effectively the FEMP has corrected specific deficiencies and associated root causes identified by that team; and (3) whether the current organization, resources, and systems are sufficient to proactively manage ES&H issues.

  12. Status of decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was formally closed and the mission of the facility was officially redirected toward environmental restoration in August 1991. Many of the production facilities and equipment still contained quantities of raw, intermediate, and finished production-related materials. The safe Shutdown program was initiated to remove and properly disposition all nuclear product and in process residue materials, supplies, chemicals, and associated process equipment that was abandoned in place when FEMP stopped production in 1989. As part of the remedial design of the interim remedial action, a schedule for building dismantlement was submitted in June 1995. A 31-year schedule was developed, based on anticipation of reduced funding levels. However, recent cleanup successes at Fernald led to DOE endorsement of greater funding for the final cleanup, accelerating the schedule for Operable Unit 3 dismantlement, reducing the schedule to ten years. Under the accelerated schedule, several plants will be dismantled, starting in 1996.

  13. An estimation of annual nitrous oxide emissions and soil quality following the amendment of high temperature walnut shell biochar and compost to a small scale vegetable crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural soils are responsible for emitting large quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O). The controlled incomplete thermal decomposition of agricultural wastes to produce biochar, once amended to soils, have been hypothesized to increase crop yield, improve soil quality and reduce N2O emissions. To estimate crop yields, soil quality parameters and N2O emissions following the incorporation of a high temperature (900 °C) walnut shell (HTWS) biochar into soil, a one year field campaign with four treatments (control (CONT), biochar (B), compost (COM), and biochar+compost (B+C)) was conducted in a small scale vegetable rotation system in Northern California. Crop yields from five crops (lettuce, winter cover crop, lettuce, bell pepper and Swiss chard) were determined; there were no significant differences in yield between treatments. Biochar amended soils had significant increases in % total carbon (C) and the retention of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca). Annual cumulative N2O fluxes were not significantly different between the four treatments with emissions ranging from 0.91 to 1.12 kg N2O-N ha(-1) yr(-1). Distinct peaks of N2O occurred upon the application of N fertilizers and the greatest mean emissions, ranging from 67.04 to 151.41 g N2O-N ha(-1) day(-1), were observed following the incorporation of the winter cover crop. In conclusion, HTWS biochar application to soils had a pronounced effect on the retention of exchangeable cations such as K and Ca compared to un-amended soils and composted soils, which in turn could reduce leaching of these plant available cations and could thus improve soils with poor nutrient retention. However, HTWS biochar additions to soil had neither a positive or negative effect on crop yield nor cumulative annual emissions of N2O. PMID:23490323

  14. Automated container transportation using self-guided vehicles: Fernald site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.

    1993-09-01

    A new opportunity to improve the safety and efficiency of environmental restoration operations, using robotics has emerged from advances in industry, academia, and government labs. Self-Guided Vehicles (SGV`s) have recently been developed in industry and early systems have already demonstrated much, though not all, of the functionality necessary to support driverless transportation of waste within and between processing facilities. Improved materials databases are being developed by at least two DOE remediation sites, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEME) in the State of Ohio and the Hanford Complex in the State of Washington. SGV`s can be developed that take advantage of the information in these databases and yield improved dispatch, waste tracking, report and shipment documentation. In addition, they will reduce the radiation hazard to workers and the risk of damaging containers through accidental collision. In this document, features of remediation sites that dictate the design of both the individual SGV`s and the collective system of SGV`s are presented, through the example of the site requirements at Fernald. Some concepts borrowed from the world of manufacturing are explained and then used to develop an integrated, holistic view of the remediation site as a pseudo-factory. Transportation methods at Fernald and anticipated growth in transport demand are analyzed. The new site-wide database under development at Fernald is presented so that advantageous and synergistic links between SGV`s and information systems can be analyzed. Details of the SGV development proposed are submitted, and some results of a recently completed state of the art survey for SGV use in this application are also presented.

  15. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-02-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. The strategy for assessing risks associated with remediation of the former production area at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.; Avci, H.; Picel, K.; Janke, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    The strategy for assessing the risks associated with the remediation of the former Production Area at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is discussed. The general approach to risk assessment is strongly influenced by a number of factors related to the nature of the site and to management proposals that have been made concerning the site. How these factors affect the approach to assessing baseline risks, to assessing risks associated with remedial activity, and to establishing cleanup criteria are examined.

  17. Annual cover crops do not inhibit early growth of perennial grasses on a disturbed restoration soil in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural, rangeland, and forest system revegetation projects, cover crops are used for competitive exclusion of weeds and to stabilize soil. Within revegetation projects, annual or short-lived perennial grasses are often sown at the same time as the perennial grasses that are the desired spec...

  18. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Models in the St. Joseph River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the performance of two water quality models in accordance to specific tasks designated in the USDA Agricultural Research Service Conservation Effects Assessment Project. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source (AnnAGNPS) models ...

  19. Soil bulk density and strength effects on seedling growth in annual ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No-till seeding is commonly found to delay establishment and inhibit early growth of forage grasses, compared with sowing after tillage. Among several possible causes of retarded growth following no-till planting of forage species, the effects of soil compaction have received little attention. Studi...

  20. Annual grass invasion in sagebrush steppe: the relative importance of climate, soil properties and biotic interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species distributions and abundances are constrained by climate factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation), soil properties (e.g., nutrients), biotic interactions (e.g., competition) and disturbances (e.g., fire). At macroecological scales, species distributions typically follow temperature or preci...

  1. Soil Carbon Budget for Annual and Perennial Ryegrass Grown For Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There much interest in carbon (C) sequestration (C accounting) in cropping systems due the potential for agriculture to participate in ‘Cap and Trade’ opportunities, or purely as a matter of understanding soil quality. In this report we have constructed carbon budgets for two temperate grass species...

  2. Exploring technical and cultural appeals in strategic risk communication: the Fernald radium case.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer Duffield

    2003-04-01

    Risk disputes are often characterized by tensions between technical and cultural understandings of risk and by communication practices that reflect those differing perspectives. This study considers how participants in risk debates draw upon and combine aspects of technical and cultural rationality as broad orientations to risk in expressing their views and formulating persuasive appeals during risk debates. Rhetorical theorist Kenneth Burke's (1984) concept of frames of acceptance is used to analyze a case study involving competing priorities for radium stored at the Fernald site, a former Department of Energy nuclear weapons facility. A rhetorical analysis is conducted using the transcript from a 1995 public meeting during which local residents and a nuclear medicine expert discussed priorities of Fernald site cleanup versus providing radium stored on site for promising cancer research. Two tensions are identified that fostered disagreement among discussants: the first a tension between a local or global context for the controversy and the second a tension between competing definitions of public participation for this issue. This study analyzes the rhetorical strategies by which participants in the Fernald radium debate articulated these tensions and argues that technical and cultural rationality (Plough & Krimsky, 1987) acted as sources of rhetorical invention influencing participants' individual frames of acceptance and the ways they defined and interpreted the situation and crafted persuasive appeals. PMID:12731814

  3. Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. PMID:25487951

  4. Effects of land use on annual runoff and soil loss -a meta-analysis of a European and Mediterranean plot database-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-04-01

    Runoff and soil loss caused by water erosion are important desertification processes. While previous studies have shown the important effect of land use on annual soil loss (SLa), quantification of these effects based on field-measured data is limited and the effect of land use on annual runoff (Ra) and the relation between Ra and SLa has largely been neglected in the past. Nevertheless, runoff generation plays an equally important role as soil loss in desertification, especially in drier areas, where water is a key resource. Hence, sustainable land management practices to mitigate interrill and rill erosion should also consider the effects on runoff. Therefore, in the framework of the FP6 project DESIRE (http://www.desire-project.eu), the largest currently available database of plot runoff and soil loss data in Europe and the Mediterranean was compiled to investigate effects of land use on Ra, annual runoff coefficient (RCa) and SLa. This database comprises 227 plot-measuring sites in Europe and the Mediterranean, with SLa for 1061 plots (PL) representing 7 234 plot-years and Ra for 807 PL representing 5 357 plot-years. Bare soil, vineyards and tree crops were found to have high mean RCa (5-10 %) and mean SLa (10-20 Mg.ha-1.yr-1). Cropland and fallow show similar mean annual RCa (8.0 and 7.3 %), but lower SLa (6.5 and 5.8 Mg.ha-1.yr-1). Plots with (semi-)natural vegetation cover show the lowest mean annual RC (

  5. Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-annual Variations of N2O Fluxes from Perennial Vineyard Soils in California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suddick, E. C.; Carlisle, E. A.; Spencer, R. G.; Smart, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    The USA emits 1562 million metric tons of carbon equivalents a year, whereby this value is projected to rise by an estimated 14 % in 2012. California is the 12th major global emitter of greenhouse gases, emitting approximately 500 million metric tons of carbon equivalents a year. 84 % of greenhouse gas emissions are from CO2, 7 % and 6 % from N2O and CH4 respectively and approximately 8 % of these emissions are derived from agricultural activities. The concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) within the atmosphere has been increasing at a rate of approximately 0.27 % per year and has mainly been attributed to agricultural practices such as land-use changes, biomass burning, nitrogen fertilization, livestock and manure management. Agriculture related activities generate from 6 to 35 Tg N2O-N per year, or about 60 to 70 % of global production. The primary biogenic sources of N2O are from terrestrial soils, which are thought to be a major source of N2O to the atmosphere and mainly involve the microbial nitrogen transformations brought about by nitrification and denitrification. The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal and inter-annual variability of N2O emissions and nitrogen cycling from a conventionally tilled wine grape vineyard in Napa, California during a two year closed static chamber study and to also investigate the diurnal N2O flux pattern and effects of fertilization management practices on emissions within a table grape vineyard in Delano, California. Preliminary data shows that the annual N2O fluxes were influenced by soil properties, management practices and weather such as precipitation events where increases in N2O emissions were observed after irrigation or fertilization practices and immediately following rainfall. Vineyard floor and vine management will be discussed in terms of the significance management practices have upon the release of N2O emissions from vineyard soils where the high water and nitrogen fertilizer usage within these

  6. Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

    2002-10-16

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the

  7. Modeling the effects of N deposition, precipitation variability, and soil texture on winter annual production and fire risk in Southern California deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, L. E.; Allen, E. B.; Meixner, T.

    2008-12-01

    Fire risk in deserts is increased by high production of annual grasses and forbs that create a continuous fine fuel bed in the interspaces between shrubs. Interspace production is influenced by many factors including water and N availability and soil texture, and so the DayCent model was used to investigate how production of herbaceous annuals change along gradients of these production-forcing factors. DayCent was calibrated on the interspace vegetation from a creosote bush scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park and validated on a second creosote site within the Park with different soils and climate. The DayCent model was well calibrated on the first site, but validation on the second site showed that the model is sensitive to soil clay content such that soils with low clay contents lose soil C and N during model equilibration. Despite discrepancies between modeled and observed soil C and N pools, relative response of production to N fertilization was well represented by the model. Thus, DayCent can be used to determine conservative estimates of fire risk in the desert under increased precipitation and N deposition. Fire risk simulations indicate that interspace vegetation is strongly limited by water availability when mean annual precipitation is less than 21 cm yr-1. Under simulated N deposition of 8 kg-N ha-1, approximating the most polluted regions in these deserts, fire risk increases to 62-76% under a range of soil textures indicating that under increased N deposition fire risk is high in years of average to above-average rainfall.

  8. Pastures to Prairies to Pools: An Update on Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 13198

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Jane; Schneider, Tom; Hertel, Bill; Homer, John

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management oversees implementation and monitoring of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve, Fernald, Ohio, that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Field implementation of these projects was completed in May 2012. Herbaceous cover and woody vegetation survival was determined in August and September 2012. Results show successful establishment of native vegetation. Additional monitoring will be needed to determine whether project goals have been met. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  9. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in an annual plant: grandparental and parental drought stress enhance performance of seedlings in dry soil.

    PubMed

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E; Horgan-Kobelski, Tim; Riggs, Charlotte

    2012-07-01

    Stressful parental (usually maternal) environments can dramatically influence expression of traits in offspring, in some cases resulting in phenotypes that are adaptive to the inducing stress. The ecological and evolutionary impact of such transgenerational plasticity depends on both its persistence across generations and its adaptive value. Few studies have examined both aspects of transgenerational plasticity within a given system. Here we report the results of a growth-chamber study of adaptive transgenerational plasticity across two generations, using the widespread annual plant Polygonum persicaria as a naturally evolved model system. We grew five inbred Polygonum genetic lines in controlled dry vs. moist soil environments for two generations in a fully factorial design, producing replicate individuals of each genetic line with all permutations of grandparental and parental environment. We then measured the effects of these two-generational stress histories on traits critical for functioning in dry soil, in a third (grandchild) generation of seedling offspring raised in the dry treatment. Both grandparental and parental moisture environment significantly influenced seedling development: seedlings of drought-stressed grandparents or parents produced longer root systems that extended deeper and faster into dry soil compared with seedlings of the same genetic lines whose grandparents and/or parents had been amply watered. Offspring of stressed individuals also grew to a greater biomass than offspring of nonstressed parents and grandparents. Importantly, the effects of drought were cumulative over the course of two generations: when both grandparents and parents were drought-stressed, offspring had the greatest provisioning, germinated earliest, and developed into the largest seedlings with the most extensive root systems. Along with these functionally appropriate developmental effects, seedlings produced after two previous drought-stressed generations had

  10. Fluctuations in annual cycles and inter-seasonal memory in West Africa: rainfall, soil moisture and heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, B.; Louvet, S.; Roucou, P.

    2007-01-01

    Annual cycle and inter-seasonal persistence of surface-atmosphere water and heat fluxes are analyzed at a 5-day time step over the West African Monsoon (WAM) through observational precipitation estimates (CMAP), model datasets (NCEP/DOE level 2 reanalyses) and a Soil Water Index (SWI) from the ERS scatterometer. Coherent fluctuations (30-90 days) distinct from supra-synoptic variability (10-25 day periods) are first detected in the WAM precipitation and heat fluxes over the period 1979-2001. During all the northward excursion of the WAM rain band, a succession of four active phases (abrupt rainfall increases) occurs. They are centered in the first days of March, mid-April, the second half of May and from the last week of June to mid-July (the Sahelian onset). A simple statistical approach shows that the Spring to Summer installation of the monsoon tends to be sensitive to these short periods. Other analyses suggest the existence of lagged relationship between rainfall amounts registered in successive Fall, Spring (active periods) and Summer (top of the rainy season) implying land surface conditions. The spatial extension of the generated soil moisture anomalies reaches one maximum in March, mainly at the Guinean latitudes and over the Sahelian belt where the signal can persist until the next monsoon onset. Typically after abnormal wet conditions in September-October two signals are observed: (1) more marked fluctuations in Spring with less (more) Sahelian rainfall in May (June and after) at the Sahelian-Sudanian latitudes; (2) wetter rainy seasons along the Guinean coast (in Spring and Summer with an advance in the mean date of the ‘little dry season’). The reverse arises after abnormal dry conditions in autumn.

  11. Fernald closure project - Lessons learned in the execution of this successful project, completed October 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Cornelius; Reising, Johnny

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper explores the history and lessons learned on the United States' Department of Energy's (DoE's) Fernald Closure Project - from the completion of the uranium-production mission to the implementation of the Records of Decision defining the cleanup standards and the remedies that were achieved. Cleaning up Fernald and returning it to the people of Ohio was a $4.4 billion dollar mega environmental-remediation project that was completed in October 2006. During a period of nearly 37 years, Fernald produced 250,000 tons of high-purity, low-enriched uranium for the U.S. defense program, generating more than six million tons of liquid and solid waste as it carried out its Cold War mission. The facility was shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992, when Fluor won the contract to clean up the site. The project comprised four phases: 1. Determining the extent of damage to the environment and groundwater at, and adjacent to, the production facilities 2. Selecting cleanup criteria - final end states that had to be met to protect human health and the environment 3. Selecting and implementing the remedial actions that would meet the cleanup goals 4. Doing the work safely, compliantly and cost-effectively. In the project's early stages, there were strained relationships and total distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of aquifer contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. (authors)

  12. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Porco, D.J.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-14

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation`s defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO`s mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements` adequacy, and assess FERMCO`s level of compliance.

  13. Estimation of annual effective dose from indoor radon/thoron concentrations and measurement of radon concentrations in soil.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rohit; Bala, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Radon short-lived decay products generated from the earth is one of the serious indoor air and soil pollutants. The RAD-7 Electronic Radon Detector with a special accessory is used for the purpose of measurement. The radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of the study area are found to vary from 35±0.5 to 315.2±5.35 Bq m(-3) and 66.1±2.3 to 1710±139.36 Bq m(-3) with the average values of 98.65±1.9 and 388.19±11 Bq m(-3), respectively. From indoor air, the total annual effective dose is calculated and it varies from 0.88 to 7.94 mSv y(-1). The preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than the radon concentration in the houses of the study area. In general, the values of the indoor air are within the recommended action level of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, 2009. PMID:23901137

  14. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  15. Annual emissions of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration, from eight organic soils in Western Denmark managed by agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S. O.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Schäfer, C.-M.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Elsgaard, L.; Kristensen, K.; Larsen, S. E.; Torp, S. B.; Greve, M. H.

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic soils by agriculture involves drainage and tillage, and the resulting increase in C and N turnover can significantly affect their greenhouse gas balance. This study estimated annual fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and ecosystem respiration (Reco), from eight organic soils managed by agriculture. The sites were located in three regions representing different landscape types and climatic conditions, and three land use categories were covered (arable crops, AR, grass in rotation, RG, and permanent grass, PG). The normal management at each site was followed, except that no N inputs occurred during the monitoring period from August 2008 to October 2009. The stratified sampling strategy further included six sampling points in three blocks at each site. Environmental variables (precipitation, PAR, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level) were monitored continuously and during sampling campaigns, where also groundwater samples were taken for analysis. Gaseous fluxes were monitored on a three-weekly basis, giving 51, 49 and 38 field campaigns for land use categories AR, PG and RG, respectively. Climatic conditions in each region during monitoring were representative as compared to 20-yr averages. Peat layers were shallow, typically 0.5 to 1 m, and with a pH of 4 to 5. At six sites annual emissions of N2O were in the range 3 to 24 kg N2O-N ha-1, but at two arable sites (spring barley, potato) net emissions of 38 and 61 kg N2O-N ha-1 were recorded. The two high-emitting sites were characterized by fluctuating groundwater, low soil pH and elevated groundwater SO42- concentrations. Annual fluxes of CH4 were generally small, as expected, ranging from 2 to 4 kg CH4 ha-1. However, two permanent grasslands had tussocks of Juncus effusus L. (soft rush) in sampling points that were consistent sources of CH4 throughout the year. Emission factors for organic soils in rotation and with permanent grass, respectively, were estimated to be 0.011 and 0.47 g m-2

  16. Bayesian Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Nigeria, Including Annual Deworming Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Akinola S.; Ekpo, Uwem F.; Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Abe, Eniola M.; Olamiju, Francisca O.; Isiyaku, Sunday; Okoronkwo, Chukwu; Saka, Yisa; Nebe, Obiageli J.; Braide, Eka I.; Mafiana, Chiedu F.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Background The acceleration of the control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Nigeria, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy, has become imperative in light of the global fight against neglected tropical diseases. Predictive risk maps are an important tool to guide and support control activities. Methodology STH infection prevalence data were obtained from surveys carried out in 2011 using standard protocols. Data were geo-referenced and collated in a nationwide, geographic information system database. Bayesian geostatistical models with remotely sensed environmental covariates and variable selection procedures were utilized to predict the spatial distribution of STH infections in Nigeria. Principal Findings We found that hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura infections are endemic in 482 (86.8%), 305 (55.0%), and 55 (9.9%) locations, respectively. Hookworm and A. lumbricoides infection co-exist in 16 states, while the three species are co-endemic in 12 states. Overall, STHs are endemic in 20 of the 36 states of Nigeria, including the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The observed prevalence at endemic locations ranged from 1.7% to 51.7% for hookworm, from 1.6% to 77.8% for A. lumbricoides, and from 1.0% to 25.5% for T. trichiura. Model-based predictions ranged from 0.7% to 51.0% for hookworm, from 0.1% to 82.6% for A. lumbricoides, and from 0.0% to 18.5% for T. trichiura. Our models suggest that day land surface temperature and dense vegetation are important predictors of the spatial distribution of STH infection in Nigeria. In 2011, a total of 5.7 million (13.8%) school-aged children were predicted to be infected with STHs in Nigeria. Mass treatment at the local government area level for annual or bi-annual treatment of the school-aged population in Nigeria in 2011, based on World Health Organization prevalence thresholds, were estimated at 10.2 million tablets. Conclusions/Significance The predictive risk maps and estimated

  17. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R.; Rowe, M.D.; Sun, C. ); Anspaugh, L.; Layton, D. )

    1993-03-01

    Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.

  18. Progress report on decommissioning activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), is located about 18 miles northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1953 and 1989, the facility, then called the Feed Material Production Center or FMPC, produced uranium metal products used in the eventual production of weapons grade material for use by other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. In 1989, FMPC`s production was suspended by the federal government in order to focus resources on environmental restoration versus defense production. In 1992, Fluor Daniel Fernald assumed responsibility for managing all cleanup activities at the FEMP under contract to the DOE. In 1990, as part of the remediation effort, the site was divided into five operable units based on physical proximity of contaminated areas, similar amounts of types of contamination, or the potential for a similar technology to be used in cleanup activities. This report continues the outline of the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the FEMP site Operable Unit 3 (OU3) and provides an update on the status of the decommissioning activities. OU3, the Facilities Closure and Demolition Project, involves the remediation of more than 200 uranium processing facilities. The mission of the project is to remove nuclear materials stored in these buildings, then perform the clean out of the buildings and equipment, and decontaminate and dismantle the facilities.

  19. Vitrification of Simulated Fernald K-65 Silo Waste at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.

    1998-07-07

    Vitrification is the technology that has been chosen to solidify approximately 18,000 tons of geologic mill tailings, designated as K-65 wastes, at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. The glass formula developed in this study for the FEMP wastes is a lithia substituted soda-lime-lithia-silica (SLLS) composition which melts at 1050 degrees Celsius. Low melting formulations minimize volatilization of hazardous species such as arsenic, selenium, chromium, and lead during vitrification. Formulation in the SLLS system avoids problematic phase separation known to occur in the MO-B2O3-SiO2 glass forming system (where MO = CaO, MgO, BaO, and PbO which are all constituents of the FEMP wastes). The SLLS glass passed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) for all the hazardous constituents of concern under the current regulations. The SLLS glass is as durable as the high melting soda-lime-silica glasses and is more durable than the borosilicate glasses previously developed for the K-65 wastes. Optimization of glass formulations in the SLLS glass forming system should provide glasses which will pass the newly promulgated Universal Treatment Standards which take effect of August 28, 1998.

  20. A vadose zone Transport Processes Investigation within the glacial till at the Fernald Environmental Management Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwing, J.; Roepke, Craig Senninger; Brainard, James Robert; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Mann, Michael J. A.; Holt, Robert M.; Kriel, Kelly

    2007-08-01

    This report describes a model Transport Processes Investigation (TPI) where field-scale vadose zone flow and transport processes are identified and verified through a systematic field investigation at a contaminated DOE site. The objective of the TPI is to help with formulating accurate conceptual models and aid in implementing rational and cost effective site specific characterization strategies at contaminated sites with diverse hydrogeologic settings. Central to the TPI are Transport Processes Characterization (TPC) tests that incorporate field surveys and large-scale infiltration experiments. Hypotheses are formulated based on observed pedogenic and hydrogeologic features as well as information provided by literature searches. The field and literature information is then used to optimize the design of one or more infiltration experiments to field test the hypothesis. Findings from the field surveys and infiltration experiments are then synthesized to formulate accurate flow and transport conceptual models. Here we document a TPI implemented in the glacial till vadose zone at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio, a US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium processing site. As a result of this TPI, the flow and transport mechanisms were identified through visualization of dye stain within extensive macro pore and fracture networks which provided the means for the infiltrate to bypass potential aquatards. Such mechanisms are not addressed in current vadose zone modeling and are generally missed by classical characterization methods.

  1. Groundwater Treatment at the Fernald Preserve: Status and Path Forward for the Water Treatment Facility - 12320

    SciTech Connect

    Powel, J.; Hertel, B.; Glassmeyer, C.; Broberg, K.

    2012-07-01

    Operating a water treatment facility at the Fernald Preserve in Cincinnati, Ohio-to support groundwater remediation and other wastewater treatment needs-has become increasingly unnecessary. The Fernald Preserve became a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) site in November 2006, once most of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental remediation and site restoration had been completed. Groundwater remediation is anticipated to continue beyond 2020. A portion of the wastewater treatment facility that operated during the CERCLA cleanup continued to operate after the site was transferred to LM, to support the remaining groundwater remediation effort. The treatment facility handles the site's remaining water treatment needs (for groundwater, storm water, and wastewater) as necessary, to ensure that uranium discharge limits specified in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision are met. As anticipated, the need to treat groundwater to meet uranium discharge limits has greatly diminished over the last several years. Data indicate that the groundwater treatment facility is no longer needed to support the ongoing aquifer remediation effort. (authors)

  2. Occurrence of Schoenoplectus mucronatus at the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, John; Decker, Ashlee; Bien, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Bog bulrush (Schoenoplectus mucronatus) is a perennial wetland species native to Africa, Asia, and Europe. Its documented occurrence in the United States includes California, Hawaii, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Tennessee. This species spreads through seed, rhizomes, and stolons, and has shown resistance to certain herbicides. Online plant databases do not show the distribution of the species reaching into Ohio or Indiana; however, local experts have indicated that specimens are in both states. Various reports indicate that S. mucronatus is locally abundant but not yet widespread regionally. In recent years, S. mucronatus has become increasingly abundant at the Fernald Preserve, a U.S. Department of Energy site in northwest Hamilton County, Ohio. The 425- hectare (1,050-acre) site has undergone extensive remediation and subsequent ecological restoration, and various wetlands have been constructed across the site. S. mucronatus was first observed at the Fernald Preserve in 2008, in one constructed basin. During monitoring in 2009, S. mucronatus was seen in 8 of 23 basins surveyed. This increase has raised concern that the species may become a regional problem. This poster aims to alert botanists and ecological restoration personnel of the species’ regional occurrence, and prompt discussion of its potential impacts and how it can be controlled.

  3. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C. ); Selleck, C.B. ); Jacoboski, D.L. )

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  4. Waste-surface mapping of the Fernald K-65 silos using a structured light measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Dinkins, M.A.; Rowe, J.C.; Selleck, C.B.; Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-10-01

    A remotely operated surface-mapping measurement system was developed by the Robotics & Process Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in the K-65 waste-storage silos at Fernald, Ohio. The mapping system used three infrared line-generating laser diodes as illumination sources and three high-resolution, low-lux, calibrated, black-and-white, charge-coupled-device video cameras as receivers. These components were combined to form structured light source range and direction sensors with six different possible emitter-receiver pairs. A technology demonstration and predeployment tests were performed at Fernald using the empty Silo 4 into which was placed rectangular objects of known dimensions. These objects were scanned by the structured light sources to demonstrate functionality and verify that the system was giving sufficiently accurate range data in three dimensions. The structured light sources were deployed in Silos 1 and 2 to scan the waste surfaces. The resulting data were merged to create three-dimensional maps of those surfaces. A bentonite clay cap was placed over the waste surfaces and surface maps were obtained. The change in surface height before and after bentonite addition was utilized as a measure of clay cap thickness.

  5. Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.P. |

    1993-06-01

    Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminate or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. The objective was to selectively extract uranium using a soil washing/extraction process without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating a secondary waste form that would be difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. One of the soils is from near the Plant 1 storage pad and the other soil was taken from near a waste incinerator used to burn low-level contaminated trash. The third soil was a surface soil from an area formally used as a landfarm for the treatment of spent oils at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The sediment sample was material sampled from a storm sewer sediment trap at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Uranium concentrations in the Fernald soils ranged from 450 to 550 {mu}g U/g of soil while the samples from the Y-12 Plant ranged from 150 to 200 {mu}g U/g of soil.

  6. How Plant Functional-Type, Weather, Seasonal Drought, and Soil Physical Properties Alter Water and Energy Fluxes of an Oak-Grass Savanna and an Annual Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldocchi, D.; Xu, L.

    2003-12-01

    Savannas and open grasslands often co-exist in semi-arid regions. How these contrasting landscapes affect the exchanges of energy remain to be quantified. Here we examine how a number of abiotic, biotic and edaphic factors modulate water and energy flux densities over an oak/grass savanna and an annual grassland that coexist in the same climate but on soils with different hydraulic properties. The net radiation balance was greater over the oak woodland than the grassland despite the fact that both canopies received similar sums of incoming short and long wave radiation. The lower albedo and lower surface temperature of the transpiring woodland caused it to intercept and retain more long and shortwave energy during the dry period. The observed differences in net energy exchange had profound impacts on canopy evaporation and sensible heat exchange. The woodland evaporated about 380 mm per year and the grassland evaporated about 300 mm per year. Differences in the water holding characteristics of the soils at the two sites account for this difference in evaporation, and provide a partial explanation why the vegetation differs at the two sites. The response of evaporation to diminishing soil moisture was quantified using information on volumetric water content, soil water potential of the root zone and predawn water potential. When soil moisture was ample, after recharging winter rains, values of latent heat flux density, normalized by the equilibrium evaporation rate, were greater for the grassland than for the oak savanna. The grassland died and quit evaporating when the water content of the soil dropped below the permanent wilting point (-1.5 MPa). The oak trees, on the other hand, were able to transpire, at low rates, under very dry soil conditions (soil water potentials down to -4.0 MPa). The trees were able to endure such low water potentials and maintain basal levels of metabolism because a few exploratory roots tapped deep water sources during the dry season

  7. De-noising and retrieving algorithm of Mie lidar data based on the particle filter and the Fernald method.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Pan, Zengxin; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Chen, Shihua; Min, Qilong

    2015-10-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an atmospheric lidar decreases rapidly as range increases, so that maintaining high accuracy when retrieving lidar data at the far end is difficult. To avoid this problem, many de-noising algorithms have been developed; in particular, an effective de-noising algorithm has been proposed to simultaneously retrieve lidar data and obtain a de-noised signal by combining the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the Fernald method. This algorithm enhances the retrieval accuracy and effective measure range of a lidar based on the Fernald method, but sometimes leads to a shift (bias) in the near range as a result of the over-smoothing caused by the EnKF. This study proposes a new scheme that avoids this phenomenon using a particle filter (PF) instead of the EnKF in the de-noising algorithm. Synthetic experiments show that the PF performs better than the EnKF and Fernald methods. The root mean square error of PF are 52.55% and 38.14% of that of the Fernald and EnKF methods, and PF increases the SNR by 44.36% and 11.57% of that of the Fernald and EnKF methods, respectively. For experiments with real signals, the relative bias of the EnKF is 5.72%, which is reduced to 2.15% by the PF in the near range. Furthermore, the suppression impact on the random noise in the far range is also made significant via the PF. An extensive application of the PF method can be useful in determining the local and global properties of aerosols. PMID:26480164

  8. A compendium of results from long-range alpha detector soil surface monitoring: June 1992--May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, S.E.; Bounds, J.A.; Allander, K.S.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Caress, R.W.

    1994-11-01

    Soil surface monitors based on long-range alpha detector (LRAD) technology are being used to monitor alpha contamination at various sites in the Department of Energy complex. These monitors, the large soil-surface monitor (LSSM) and the small soil-surface monitor (SSSM), were used to help characterize sites at Fernald, Ohio, and active or inactive firing sites at Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Monitoring results are presented herein in chronological order.

  9. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Naomi H. Harley, Ph.D.

    2004-07-01

    To develop a new and novel area and personal radon/thoron detector for both radon isotopes to better measure the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases at Fernald. These measurements are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium in the two silos at Fernald.

  10. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Gill, V.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Morris, D.E.; Nickelson, M.D.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  11. An integrated approach to the characterization and decontamination of uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.; Francis, C.; Armstrong, A.; Dyer, R.

    1994-02-01

    An Integrated Demonstration (ID) Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company, has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Chemical and physical characterization of Fernald soils and the uranium wastes contained therein is being accomplished by means of standard analytical techniques as well as a suite of non-standard microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Likewise, a suite of physical and chemical extraction technologies are being designed and tested for accomplishing soil decontamination. However, the main theme of this paper is not the technologies being tested but the approach taken to integrate characterization, decontamination, and risk assessment efforts. It is the authors intent to outline the critical components of an integrated approach for characterizing and remediating uranium contaminated soils as well as provide a real-world example based on the lessons learned in the ID program.

  12. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  13. Seasonal variation in secondary metabolites of edible shoots of Buck's beard [Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Rosaceae)].

    PubMed

    Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer. PMID:26920262

  14. Cost avoidance realized through transportation and disposal of Fernald mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, A.K.; Dilday, D.R.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    Currently, Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are undergoing a transformation from shipping radiologically contaminated waste within the DOE structure for disposal to now include Mixed Low Level Waste (MLLW) shipments to a permitted commercial disposal facility (PCDF) final disposition. Implementing this change can be confusing and is perceived as being more difficult than it actually is. Lack of experience and disposal capacity, sometimes and/or confusing regulatory guidance, and expense of transportation and disposal of MLLW ar contributing factors to many DOE facilities opting to simply store their MLLW. Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company (FERMCO) established itself as a leader i addressing MLLW transportation and disposal by being one of the first DOE facilities to ship mixed waste to a PCDF (Envirocare of Utah) for disposal. FERMCO`s proactive approach in establishing a MLLW Disposal Program produces long-term cost savings while generating interim mixed waste storage space to support FERMCO`s cleanup mission. FERMCO`s goal for all MLLW shipments was to develop a cost efficient system to accurately characterize, sample and analyze the waste, prepare containers and shipping paperwork, and achieve regulatory compliance while satisfying disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC). This goal required the ability to evolve with the regulations, to address waste streams of varying matrices and contaminants, and to learn from each MLLW shipment campaign. These efforts have produced a successful MLLW Disposal Program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO has a massed lessons learned from development of this fledgling program which may be applied complex-wide to ultimately save facilities time and money traditionally wasted by maintaining the status quo.

  15. The art of implosions has impacted the success of three decontamination and decommissioning projects at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, T.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), near Cincinnati, Ohio, has successfully impacted the safety, cost and schedule goals of the Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) Program by using the art of implosions. An implosion is the act of bringing a structure down in a well planned and directed manner using explosive materials. Three major structures in three separate projects were imploded using this well known commercial technology. Safety is, and will always be, the major consideration with each of the projects. As each project succeeded another, the work process used new and improved methods to lower the risk to the environment, provide a safer workplace by reducing the exposure of high risk work and reducing the spread of lead, asbestos and radioactive materials. The time frame for dismantlement of the steel structures was greatly improved, thus reducing the total project cost. The lessons learned were incorporated from one project to another, to continually improve the work process. A number of alternatives were considered for the removal of the structures, seven, four and three stories in height. The subcontractor and its demolition sub-tier contractor worked in a fixed price lump sum contract environment. While skeptical at first, the subcontractor realized the benefits of the technology, a win-win situation for all participants. The overall planning of each of the events was tied to the needs of the client (DOE), the stakeholders and the community surrounding the site, and the continuing progress at the Fernald site. The recording and application of several key lessons learned in the sequence of implosions, will be the key issues of interest in this paper. Each project offered interesting opportunities for contingency planning, coordination, safety culture adjustments, and high regard for the protection of surrounding structures.

  16. Demonstration of packaging of Fernald Silo I waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A. S.

    1999-01-27

    This paper summarizes our experience in bench-scale packaging of Fernald Silo I waste in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics. The waste was received from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and its treatability was studied in our laboratory. This waste contained As{sup 5+}, Ba, Cr{sup 6+}, Ni, Pb, Se{sup 4+}, and Zn as the hazardous contaminants. In addition, the total specific activity of all the radioactive isotopes in the waste was 3.85 {micro}Ci/g, of which that of radium alone was 0.477 {micro}Ci/g. This indicated that radon (a daughter product of the radium) in the waste could present a serious handling problem during this study. For this reason, the waste was handled and stored in a flowing-air glovebox. We made waste form samples with an actual waste loading of 66.05 wt.% and subjected them to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The results showed excellent stabilization of all contaminants. Actual levels detected in the leachate were well below the EPA's most stringent Universal Treatment Standards and in almost all cases were one order of magnitude below this limit. Radioactivity in the leachate was also very low. Alpha activity was 25 {+-} 2.5 pCi/mL, while beta activity was 9.81 {+-} 0.98 pCi/mL. This very low activity was attributed to the efficient stabilization of radium as insoluble radium phosphate in the waste form, thus prohibiting its leaching. This study indicates that the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic process may be a very suitable way to package Silo I waste for transportation and storage or disposal.

  17. Accelerating D&D at Fernald: The fast track remediation design/bid package

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, S.M.; Albertin, M.F.; Borgman, T.D.; Zebick, W.A.

    1995-01-31

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department Of Energy (DOE) facility near Cincinnati, Ohio which provided high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were halted in 1989 to focus available resources on environmental restoration activities at the facility. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) is the designation given to the production area and production-associated facilities and equipment, including, but not limited to, all above and below ground structures, equipment, and utilities. In late spring of 1994, two decisions were made that established the long range strategy on how remedial designs (RD) and the bidding of remedial actions (RA) are approached for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Fernald facilities. The first was to fast track the remediation design and bidding process for the first three D&D packages; and the second was to use standard performance specifications to streamline the decontamination and decommissioning process. This paper describes these strategies, identifies the key elements involved, and discusses the lessons learned that were associated with the approaches. A brief synopsis of these elements follows: (1) A facility complex grouping facilities into blocks of work was used for bid packages. (2) A task force approach involving required functional organizations was used to fast track the design and bidding process. (3) Standard Performance Specifications have been developed for each task to establish minimum acceptable criteria and provide the subcontractor flexibility. This approach also dramatically decreases costs for future D&D packages. (4) A key feature of value engineering has been the use of construction methods and techniques to drive the D&D cost significantly lower. (5) The bid package was structured around a modified IFB approach. This provides the successful bidder the opportunity to incorporate innovative ideas within the performance.

  18. Soil decontamination using aqueous biphasic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.; Gupta, D.

    1994-02-01

    This paper summarizes efforts to develop a biphasic extraction process for separating ultrafine particulate contaminants from soils having high amounts of silt and clay. This work has thus far dealt with the removal of refractory uranium particles from the soils at Fernald, Ohio. The separation process involves the selective partitioning of ultra-fine particles between two immiscible aqueous phases. The authors have conducted batch extraction studies and are now beginning to scaleup the process for pilot-plant testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results of these extraction studies are discussed.

  19. Carbon dioxide flux as affected by tillage and irrigation in soil converted from perennial forages to annual crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most significant contributors to regional and global warming as well as climatic change. However, CO2 flux from the soil surface to the atmosphere can be affected by modifications in soil physical properties resulting from changes in land ma...

  20. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  1. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)-much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls-while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed. PMID:24469544

  2. Inter-annual variation in the response of leaf-out onset to soil moisture increase in a teak plantation in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Igarashi, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Sato, Takanori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of inter-annual climate change on vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges, it has become necessary to explore changes in leaf-out onset in response to climatic fluctuations. We examined the response of leaf-out and transpiration onset dates to soil moisture in a teak plantation in northern Thailand based on a 12-year leaf area index and sap flow measurements. The date of leaf-out and transpiration onset varied between years by up to 40 days, and depended on the initial date when the relative extractable water in a soil layer of 0-0.6 m (Θ) was greater than 0.2 being consistent with our previous results. Our new finding is that the delay in leaf-out and transpiration onset relative to the initial date when Θ > 0.2 increases linearly as the initial date on which Θ > 0.2 becomes earlier. The delay spans about 20 days in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in March (the late dry season)—much earlier than usual because of heavy pre-monsoon rainfalls—while there is little delay in years when Θ > 0.2 occurs in May. This delay indicates the influence of additional factors on leaf-out onset, which controls the delay in the response of leaf-out to soil moisture increase. The results increased our knowledge about the pattern and extent of the changes in leaf phenology that occur in response to the inter-annual climate variation in tropical regions, where, in particular, such research is needed.

  3. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil.

  4. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    'Remediation of soils polluted with heavy metals is a major challenge facing the nation. This is especially so at many DOE facilities and other superfund sites. In many cases, speciation of the metals is inaccurate and difficult and the mechanisms by which the metals are retained/released in soils over long times are poorly understood. Consequently, the long-term fate of metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted and often, the remediation recommendations and techniques that are employed to clean up soils may be ineffective or unnecessary. Accordingly, the authors are proposing work to generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids as affected by inorganic anion. The nature of the interaction of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) with pure soil minerals and extracted soil clays will be investigated. The colloids will be characterized in terms of surface area, surface charge and surface site density. They will be used to study the effect(s) of pH, phosphate rate, and temperature on metals retention/release. The experiments will involve using various kinetic and isothermic sorption equations as models to describe the data thus acquired. The spectroscopic methods will involve using extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The data generated from the proposed study will assist in designing better remediation strategies to effectively clean up toxic heavy metal contaminated soils at DOE facilities and other superfund sites.'

  5. The relative controls of temperature, soil moisture, and plant functional group on soil CO2 efflux at diel, seasonal, and annual scales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil respiration (Rsoil) is a dominant, but variable, contributor to ecosystem CO2 efflux. Understanding how variations in major environmental drivers, like temperature and available moisture, might regulate Rsoil has become extremely relevant. Plant functional-type diversity makes such assessments ...

  6. ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT. SPECTROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTAMINANT UPTAKE AND RETENTION BY CARBONATES IN SOILS AND VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work completed after 21 months of a 36-month project. In a previous annual report we described results of contaminant uptake by natural caliche from the Pasco Basin area. The new results described here relate to studies of metal coprecipitation with calcite...

  7. The effects of precipitation and soil type on three invasive annual grasses in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin are highly susceptible to annual grass invasion. Large regions are covered by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), but there has been a recent upsurge in the abundance and distribution of Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Ventenata dubia (ventenata)....

  8. Direct effects of soil amendments on field emergence and growth of the invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newingham, B.A.; Belnap, J.

    2006-01-01

    Bromus tectorum L. is a non-native, annual grass that has invaded western North America. In SE Utah, B. tectorum generally occurs in grasslands dominated by the native perennial grass, Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. and rarely where the natives Stipa hymenoides Roem. and Schult. and S. comata Trin. & Rupr. are dominant. This patchy invasion is likely due to differences in soil chemistry. Previous laboratory experiments investigated using soil amendments that would allow B. tectorum to germinate but would reduce B. tectorum emergence without affecting H. jamesii. For this study we selected the most successful treatments (CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl and zeolite) from a previous laboratory study and applied them in the field in two different years at B. tectorum-dominated field sites. All amendments except the lowest level of CaCl2 and zeolite negatively affected B. tectorum emergence and/or biomass. No amendments negatively affected the biomass of H. jamesii but NaCl reduced emergence. Amendment effectiveness depended on year of application and the length of time since application. The medium concentration of zeolite had the strongest negative effect on B. tectorum with little effect on H. jamesii. We conducted a laboratory experiment to determine why zeolite was effective and found it released large amounts of Na+, adsorbed Ca2+, and increased Zn2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, exchangeable Mg2+, exchangeable K, and NH 4+ in the soil. Our results suggest several possible amendments to control B. tectorum. However, variability in effectiveness due to abiotic factors such as precipitation and soil type must be accounted for when establishing management plans. ?? Springer 2006.

  9. Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Sherrod, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were undertaken to identify soil factors that curtail growth of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. (cheatgrass) without significantly inhibiting growth of native perennial grasses (here represented by Hilaria jamesii [Torr.] Benth). We grew B. tectorum and H. jamesii alone (monoculture pots) and together (combination pots) in soil treatments that manipulated levels of soil phosphorus, potassium, and sodium. Hilaria jamesii showed no decline when its aboveground biomass in any of the applied treatments was compared to the control in either the monoculture or combination pots. Monoculture pots of B. tectorum showed a decline in aboveground biomass with the addition of Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4. Interestingly, in pots where H. jamesii was present, the negative effect of these treatments was ameliorated. Whereas the presence of B. tectorum generally decreased the aboveground biomass of H. jamesii (comparing aboveground biomass in monoculture versus combination pots), the presence of H. jamesii resulted in an enhancement of B. tectorum aboveground biomass by up to 900%. We hypothesize that B. tectorum was able to obtain resources from H. jamesii, an action that benefited B. tectorum while generally harming H. jamesii. Possible ways resources may be gained by B. tectorum from native perennial grasses include (1) B. tectorum is protected from salt stress by native plants or associated soil biota; (2) when B. tectorum is grown with H. jamesii, the native soil biota is altered in a way that favors B. tectorum growth, including B. tectorum tapping into the mycorrhizal network of native plants and obtaining resources from them; (3) B. tectorum can take advantage of root exudates from native plants, including water and nutrients released by natives via hydraulic redistribution; and (4) B. tectorum is able to utilize some combination of the above mechanisms. In summary, land managers may find adding soil treatments can temporarily suppress B. tectorum

  10. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of concrete silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 at Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Char, C.V.; Shiner, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) site located near Cincinnati, Ohio. FEMP was formerly established as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1951 under the Atomic Energy Commission. FEMP is currently undergoing site wide environmental remediation. This paper addresses four concrete silos built during the 1950s and located in Operable Unit 4 (OU-4). Silos 1 and 2 known as K-65 Silos contain residues from Uranium Ore processing. Silo 3 contains metal oxides in powder form. Silo 4 is empty. The Silos are categorized as low hazard facilities and the Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) performance category is PC-2, based on a recently completed safety analysis report. This paper describes the structural evaluation of concrete Silos 1, 2, 3 and 4 for NPH. Non Destructive Tests (NDT) were conducted to establish the current conditions of the silos. Analytical and computer methods were used to evaluate the stresses and displacements for different silo configurations and different loading combinations. Finite element models were developed to uniquely represent each silo, and analyzed using SAP90 computer program. The SAPLOT post processor was used for rapid determination of critical areas of concern for critical loading combinations and for varying silo configurations.

  11. Developing public affairs counseling skills to support a public participation focus at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopes, J.

    1994-03-01

    To provide closer coordination between the Public Affairs Division and environmental restoration management and technical staff, the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) matrixed Public Affairs staffers as counselors to project teams within FERMCO. Close coordination between technical staff and public affairs staff is essential for effective public communication in a public participation, environmental risk communication environment. Two-way symmetrical communication (public participation) represents a paradigm shift for public affairs staff who have developed skills primarily in a public information (asymmetrical communication) environment. While there has been much focus in the literature and workshops on management changes needed to support a public participation environment, less attention has been paid to identifying and developing the skills needed by public affairs professionals to support public participation. To support the new counseling role of public affairs staffers, FERMCO used a public affairs training consultant to design and deliver a workshop to initiate development of the skills needed for the public affairs counseling role. This paper describes FERMCO`s matrixed counseling program and the training to develop public affairs counseling skills for the public participation environment.

  12. Mixed waste management plans at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Sattler, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began production of uranium metal products in the early 1950`s and continued processing of uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to manufacture uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were generated during the manufacture of the uranium metal products. Because of uranium metal`s radioactive properties, the hazardous wastes generated at the facility typically contain some radioactivity. Wastes which contain both a hazardous component subject to RCRA regulation and a radioactive component subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 are described as mixed waste. In 1989, the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper examines the regulatory requirements associated with development of the plan used to manage mixed wastes at the FEMP. In addition, the paper discusses the strategies used to integrate the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) with CERCLA response actions.

  13. Effects of annual and interannual environmental variability on soil fungi associated with an old-growth, temperate hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Burke, David J

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in temperature, precipitation and chemical resources may regulate fungal community structure in forests but the effect of such variability is still poorly understood. In this study, I examined changes in fungal communities over two years and how these changes were correlated to natural variation in soil conditions. Soil cores were collected every month for three years from permanent plots established in an old-growth hardwood forest, and molecular methods were used to detect fungal species. Species richness and diversity were not consistent between years with richness and diversity significantly affected by season in one year but significantly affected by depth in the other year. These differences were associated with variation in late winter snow cover. Fungal communities significantly varied by plot location, season and depth and differences were consistent between years but fungal species within the community were not consistent in their seasonality or in their preference for certain soil depths. Some fungal species, however, were found to be consistently correlated with soil chemistry across sampled years. These results suggest that fungal community changes reflect the behavior of the individual species within the community pool and how those species respond to local resource availability. PMID:25979478

  14. Electrochemical processes for in-situ treatment of contaminated soils. Annual progress report, September 1996--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.; Cha, D.; Chang, J.H.; Qiang, Z.; Sung, M.; Cheng, L.

    1997-01-01

    'Soil samples from three industrial sites at two depths ranges (2--4 feet and 8--14 feet) were received and pertinent physico-chemical properties, such as pH, specific surface area, moisture content, organic matter content, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH at zero point of charge (pH{sub zpc}), particle size distribution, organic contaminants and heavy metals fractionation were analyzed. Results show that clay and silt are the major components in the soil samples, which exhibits a relatively low hydraulic conductivity of about 10{sup -7} {approximately} 10{sup -8} cm/sec. The pH value of soil samples is in the neutral range (from pH 6.1 to 7.6) and its variation with depth is insignificant. Organic matter content is another important factor which affects soil properties such as specific surface area, chemical adsorption capacity and cation exchange capacity. Results indicate that the organic matter content ranges between 0.79% and 1.81%. The effective cation exchange capacity is from 13.8 to 21.2 meq/100 g. The values of moisture content, specific surface area and pH{sub zpc} range from 10.2--16.9%, 0.4--0.9 (m{sup 2}/g) and 2.18--2.60, respectively.'

  15. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W.; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F.

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  16. Inter-Annual Variability of Area-Scaled Gaseous Carbon Emissions from Wetland Soils in the Liaohe Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Siyuan; Krauss, Ken W; Brix, Hans; Wei, Mengjie; Olsson, Linda; Yu, Xueyang; Ma, Xueying; Wang, Jin; Yuan, Hongming; Zhao, Guangming; Ding, Xigui; Moss, Rebecca F

    2016-01-01

    Global management of wetlands to suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, facilitate carbon (C) sequestration, and reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations while simultaneously promoting agricultural gains is paramount. However, studies that relate variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions at large spatial scales are limited. We investigated three-year emissions of soil CO2 and CH4 from the primary wetland types of the Liaohe Delta, China, by focusing on a total wetland area of 3287 km2. One percent is Suaeda salsa, 24% is Phragmites australis, and 75% is rice. While S. salsa wetlands are under somewhat natural tidal influence, P. australis and rice are managed hydrologically for paper and food, respectively. Total C emissions from CO2 and CH4 from these wetland soils were 2.9 Tg C/year, ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 Tg C/year depending on the year assessed. Primary emissions were from CO2 (~98%). Photosynthetic uptake of CO2 would mitigate most of the soil CO2 emissions, but CH4 emissions would persist. Overall, CH4 fluxes were high when soil temperatures were >18°C and pore water salinity <18 PSU. CH4 emissions from rice habitat alone in the Liaohe Delta represent 0.2% of CH4 carbon emissions globally from rice. With such a large area and interannual sensitivity in soil GHG fluxes, management practices in the Delta and similar wetlands around the world have the potential not only to influence local C budgeting, but also to influence global biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27501148

  17. Factors affecting spatial variation of annual apparent Q₁₀ of soil respiration in two warm temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwei; Liu, Shirong; Wang, Jingxin; Zhu, Xueling

    2013-01-01

    A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀ values) of the soil-to-atmosphere CO₂ flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q₁₀ values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q₁₀ values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF) and a pine plantation (PP). Q₁₀ values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (R(S)) measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q₁₀ values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR) (R = 0.50, P = 0.002), non-capillary porosity (NCP) (R = 0.37, P = 0.03), and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T₅) (R = -0.43, P = 0.01) well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC ) well explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ (R = -0.35, P = 0.04). Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q₁₀ values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q₁₀ values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC) and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q₁₀ values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q₁₀ values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q₁₀ value variation. PMID:23717560

  18. Factors Affecting Spatial Variation of Annual Apparent Q10 of Soil Respiration in Two Warm Temperate Forests

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Junwei; Liu, Shirong; Wang, Jingxin; Zhu, Xueling

    2013-01-01

    A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q10 values) of the soil-to-atmosphere CO2 flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q10 values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q10 values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF) and a pine plantation (PP). Q10 values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (RS) measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q10 values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR) (R = 0.50, P = 0.002), non-capillary porosity (NCP) (R = 0.37, P = 0.03), and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T5) (R = −0.43, P = 0.01) well explained the spatial variance of Q10. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC) well explained the spatial variance of Q10 (R = −0.35, P = 0.04). Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q10 values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q10 values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC) and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q10 values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q10 values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q10 value variation. PMID:23717560

  19. [Research on output and quality of Panax notoginseng and annual change characteristics of N, P and K nutrients of planting soil under stereo-cultivation].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-mei; Cui, Xiu-ming; Lan, Lei; Chen, Wei-dong; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Lu, Da-hui; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    The output and agronomic characters of 3-year-old Panax notoginseng cultured under stereo structure (upper, middle and down layers) were investigated, and the annual change of N, P and K of its planting soil were also studied. Results showed that, compared with field cultured Panax notoginseng, growth vigour and output of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower. But the total production of the 3 layers was 1.6 times of field. The growth vigor and production of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer. The content of ginsenoside in rhizome, root tuber and hair root of P. notoginseng was in the order of upper layer > field > middle layer > down layer. Organic matter content and pH of stereo-cultivation soil decreased with the prolonging of planting time, which with the same trend of yield. Organic matter content of stereo-cultivation soil was significantly higher than field, but the pH was significantly lower. Contents of total and available N, P and K in stereo-cultivation soil and field decreased with the prolonging of planting time. The content of N and P were in the order of upper layer > middle layer > yield > down layer, the content of K was in the order of upper layer > middle layer > down layer > yield. Compared with field, the proportion of N and P in the organ of underground (rhizome, root tuber and hair root) of upper layer were increased, while decreased in middle and down layers. Proportion of K in underground decreased significantly of the 3 layers. In conclusion, the agronomic characters and production of stereo-cultivation were significantly lower than that of yield. But the total production of the 3 layers were significantly higher than field of unit area. And the aim of improving land utilization efficiency was achieved. Nutritions in the soil of stereo-cultivation were enough to support the development of P. notoginseng, which was not the cause of weak growth and low production. The absorbing ability of P

  20. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m-2 yr-1 medium-N, 10 g N m-2 yr-1 and high-N, 15 g N m-2 yr-1) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013-2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget.

  1. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m(-2) yr(-1); medium-N, 10 g N m(-2) yr(-1); and high-N, 15 g N m(-2) yr(-1)) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013-2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget. PMID:26732991

  2. Soil concentration profiles and diffusion and emission of nitrous oxide influenced by the application of biochar in a rice-wheat annual rotation system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziqiang; Xu, Xin; Bi, Zhichao; Li, Lu; Li, Bo; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-04-01

    Field experiments were carried out to determine biochar effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration profiles, diffusion, and emissions in paddy soil under rice-wheat annual rotation in southeastern China. An in situ soil gas device was adapted to measure N2O concentrations at depths of 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm. Five treatments were installed as N0B0, N0B1, N1B0, N1B1, and N1B2 (B0, B1, and B2 designated as biochar at 0, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, while N0 and N1 as nitrogen at 0 and 250 kg N ha(-1) crop(-1), respectively). The results showed that N2O concentrations were higher in the 15 and 30 cm depths than other depths. With positive diffusive fluxes, the 7 cm in the rice season and 15 cm in the wheat season were main production sites. The surface N2O emissions and topsoil diffusive fluxes showed good agreement. N application strongly increased soil N2O profiles and surface emissions. Relative to N1B0, N1B1 decreased N2O concentration, surface emissions, and diffusive fluxes by 25.2, 31.8, and 26.5 %, respectively, while N1B2 decreased them averagely by 40.7, 43.2, and 44.2 %, correspondingly. Therefore, the gas gradient method is effective for estimating N2O emissions, and biochar can decrease N2O production when N was applied. PMID:26769480

  3. Annual soil CO2 efflux in a cold temperate forest in northeastern China: effects of winter snowpack and artificial nitrogen deposition

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boqi; Mou, Changcheng; Yan, Guoyong; Xu, Lijian; Jiang, Siling; Xing, Yajuan; Han, Shijie; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Qinggui

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a snow depth 0 cm (non-snowpack), 10 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm and natural depth) gradient experiment under four quantities of nitrogen addition (control, no added N; low-N, 5 g N m−2 yr−1; medium-N, 10 g N m−2 yr−1; and high-N, 15 g N m−2 yr−1) and took an-entire-year measurements of soil respiration (Rs) in Korean pine forests in northeastern China during 2013–2014. No evidence for effects of N on Rs could be found during the growing season. On the other hand, reduction of snowpack decreased winter soil respiration due to accompanied relatively lower soil temperature. We found that winter temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs were significantly higher than the growing season Q10 under all the N addition treatments. Moderate quantities of N addition (low-N and medium-N) significantly increased temperature sensitivities (Q10) of Rs, but excessive (high-N) addition decreased it during winter. The Gamma empirical model predicted that winter Rs under the four N addition treatments contributed 4.8. ± 0.3% (control), 3.6 ± 0.6% (low-N), 4.3 ± 0.4% (medium-N) and 6.4 ± 0.5% (high-N) to the whole year Rs. Our results demonstrate that N deposition will alter Q10 of winter Rs. Moreover, winter Rs may contribute very few to annual Rs budget. PMID:26732991

  4. Seasonal and Inter-annual Changes in Photosynthetic and Soil Respiratory Processes in a Cool-temperate Deciduous Forest on a Mountainous Landscape in Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraoka, H.; Noh, N. J.; Saitoh, T. M.; Nagao, A.; Noda, H. M.; Kuribayashi, M.; Nagai, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems is one of the most crucial themes in ecosystem sciences under current and future climate changes as it would affect our Earth system. Remote sensing and modeling analysis studies from continental to global scales have been indicating that the recent climate change is influential to photosynthetic processes in terrestrial vegetation such as forests and grasslands, by altering phenology (seasonal change) and foliage biomass. In addition, increasing temperature and possibly changing photosynthetic activities of plants are influential to soil carbon dynamics. Our deeper and broader understandings on such photosynthetic and respiratory processes governing carbon cycle and hence budget of terrestrial ecosystems are critical to detect the changes of ecosystem processes and the functions in changing environments, as they would influence the biodiversity, ecosystem services and Earth system.In order to reveal the nature of temporal changes in photosynthetic and respiratory processes in forest ecosystems, we have been conducting multi-disciplinary observations of ecophysiological and optical properties for canopy photosynthesis in a cool-temperate deciduous forest since 2003 ("Takayama site", contributing to AsiaFlux and JaLTER). In addition, open-field warming experiments have been conducted since 2011 to examine the possible influence of near-future warming condition on forest canopy photosynthesis and soil respiration. (1) Our long-term measurements of leaf and canopy photosynthesis revealed that their phenology is influenced by inter-annual variation of micrometeorological conditions. (2) Combined analysis of leaf-canopy photosynthesis and optical properties enabled us to estimate the forest photosynthetic productivity at regional scale by satellite data. (3) Open-field warming experiments suggested that tree foliage and soil processes would acclimate to near-future warming conditions.

  5. Genetic analysis of stress responses in soil bacteria for enhanced bioremediation of mixed contaminants. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.K.

    1997-06-01

    'To provide increased knowledge of stress responses of indigenous microbes at contaminated sites as well as using microbes as molecular probes for monitoring the performance and effectiveness of bioremediation, the authors propose to identify the stress-inducible genes and promoters from two soil bacteria, Deinococcus radiodurans and Sphingomonas F199. These organisms represent two phylogenetically distinct groups of soil bacteria, each of which has specific features of interest for bioremediation. D. radiodurans exhibits high resistance to external stress; F199 is a deep subsurface (Savannah River Site) organism with unique degradative capabilities. Research Statement To realize the full potential of bioremediation, an understanding of microbial community and individual bacterial responses to the stresses encountered at contaminated sites is needed. Knowledge about genetic responses of soil and subsurface bacteria to environmental stresses, which include low nutrients, low oxygen, and mixed pollutants, will allow extrapolation of basic principles to field applications either using indigenous bacteria or genetically engineered microorganisms. Defining bacterial responses to those stresses presents an opportunity for improving bioremediation strategies, and should contribute to environmental management and restoration actions that would reduce the cost and time required to achieve DOE''s cleanup goals.'

  6. Electrofishing survey of the Great Miami River. Annual report, September 7, 1995--September 8, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.L.; Miller, M.C.; Moller, B.J.; Marsh, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    Fish were collected, using electroshocking techniques, from three sites in the Great Miami River (GMR) (September 7 and 8, 1995) as part of an annual survey for Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO). The objective was to collect fish fillets for uranium analysis and examine the health of the fish community in comparison to data collected during the past eleven years. Samples were taken from upstream (river mile = RM; RM 38) and downstream (RM 19) of the Fernald site as well as from near the Fernald effluent line (RM 24). RM 38 is isolated from upstream fish migration by two dams located near Hamilton, Ohio and fish collected from this site should not be influenced by processes at the downstream sites. Samples of 549 fish from 29 species belonging to nine families provided seventy-two samples for uranium analysis by an independent laboratory. Chemical analysis of water samples collected at each site was used to determine the effect of chemical parameters on the fish community. This study focused on comparison of the density, biomass and diversity of the fish community between sites and between years.

  7. The annual invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam) as a trigger for high-magnitude soil erosion in temperate river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Philip; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (common English name: Himalayan Balsam), is now found in most temperate European countries, as well as across large parts of North America and on some Australasian islands. As a ruderal species, it favours damp, fertile soils that experience frequent disturbance. Riverbanks and the riparian zone thus represent prime habitat. Its ability to out-compete most perennial vegetation yet tendency to suddenly die during seasonally cold weather has led to claims that it may promote soil erosion, particularly along inland watercourses. Despite the strong implication, this was only recently proven during an investigation conducted over one dieback and regrowth cycle in 2012/13 along a watercourse in northwest Switzerland. Here we reinterpret those initial findings and also present additional data from the same watercourse which now covers three die-off and regrowth cycles, as well as data over two die-off and regrowth cycles from a river system in southwest UK. Results from all monitoring campaigns strongly support the original conclusion that I. glandulifera promotes significant soil erosion along contaminated sections of riverbank and riparian zone. More specifically, however, approximately one third of the total number of contaminated locations monitored (n=41) recorded net ground surface retreat that exceeded, by at least one order of magnitude, equivalent annual erosion rates documented on cultivated hillslopes in temperate regions. Not only does I. glandulifera induce repeat cycles of colonization and die-off, therefore, but collectively, the results generated so far strongly infer that under certain circumstances, this cycle of events can commonly trigger severe or even extreme erosion. Seasonally induced soil loss of this magnitude, particularly along short sections of watercourses, is unsustainable in the long-term and may lead to key fluvial features undergoing profound morphological and structural changes. Such an effect

  8. Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

    2004-01-01

    Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

  9. Characterization of uranium- and plutonium-contaminated soils by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-03-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site in Ohio, and also plutonium-bearing `hot particles, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. By examining Fernald samples that had undergone chemical leaching it was possible to observe the effect the treatment had on specific uranium-bearing phases. The technique of Heap leaching, using carbonate solution, was found to be the most successful in removing uranium from Fernald soils, the Heap process allows aeration, which facilitates the oxidation of uraninite. However, another refractory uranium(IV) phase, uranium metaphosphate, was not removed or affected by any soil-washing process. Examination of ``hot particles`` from Johnston Island revealed that plutonium and uranium were present in 50--200 nm particles, both amorphous and crystalline, within a partially amorphous aluminum oxide matrix. The aluminum oxide is believed to have undergone a crystalline-to-amorphous transition caused by alpha-particle bombardment during the decay of the plutonium.

  10. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  11. Anti-noise algorithm of lidar data retrieval by combining the ensemble Kalman filter and the Fernald method.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Li, Chen

    2013-04-01

    The lidar signal-to-noise ratio decreases rapidly with an increase in range, which severely affects the retrieval accuracy and the effective measure range of a lidar based on the Fernald method. To avoid this issue, an alternative approach is proposed to simultaneously retrieve lidar data accurately and obtain a de-noised signal as a by-product by combining the ensemble Kalman filter and the Fernald method. The dynamical model of the new algorithm is generated according to the lidar equation to forecast backscatter coefficients. In this paper, we use the ensemble sizes as 60 and the factor δ(1/2) as 1.2 after being weighed against the accuracy and the time cost based on the performance function we define. The retrieval and de-noising results of both simulated and real signals demonstrate that our method is practical and effective. An extensive application of our method can be useful for the long-term determining of the aerosol optical properties. PMID:23571919

  12. Kinetics and mechanisms of metal retention/release in geochemical processes in soil. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term fate of toxic metals in soils cannot be precisely predicted, and often remediation recommendations and techniques may be ineffective or unnecessary. This work will generate basic knowledge on the kinetics and mechanism(s) of heavy metal retention/release by soil mineral colloids. The information should assist in improving remediation strategies for toxic heavy metal contaminated soils. The objectives are: (1) To determine the effects of residence time on the mechanisms of Cr(VI), Cu(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) sorption/release on Fe and Al oxide and clay mineral surfaces using kinetic studies coupled to extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. (2) To study the effect of temperature, pH, and phosphate on metal sorption by oxides, and derive thermodynamic parameters to describe the sorption process. As of June, 16, 1997 several clay minerals were tested for their efficiency of removing Cr from aqueous systems. The materials tested--smectite, vermiculites, illites, and kaolinite--represent the natural clay minerals that are abundant in soils and sediments. The clays were used in either their original or reduced (reduced with sodium dithionite) forms. The experimental result indicate that the reduced clays acted as an efficient remover of Cr(VI) from an aqueous system. The XANES spectra of Cr-treated clays provided evidence that the clays reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and immobilized Cr in the clays at the same time. Sodium dithionite applied directly into aqueous systems reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III), but could not immobilize Cr even in the presence of the clays. The Cr(VI) removal capacity varied with the clay mineral type and the structural Fe content. For the clays used in this study, the removal capacity follows the orders of smectites > vermiculites and illites > kaolinite. Within the same type of clay minerals, reduction of Cr(VI) is highly related to the ferrous iron

  13. PROGRESS REPORT. MEASUREMENTS OF RADON, THORON, ISOTOPIC URANIUM AND THORIUM TO DETERMINE OCCUPATIONAL & ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE & RISK AT FERNALD FEED MATERIALS PRODUCTION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are three basic research objectives: (1) To develop an accurate personal and area radon/thoron (222Rn/220Rn) detector for accurate measurement of the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases during remediation at Fernald. These are to be used to determine atmo...

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE) operable unit 5, AKA Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 5 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 5 consists of impacted environmental media including groundwater in the underlying Great Miami Aquifer, perched groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, flora, and fauna.

  15. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  16. Radon suppression in storage silos at the United States Department of Energy Feed Material Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Land, R.R. ); Biancheria, A. ); Craig, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Two silos at the Department of Energy Feed Material Production Facility in Fernald, Ohio, contain an estimated 8800 metric tons of high-grade pitchblende ore residue solids, which contain approximately 3,300 curies (Ci) of radium and 1810 Ci of thorium. These silos are the subject of an on-going CERCLA RI/F Program. Fugitive radon emissions from the silos exceed EPA limits. In addition, structural analyses have revealed that the silos have little credible remaining design life. While pursuing final remediation, a removal action is being taken to address the current situation. The removal action entails the emplacement of a covering layer of bentonite slurry inside the silos. The bentonite will reduce the fugitive emissions to EPA limits and mitigate the effects of dome structural failure, while presenting minimum impact on potential final remedial action alternatives for the silos. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Recommended seismic hazard levels for the Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; Fernald, Ohio; and Portsmouth, Ohio, Department of Energy reservations

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Manrod, W.E.; Stoddart, W.C.

    1982-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for the seismic hazard levels at the Oak Ridge Operations-Department of Energy (ORO-DOE) reservations in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; Fernald, Ohio; and Portsmouth, Ohio. These recommendations are based on seismic hazard studies that have occurred over the past 10 y concerning these reservations. The authors have conducted in-depth reviews of the seismic hazard studies that have been completed for the reservations, have had various meetings with the authors of these studies, have had meetings and conducted studies among themselves and their consultants, and feel that the recommendations made in this report represent the state-of-the-art for assessing the seismic hazard at a site.

  18. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  19. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  20. Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, James; Buckley, James

    2003-02-23

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations.

  1. Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

  2. The impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO{sub 2} fertilization on soil carbon storage. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.; Broecker, W.

    1992-05-21

    This research strives to assess the impact of changing land use, nitrate deposition and CO{sub 2} fertilization on soil carbon storage. Our motivation is that this reservoir is the most likely candidate for the so-called missing carbon sink. We are working on several aspects of this problem by measuring carbon content, nitrogen content and radiocarbon ratios in paired soil samples from neighboring sites, to determine the impact of land use on soil carbon inventories and turnover times. We are also gathering information on how the C/N ratios in soils vary with climate and changing land use, in an effort to estimate how much carbon has been sequestered as a result of atmospheric fallout of NH{sub 4}OH and HNO{sub 3}. Finally, we are developing a soil greening model that uses CO{sub 2} growth-enhancement results and bomb radiocarbon-based estimates of soil carbon inventory response times.

  3. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils. Annual report No. 1, 1 September 1991-30 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Nepstad, D.; Stone, T.; Davidson, E.; Trumbore, S.E.

    1992-10-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  4. Transition of the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Closure Project (FCP) from Cleanup to Legacy Management

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Craig, J.R.; Jacobson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Fernald Closure Project encompasses a 1,050-acre tract of land northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. Dedicated to the production of uranium feed materials from 1952 until 1989, the site was subsequently included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List and slated for cleanup. Except for contaminated ground water, cleanup of the site will be completed in 2006; remediation of the aquifer will continue for 20 years. Transition of the project from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management to the Office of Legacy Management will be effected when site cleanup is completed, surface restoration is complete, and aquifer remediation is on-going. Office of Legacy Management activities will focus on the monitoring and maintenance of the on-site disposal facility, enforcement of restrictions on site access and use, and the protection of natural and cultural resources. The Site Transition Plan, developed in accordance with Site Transition Framework guidance, identifies organizational and financial responsibilities for attaining closeout. A Transition Matrix details more than 1,000 activities necessary for site transition and allows each task to be tracked. Responsibility Transition Plans address major areas of scope to be transferred, such as records and information management, infrastructure, and environmental monitoring. Much effort has been placed on the retention of staff to perform the identified Office of Legacy Management scope. (authors)

  5. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  6. Comparison of the bioavailability of elemental waste laden soils using in vivo and in vitro analytical methodology and refinement of exposure/dose model. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gailo, M.; Georgopoulos, P.; Lioy, P.J.; Roy, A.

    1997-01-01

    'The bioavailability study has made significant progress in developing in vitro methodology, and the authors have completed the time course in vivo studies. The in vitro studies have been conducted to establish the major digestive variables of concern and the values to be used in application of both the saliva/gastric juice and intestinal fluid components of a synthetic digestive extraction. In vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted on the 575 urn particle fraction of a soil sample collected in a Jersey City State Park. Five Jersey City soil samples were first characterized for physical and chemical characteristics. Based upon the composition of the five soils, one was selected for use in the first series of experiments. The second set of in vivo studies are to be conducted on a standard NIST Montana soil. It has already been examined for bioaccessibility and availability with the in vitro methodology. A sample has been collected in Bayonne to obtain an urban background soil. Surficial soil samples have been acquired from the Savannah River Site of the DOE. These are not radioactive but are contaminated with heavy metals, e.g. arsenic, and are being analyzed by both the in vivo and in vitro methodology. During this past summer a second set of soil samples were collected at Savannah River Site. These contain levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides. Recently, a special extraction laboratory has been constructed at EOHSI, with resources made available from the organization. It will handle the extraction and measurement of the radio activity of the soil, and extracts obtained by the in vivo techniques. It is anticipated that the SRS samples collected this summer will be available for analysis in both the in vivo and in vitro systems this fall. The initial characterization will be for soil, physical and chemical content, and microbial characteristics. The samples will be analyzed for the 5 75 urn particle size fraction, and the total mass 5 250 urn in

  7. Overview of Remote Retrieval Equipment and the Strategy for removal of Radon Bearing Waste from Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Site

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, Michael W.; Samuel, Todd J.

    2001-12-29

    This document provides an overview of the remote retrieval equipment and strategy for the retrieval of waste from Silos 1 and 2 at the Department of Energy's Fernald site in southwestern Ohio. The scope of this paper is limited to general descriptions of remote equipment specifically related in-silo retrieval. The retrieval strategy describes how the contractor team is planning to utilize the various remote subsystems to efficiently remove the waste from the silos from a philosophical standpoint as opposed to a procedural and operational standpoint. The retrieval strategy and approach is based upon the successful tank retrieval operations conducted at DOE's Oak Ridge and Hanford Sites. Lessons learned from these previous operations have been utilized in planning an approach for the Fernald Silo Retrieval Project. The equipment overview includes discussion of the retrieval system configurations together with descriptions of the robotic arm and retrieval end effectors, the conditioning and transfer pumping system, the sluicer and sluicing pump, as well as the debris retrieval system. A unique challenge being addressed as part of this project is the waste contents. Silos 1 and 2 contain two distinct layers of material that need to be retrieved. The first layer is a Bentonite (trade name BentogroutTM) cap that was placed in the silos to prevent radon migration into the dome space and out of the silos. The Bentonite layer varies, but in general it is approximately six inches deep in the center of the silo and thirty-six inches near the silo walls. The material may have dried out on the surface, and may still be wetted near the bottom of the bentonite layer. The K-65 ore tailings, which were slurried into the silos, are the remainder of the waste that is over 20' in depth. This paper provides an overview of the retrieval strategies, technologies, and techniques that will be used to safely and efficiently retrieve the waste from the Fernald Silos.

  8. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    SciTech Connect

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    An innovative system`s approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system`s approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system`s approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies.

  9. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  10. Office of Inspector General report on audit of proposal to acquire land at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-05

    The US Department of Energy (Department) obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire 78 to 100 acres of privately-held land adjoining the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) as an additional buffer for a waste disposal facility. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the proposed purchase of land was essential to support the site`s mission. The Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate to acquire the additional land without confirming that av lid need for the land existed. If the land is acquired, the Department could spend between $655,000 and $2.2 million unnecessarily. Additionally, the Department could incur unnecessary maintenance and security costs to maintain the land after acquisition. It was recommended that the Manager, Ohio Field Office, dismiss the proposal to acquire the additional land. Management agreed with the recommendation, stating that the acquisition could not be justified at this time. However, management did not agree with the finding that the Department obtained an appraisal and developed a cost estimate without confirming that a valid need for the land existed. Management stated that the appraisal and cost estimate were principal and necessary to determining whether a need for the land existed. It was concluded that the appraisal and cost estimate should not have been performed because a valid need for the land was never established. Also, it was concluded that it would be inappropriate to reconsider the proposal to acquire the land at a later date if additional funds become available, unless a valid need for the land is first established.