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Sample records for ferrite nanoparticles prepared

  1. Preparation of silica coated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for the purification of histidine-tagged proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygar, Gülfem; Kaya, Murat; Özkan, Necati; Kocab?y?k, Semra; Volkan, Mürvet

    2015-12-01

    Surface modified cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles containing Ni-NTA affinity group were synthesized and used for the separation of histidine tag proteins from the complex matrices through the use of imidazole side chains of histidine molecules. Firstly, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared in an aqueous solution using the controlled co-precipitation method. In order to obtain small CoFe2O4 agglomerates, oleic acid and sodium chloride were used as dispersants. The CoFe2O4 particles were coated with silica and subsequently the surface of these silica coated particles (SiO2-CoFe2O4) was modified by amine (NH2) groups in order to add further functional groups on the silica shell. Then, carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups were added to the SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles through the NH2 groups. After that N?,N?-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine hydrate (NTA) was attached to carboxyl ends of the structure. Finally, the surface modified nanoparticles were labeled with nickel (Ni) (II) ions. Furthermore, the modified SiO2-CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were utilized as a new system that allows purification of the N-terminal His-tagged recombinant small heat shock protein, Tpv-sHSP 14.3.

  2. Preparation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a novel solvothermal approach using divalent iron salt as precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jie; Green Bio- and Eco-Chem. Eng. Lab, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology ; Zhao, Jiantao; Li, Wenlie; Zhang, Shuping; Green Bio- and Eco-Chem. Eng. Lab, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology ; Tian, Zhenran; Basov, Sergey

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are obtained via solvothermal approach using Fe{sup 2+} salt as iron resource. The magnetic properties can be modified by some additives. Display Omitted Highlights: ? CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile one-step novel solvothermal method. ? The system is firstly performed in water–glycol mixture solvent with an ordinary air surrounding. ? The ferrous ions are used as iron source without adding oxidant. ? It is firstly found the low-coercivity CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be obtained with the help of some additives in the synthesis system. -- Abstract: Cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles are synthesized by a facile novel solvothermal method. The reactions are firstly performed in water–glycol system and Fe{sup 2+} salt is used as iron source without oxidant help. Some factors influenced the reactions, including temperature, reaction time, additives, are investigated. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The magnetic properties of some samples are detected by vibrating sample magnetometry techniques (VSM). It is firstly found that the magnetism of cobalt ferrites nanomaterials can be modified by some additives. The coercivity of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evidently decreases from 600 to 50 Oe in the presence of PEG-4000 in the system.

  3. Highly aluminium doped barium and strontium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by citrate auto-combustion synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J. . E-mail: neil.shirtcliffe@ntu.ac.uk; Thompson, Simon; O'Keefe, Eoin S.; Appleton, Steve; Perry, Carole C. . E-mail: carole.perry@ntu.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aluminium doped barium and strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles BaAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} and SrAl {sub x}Fe{sub (12-x)}O{sub 19} were synthesised via a sol-gel route using citric acid to complex the ions followed by an auto-combustion reaction. This method shows promise for the synthesis of complex ferrite powders with small particle size. It was found that around half of the iron could be substituted for aluminium in the barium ferrite with structure retention, whereas strontium aluminium ferrites could be produced with any aluminium content including total substitution of the iron. All synthesised materials consisted of particles smaller than 1 {mu}m, which is the size of a single magnetic domain, and various doping levels were achieved with the final elemental composition being within the bounds of experimental error. The materials show structural and morphological changes as they move from iron to aluminium ferrites. Such materials may be promising for imaging applications.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles prepared by using solution combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. D.; Kambale, R. C.; Hur, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ni x Zn1- x Fe2O4 ( x = 0.2 and 0.3) ferrite nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 65 to 70 nm were synthesized employing the solution combustion route. The magnetocaloric behavior was investigated within the 50 K ? T ? 400 K range of temperatures ( T). The entropy change (? S) and the adiabatic temperature change (? T) were derived from magnetization ( M) and specific heat ( C P ) measurements. Both compositions exhibited broad peaks for the isothermal entropy change. The magnetic field ( H)-dependent ? T was analyzed within the mean-field approximation scheme, and the observed magnetocaloric properties of the nanoparticle samples were compared with those of a bulk sample. Our study suggests that the magnetocaloric properties of magnetic oxides strongly depend on the particle size; thus, particle size should be considered as a key tuning parameter in the optimization of magnetic refrigeration.

  5. Preparation of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles by ultrasonic wave-assisted aqueous solution ball milling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ding; Li, Dian-yi; Zhang, Ying-zhe; Kang, Zhi-tao

    2013-11-01

    Magnesium ferrite, MgFe2O4 nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization were successfully synthesized using ultrasonic wave-assisted ball milling. In this study, the raw materials were 4MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·5H2O and Fe2O3 powders and the grinding media was stainless steel ball. The average particle diameter of the product MgFe2O4 powders was 20 nm and the saturation magnetization of them reached 54.8 emu/g. The different results of aqueous solution ball milling with and without ultrasonic wave revealed that it was the coupling effect of ultrasonic wave and mechanical force that played an important role during the synthesis of MgFe2O4. In addition, the effect of the frequency of the ultrasonic wave on the ball milling process was investigated. PMID:23622867

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of magnesium ferrite nanoparticles prepared via EDTA-based sol-gel reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Shaban I.; Elkady, Ashraf S.; Rashad, M. M.; Mostafa, A. G.; Megahid, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared, for the first time, by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-based sol-gel combustion method. The prepared ferrite system is calcined at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were applied for elucidating the structural and magnetic properties of the prepared system. XRD patterns revealed that the prepared system have two spinel MgFe2O4 structures, namely cubic and tetragonal phases that are dependent on calcination temperature (Tc). The crystallite sizes varied from 8.933 to 41.583 nm, and from 1.379 to 292.565 nm for the cubic and tetragonal phases respectively depending on Tc. The deduced lattice parameters for the cubic and (tetragonal) systems are a=8.368, 8.365 and 8.377 and (a=7.011, 5.922, 5.908 and c=6.622, 8.456, 8.364) Å at Tc=400, 500 and 600 °C respectively. While the cation distribution of the cubic phase is found to be mixed spinel and Tc-dependent, it is an inverse spinel in the tetragonal phase where the Fe3+ ions occupy both the tetrahedral A- and octahedral B-sites in almost equal amount; the Mg2+ ions are found to occupy only the B-sites. The HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) revealed the detailed morphology of the nanoparticles, and confirmed their crystalline spinel structure. VSM indicated the existence of an appreciable fraction of superparamagnetic particles at room temperature, with pure superparamagnetic behavior observed for samples calcined at 400 °C. Besides, the magnetic properties are found to change by thermal treatment as a result of the varied phase concentration, cation distribution and lattice parameters. Thus, the new synthesis route used in this study by applying EDTA as an organic precursor for preparing MgFe2O4 nanoparticles at rather low temperatures proved to be efficient in obtaining nanoparticles with favorable structural and magnetic properties. Such properties would qualify them for several potential applications including e.g. in hyperthermia treatment, as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in ferroelastomers technology.

  7. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles - Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-02

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -15}/cm{sup 3}) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  8. Preparation of magnetic photocatalyst nanoparticles—TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Mn–Zn ferrite—and its photocatalytic activity influenced by silica interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Laohhasurayotin, Kritapas; Pookboonmee, Sudarat; Viboonratanasri, Duangkamon; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Mn–Zn ferrite acts as magnetic photocatalyst nanoparticle. ? SiO{sub 2} interlayer is used to prevent electron migration between photocatalyst and magnetic core. ? TiO{sub 2}/Mn–Zn ferrite without SiO{sub 2} interlayer shows poor magnetic and photocatalytic property. -- Abstract: A magnetic photocatalyst, TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Mn–Zn ferrite, was prepared by stepwise synthesis involving the co-precipitation of Mn–Zn ferrite as a magnetic core, followed by a coating of silica as the interlayer, and titania as the top layer. The particle size and distribution of magnetic nanoparticles were found to depend on the addition rate of reagent and dispersing rate of reaction. The X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope were used to examine the crystal structures and the morphologies of the prepared composites. Vibrating sample magnetometer was also used to reveal their superparamagnetic property. The UV–Vis spectrophotometer was employed to monitor the decomposition of methylene blue in the photocatalytic efficient study. It was found that at least a minimum thickness of the silica interlayer around 20 nm was necessary for the inhibition of electron transference initiated by TiO{sub 2} and Mn–Zn ferrite.

  9. Preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Du Jimin; Liu Zhimin . E-mail: liuzm@iccas.ac.cn; Wu Weize; Li Zhonghao; Han Buxing . E-mail: hanbx@iccas.ac.cn; Huang Ying

    2005-06-15

    This article, for the first time, reports the preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks. Using amorphous copper ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle as reaction precursor, single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG), however, copper ferrite nanodisks were prepared through the same procedures except the surfactant PEG. The resulting nanomaterials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected electron area diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bulk composition of the samples was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  10. Magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene resin

    E-print Network

    Boolchand, Punit

    Magnetic properties of cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles embedded in polystyrene resin P. P. Vaishnava online 20 April 2006 Samples of maghemite and cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles sizes, 3­10 nm were prepared of cobalt-ferrite nano- particles by ion exchanging sulfonated polystyrene resin with iron and cobalt

  11. Magnetoabsorption and magnetic hysteresis in Ni ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Gómez, P.; Muñoz, J. M.; Valente, M. A.; Torres, C.; de Francisco, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by a modified sol-gel technique employing coconut oil, and then annealed at different temperatures in 400-1200 °C range. This route of preparation has revealed to be one efficient and cheap technique to obtain high quality nickel ferrite nanosized powder. Sample particles sizes obtained with XRD data and Scherrer's formula lie in 13 nm to 138 nm, with increased size with annealing temperature. Hysteresis loops have been obtained at room temperature with an inductive method. Magnetic field induced microwave absorption in nanoscale ferrites is a recent an active area of research, in order to characterize and explore potential novel applications. In the present work microwave magnetoabsorption data of the annealed nickel ferrite nanoparticles are presented. These data have been obtained with a system based on a network analyzer that operates in the frequency range 0 - 8.5 GHz. At fields up to 400 mT we can observe a peak according to ferromagnetic resonance theory. Sample annealed at higher temperature exhibits different absorption, coercivity and saturation magnetization figures, revealing its multidomain character.

  12. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccone, F. D.; Ferrari, S.; Errandonea, D.; Grinblat, F.; Bilovol, V.; Agouram, S.

    2015-08-01

    We report by the first time a high pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles carried out at room temperature up to 17 GPa. In contrast with previous studies of nanoparticles, which proposed the transition pressure to be reduced from 20-27 GPa to 7.5-12.5 GPa (depending on particle size), we found that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles remain in the spinel structure up to the highest pressure covered by our experiments. In addition, we report the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameter and Raman modes of the studied sample. We found that under quasi-hydrostatic conditions, the bulk modulus of the nanoparticles (B0 = 204 GPa) is considerably larger than the value previously reported for bulk CoFe2O4 (B0 = 172 GPa). In addition, when the pressure medium becomes non-hydrostatic and deviatoric stresses affect the experiments, there is a noticeable decrease of the compressibility of the studied sample (B0 = 284 GPa). After decompression, the cobalt ferrite lattice parameter does not revert to its initial value, evidencing a unit cell contraction after pressure was removed. Finally, Raman spectroscopy provides information on the pressure dependence of all Raman-active modes and evidences that cation inversion is enhanced by pressure under non-hydrostatic conditions, being this effect not fully reversible.

  13. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Gopal; Sen, Ravindra; Malviya, Nitin; Gupta, Nitish

    2015-08-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) were successfully prepared by microwave-assisted combustion method (MWAC) using citric Electron acid as a chelating agent. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scanning Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible techniques. XRD analysis revealed that NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have spinel cubic structure with the average crystalline size of 26.38 nm. SEM analysis revealed random and porous structural morphology of particles and FTIR showed absorption bands related to octahedral and tetrahedral sites, in the range 400-600cm-1 which strongly favor the formation of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The optical band gap is determined by UV Visible method and found to be 5.4 eV.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles by solution evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoor, A.; Afzal, A. M.; Umair, M.; Ali, Adnan; Rizwan, M.; Yaqoob, M. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Single phase Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) with high magnetization and polarization was synthesized by solution evaporation method (SEM) at room temperature. The influence of temperature and size of nanoparticles on magnetic properties was studied. The prepared Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the structure and size of crystal. The average crystallite size of nanoparticles (NPs) as calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) falls in the range of 22-31 nm. The crystallite size of Bismuth ferrite increased as the temperature varied from 450 °C to 650 °C. Magnetic properties were studied by using physical properties measurement system (PPMS). It was also observed that the magnetic properties were directly related to the size and temperature of Bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. It has been investigated that the magnetization was decreased as the temperature and crystallite size increased.

  15. Superparamagnetic calcium ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using a simple sol-gel method for targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, N H; Ghazali, M J; Majlis, B Y; Yunas, J; Razali, M

    2015-08-17

    The calcium ferrite nano-particles (CaFe2O4 NPs) were synthesized using a sol-gel method for targeted drug delivery application. The proposed nano-particles were initially prepared by mixing calcium and iron nitrates that were added with citric acid in order to prevent agglomeration and subsequently calcined at a temperature of 550°C to obtain small particle size. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using an XRD (X-ray diffraction), which revealed the configuration of orthorhombic structures of the CaFe2O4 nano-particles. A crystallite size of ~13.59 nm was obtained using a Scherer's formula. Magnetic analysis using a VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer analysis), revealed that the synthesized particles exhibited super-paramagnetic behavior having magnetization saturation of approximately 88.3emu/g. Detailed observation via the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the calcium ferrite nano-particles were spherical in shape. PMID:26405858

  16. Optimizing hysteretic power loss of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ritchie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis seeks to correlate hysteretic power loss of tertiary ferrite nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields to trends predicted by physical models. By employing integration of hysteresis loops simulated from ...

  17. Exchange spring like magnetic behavior in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, M.; Anumol, C. N.; Sahu, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique and were annealed at 900 °C in air for 2 h. Structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show presence of mostly two different sizes of grains in these samples. Magnetization value of 58.36 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the as prepared sample and an enhanced magnetization close to the bulk value of 80.59 emu/g was observed for the annealed sample. At 10 K a two stepped hysteresis loop showing exchange spring magnetic behavior was observed accompanied by very high values of coercivity and remanence. Two clear peaks were observed in the derivative of demagnetization curve in the as prepared sample where as two partially overlapped peaks were observed in the annealed sample. The observed magnetic properties can be understood on the basis of the grain size and their distribution leading to the different types of intergranular interactions in these nanoparticles.

  18. Preparation of high-permeability NiCuZn ferrite*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Yan, Mi

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate addition of CuO/V2O5 and the reduction of the granularity of the raw materials particle decrease the sintering temperature of NiZn ferrite from 1200 °C to 930 °C. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of the NiZn ferrite prepared at low temperature of 930 °C is superior to that of the NiZn ferrite prepared by sintering at high temperature of 1200 °C because the microstructure of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 930 °C is more uniform and compact than that of the NiZn ferrite sintered at 1200 °C. The high permeability of 1700 and relative loss coefficient tan?/?i of 9.0×10?6 at 100 kHz was achieved in the (Ni0.17Zn0.63Cu0.20)Fe1.915O4 ferrite. PMID:15909348

  19. Corrosion behavior of magnetic ferrite coating prepared by plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Wei, Shicheng Tong, Hui; Tian, Haoliang; Liu, Ming; Xu, Binshi

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g while the M{sub s} value of the ferrite powder is 71.916 emu/g. It can be seen that plasma spray process causes deterioration of the room temperature soft magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Spinel ferrite coatings have been prepared by plasma spraying. • The coating consists of nanocrystalline grains. • The saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is 34.417 emu/g. • Corrosion behavior of the ferrite coating was examined in NaCl solution. - Abstract: In this study, spray dried spinel ferrite powders were deposited on the surface of mild steel substrate through plasma spraying. The structure and morphological studies on the ferrite coatings were carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy. It was showed that spray dried process was an effective method to prepare thermal spraying powders. The coating showed spinel structure with a second phase of LaFeO{sub 3}. The magnetic property of the ferrite samples were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the ferrite coating was 34.417 emu/g. The corrosion behavior of coating samples was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. EIS diagrams showed three corrosion processes as the coating immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results suggested that plasma spraying was a promising technology for the production of magnetic ferrite coatings.

  20. Investigation of structural, thermal and magnetic properties of cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Byon, Chan; Narendra, B.; Baskar, D.; Srinivas, G.; Shim, Jaesool; Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    Cd substituted Cobalt ferrite nano particles are synthesis using co-precipitation method. The as prepared samples are calcinated at 300 and 600 °C respectively. The existence of single phase spinal cubic structure of the prepared ferrite material is confirmed by the powder XRD measurement. The surface morphology images, compositional features are studied by SEM with EDX, and TEM. From the FT-IR spectra the absorption bands observed at 595 and 402 cm-1 are attributed to vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes respectively. From the VSM data, parameters like magnetization, coercivity, remanent magnetization and remanent squareness are measured. The saturation magnetization value is increases with increasing calcination temperature. The DSC and TG-DTA curves reveal that the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature affects the crystallite size, morphology and magnetic properties of the samples.

  1. The role of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in medical science.

    PubMed

    Amiri, S; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry is rapidly growing and promises that the substantial changes that will have significant economic and scientific impacts be applicable to a wide range of areas, such as aerospace engineering, nano-electronics, environmental remediation and medical healthcare. In this area, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles have been regarded as one of the competitive candidates because of their suitable physical, chemical and magnetic properties like the high anisotropy constant, high coercivity and high Curie temperature, moderate saturation magnetization and ease of synthesis. This paper introduces the magnetic properties, synthesis methods and some medical applications, including the hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic separation and drug delivery of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. PMID:25428034

  2. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ferrite Nanoparticles: Effect of Reaction Temperature on Particle Size and Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, S; Sangeetha, J; Philip, John

    2015-08-01

    The preparation of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles of different particle sizes by controlling the reaction temperature using microwave assisted synthesis is reported. The iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at two different temperatures viz., 45 and 85 °C were characterized using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The average size of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C is found to be 10 and 13.8 nm, respectively, and the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagantic behavior at room temperature. The saturation magnetization values of nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C were found to be 67 and 72 emu/g, respectively. The increase in particle size and saturation magnetization values with increase in incubation temperature is attributed to a decrease in supersaturation at elevated temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be 561 and 566 0C for the iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at 45 and 85 °C, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of the iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized at different temperatures exhibited the characteristic peaks that corresponded to the stretching of bonds between octahedral and tetrahedral metal ions to oxide ions. Our results showed that the ferrite nanoparticle size can be varied by controlling the reaction temperature inside a microwave reactor. PMID:26369150

  3. In situ synthesis of magnetic MnZn-ferrite nanoparticles using reverse microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košak, A.; Makovec, D.; Drofenik, M.; Žnidarši?, A.

    2004-05-01

    Superparamagnetic MnZn-ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared at various pH values using precipitation in a reverse microemulsion consisting of hexanol, as an oil phase; surfactant CTAB; and an aqueous solution of metal sulfates. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide was used as the precipitating agent and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing reagent. The synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface analysis and magnetometry.

  4. Ferromagnetic resonance in Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles in different aggregation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Raúl; Herbst, Frédéric; Ammar, Souad

    2012-10-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of composition Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were synthesized by forced hydrolysis in polyol from the corresponding zinc, nickel and iron acetates. By varying the preparation conditions, different aggregation states were obtained, ranging from isolated nanoparticles with average diameter of 5 nm, to clusters of some 20 nm, formed as well by nanoparticles with average diameter in the 5 nm range, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements exhibited a ferrimagnetic behavior for both aggregation states at 77 K; at 300 K, however, isolated nanoparticles showed a superparamagnetic behavior while clustered ones remained ferrimagnetic with a broad linewidth. These results are interpreted on the basis of interactions between nanoparticles.

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of manganese-zinc-ferrites prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsikau, Dzmitry; Ivanovskaya, Maria; Pankov, Vladimir; Fedotova, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    A spray pyrolysis of a water solution of iron, manganese and iron nitrates is applied to prepare Zn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 single-phase ferrite with a spinel-type structure. The samples are characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The mass magnetization ? and the magnetic susceptibility 1/? of the ferrites are measured as a function of temperature over the range of 78-728 K. The obtained sample contains nanoparticles with an average diameter d ?7 nm possessing MnxZnyFe3-(x+y)O4 spinel-type structure with a uniform distribution of manganese and zinc atoms over the ferrite lattice. The Curie temperature is determined to be 375 ÷ 380 K.

  6. Superparamagnetic magnesium ferrite nanoparticles fabricated by a simple, thermal-treatment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodarz Naseri, Mahmoud; Ara, Mohammad Hossein Majles; Saion, Elias B.; Shaari, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the synthesis of magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanoparticles with cubic symmetry that were prepared by a thermal-treatment method by using a solution that contained poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as a capping agent and Mg and Fe nitrates as alternative sources of metal. Heat treatment was conducted using an electric cylinder furnace in an air atmosphere at temperatures between 673 and 973 K, and magnesium ferrite nanoparticles were produced that had different crystallite sizes ranging from5 to 8 nm. The products were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray analysis (EDXA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). All the samples calcined from 673 to 973 K exhibited super paramagnetic behavior with unpaired electrons spins, which was confirmed by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

  7. Comparison effects and electron spin resonance studies of ?-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakdar, H.; Yalç?n, O.; Cengiz, U.; Özüm, S.; Anigi, E.; Topel, O.

    2014-11-01

    ?-Fe2O4 spinel type ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) assisted hydrothermal route by using NaOH solution. Electron spin resonance (ESR/EPR) measurements of ?-Fe2O4 nanoparticles have been performed by a conventional x-band spectrometer at room temperature. The comparison effect of nanoparticles prepared by using CTAB and EDTA in different ?-doping on the structural and morphological properties have been investigated in detail. The effect of EDTA-assisted synthesis for ?-Fe2O4 nanoparticles are refined, and thus the spectroscopic g-factor are detected by using ESR signals. These samples can be considered as great benefits for magnetic recording media, electromagnetic and drug delivery applications.

  8. Structural, dielectric and gas sensing behavior of Mn substituted spinel MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Sarala Devi, G.; Sathiyaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel ferrite (MnZnFe2O4, MnCuFe2O4, MnNiFe2O4 and MnCoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important role on changing particle size of the spinel ferrite nanoparticles was found out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The role of manganese substitution in the spinel ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in dielectric properties have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These spinel ferrites are decomposed to ?-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. Through the characterization of the prepared powder, the effect of annealing temperature, chemical composition and preparation technique on the microstructure, particle size and dielectric properties of the Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles are discussed. Furthermore, Conductance response of Mn substituted MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were measured by exposing the materials to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  9. Characterization of nanodimensional Ni-Zn ferrite prepared by mechanochemical and thermal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manova, E.; Paneva, D.; Kunev, B.; Rivière, E.; Estournès, C.; Mitov, I.

    2010-03-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles, Ni1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0), with dimensions below 10 nm have been prepared by combining chemical precipitation with high-energy ball milling. For comparison, their analogues obtained by thermal synthesis have also been studied. Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic measurements are used for the characterization of the obtained materials. X-ray diffraction shows that after 3h of mechanical treatment ferrites containing zinc are formed, while 6h of treatment is needed to obtain NiFe2O4. The magnetic properties of the samples exhibit a strong dependence on the phase composition, particle size and preparation method.

  10. Study of Zn-Cu Ferrite Nanoparticles for LPG Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anuj; Baranwal, Ravi Kant; Bharti, Ajaya; Vakil, Z.; Prajapati, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc-copper mixed ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel method. XRD patterns of different compositions of zinc-copper ferrite, Zn(1?x)CuxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75), revealed single phase inverse spinel ferrite in all the samples synthesized. With increasing copper concentration, the crystallite size was found to be increased from 28?nm to 47?nm. The surface morphology of all the samples studied by the Scanning Electron Microscopy there exhibits porous structure of particles throughout the samples. The pellets of the samples are prepared for LPG sensing characteristics. The sensing is carried out at different operating temperatures (200, 225, and 250°C) with the variation of LPG concentrations (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 vol%). The maximum sensitivity of 55.33% is observed at 250°C operating for the 0.6 vol% LPG. PMID:23864833

  11. Structural, IR, and Magnetic Studies of Annealed Li-Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agami, W. R.; Ashmawy, M. A.; Sattar, A. A.

    2013-10-01

    Nanoparticles of spinel Li-ferrite, Li0.5Fe2.5O4, were prepared by sol-gel autocombustion technique and annealed at different temperatures (T a = 673, 873, and 1073 K), i.e., at relatively low annealing temperatures to control the crystallite size. The saturation magnetization (M s) increased, and the surface area decreased by increasing the crystallite size, while Curie temperature (T C) remained almost constant. The critical crystallite size (D s), 74 nm, which corresponds to a maximum value of coercivity was determined. Samples with crystallite sizes ? D s had low initial permeability ?i, while the other samples lying in the multidomain region showed very high ?i values indicating a reversible domain wall displacement mechanism. Hence, the crystallite size plays an important role in changing the physical and magnetic properties of Li-ferrite.

  12. Microwave characterization of magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles in K-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Pina, C.; Falletta, E.; Ferretti, A. M.; Ponti, A.; Gentili, G. G.; Verri, V.; Nesti, R.

    2014-10-01

    Nano-sized magnetic particles show great promise in improving the performance of microwave absorbers with respect to the corresponding bulk materials. In this paper, magnetically hard and soft ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 and Fe3O4) having an average size of 14 and 11 nm were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized in terms of morphology, structure, and magnetic properties. Their permeability and permittivity were measured by a waveguide technique, embedding each sample in a host medium. Their parameters at microwave frequencies were retrieved by comparing different effective medium equations.

  13. A.C. and D.C. conductivity of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles in wet and dry conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saafan, S. A.; Meaz, T. M.; El-Ghazzawy, E. H.; El Nimr, M. K.; Ayad, M. M.; Bakr, M.

    2010-08-01

    Promising future applications of ferrite nanoparticles in medicine, drug delivery, sensors and ferrofluids are expected to be in wet or humid environments. Therefore nanostructured powders of ferrites having the chemical compositions. Ni xZn (1- x) Fe 2O 4 with ( x=0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) were pressed immediately after preparation - by the co-precipitation method - without any drying to simulate a humid environment. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) to be sure of the formation of the ferrite in nanoscale. The infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the samples ensures the existence of water as well as the characteristic absorption bands of ferrites. The ac and dc conductivity of the samples had been investigated immediately after preparation (the as-prepared samples). Then, the samples were dried at 200 °C for about 12 h and reinvestigated. The behavior of conductivity differs significantly in the two cases showing a noticeable effect due to humidity. Also, the magnetic induction of the as-prepared samples was investigated by using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The samples show superparamagnetic behavior.

  14. Preparation and magnetic properties of nano size nickel ferrite particles using hydrothermal method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nickel ferrite, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on. In this paper the synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by the hydrothermal method is reported and the inhibition of surfactant (Glycerol or Sodium dodecyl sulfate) on the particles growth is investigated. Methods For investigation of the inhibition effect of surfactant on NiFe2O4 particles growth, the samples were prepared in presence of Glycerol and Sodium dodecyl sulfate. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) techniques were used to characterize the samples. Results The results of XRD and ICP-AES show that the products were pure NiFe2O4 and also nanoparticles grow with increasing the temperature, while surfactant prevents the particle growth under the same condition. The average particle size was determined from the Scherrer's equation and TEM micrographs and found to be in the range of 50-60 nm that decreased up to 10-15 nm in presence of surfactant. The FT-IR results show two absorption bands near to 603 and 490 cm-1 for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. Furthermore, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 39.60 emu/g and 15.67 Qe that decreased for samples prepared in presence of surfactant. As well as, the nanoparticles exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Conclusions Nanosized nickel ferrite particles were synthesized with and without surfactant assisted hydrothermal methods. The results show that with increasing of temperature, the crystallinity of nanoparticles is increased. In the presence of surfactants, the crystallinity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles decreased in comparison with surfactant- free prepared samples. All of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature. Graphical abstract PMID:22462726

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahraei, Maryam; Monshi, Ahmad; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Behdadfar, Behshid

    2015-11-01

    Superparamagnetic Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.45) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a direct, efficient and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. The synthesized NPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The effects of various parameters such as the pH of reaction mixture, time and temperature of hydrothermal treatment and Zn substitution on the spinel phase formation, the magnetization, and the size of resulting NPs are discussed. The Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs obtained from hydrothermal process crystallized mainly in the spinel phase. Nevertheless, without citrate ions, the hematite phase appeared in the product. The monophase Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs hydrothermally prepared in the presence of citric acid had mean particle size of 7 nm and a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the synthesized NPs can be used to prepare ferrofluids for biomedical applications due to their small size, good stability in aqueous medium (pH 7) and also high magnetization value.

  16. Polyethylene glycol coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles: A potential spinel ferrite for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbe, Ashok V.; Birajdar, Shankar D.; Bhandari, J. M.; Waghule, N. N.; Bhagwat, V. R.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2015-06-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated cobalt spinel ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been reported in the present study. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method using citric acid + ethylene glycol as a fuel. The prepared powder of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was annealed at 600°C for 6h and used for further study. The structural characterization of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were carried out by X-ray diffraction technique. The X-ray analysis confirmed the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The crystallite size, Lattice constant and X-ray density of the PEG coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were calculated by using XRD data. The presence of PEG on CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were revealed by SEM studies. The magnetic properties were studied by pulse field hysteresis loop tracer technique at a room temperature. The magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, coercivity etc have been obtained. These magnetic parameters were get decreased by PEG coating.

  17. Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha; Sarkar, Indranil; Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi

    2014-09-08

    We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (?75?nm and ?155?nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6?eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500?eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg K? (1253.6?eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

  18. Photoacoustic and magnetoelastic property of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and its attenuation with barium titanate coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betal, Soutik; Dutta, Moumita; Khachatryan, Edward; Cotica, Luiz; Nash, Kelly; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2015-08-01

    We report an experimental study, where Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles exhibit Photoacoustic (PA) emission peak intensity of 235.2V/J when analyzed under the Opto-Acoustic measurement setup. PA emission peak intensity decreases to 210V/J when AC Magnetic field is applied and further when Barium Titanate coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were analyzed, the PA peak further reduces to 68.76667V/J and with application of AC magnetic field the peak completely disappears. The measurement depicts the Photoacoustic and magnetoelastic behavior of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  19. Radiation induced structural and magnetic transformations in nanoparticle MnxZn(1-x)Fe2O4 ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticle magnetic materials are suitable for multiple modern high end medical applications like targeted drug delivery, gene therapy, hyperthermia and MR thermometry imaging. Majority of these applications are confined to use of Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are normally left in the body after their requisite application. Preparing these nanoparticles is usually a much involved job. However with the development of the simple technique MnxZn1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles could be prepared with much ease. The nanoparticles of MnxZn1-xFe2O4 with (x=1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.3, 0.0) were prepared and irradiated with gamma radiation of various intensities ranging between 500 R to 10,000 R, after appropriate structural and magnetic characterization. Irradiated samples were investigated for structural and magnetic properties, as well as for structural stability and cation distribution. The irradiated nanoparticles exhibited structural stability with varied cation distribution and magnetic properties, dependent on gamma radiation dose. Surprisingly samples also exhibited quenching of lattice parameter and particle size. The changes introduced in the cation distribution, lattice constant, particle size and magnetic properties were found to be irreversible with time lapse and were of permanent nature exhibiting good stability even after several months. Thus the useful properties of nanoparticles could be enhanced on modifying the cation distribution inside the nanoparticles by application of gamma radiation.

  20. Cytotoxicity of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles on cancer cells of epithelial origin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Ahmad, Sahrim HJ; Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Eid, Eltayeb EM; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saeed, Mohd; Ilowefah, Muna; Fakurazi, Sharida; Isa, Norhaszalina Mohd; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles against human colon cancer HT29, breast cancer MCF7, and liver cancer HepG2 cells was examined. The morphology, homogeneity, and elemental composition of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The exposure of cancer cells to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles (15.6–1,000 ?g/mL; 72 hours) has resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The quantification of caspase-3 and -9 activities and DNA fragmentation to assess the cell death pathway of the treated cells showed that both were stimulated when exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles. Light microscopy examination of the cells exposed to NiZn ferrite nanoparticles demonstrated significant changes in cellular morphology. The HepG2 cells were most prone to apoptosis among the three cells lines examined, as the result of treatment with NiZn nanoparticles. In conclusion, NiZn ferrite nanoparticles are suggested to have potential cytotoxicity against cancer cells. PMID:23885175

  1. Electromagnetic properties of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles and their polymer composites

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, P.; Duncan, K.; Giri, A. K.; Xiao, J. Q.; Karna, S. P.

    2014-05-07

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline NiZn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized using a polyol-reduction and coprecipitation reaction methods have been investigated. The effects on magnetization of synthesis approach, chemical composition, processing conditions, and on the size of nanoparticles on magnetization have been investigated. The measured room-temperature magnetization for the as-prepared magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) synthesized via polyol-reduction and coprecipitation is 69?Am{sup 2}?kg{sup ?1} and 14?Am{sup 2}?kg{sup ?1}, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm spinel structure of the particles with an estimated grain size of ?80?nm obtained from the polyol-reduction and 28?nm obtained from these coprecipitation techniques. Upon calcination under atmospheric conditions at different temperatures between 800?°C and 1000?°C, the magnetization, M, of the coprecipitated MNP increases to 76?Am{sup 2}?kg{sup ?1} with an estimated grain size of 90?nm. The MNP-polymer nanocomposites made from the synthesized MNP in various loading fraction and high density polyethylene exhibit interesting electromagnetic properties. The measured permeability and permittivity of the magnetic nanoparticle-polymer nanocomposites increases with the loading fractions of the magnetic nanoparticles, suggesting control for impedance matching for antenna applications.

  2. Maximizing Hysteretic Losses in Magnetic Ferrite Nanoparticles via Model-Driven Synthesis and Materials Optimization

    E-print Network

    Chen, Ritchie

    This article develops a set of design guidelines for maximizing heat dissipation characteristics of magnetic ferrite MFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 4] (M = Mn, Fe, Co) nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields. Using ...

  3. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

  4. Influence of Ce-Substitution on Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashhash, A.; Kaiser, M.

    2015-10-01

    Nano-crystalline samples of cerium substituted cobalt ferrites with chemical formula CoCe x Fe2-x O4 (0.0 ? x ? 0.1) were prepared using the citrate auto-combustion method. The prepared ferrites were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirm that the prepared samples reveal the formation of a single-phase spinel structure. TEM micrographs showed that the particles are made up of spherical and elongated nano-metric shapes. A limitation of the size of nanoparticles is observed as the Ce3+ concentration increases. VSM measurements showed that the coercivity H c and magnetization values M s are strongly dependent on Ce3+ content and particle size. The values of H c lie in the range of (411-1600 G), which suggest that these samples are convenient for different applications. The alternating current electrical conductivity (?), dielectric permittivities (?', ??), and dielectric loss tangent (tan ?) were studied at different ranges of frequency and temperature. The relation of conductivity with temperature revealed a semiconductor to semi-metallic behavior as cerium concentration increases. The variation in (tan ?) with frequency at different temperature shows abnormal behavior with more than one relaxation peak. The conduction mechanism used in the present study has been discussed in the light of cation-anion-cation interactions over the octahedral B-site.

  5. Experimental studies of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles doped silica matrix 3D magneto-photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Diwan, E.; Royer, F.; Kekesi, R.; Jamon, D.; Blanc-Mignon, M. F.; Neveu, S.; Rousseau, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present the synthesis and the optical properties of 3D magneto-photonic structures. The elaboration process consists in firstly preparing then infiltrating polystyrene direct opals with a homogeneous solution of sol-gel silica precursors doped by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, and finally dissolving the polystyrene spheres. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the prepared samples clearly evidence a periodic arrangement. Using a home-made polarimetric optical bench, the transmittance as a function of the wavelength, the Faraday rotation as a function of the applied magnetic field, and the Faraday ellipticity as a function of the wavelength and as a function of the applied magnetic field were measured. The existence of deep photonic band gaps (PBG), the unambiguous magnetic character of the samples and the qualitative modification of the Faraday ellipticity in the area of the PBG are evidenced.

  6. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Bae, Hongsub; Iqbal, Yousaf; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun; Sohn, Derac

    2015-05-01

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM-1 s-1, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T1-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T2-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles.

  7. Microstructural and Mössbauer properties of low temperature synthesized Ni-Cd-Al ferrite nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the influence of Al3+ doping on the microstructural and Mössbauer properties of ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.2Cd0.3Fe2.5 - xAlxO4 (0.0 ? x ? 0.5) prepared through simple sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR), and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural, chemical, and Mössbauer properties of the grown nanoparticles. XRD results confirm that all the samples are single-phase cubic spinel in structure excluding the presence of any secondary phase corresponding to any structure. SEM micrographs show the synthesized nanoparticles are agglomerated but spherical in shape. The average crystallite size of the grown nanoparticles was calculated through Scherrer formula and confirmed by TEM and was found between 2 and 8 nm (± 1). FTIR results show the presence of two vibrational bands corresponding to tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that all the samples exhibit superparamagnetism, and the quadrupole interaction increases with the substitution of Al3+ ions. PMID:21851597

  8. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers. PMID:26095537

  9. Structural And Magnetic Properties Of Ni-Zn Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahane, G. S.; Kumar, Ashok; Pant, R. P.; Lal, Krishan

    2010-10-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles of the composition NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) have been synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM, EPR, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the synthesis of single crystalline phase of NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles. Lattice parameter decreases with the increase in nickel content. The magnetic measurements shows superparamagnetic nature of the samples for x = 0.1 and 0.3 whereas for x = 0.5 the material shows ferromagnetic nature. The saturation magnetization is low and increases with increase in nickel content. The superparamagnetic nature of the samples is supported by the EPR and ac susceptibility measurement studies. The blocking temperature increases with the nickel concentration. The changes in the magnetic properties have been explained by the redistribution of the cations on A and B sites.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahane, G. S.; Kumar, Ashok; Arora, Manju; Pant, R. P.; Lal, Krishan

    2010-04-01

    Nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles Ni xZn 1- xFe 2O 4 ( x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5) have been synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the synthesis of single crystalline Ni xZn 1- xFe 2O 4 nanoparticles. The lattice parameter decreases with increase in Ni content resulting in a reduction in lattice strain. Similarly crystallite size increases with the concentration of Ni. The magnetic measurements show the superparamagnetic nature of the samples for x=0.1 and 0.3 whereas for x=0.5 the material is ferromagnetic. The saturation magnetization is 23.95 emu/g and increases with increase in Ni content. The superparamagnetic nature of the samples is supported by the EPR and ac susceptibility measurement studies. The blocking temperature increases with Ni concentration. The increase in blocking temperature is explained by the redistribution of the cations on tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites.

  11. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-07-28

    A process is described for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  12. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  13. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of Gd substituted manganese ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, C.; Sathyamoorthy, B.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2015-08-01

    Gd3+ ion-substituted manganese ferrite nanoparticles with the chemical formula MnGdxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.05, and 0.1) were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method. Thermal stability of the as-prepared sample was analyzed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and the result reveals that the prepared sample is thermally stable above 300 °C. Structural and morphology studies were performed using powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Indexed PXRD patterns confirm the formation of pure cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes calculated using Sherrer’s formula decreased from 47 nm to 32 nm and lattice constant was enhanced from 8.407 Å to 8.432 Å. The FTIR spectrum of manganese ferrite shows a high frequency vibrational band at 564 cm-1 assigned to tetrahedral site and a low frequency vibrational band at 450 cm-1 assigned to octahedral site which are shifted to 556 cm-1 and 439 cm-1 for Gd3+ substitution and confirm the incorporation of Gd3+ into manganese ferrite. SEM analysis shows the presence of agglomerated spherical shaped particles at the surface. Room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties were studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Frequency dependent dielectric constant, ac conductivity and tan delta were found to increase with Gd3+ ion substitution. The measured values of saturation magnetization decrease from 46.6 emu g-1 to 41 emu g-1 with increase in Gd3+ concentration and coercivity decreases from 179.5 Oe to 143 Oe.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties correlated with cation distribution of Mo-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiba, Z. K.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.

    2014-11-01

    Mo-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles; CoFe2-2xMoxO4 (0.0?x?0.3) were prepared by a one-step solution combustion synthesis technique. The reactants were metal nitrates and glycine as a fuel. The samples were characterized using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). XRD analysis revealed a pure single phase of cubic spinel ferrites for all samples with x up to 0.3. The lattice parameter decreases with Mo6+ substitution linearly up to x=0.15, then nonlinearly for x?0.2. Rietveld analysis and saturation magnetization (Ms) revealed that Mo6+ replaced Fe3+ in the tetrahedral A-sites up to x=0.15, then it replaced Fe3+ in both A-sites and B-sites for x?0.2. The saturation magnetization (Ms) increases with increasing Mo6+ substitution up to x=0.15 then decreases. The crystallite size decreased while the microstrain increased with increasing Mo6+ substitution. Inserting Mo6+ produces large residents of defects and cation vacancies.

  15. Crystallite size induced crossover from paramagnetism to superparamagnetism in zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jitendra Pal; Gautam, Sanjeev; Srivastava, R. C.; Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D.; Chae, Keun Hwa

    2015-10-01

    Present work investigates the crossover from paramagnetism to superparamagnetism as a function of crystallite size in zinc ferrite nanoparticles using near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Synthesized paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit presence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions with dominant concentration of Fe3+ ions. Fe L- and O K-edges spectra of paramagnetic nanoparticles consist of more intense spectral features compared to that of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. This reflects enhanced t2g and eg symmetry states of Fe-O hybridized states in paramagnetic nanoparticles induced by increased degree of crystallization.

  16. The superspin glass transition in zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaman, O.; Ko?ínková, T.; Jirák, Z.; Maryško, M.; Veverka, M.

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles of the ZnxFe3-xO4 (x = 0.3-0.4) spinel phase having 5 and 15 nm size were synthesized by thermal decomposition of the respective acetylacetonates in a high boiling-point solvent employing surfactants. The collective behaviour of the nanoparticles was probed by dc and ac magnetic measurements of tightly compressed pellets of the particles and silica coated products which were prepared by reverse microemulsion technique. The assembly of bare 5 nm particles remains in the superparamagnetic state with Curie-Weiss characteristics down to 35 K when a rather sharp freezing of superspins is detected. The larger particles show a similar but more diffusive transition at 250 K. The cores encapsulated into the diamagnetic silica do not exhibit glassy freezing.

  17. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of rf thermally plasma synthesized Mn and Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.; Swaminathan, R.; McHenry, M. E.

    2003-05-01

    Plasma synthesis has previously been shown to be a viable route to producing nanocrystalline magnetite and Ni ferrite nanoparticles. In this work nanocrystalline powders of Mn and Mn-Zn ferrites have been synthesized using a 50 kW-3 MHz rf (radio frequency) induction plasma torch. We investigate these materials for soft magnetic applications. High-energy ball milled Mn + Fe powders and (Mn+Zn) +Fe powders (<10 ?m) in the stoichiometric ratio of 1:2 were used as precursors for the ferrite synthesis. Compressed air was used in the oxygen source for oxidation of metal species in the plasma. X-ray diffraction patterns for the plasma-torched Mn ferrite and MnZn ferrite powders were indexed to the spinel ferrite crystal structure. An average grain size of ˜20 nm was determined from Scherrer analysis confirmed by transmission electron microscopy studies. The particles also exhibited faceted polygonal growth forms with the associated truncated cuboctahedral shapes. Room-temperature vibrating sample magnetometer measurements of the hysteretic response revealed saturation magnetization Ms and coercivity Hc of Mn ferrite are 23.65 emu/g and 20 Oe, respectively. The Néel temperatures of Mn ferrite powders before and after annealing (500 °C, 30 min) were determined to be 200 and 360 °C, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis and energy dispersive x-ray analysis data on the plasma-torched powders indicated deviations in the Mn or Zn contents than the ideal stoichiometry. MnZn ferrite was observed to have a Néel temperature increased by almost 400 °C as compared with as-synthesized Mn ferrite but with a larger coercivity of ˜35 Oe.

  19. Preparation and investigation of dc conductivity and relative permeability of epoxy/Li-Ni-Zn ferrite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, M. A.; Saafan, S. A.; El-Kony, D.; Salahuddin, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles - having the compositions Li(x/2)(Ni0.5Zn0.5)(1-x)Fe(2+x/2)O4 (x=0, 0.2, 0.3) - have been prepared by the co-precipitation method. The prepared powders have been divided into groups and sintered at different temperatures (373 K, 1074 K and 1473 K). X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) for all samples has confirmed the formation of the desired ferrites with crystallite sizes within the nanoscale (<100 nm). The dc conductivity, the relative permeability and the magnetization of the ferrite samples have been investigated and according to the results, the sample Li0.15(Ni0.5Zn0.5)0.7 Fe2.15O4 sintered at 1473 K has been chosen to prepare the composites. The particle size of this sample has been recalculated by using JEOL JEM-100SX transmission electron microscope and it has been found about 64.7 nm. Then, a pure epoxy sample and four pristine epoxy resin /Li0.15(Ni0.5Zn0.5)0.7 Fe2.15O4 composites have been prepared using different ferrite contents (20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) wt.%. These samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and their dc conductivity, relative permeability and magnetization have also been investigated. The obtained results indicate that the investigated composites may be promising candidates for practical applications such as EMI suppressor and high frequency applications.

  20. Temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy constant in manganese ferrite nanoparticles at low temperature

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    Temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy constant in manganese ferrite nanoparticles at low temperature Sunghyun Yoon1,a) and Kannan M. Krishnan2 1 Department of Physics, Gunsan National University December 2010; published online 7 April 2011) The temperature dependence of the effective magnetic

  1. Seeded growth of ferrite nanoparticles from Mn oxides: observation of anomalies in magnetic transitions.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyon-Min; Zink, Jeffrey I; Khashab, Niveen M

    2015-07-28

    A series of magnetically active ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by using Mn oxide NPs as seeds. A Verwey transition is identified in Fe3O4 NPs with an average diameter of 14.5 nm at 96 K, where a sharp drop of magnetic susceptibility occurs. In MnFe2O4 NPs, a spin glass-like state is observed with the decrease in magnetization below the blocking temperature due to the disordered spins during the freezing process. From these MnFe2O4 NPs, MnFe2O4@Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O core-shell NPs are prepared by seeded growth. The structure of the core is cubic spinel (Fd3¯m), and the shell is composed of iron-manganese oxide (Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O) with a rock salt structure (Fm3¯m). Moiré fringes appear perpendicular to the ?110? directions on the cubic shape NPs through the plane-matched epitaxial growth. These fringes are due to the difference in the lattice spacings between MnFe2O4 and Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O. Exchange bias is observed in these MnFe2O4@Mn(x)Fe(1-x)O core-shell NPs with an enhanced coercivity, as well as the shift of hysteresis along the field direction. PMID:26123580

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance behavior of spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles produced by a chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, R.; Beji, Z.; Herbst, F.; Ammar, S.

    2011-04-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of composition Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 were prepared by forced hydrolysis in a polyol (polyol process) from the corresponding iron, nickel, and zinc acetates. Synthesis conditions allowed for obtaining polycrystalline epitaxial clusters of about 22 nm in size with an average crystal size of about 5 nm. These powders were subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique under a pressure of 80 MPa and temperatures in the 350 to 500 °C range for short periods (5 to 10 min). Densities reached 92% to 94% of the theoretical density. Particle size remained smaller than 61 nm, even for the highest temperature. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments at 77 K showed broadened resonance lines. In contrast with powdered nanoparticles, these high-density bodies can be used in many high-frequency applications.

  3. Low sintering temperature of Mg-Cu-Zn ferrites prepared by the citrate precursor method

    E-print Network

    Atassi, Y; Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite was prepared through a wet synthetic method by a self-combustion reaction directly from a citrate precursor. The as-synthesized powders were sintered at for only 2h. XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirm the formation of single phase Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite after combustion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Mg-Cu-Zn ferrite is sintered at such low temperature. The sintering process increased the crystallinity of the solid and the domain sizes.

  4. Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Susceptibility of Magnetite and Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Embedded in PAA Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, Susanne; Dee, Joris T.; Philipse, Albert P.; Erné, Ben H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically responsive hydrogels with embedded magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biosensors that magnetically detect chemical changes. A crucial point is the irreversible linkage of nanoparticles to the hydrogel network, preventing loss of nanoparticles upon repeated swelling and shrinking of the gel. Here, acrylic acid monomers are adsorbed onto ferrite nanoparticles, which subsequently participate in polymerization during synthesis of poly(acrylic acid)-based hydrogels (PAA). To demonstrate the fixation of the nanoparticles to the polymer, our original approach is to measure low-field AC magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz range. In the hydrogel, the magnetization dynamics of small iron oxide nanoparticles are comparable to those of the particles dispersed in a liquid, due to fast Néel relaxation inside the particles; this renders the ferrogel useful for chemical sensing at frequencies of several kHz. However, ferrogels holding thermally blocked iron oxide or cobalt ferrite nanoparticles show significant decrease of the magnetic susceptibility resulting from a frozen magnetic structure. This confirms that the nanoparticles are unable to rotate thermally inside the hydrogel, in agreement with their irreversible fixation to the polymer network. PMID:23673482

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Kaliyamoorthy; Rajan Babu, Dhanakotti; Kavya Bai, Mane Prabhu; Supriya, Ravi; Vidya, Radhakrishnan; Madeswaran, Saminathan; Anandan, Pandurangan; Arivanandhan, Mukannan; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by solution combustion technique. The structural and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were also investigated. The average crystallite size of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticle was calculated using Scherrer equation, and it was found to be 16±5 nm. The particle size was measured by transmission electron microscope. This value was found to match with the crystallite size calculated by Scherrer equation corresponding to the prominent intensity peak (311) of X-ray diffraction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscope image shows clear lattice fringes and high crystallinity of cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited the saturation magnetization value of 47 emu/g and coercivity of 947 Oe. The anti-microbial activity of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles showed better results as an anti-bacterial agent. The affinity constant was determined for the nanoparticles, and the cytotoxicity studies were conducted for the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles at different concentrations and the results are discussed. PMID:26491320

  6. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of gadolinium doped bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, A. Banerjee, M. Basu, S.; Pal, M.

    2014-04-24

    Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO) and gadolinium (Gd) doped bismuth ferrite had been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Particle size had been estimated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found to decrease with Gd doping. We studied the temperature and frequency dependence of impedance and electric modulus and calculated the grain and grain boundary resistance and capacitance of the investigated samples. We observed that electrical activation energy increases for all the doped samples. Optical band gap also increases for the doped samples which can be used in photocatalytic application of BFO.

  8. Structural and magnetic studies of the nickel doped CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Yadav, Nisha; Rana, Dinesh S.; Kumar, Parmod; Arora, Manju; Pant, R. P.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of nickel doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles NixCo1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.75, 0.9) derived by the chemical co-precipitation route are characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, EPR, search coil and ac susceptibility techniques to develop stable kerosene based ferrofluid. XRD patterns and TEM images confirm the single phase formation of NixCo1-xFe2O4 nanoparticles whose crystallite size increases and lattice parameters decreases with the increase in Ni content. EPR resonance signal peak-to-peak line width and resonance field value decreases with the increase in Ni concentration in these samples. The broad nature of resonance signal is attributed to the ferromagnetic nature of the as-prepared nanoparticles and the increase in super exchange interaction among Ni2+-O-Co2+ facilitate the shifting of resonance value to lower field. The hysteresis loops of these nickel doped cobalt ferrite analogs exhibits highly magnetic nature of these nanoparticles at ambient temperature whose saturation magnetization, coerecivity and remanence magnetization decreases linearly with the increase in Ni-concentration in cobalt ferrite. The magnetic susceptibility with temperature curve shows increasing trend of blocking temperature with rise in nickel ion concentration.

  9. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yeary, Lucas W; Moon, Ji Won; Rawn, Claudia J; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Thompson, James R; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}OOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) reported in the literature. The averaged M{sub s} values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  10. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Effect of nickel concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhal, Ninad B.; Patil, Narayan D.; Shelke, Abhijeet R.; Deshpande, Nishad G.; Puri, Vijaya R.

    2015-09-01

    Nickel substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with composition Co1-xNixFe2O4 (0.0 ? x ? 1.0) was synthesized using simple, low temperature auto combustion method. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of cubic phase spinel structure. The crystallite size varies from 30-44 nm with the nickel content. Porous and agglomerated morphology of the bulk sample was displayed in the scanning electron microscopy. Micro Raman spectroscopy reveals continuous shift of Eg and Eg(2) stokes line up to 0.8 Ni substitution. The dispersion behavior of the dielectric constant with frequency and the semicircle nature of the impedance spectra show the cobalt nickel ferrite to have high resistance. The ferromagnetic nature is observed in all the samples, however, the maximum saturation magnetization was achieved by the 0.4 Ni substituted cobalt ferrite, which is up to the 92.87 emu/gm at 30K.

  11. Manifestation of weak ferromagnetism and photocatalytic activity in bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sakar, M.; Balakumar, S.; Saravanan, P.; Jaisankar, S. N.

    2013-02-05

    Bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were synthesized by auto-ignition technique with and without adding ignition fuel such as citric acid. The presence of citric acid in the reaction mixture yielded highly-magnetic BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite. When this composite was annealed to 650 Degree-Sign C, a single phase BFO was formed with average crystallite size of 50 nm and showed weak ferromagnetic behavior. Conversely, the phase pure BFO prepared without adding citric acid exhibited antiferromagnetism because of its larger crystallite size of around 70 nm. The visible-light driven photocatalytic activity of both the pure BFO and BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite were examined by degrading methyl orange dye. The pure BFO showed a moderate photocatalytic activity; while BFO/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite showed enhanced activity. This could be probably due to the optimal band gap ratio between BFO and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases reduced the recombination of electron-hole pairs which aided in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity.

  12. Spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles and hexaferrite single crystals for information data storage and RF devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalli, Jeevan Prasad

    Since their discovery in the early 1950's hexagonal ferrites or hexaferrites have been studied for a long time because of their technological applications, such as microwave devices and high density magnetic recording media. In this dissertation efforts have been made to address these two applications by developing nanosized spherical barium ferrite particles for advanced magnetic recording media, and hexaferrite single crystals for low loss RF devices. Accordingly, this dissertation consists of two parts; part one spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles for information data storage media, and part two hexaferrite single crystals for RF devices. Part I. Spherical Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles Hexagonal barium ferrite (H-BaFe) nanoparticles are good candidates for particulate recording media due to their high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, excellent chemical stability, and narrow switching field distribution. One major disadvantage of using H-BaFe particles for particulate recording media is their poor dispersion and a high degree of stacking that deteriorate the recording capability by creating large media noise and surface roughness. One way to solve and improve the recording performance of H-BaFe media is employing substantially nanosized spherical barium ferrite (S­BaFe) particles. Spherical shaped particles have low aspect ratio and only form a point-to-point contact, unlike the H-BaFe particles. Therefore, using S-BaFe particles not only decrease the degree of magnetic interaction between the particles but also can substantially increases the recording performance by improving the dispersion and SNR of the particles in the magnetic media. In this dissertation, two different approaches were employed successfully to synthesize S-BaFe nanoparticles in the range of 20-45 nm. Part II. Hexaferrite Single Crystals As wireless communication systems are flourishing, and the operating frequencies are increasing, there is a great demand for RF devices such as circulators and isolators. Traditional RF devices using spinel or garnets are disadvantageous in the millimeter range frequencies, since they require a strong external bias field provided by external permanent magnets. A promising approach to circumvent this problem is to use the high crystalline anisotropy field in the hexaferrites. Single crystals of M and Y-type hexaferrites show promising results with their low microwave losses and excellent magnetic and physical properties. In this dissertation efforts to grow, high-quality bulk M and Y-type single crystals with the aim to study and improve their magnetic and microwave properties with respect to different cation dopant elements is reported. Also, a liquid phase epitaxial technique was developed to grow thick barium ferrite films onto semiconductor substrates. Finally, magnetic domain patterns on bulk M-type single crystals was studied by using a magnetic force microscopy technique.

  13. Magnetic Properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared with the Layered Precursor Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Li, Feng; Qi, Xin

    2010-11-01

    We prepare NiZnFe2O4 soft magnetic ferrites with different molar ratios with the layered precursor method and investigate their magnetic properties. In the layered precursor, metal ions are scattered on the layer plate in a certain way on account of the effect of lowest lattice energy and lattice orientation. After high temperature calcinations, spinel ferrites with uniform structural component and single magnetic domain can be obtained, and the magnetic property is improved greatly. NiZnFe2O4 ferrites prepared have the best specific saturation magnetization of 79.15 emu·g-1, higher than that of 68 emu·g-1 prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and that of 59 emu·g-1 prepared by the emulsion-gel method. Meanwhile the coercivity of NiZnFe2O4 ferrites prepared by layered precursor method is 14 kA·m-1, lower than that of 50 emu·g-1 prepared by the co-precipitation method and that of 59 emu·g-1 prepared by the emulsion-gel method.

  14. Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic characteristics, and reflection loss analysis of nickel-strontium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ghasemi, Ali; Paesano, Andrea; Cerqueira Machado, Carla Fabiana; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2014-05-07

    In current research work, Co{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x/2}Sr{sub x/2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x?=?0–1 in a step of 0.2) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by a sol-gel method. According to the evolution in the subspectral areas obtained from Mössbauer spectroscopy, it was found that the relaxing iron belongs mostly to the site B, since the Mössbauer fraction of site A does not vary appreciably. With an increase in Ni-Sr substitution contents in cobalt ferrite, the coercivity and saturation of magnetization decrease. Variation of reflection loss versus frequency in microwave X-band demonstrates that the reflection peak shifts to lower frequency by adding substituted cations and the synthesized nanoparticles can be considered for application in electromagnetic wave absorber technology.

  15. Preparation of nanophase M-type ferrite and its laser-attenuated characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-Cui; Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Jian-Hui; Du, Gui-Ping

    2011-07-01

    By citrate sol-gel auto-combustion method, the nanophase M-type planar hexagonal ferrite is prepared. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis are used to study the grain size, phase composition, microstructure and crystallization process. The results show that the nanophase M-type Sr-ferrite prepared by this method is single, and its grain size is smaller than 100 nm. Moreover, most of the grains present hexagonal sheet shape. Tests are carried out for its attenuation to 1.06 ?m laser. It is found that the extinction capability of the nanophase M-type Sr-ferrite smoke is good, and its mass extinction coefficient is 1.628 m2/g.

  16. Preparation of DPPE-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungey, Keenan E.; Muller, David P.; Gunter, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is presented that introduces students to nanotechnology through the preparation of nanoparticles and their visualization using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experiment familiarizes the students with nonaqueous solvents, biphasic reactions, phase-transfer agents, ligands to stabilize growing nanoparticles, and bidentate…

  17. Influence of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on the directed assembly into magnetically anisotropic hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Lisjak, Darja; Jenuš, Petra; Mertelj, Alenka

    2014-06-10

    The effect of the morphology of ferrite nanoparticles on their assembly in a magnetic field was studied. Thin BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets were compared with isotropic, spherical or octahedral, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, all of which were synthesized hydrothermally. The nanoplatelets and nanoparticles assembled into a variety of hierarchical structures from stable suspensions during the "drop deposition" and drying in a magnetic field. The alignment of the nanoparticles in the magnetic field was observed in situ with an optical microscope. The morphologies of the nanoparticles and the subsequent assemblies were observed with transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the assemblies were measured with a vibrating-sample magnetometer. The BaFe12O19 nanoplatelets aligned in the plane of the substrate and formed several-micrometers-thick, ordered films with a magnetic alignment of approximately 90%. The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles assembled into thick, dense columns with a height of several hundreds of micrometers and showed a magnetic alignment of up to 60%. The differences in the morphologies and the magnetic alignments between the BaFe12O19 and CoFe2O4 hierarchical structures could be explained in terms of the differences in the shape and magnetocrystalline structure of the specific nanoparticles. PMID:24841592

  18. Effects of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on biological and artificial lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Drašler, Barbara; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Valant, Janez; Boljte, Sabina; Otrin, Lado; Rappolt, Michael; Sartori, Barbara; Igli?, Aleš; Kralj-Igli?, Veronika; Šuštar, Vid; Makovec, Darko; Gyergyek, Sašo; Ho?evar, Matej; Godec, Matjaž; Zupanc, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this work is to provide experimental evidence on the interactions of suspended nanoparticles with artificial or biological membranes and to assess the possibility of suspended nanoparticles interacting with the lipid component of biological membranes. Methods 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid vesicles and human red blood cells were incubated in suspensions of magnetic bare cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) or citric acid (CA)-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed in phosphate-buffered saline and glucose solution. The stability of POPC giant unilamellar vesicles after incubation in the tested nanoparticle suspensions was assessed by phase-contrast light microscopy and analyzed with computer-aided imaging. Structural changes in the POPC multilamellar vesicles were assessed by small angle X-ray scattering, and the shape transformation of red blood cells after incubation in tested suspensions of nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy and sedimentation, agglutination, and hemolysis assays. Results Artificial lipid membranes were disturbed more by CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions than by bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticle suspensions. CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4-CA nanoparticles caused more significant shape transformation in red blood cells than bare CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Conclusion Consistent with their smaller sized agglomerates, CA-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles demonstrate more pronounced effects on artificial and biological membranes. Larger agglomerates of nanoparticles were confirmed to be reactive against lipid membranes and thus not acceptable for use with red blood cells. This finding is significant with respect to the efficient and safe application of nanoparticles as medicinal agents. PMID:24741305

  19. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines. PMID:25966046

  20. Catalysts prepared from copper-nickel ferrites for the steam reforming of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yung-Han; Wang, Sea-Fue; Tsai, An-Pang; Kameoka, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, Fe3O4-supported Cu and Ni catalysts are prepared through reduction of Cu-Ni (Ni1-xCuxFe2O4) ferrites. The Cu-Ni ferrites, synthesized using a solid-state reaction method, are reduced at temperatures from 240 °C to 500 °C in a H2 atmosphere. All ferrites are characterized with granular morphology and a smooth particle surface before reduction. For the CuFe2O4, Ni0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 and NiFe2O4 ferrites reduced at 240, 300, and 400 °C, respectively, nanosized Cu and/or Ni particles (5-32 nm) and mesopores (5-30 nm) are distributed and adhered on the surfaces of Fe3O4 supports. After increasing the reduction temperature of NiFe2O4 ferrite to 500 °C, the Ni particles and mesopores disappear from the Fe3O4 surfaces, which is due to the formation of a Fe-Ni alloy covering on the Fe3O4 surfaces. The CuFe2O4 ferrite after H2 reduction at 240 °C exhibits the highest H2 production rate of 149 ml STP/min g-cat at 360 °C. The existence of Ni content in the Cu-Ni ferrites enhances the reverse water gas shift reaction, and raises the CO selectivity while reducing the CO2 selectivity. Formation of a Fe-Ni alloy exaggerates the trend and poisons the H2 production rate.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Zinc-Containing Nickel Gallate Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashhash, A.; Imam, N. G.; Ismail, S. M.; Yehia, M.

    2015-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ni1- x Zn x FeGaO4 samples containing different amounts of zinc ( x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) were synthesized by solid-state reaction. Study of the crystal structure by x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed peaks typical of a single-phase polycrystalline face-centered cubic structure (FCC). Elemental composition was determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra contained two absorption bands related to the tetrahedral A and octahedral B sites of the spinel ferrite. Magnetization loops obtained by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) indicated that the saturation magnetization, M s, decreased gradually with increasing in Zn content ( x), and that coercivity H c was related to the microstructure of the Zn-doped samples. Mössbauer effect (ME) spectra of the samples were broad and magnetically split for x = 0.0 and 0.1 and quadruple doublets for the other Zn2+ concentrations. The dielectric constant ( ?') and dielectric loss tangent (tan ?) were also measured over wide ranges of frequency and temperature by use of the two probe method. The results were explained on the basis of cation-anion-cation and cation-cation interactions through the metal sites in the Ni-Zn-Ga ferrites.

  2. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe?O? (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.

  3. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; et al

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe?O? (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore »such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less

  4. Retsch PM400 ball mill Nanoparticle preparation

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Scott L.

    size feedstock down to the nanoscale regime using planetary ball milling with WC balls ParticlesRetsch PM400 ball mill pump Nanoparticle preparation Ball Milling Method Physically grind micron #12;Method of Preparation: Ball Milling Solubility /Dispersibility in Ethanol (polar solvent

  5. [Superparamagnetic Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles "Blow up" Spatial Ordering of Double-stranded DNA Molecules].

    PubMed

    Yevdokimov, Yu M; Pershina, A G; Salyanov, V I; Magaeva, A A; Popenko, V I; Shtykova, E V; Dadinova, L A; Skuridin, S G

    2015-01-01

    The formation of cholesteric liquid-crystalline dispersions formed by double-stranded DNA molecules, handled by positively charged superparamagnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, as well as action of these nanoparticles on DNA dispersion, are considered. The binding of magnetic nanoparticles to the linear double-stranded DNA in solution of high ionic strength (0.3 M NaCl) and subsequent phase exclusion of these complexes from polyethylene glycol-containing solutions lead to their inability to form dispersions, whose particles do possess the spatially twisted arrangement of neighboring double-stranded DNA molecules. The action of magnetic nanoparticles on DNA dispersion (one magnetic nanoparticle per one double-stranded DNA molecule) results in such "perturbation" of DNA structure at sites of magnetic nanoparticles binding that the regular spatial structure of DNA dispersion particles "blows up"; this process is accompanied by disappearance of both abnormal optical activity and characteristic Bragg maximum on the small-angle X-ray scattering curve. Allowing with the fact that the physicochemical properties of the DNA liquid-crystalline dispersion particles reflect features of spatial organization of these molecules in chromosomes of primitive organisms, it is possible, that the found effect can have the relevant biological consequences. PMID:26349206

  6. HRTEM Study of the Role of Nanoparticles in ODS Ferritic Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Tumey, S; Fluss, M; Serruys, Y; Willaime, F

    2011-08-30

    Structures of nanoparticles and their role in dual-ion irradiated Fe-16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (K3) ODS ferritic steel produced by mechanical alloying (MA) were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The observation of Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} complex-oxide nanoparticles in the ODS steel imply that decomposition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in association with internal oxidation of Al occurred during mechanical alloying. HRTEM observations of crystalline and partially crystalline nanoparticles larger than {approx}2 nm and amorphous cluster-domains smaller than {approx}2 nm provide an insight into the formation mechanism of nanoparticles/clusters in MA/ODS steels, which we believe involves solid-state amorphization and re-crystallization. The role of nanoparticles/clusters in suppressing radiation-induced swelling is revealed through TEM examinations of cavity distributions in (Fe + He) dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS steel. HRTEM observations of helium-filled cavities (helium bubbles) preferably trapped at nanoparticle/clusters in dual-ion irradiated K3-ODS are presented.

  7. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

    2009-11-02

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  8. Study of the preparation of NI-Mn-Zn ferrite using spent NI-MH and alkaline Zn-Mn batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Guoxi; Xi, Yuebin; Xu, Huidao; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Ni-Mn-Zn ferrite have been prepared by a sol-gel method making use of spent Ni-MH and Zn-Mn batteries as source materials. Characterization by X-ray diffraction was carried out to study the particle size. The presence of functional groups was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From studies by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, crystallization occurred at temperatures above 560 °C. The magnetic properties of the final products were found to be directly influenced by the average particle size of the product. The Ms values increase and the Hc values decrease as the size of the Ni-Mn-Zn ferrite particles increases.

  9. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOEpatents

    Vieth, Gabriel M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  10. Method for preparing spherical ferrite beads and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Anderson, Kimberly K. (Knoxville, TN); Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense, highly polished spherical beads of hexagonal ferrites with selected compositions for use in nonreciprocal microwave and mm-wave devices as well as in microwave absorbent or reflective coatings, composites, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous iron oxide is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead is washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous iron-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried, and calcined to produce the desired (BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 or SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19) crystal structure. The calcined bead is then sintered to form a dense bead of the BaFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 and SrFe.sub.12 O.sub.19 phase suitable for polishing and incorporation into various microwave devices and components.

  11. An integrated study of thermal treatment effects on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Zn-ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Antic, Bratislav; Perovic, Marija; Kremenovic, Aleksandar; Blanusa, Jovan; Spasojevic, Vojislav; Vulic, Predrag; Bessais, Lotfi; Bozin, Emil S

    2013-02-27

    The evolution of the magnetic state, crystal structure and microstructure parameters of nanocrystalline zinc-ferrite, tuned by thermal annealing of ?4 nm nanoparticles, was systematically studied by complementary characterization methods. Structural analysis of neutron and synchrotron x-ray radiation data revealed a mixed cation distribution in the nanoparticle samples, with the degree of inversion systematically decreasing from 0.25 in an as-prepared nanocrystalline sample to a non-inverted spinel structure with a normal cation distribution in the bulk counterpart. The results of DC magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy experiments indicated a superparamagnetic relaxation in ?4 nm nanoparticles, albeit with different freezing temperatures T(f) of 27.5 K and 46 K, respectively. The quadrupole splitting parameter decreases with the annealing temperature due to cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure and the associated defects. DC magnetization measurements indicated the existence of significant interparticle interactions among nanoparticles ('superspins'). Additional confirmation for the presence of interparticle interactions was found from the fit of the T(f)(H) dependence to the AT line, from which a value of the anisotropy constant of K(eff) = 5.6 × 10(5) erg cm(-3) was deduced. Further evidence for strong interparticle interactions was found from AC susceptibility measurements, where the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature T(f)(f) was satisfactory described by both Vogel-Fulcher and dynamic scaling theory, both applicable for interacting systems. The parameters obtained from these fits suggest collective freezing of magnetic moments at T(f). PMID:23343510

  12. An integrated study of thermal treatment effects on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Zn-ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Antic, Bratislav; Perovic, Marija; Kremenovic, Aleksandar; Blanusa, Jovan; Spasojevic, Vojislav; Vulic, Predrag; Bessais, Lotfi; Bozin, Emil S

    2015-09-30

    The evolution of the magnetic state, crystal structure and microstructure parameters of nanocrystalline zinc–ferrite, tuned by thermal annealing of ~4 nm nanoparticles, was systematically studied by complementary characterization methods. Structural analysis of neutron and synchrotron x-ray radiation data revealed a mixed cation distribution in the nanoparticle samples, with the degree of inversion systematically decreasing from 0.25 in an as-prepared nanocrystalline sample to a non-inverted spinel structure with a normal cation distribution in the bulk counterpart. The results of DC magnetization and Mossbauer spectroscopy experiments indicated a superparamagnetic relaxation in ~4 nm nanoparticles, albeit with different freezing temperatures Tf of 27.5 K and 46 K, respectively. The quadrupole splitting parameter decreases with the annealing temperature due to cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure and the associated defects. DC magnetization measurements indicated the existence of significant interparticle interactions among nanoparticles (‘superspins’). Additional confirmation for the presence of interparticle interactions was found from the fit of the Tf(H) dependence to the AT line, from which a value of the anisotropy constant of Keff = 5.6 × 105 erg cm-3 was deduced. Further evidence for strong interparticle interactions was found from AC susceptibility measurements, where the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature Tf(ƒ) was satisfactory described by both Vogel–Fulcher and dynamic scaling theory, both applicable for interacting systems. The parameters obtained from these fits suggest collective freezing of magnetic moments at Tf .

  13. A low loss NiZnCo ferrite, prepared using a hydrothermal method, for antenna applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kang; Jia, Lijun; Yu, Xianghai; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel low-loss NiZnCo ferrite prepared by a hydrothermal method has been developed for miniaturization and performance enhancement of mobile handset antennae. XRD analysis revealed that in weakly alkaline solution, H+ ions generated in the reaction process result in an acid-alkali imbalance. In a strongly alkaline solution, Fe(OH)3 readily loses water to generate ?-Fe2O3 and is no longer able to act as a nucleation skeleton. With powders prepared at pH = 10, the ceramic samples consisted of a pure phase, with compact and uniform microstructure, leading to relatively high permeability, very low dielectric constant, and with low losses. A miniaturization factor of about 6.2 and normalized impedance of about 1 were obtained for the developed substrate ferrite when used in a helical antenna operating in the terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) band for a mobile handset.

  14. Study of the thermal stability of nanoparticle distributions in an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S. Y.; Ribis, J.; Klosek, V.; de Carlan, Y.; Lochet, N.; Ji, V.; Mathon, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys have a vast applicability due to their excellent mechanical resistance at high temperature. The precipitate dispersion of the nanoparticles in the matrix has a great effect on the creep properties of the material; in order to study the kinetics of precipitation of Y2Ti2O7 nanoparticles in Fe-14Cr1W ODS alloy, annealing experiments were taken at different temperatures (1050 °C-1400 °C) and for different times (0.5-10 h), then these samples were characterized by the small-angle neutron scattering technique (SANS) under magnetic field and TEM investigations and microhardness measurements were performed to gather nanoscopic information about the dispersed oxide particles size.

  15. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Allancer DC; Ramalho, Laylla S; Souza, Álvaro PS; Mendes, Elizabeth P; Colugnati, Diego B; Zufelato, Nícholas; Sousa, Marcelo H; Bakuzis, Andris F; Castro, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs); tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs); and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs). The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt) and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (?dP/dt). The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart rate or arterial blood pressure in conscious rats. In summary, although the MNPs were able to induce effects ex vivo, no significant changes were observed in vivo. Thus, given the proper dosages, these MNPs should be considered for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25031535

  16. Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

  17. Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of crystalline ferrite nanoparticles in supercritical ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Oana; Marre, Samuel; Aymonier, Cyril; Roig, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are of increasing interest in various industrially relevant products. For these, the development of greener and faster approaches facilitating scaling-up production is of paramount importance. Here, we report a novel, green and potentially scalable approach for the continuous and ultrafast (90 s) synthesis of superparamagnetic ferrite NPs (MnFe2O4, Fe3O4) in supercritical ethanol (scEtOH) at a fairly moderate temperature (260 °C). ScEtOH exhibits numerous advantages such as its production from bio-resources, its lack of toxicity and its relatively low supercritical coordinates (pc = 6.39 MPa and Tc = 243 °C), being therefore appropriate for the development of sustainable technologies. The present study is completed by the investigation of both in situ and ex situ NP surface functionalization. The as-obtained nanoparticles present good crystallinity, sizes below 8 nm, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, depending on the capping strategy, the ferrite NPs present extended (for in situ coated NPs) or short-term (for ex situ coated NPs) colloidal stability.

  18. Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of crystalline ferrite nanoparticles in supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pascu, Oana; Marre, Samuel; Aymonier, Cyril; Roig, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are of increasing interest in various industrially relevant products. For these, the development of greener and faster approaches facilitating scaling-up production is of paramount importance. Here, we report a novel, green and potentially scalable approach for the continuous and ultrafast (90 s) synthesis of superparamagnetic ferrite NPs (MnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4)) in supercritical ethanol (scEtOH) at a fairly moderate temperature (260 °C). ScEtOH exhibits numerous advantages such as its production from bio-resources, its lack of toxicity and its relatively low supercritical coordinates (p(c) = 6.39 MPa and T(c) = 243 °C), being therefore appropriate for the development of sustainable technologies. The present study is completed by the investigation of both in situ and ex situ NP surface functionalization. The as-obtained nanoparticles present good crystallinity, sizes below 8 nm, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, depending on the capping strategy, the ferrite NPs present extended (for in situ coated NPs) or short-term (for ex situ coated NPs) colloidal stability. PMID:23386040

  19. Synthesis, magnetic and optical properties of core/shell Co1-xZnxFe2O4/SiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of multi-functionalized cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), cobalt zinc ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4), and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been enhanced by coating them with silica shell using a modified Stöber method. The ferrites nanoparticles were prepared by a modified citrate gel technique. These core/shell ferrites nanoparticles have been fired at temperatures: 400°C, 600°C and 800°C, respectively, for 2 h. The composition, phase, and morphology of the prepared core/shell ferrites nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The diffuse reflectance and magnetic properties of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles at room temperature were investigated using UV/VIS double-beam spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. It was found that, by increasing the firing temperature from 400°C to 800°C, the average crystallite size of the core/shell ferrites nanoparticles increases. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles fired at temperature 800°C; show the highest saturation magnetization while the zinc ferrite nanoparticles coated with silica shell shows the highest diffuse reflectance. On the other hand, core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanoparticles fired at 400°C show a ferromagnetic behavior and high diffuse reflectance when compared with all the uncoated or coated ferrites nanoparticles. These characteristics of core/shell zinc ferrite/silica nanostructures make them promising candidates for magneto-optical nanodevice applications. PMID:21774807

  20. Preparation and characterization of Ni-Zn ferrite + polymer nanocomposites using mechanical milling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P.; Murthy, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    The insulating properties of Ni-Zn ferrites can be improved by the addition of various types of insulating materials such as polymers, ceramics, etc. In this connection, ferrite-polymer composites have been subjected to extensive research, because they have many applications: electromagnetic interference shielding, rechargeable battery, electrodes and sensors, and microwave absorption. Electrical and magnetic properties of such composites will depend on the size, shape and amount of filler addition. In this paper, we report the preparation and characterization of nanocomposites of Ni-Zn ferrite + paraformaldehyde. These nanocomposites were prepared by using mechanical milling method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The particle size estimated from SEM pictures for composites varies from 36 to 60 nm. Magnetic properties were measured on nanocomposites at room temperature. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured over a wide frequency range from 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz at room temperature. From our studies, it is observed that both the values of permittivity and permeability decrease with an increase in polymer content.

  1. Preparation and investigation of potentiality of different soft ferrites for hyperthermia applications

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, Jyotsnendu; Pradhan, Pallab; Sriharsha, T.; Bahadur, D.

    2005-05-15

    Water-based ferrofluids of substituted ferrites Fe{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0{<=}x{<=}1) have been prepared by the co-precipitation method and characterized. Particles are superparamagnetic with an average particle size of about 10-12 nm. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured by calorimetric measurement at a frequency of 300 kHz and a field of 10-45 kA/m. The variation of SAR and magnetization of Fe{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with Mn concentration shows similar dependence. Innocuousness studies of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrofluids to the living cells have been carried out with BHK-21 cells. In vitro studies showed that threshold biocompatible concentration is dependent on the nature of ferrites and coating.

  2. Study of Ni-Zn Ferrite Prepared From Citrate Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, V. D.; Vinesh, A.; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.

    2011-07-01

    Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 prepared using citrate precursor method and calcined at different temperatures is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and DC magnetization. Magnetization study shows that critical size of the sample is around 50 nm. Mössbauer studies confirm that there is no change in the cation distribution with calcining and also that a particle size distribution exists in samples calcined at higher temperatures. Thus the change in magnetic properties can be entirely attributed to structural parameters due to variation in size leading to different core-spin ratio, grain boundary effects etc.

  3. Investigating Negative Magnetization and Blocking Temperature in Aggregates of Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaidat, I. M.; Issa, B.; Albiss, B. A.; Haik, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Blocking temperatures of aggregates of Mn0.5Zn0.5GdxFe(2-x)O4 ferrite nanoparticles, with x = 0.02, 0.05, 0.11, 0.15, and 0.2, were obtained from the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization measurements. We found a nonmontonic behavior of the blocking temperature with increasing size of the particles. The effective magnetic anisotropy was calculated and found to have two distinct rates of increase with decreasing the size of the particles. These results were attributed to the strong inter-particle interactions in the aggregated nanoparticles and to the enhanced role of surface anisotropy with the decrease of the size of the particles. In three samples, the ZFC magnetization was found to exhibit a significant negative magnetization in a considerable part of the low temperature region. To our knowledge, this is the first time that negative magnetization is reported in such nanoparticles. These peculiar results are discussed and are currently under investigation.

  4. Synergetic effect of size and morphology of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on proton relaxivity.

    PubMed

    N, Venkatesha; Srivastava, Chandan; Hegde, Veena

    2014-12-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with average sizes of 14, 9 and 6 nm were synthesised by the chemical co-precipitation technique. Average particle sizes were varied by changing the chitosan surfactant to precursor molar ratio in the reaction mixture. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed a faceted and irregular morphology for the as-synthesised nanoparticles. Magnetic measurements revealed a ferromagnetic nature for the 14 and 9 nm particles and a superparamagnetic nature for the 6 nm particles. An increase in saturation magnetisation with increasing particle size was noted. Relaxivity measurements were carried out to determine T2 value as a function of particle size using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The relaxivity coefficient increased with decrease in particle size and decrease in the saturation magnetisation value. The observed trend in the change of relaxivity value with particle size was attributed to the faceted nature of as-synthesised nanoparticles. Faceted morphology results in the creation of high gradient of magnetic field in the regions adjacent to the facet edges increasing the relaxivity value. The effect of edges in increasing the relaxivity value increases with decrease in the particle size because of an increase in the total number of edges per particle dispersion. PMID:25429495

  5. Aqueous synthesis and transmission electron microscopy observation of seed-grown spherical ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Tada, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Abe, M.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform-sized spherical iron ferrite nanoparticles grew on seed crystals in an aqueous solution containing sucrose. Using the seed crystals which were highly dispersed in acidic or alkaline seed-crystal suspension without relation to pH of the suspension, we widely controlled the particle diameter in the range 20-200 nm by changing the additive amount of the seed crystals. By transmission electron microscopy observation and X-ray diffraction analysis, it indicated that the particles were highly crystalline but not amorphous. Selected area diffraction patterns of the particles by using transmission electron microscope revealed that the particles were composed of one to several crystals. Thus we provided the evidence that the particles grew on clusters composed of one to several seed crystals to which those of several dozen seed crystals were disintegrated.

  6. Janus nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Chen, Shaowei

    2014-02-01

    In chemical functionalization of colloidal particles, the functional moieties are generally distributed rather homogeneously on the particle surface. Recently, a variety of synthetic protocols have been developed in which particle functionalization may be carried out in a spatially controlled fashion, leading to the production of structurally asymmetrical particles. Janus particles represent the first example in which the two hemispheres exhibit distinctly different chemical and physical properties, which is analogous to the dual-faced Roman god, Janus. Whereas a variety of methods have been reported for the preparation of (sub)micron-sized polymeric Janus particles, it has remained challenging for the synthesis and (unambiguous) structural characterization of much smaller nanometer-sized Janus particles. Herein, several leading methods for the preparation of nanometer-sized Janus particles are discussed and the important properties and applications of these Janus nanoparticles in electrochemistry, sensing, and catalysis are highlighted. Some perspectives on research into functional patchy nanoparticles are also given. PMID:24376180

  7. Study of hard-soft magnetic ferrite films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satalkar, M.; Kane, S. N.; Ghosh, A.; Raghuvanshi, S.; Tapkir, P.; Ghodke, N.; Phase, D. M.; Chaudhary, R. J.; Pasko, A.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2014-09-01

    Soft magnetic Mg0.1Ni0.3Zn0.6Fe2O4 and hard magnetic BaFe12O19 bulk nanocrystalline ferrites were synthesized using the sol-gel auto-combustion method, and were used as targets to deposit soft-hard thin films by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. Various soft-hard thin films with different preparation conditions were deposited on Si (100) substrate, which can be effectively utilized to get better magnetic properties. The prepared films were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic measurements. XRD confirms the presence of soft and hard phases in the thin films. Coercivity of the prepared films ranges from 1.67 to 2.66 kA/m. AFM images show clustering of grains at the film surface with a characteristic columnar growth.

  8. Preparation of medical magnetic nanobeads with ferrite particles encapsulated in a polyglycidyl methacrylate (GMA) for bioscreening

    SciTech Connect

    Nishibiraki, H.; Kuroda, C.S.; Maeda, M.; Matsushita, N.; Abe, M.; Handa, H.

    2005-05-15

    Ferrite nanoparticles (an intermediate between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), {approx}7 nm in diameter, were embedded in beads of a mixed polymer of styrene (St) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method. The beads were coated with GMA by a seeded polymerization method in order to suppress nonspecific protein binding on the surfaces; GMA exhibits very low nonspecific protein binding, which is required for carriers used for bioscreening. The beads have diameters of 180{+-}50 nm and saturation magnetizations of 28 emu/g, exceeding commercially available polymer-coated beads of micron size having a weaker saturation magnetization ({approx}12 emu/g)

  9. Curcumin nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Bhawana; Basniwal, Rupesh Kumar; Buttar, Harpreet Singh; Jain, V K; Jain, Nidhi

    2011-03-01

    Curcumin is a highly potent, nontoxic, bioactive agent found in turmeric and has been known for centuries as a household remedy to many ailments. The only disadvantage that it suffers is of low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to develop a method for the preparation of nanoparticles of curcumin with a view to improve its aqueous-phase solubility and examine the effect on its antimicrobial properties. Nanoparticles of curcumin (nanocurcumin) were prepared by a process based on a wet-milling technique and were found to have a narrow particle size distribution in the range of 2-40 nm. Unlike curcumin, nanocurcumin was found to be freely dispersible in water in the absence of any surfactants. The chemical structure of nanocurcumin was the same as that of curcumin, and there was no modification during nanoparticle preparation. A minimum inhibitory concentration of nanocurcumin was determined for a variety of bacterial and fungal strains and was compared to that of curcumin. It was found that the aqueous dispersion of nanocurcumin was much more effective than curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Penicillium notatum , and Aspergillus niger . The results demonstrated that the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of curcumin markedly improved by particle size reduction up to the nano range. For the selected microorganisms, the activity of nanocurcumin was more pronounced against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, its antibacterial activity was much better than antifungal activity. The mechanism of antibacterial action of curcumin nanoparticles was investigated by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) analysis, which revealed that these particles entered inside the bacterial cell by completely breaking the cell wall, leading to cell death. PMID:21322563

  10. Preparation and characterization of spinel nickel ferrite obtained by the soft mechanochemically assisted synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarevi?, Z.Ž.; Jovaleki?, ?.; Re?nik, A.; Ivanovski, V.N.; Milutinovi?, A.; Rom?evi?, M.; Pavlovi?, M.B.; Ceki?, B.; Rom?evi?, N.Ž.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from mixture of powders. ? The spinel phase formation was completed after 25 h. ? The synthesized ferrites have a crystallite size of about 25 and 15 nm. ? Based on Raman research is observed five first-order Raman active modes. ? We were able to estimate the degree of inversion at most 0.82 and 0.66. -- Abstract: Nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from mixture of (1) Ni(OH){sub 2} and ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (2) Ni(OH){sub 2} and Fe(OH){sub 3} powders in a planetary ball mill for varying duration. Soft mechanochemical reaction leading to formation of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was followed by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, TGA, scanning and transmission microscopy. The spinel phase formation was first observed after 4 h of milling and its formation was completed after 25 h in the both cases. The synthesized NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite has a nanocrystalline structure with a crystallite size of about 20 and 10 nm respectively for the cases (1) and (2). The final grain size in the system (1) is about twice as large as that in the system (2), what is a consequence of different reaction paths in these two processing routes. There are five Raman and four IR active modes. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies implied on the possible cation distribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in formed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel structure. We were able to estimate the degree of inversion at most 0.82 in the case (1) and 0.66 in the case (2).

  11. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100?Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15?wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time?+?decay time) for a 5??m-thick cell is 2.5?ms for ~7?Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  12. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device.

    PubMed

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 ?m-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 V(rms). This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  13. Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles Anchored onto Silica Nanofibers for Designing Magnetic and Flexible Nanofibrous Membranes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feifei; Yan, Chengcheng; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2015-09-16

    Many applications proposed for magnetic silica nanofibers require their assembly into a cellular membrane structure. The feature to keep structure stable upon large deformation is crucial for a macroscopic porous material which functions reliably. However, it remains a key issue to realize robust flexibility in two-dimensional (2D) magnetic silica nanofibrous networks. Here, we report that the combination of electrospun silica nanofibers with zein dip-coating can lead to the formation of flexible, magnetic, and hierarchical porous silica nanofibrous membranes (SNM). The 290 nm diameter silica nanofibers act as templates for the uniform anchoring of nickel ferrite nanoparticles (size of 50 nm). Benefiting from the homogeneous and stable nanofiber-nanoparticle composite structure, the resulting magnetic SNM can maintain their structure integrity under repeated bending as high as 180° and can facilely recover. The unique hierarchical structure also provides this new class of silica membrane with integrated properties of ultralow density, high porosity, large surface area, good magnetic responsiveness, robust dye adsorption capacity, and effective emulsion separation performance. Significantly, the synthesis of such fascinating membranes may provide new insight for further application of silica in a self-supporting, structurally adaptive, and 2D membrane form. PMID:26301575

  14. Structural, electrical and dielectric properties of spinel nickel ferrite prepared by soft mechanochemical synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarevi?, Zorica Ž.; Jovaleki?, ?edomir; Sekuli?, Dalibor L.; Milutinovi?, Aleksandra; Baloš, Sebastian; Slankamenac, Miloš; Rom?evi?, Nebojša Ž.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sintered NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from mixture powders. • XRD and Raman measurements indicate that the prepared samples have spinel structure. • The activation energy ?E are 0.653 and 0.452 eV for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples. • Ferrite from Ni(OH){sub 2}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has lower DC conductivity than from Ni(OH){sub 2}/Fe(OH){sub 3} powders. • The values of dielectric constant of samples NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are 70 and 200, respectively. - Abstract: Nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by a soft mechanochemical route from a mixture of (1) Ni(OH){sub 2} and ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (2) Ni(OH){sub 2} and Fe(OH){sub 3} powders in a planetary ball mill for 25 h. The powder samples were sintered at 1100 °C for 2 h and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to study the effect of grain and grain boundary on the electrical properties of the prepared samples. A difference in dielectric constant (?) and dielectric loss tangent (tan ?) of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples obtained by the same methods but starting from different initial components was observed.

  15. Curie temperature and magnetic properties of aluminum doped barium ferrite particles prepared by ball mill method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daming; Harward, Ian; Baptist, Joshua; Goldman, Sara; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Barium ferrite has attracted considerable interest in the fields of permanent magnets and perpendicular magnetic recording due to its strong uniaxial anisotropy and high Curie temperature (Tc). We prepared aluminum doped barium ferrite ceramics (BaAlxFe12-xO19, 0?x?6) by the ball mill method. The powder was milled for 96 h, and after forming pellets, annealed for 48 h in air at 1000 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that there are only single hexagonal phases in the samples without any impurity phase. The crystal lattice constants, a and c, were calculated by Cohen's method. Both a and c decrease with increasing x, ranging from 0.588 nm and 2.318 nm to 0.573 nm and 2.294 nm, respectively. A Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) were used to investigate Tc and magnetic properties of BaFe12-xAlxO19. It is found that Tc decreases with increasing x, from 425 °C to 298 °C. It is also found that the saturated magnetization (4?Ms) decreases with increasing x, while the coercivity (Hc) increases with the increase in x. The anisotropy field was also determined from the SQUID measurement.

  16. Preparation and characterization of uniform near IR polystyrene nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pellach, Michal; Margel, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials for in vivo fluorescence imaging are required to be biocompatible, nontoxic, photostable and highly fluorescent. Fluorescence must be in the near infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum to avoid absorption and autofluorescence of endogenous tissues. NIR fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles may be considered ideal biomaterials for in vivo imaging applications. These NIR nanoparticles were prepared by a swelling process of polystyrene template nanoparticles with a hydrophobic NIR dye dissolved in a water-miscible swelling solvent, a method developed for preparation of nonbiodegradable nanoparticles, for NIR fluorescent bioimaging applications. This method overcomes common problems that occur with dye entrapment during nanoparticle formation such as loss of fluorescence and size polydispersity. Fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles was found to be size dependent, and was optimized for differently sized nanoparticles. The resulting NIR nanoparticles were also found to be more fluorescent and highly photostable compared to the free dye in solution, showing their potential as biomaterials for in vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:24460556

  17. Magnetic phase transitions in ferrite nanoparticles characterized by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-Arias, Yesica Vázquez-Victorio, Gabriela; Ortega-Zempoalteca, Raul; Acevedo-Salas, Ulises; Valenzuela, Raul; Ammar, Souad

    2015-05-07

    Ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the composition Zn{sub 0.7}Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized by the polyol method, with an average size of 8?nm. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were carried out at a frequency of 9.45 GHz in the 100–500?K temperature range. Obtained results exhibited a characteristic ESR signal in terms of resonance field, H{sub res}, linewidth, ?H, and peak ratio, R, for each magnetic phase. At low temperatures, the ferrimagnetic phase showed low H{sub res}, broad ?H, and asymmetric R. At high temperatures, these parameters exhibited opposite values: high H{sub res}, small ?H, and R???1. For intermediate temperatures, a different phase was observed, which was identified as a superparamagnetic phase by means of zero-field cooling-field cooling and hysteresis loops measurements. The observed differences were explained in terms of the internal fields and especially due to the cubic anisotropy in the ordered phase.

  18. High-Performance Flexible Organic Nano-Floating Gate Memory Devices Functionalized with Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Hyung; Kim, Sunghwan; Kim, Hyeonjung; Park, Jongnam; Oh, Joon Hak

    2015-10-01

    Nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) devices are transistor-type memory devices that use nanostructured materials as charge trap sites. They have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their excellent performance, capability for multilevel programming, and suitability as platforms for integrated circuits. Herein, novel NFGM devices have been fabricated using semiconducting cobalt ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles (NPs) as charge trap sites and pentacene as a p-type semiconductor. Monodisperse CoFe2 O4 NPs with different diameters have been synthesized by thermal decomposition and embedded in NFGM devices. The particle size effects on the memory performance have been investigated in terms of energy levels and particle-particle interactions. CoFe2 O4 NP-based memory devices exhibit a large memory window (?73.84 V), a high read current on/off ratio (read Ion /Ioff ) of ?2.98 × 10(3) , and excellent data retention. Fast switching behaviors are observed due to the exceptional charge trapping/release capability of CoFe2 O4 NPs surrounded by the oleate layer, which acts as an alternative tunneling dielectric layer and simplifies the device fabrication process. Furthermore, the NFGM devices show excellent thermal stability, and flexible memory devices fabricated on plastic substrates exhibit remarkable mechanical and electrical stability. This study demonstrates a viable means of fabricating highly flexible, high-performance organic memory devices. PMID:26153227

  19. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25?nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF ?) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100?mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF ?. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  20. Volume-labeled nanoparticles and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Wei; Gu, Baohua; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2015-04-21

    Compositions comprising nanosized objects (i.e., nanoparticles) in which at least one observable marker, such as a radioisotope or fluorophore, is incorporated within the nanosized object. The nanosized objects include, for example, metal or semi-metal oxide (e.g., silica), quantum dot, noble metal, magnetic metal oxide, organic polymer, metal salt, and core-shell nanoparticles, wherein the label is incorporated within the nanoparticle or selectively in a metal oxide shell of a core-shell nanoparticle. Methods of preparing the volume-labeled nanoparticles are also described.

  1. Comparison of structural and electrical properties of Co{sup 2+}doped Mn-Zn soft nano ferrites prepared via coprecipitation and hydrothermal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anwar, Humaira; Maqsood, Asghari

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Coprecipitation and hydrothermal synthesis of Co{sup 2+} doped Mn-Zn ferrites. • Dielectric measurements at 3 MHz and 1 GHz frequencies. • Enhanced DC electrical resistivity for samples prepared from hydrothermal technique. • Impedance studies for the prepared samples showing major contribution due to grains. - Abstract: A series of Co doped Mn-Zn ferrites compounds with the formula Mn{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5?x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.50) were successfully synthesized by polyethylene glycol-assisted coprecipitation and hydrothermal methods. The structural characterization of the samples was done using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All the samples found to have cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite size of all nanoparticles were estimated using Scherrer's formula and found to lie between 10 and 25 ± 3 nm with small size distribution of particles prepared by hydrothermal method. The FTIR spectrum showed two absorption bands of tetrahedral and octahedral metal-oxygen sites. DC electrical resistivity varied from 4.12 × 10{sup 7} to 8.32 × 10{sup 10} ohm cm with cobalt doping. The dielectric measurements were performed from 20 Hz to 3 MHz and from 1 MHz to 1 GHz frequency ranges. The value of dielectric constant (??) varies from 15.54 to 106.25 (1 MHz) and 6.73–16.48 (1 GHz) for all the samples at room temperature. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out from 20 Hz to 3 MHz, at room temperature to study the grains and grain boundaries effect.

  2. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles as MRI contrast agentsw Carlos Ba rcena,a

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jinming

    .e., Mn2+ occupies both A and B sites), whereas the other metal ferrites have an inverse spinel structure modification of a published procedure on metal ferrites.12 One of the major challenges in Zn-SPIO synthesis,2-hexadecanediol, oleic acid, octyl ether­diphenyl ether and hexadecylamine (HDA) were heated to 150

  3. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite prepared using auto combustion and ceramic route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, C.; Perumal, M.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2014-09-01

    Cobalt ferrite is synthesized by using low temperature auto combustion and high temperature ceramic methods. The prepared samples have values of lattice constant equal to 8.40 Å and 8.38 Å for auto combustion and ceramic methods respectively. The FTIR spectrum of samples of the auto combustion method shows a high frequency vibrational band at 580 cm-1 assigned to tetrahedral site and a low frequency vibrational band at 409 cm-1 assigned to octahedral site which are shifted to 590 cm-1 and 412 cm-1 for the ceramic method sample. SEM micrographs of samples show a substantial difference in surface morphology and size of the grains between the two methods. The frequency dependent dielectric constant and ac conductivity of the samples measured from 1 Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature are reported. The room temperature magnetic hysteresis parameters of the samples are measured using VSM. The measured values of saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization are 42 emu/g, 1553 Oe, 18.5 emu/g for the auto combustion method, 66.7 emu/g, 379.6 Oe, and 17.3 emu/g for the ceramic method, respectively. The difference in preparation methods and size of the grains causes interesting changes in electrical and magnetic properties.

  4. A novel sonication route to prepare anthracene nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Peng; Chen Chunnian; Hao Lingyun; Zhu Chunling; Hu Yuan; Chen Zuyao

    2004-04-02

    A novel sonication method has been successfully developed for the preparation of anthracene nanoparticles. The as-prepared nanoparticles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy. Nanoparticles prepared with sonication are smaller and better dispersed than with magnetic stirring. Surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, bis(2-ethylhexyl)sodium sulfosuccinate, sodium dodecyl sulfonate and polyvinylpyrrolidone are used to control the size and morphology. Excimer band is found at 445 and 472 nm and possible mechanism is discussed.

  5. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sr-ferrite powder prepared by the molten-salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuemin; Zhong, Wei; Yan, Shiming; Au, Chak-Tong; Lü, Liya; Du, Youwei

    2014-06-01

    Sub-micrometre high-performance Sr-ferrite powder was prepared by a molten-salt method using Na2SO4 as the fluxing agent. In the reaction process, a mixture of superfine powder was pre-sintered at 1150 °C for 3 h and then annealed at 850 °C for 2 h. The as-obtained Sr-ferrite powder is SrFe12O19 with a hexagonal magnetoplumbite structure. We observe that with raising the pre-sintering temperature as well as increasing the annealing temperature and time, there is an enlargement of particle size. We regulated the reaction parameters to optimize the magnetic properties of the Sr-ferrite powder. The structure with the best magnetic properties is quasi-cubic in shape and relatively uniform in size, showing a coercivity of 471.89 kA m-1, a saturation magnetization of 91.51 µWb m kg-1, a remanence ratio of 0.50 and a maximum magnetic energy product of 7.89 kJ m-3. We then studied the effects of particle size, demagnetization factor and magnetocrystalline anisotropy on coercivity. Compared with the conventional ceramic process, the one presented here is more convenient and economical for the production of homogeneous hexagonal ferrite powders of high magnetic performance.

  6. Low temperature-fired Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nanoparticles through auto-combustion method for multilayer chip inductor applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ferrite nanoparticles of basic composition Ni0.7-xZnxCu0.3Fe2O4 (0.0 ? x ? 0.2, x = 0.05) were synthesized through auto-combustion method and were characterized for structural properties using X-ray diffraction [XRD], scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy [FT-IR]. XRD analysis of the powder samples sintered at 600°C for 4 h showed the cubic spinel structure for ferrites with a narrow size distribution from 28 to 32 nm. FT-IR showed two absorption bands (v1 and v2) that are attributed to the stretching vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The effect of Zn doping on the electrical properties was studied using dielectric and impedance spectroscopy at room temperature. The dielectric parameters (?', ??, tan?, and ?ac) show their maximum value for 10% Zn doping. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decrease with increasing frequency of the applied field. The results are explained in the light of dielectric polarization which is similar to the conduction phenomenon. The complex impedance shows that the conduction process in grown nanoparticles takes place predominantly through grain boundary volume. PACS: 75.50.Gg; 78.20; 77.22.Gm. PMID:22316055

  7. Anhydride functionalised calcium ferrite nanoparticles: a new selective magnetic material for enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirouz, Mojgan Jafari; Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-03-01

    In this research a sonochemistry route for manufacture of uniform nanocrystalline CaFe2O4 and its anhydride functionalisation were reported. The potential of raw and modified material as a magnetically separable sorbent in selective enrichment of lead ions from water and food samples is outlined. This material was characterised using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM and VSM results indicated that the calcium ferrite nanoparticles are sphere-like particles possessing superparamagnetic properties with an average diameter of 40 nm. Various analytical parameters, including pH, contact time, type and concentration of eluent, adsorption capacity, sample volume and interference of ions, were optimised. Following a modification by anhydride, calcium ferrite selectivity toward lead ions was raised more than twofold compared to the unmodified nanoparticles. Finally a pre-concentration procedure was applied for determination of trace Pb(II) in canned tuna fish, canned tomato paste, parsley, milk and well-water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25306327

  8. Oriented Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buršík, J.; Kužel, R.; Knížek, K.; Drbohlav, I.

    2013-07-15

    Thin films of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (Y) hexaferrite were prepared through the chemical solution deposition method on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) (ST) single crystal substrates using epitaxial SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M) hexaferrite thin layer as a seed template layer. The process of crystallization was mainly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. A detailed inspection revealed that growth of seed layer starts through the break-up of initially continuous film into isolated grains with expressive shape anisotropy and hexagonal habit. The vital parameters of the seed layer, i.e. thickness, substrate coverage, crystallization conditions and temperature ramp were optimized with the aim to obtain epitaxially crystallized Y phase. X-ray diffraction Pole figure measurements and ? scans reveal perfect parallel in-plane alignment of SrTiO{sub 3} substrate and both hexaferrite phases. - Graphical abstract: XRD pole figure and AFM patterns of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} thin film epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) single crystal using seeding layer templating. - Highlights: • Single phase Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films were prepared by CSD method. • Seed M layer breaks into isolated single crystal islands and serves as a template. • Large seed grains grow by consuming the grains within the bulk of recoated film. • We explained the observed orientation relation of epitaxial domains. • Epitaxial growth on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) with relation (0 0 1){sub M,Y}//(1 1 1){sub ST}+[1 0 0]{sub M,Y}//[2 ?1 ?1]{sub ST}.

  9. Novel Methods of Lipidic Nanoparticle Preparation and Drug Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitani, Y.

    2013-09-01

    In improving cancer chemotherapy, lipidic nanoparticle systems for drug delivery, such as liposomes and emulsions, have received much attention because they are capable of delivering their drug payload selectively to cancer cells and of circulating for a long period in the bloodstream. In addition, lipidic nanoparticles have been examined for use in gene delivery as a non-viral vector. Preparation methods of particles and drug loading methods are crucial for the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, which are the key aspects for pharmaceutical applications. This review describes new preparation methods for nanoparticles and a loading method for drugs using nanotechnology, including an evaluation of nanoparticles from the point of drug release for applications in cancer therapy and gene delivery.

  10. Naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles: preparation and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, Khosro; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Niri, Fatemeh Kari; Alaei-Beirami, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles and investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of naproxen with eudragit RS100 were formulated using the solvent evaporation/extraction technique (the single emulsion technique). The effect of several process parameters, i.e., drug/polymer ratio, aqueous phase volume and speed of homogenization were considered on the size of the nanoformulations. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied applying particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The release rate of naproxen from various drug/polymer nanoparticles was investigated as well. All the prepared formulations using eudragit RS100 resulted in nano-range size particles with relative spherical smooth morphology. The nanoparticles of naproxen-eudragit RS100 displayed lower crystallinity. The intermolecular interaction between naproxen and eudragit RS100 was detected in the FT-IR spectrum of the nanoparticles. All the nanoparticles displayed a slowed release pattern with the reduced burst release in comparison with the intact drug powder and physical mixtures of drug and polymer. According of these findings, formulation of the naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles was able to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the drug and possibly will increase the anti-inflammatory effects of drug following its ocular or intra-joint administration. PMID:21130612

  11. Preparations of Platinum Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sang Chul; Nahm, Seung Won; Jung, Ho Young; Park, Young-Kwon; Seo, Seong Gyu; Kim, Sang Chai

    2015-07-01

    This work investigates the effect of reducing agents and stabilizing agent on the preparation of platinum nanoparticles. We used H2PtCl6 as a precursor and hydrogen and sodium borohydride as reducing agents to prepare colloidal platinum nanoparticles. Polyvinylpyrrolidones (PVPs) is used as a stabilizing agent. Hydrogen and sodium borohydride are used as reducing agents. The prepared platinum nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The concentrations of the precursor and the stabilizing agent influence the size of platinum nanoparticles, while the reducing agents influence the morphologies and structures of platinum nanoparticles. Supported platinum catalysts (CPt-NaBH4, CPt-H2) are prepared from colloidal platinum nanoparticles and ?-Al2O3. For comparison, another supported platinum catalyst (IPt) is prepared by the conventional impregnation method with an aqueous H2PtCL6 solution and ?-AL2O3. The catalytic activities of CPts are superior to that of IPt on the basis of benzene conversion. PMID:26373160

  12. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ? Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ? Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ? Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  13. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Oropeza, S.; Corea, M.; Gómez-Yáñez, C.; Cruz-Rivera, J.J.; Navarro-Clemente, M.E.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ? Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}]. ? The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ? The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

  14. Long-circulating PEGylated manganese ferrite nanoparticles for MRI-based molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernia Leal, Manuel; Rivera-Fernández, Sara; Franco, Jaime M.; Pozo, David; de La Fuente, Jesús M.; García-Martín, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM-1 s-1). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging.Magnetic resonance based molecular imaging has emerged as a very promising technique for early detection and treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and vascular diseases. The limited sensitivity and specificity of conventional MRI are being overcome by the development of a new generation of contrast agents, using nanotechnology approaches, with improved magnetic and biological properties. In particular, for molecular imaging, high specificity, high sensitivity, and long blood circulation times are required. Furthermore, the lack of toxicity and immunogenicity together with low-cost scalable production are also necessary to get them into the clinics. In this work, we describe a facile, robust and cost-effective ligand-exchange method to synthesize dual T1 and T2 MRI contrast agents with long circulation times. These contrast agents are based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNPs) between 6 and 14 nm in size covered by a 3 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell that leads to a great stability in aqueous media with high crystallinity and magnetization values, thus retaining the magnetic properties of the uncovered MNPs. Moreover, the PEGylated MNPs have shown different relaxivities depending on their size and the magnetic field applied. Thus, the 6 nm PEGylated MNPs are characterized by a low r2/r1 ratio of 4.9 at 1.5 T, hence resulting in good dual T1 and T2 contrast agents under low magnetic fields, whereas the 14 nm MNPs behave as excellent T2 contrast agents under high magnetic fields (r2 = 335.6 mM-1 s-1). The polymer core shell of the PEGylated MNPs minimizes their cytotoxicity, and allows long blood circulation times. This combination of cellular compatibility and excellent T2 and r2/r1 values under low magnetic fields, together with long circulation times, make these nanomaterials very promising contrast agents for molecular imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details including TEM images of MNPs, size distribution graphs, thermogravimetric curves, FTIR spectra, and XRD patterns of MNPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05781c

  15. Effect of zinc concentration on the structural and magnetic properties of mixed Co-Zn ferrites nanoparticles synthesized by sol/gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ali, M.; El Maalam, K.; El Moussaoui, H.; Mounkachi, O.; Hamedoun, M.; Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthesization of zinc-substituted cobalt ferrites nano-particles Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0-0.3) has been achieved by the sol/gel method. The characterization of the synthesized nano-particles has been done by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The relation between the composition and magnetic properties has been investigated by Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS). The results revealed that the nanoparticles size is in the range of 11-28 nm. It was found that the zinc substitution in cobalt ferrite increases saturation magnetization from 60.92 emu/g (x=0) to 74.67 emu/g (x=0.3). Nevertheless, zinc concentrations cause a significant decrease in coercivity.

  16. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  17. Properties of Cr-substituted M-type barium ferrites prepared by nitrate citrate gel-autocombustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ounnunkad, S.; Winotai, P.

    2006-06-01

    The Cr-substituted M-type barium hexaferrites, BaFe 12-xCr xO 19, with x=0.0-0.8 have been successfully prepared by nitrate-citrate auto-combustion process using citric acid as a fuel/reductant and nitrates as oxidants. The resulting precursors were calcined at 1100 °C for 1 h and followed by sintering at 1200 °C for 12 h in oxygen atmosphere. The ferrites were systematically investigated by using powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), magnetic hysteresis recorder, Mössbauer spectrometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The XRD data show the formation of pure magnetoplumbite phase without any other impurity phases. Both a and c lattice parameters calculated by the Rietveld method systematically decrease with increasing Cr content. The effects of Cr 3+ ions on the barium ferrites were reported and discussed in detail. The site preference of Cr 3+ and magnetic properties of the ferrites have been studied using Mössbauer spectra and hystereses. The results show that the magnetic properties are closely related to the distributions of Cr 3+ ions on the five crystallographic sites. The saturation magnetization systematically decreases, however, the coercivity increases with Cr concentration. The magnetization and Mössbauer results indicate that the Cr 3+ ions preferentially occupy the 2a, 12k, and 4f VI sites. The average size of hexagonal platelets obtained by SEM photographs tends to decrease with respect to Cr content.

  18. Novel method for the preparation of explosives nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto-Cabán, Marcos A.; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo; Ramírez, Michael L.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2006-05-01

    We report the preparation of explosives nanoparticles of RDX and TNT in a variety of substrates that include glass, silicon and stainless steel. The explosive nanoparticles were prepared by means of pneumatically assisted nebulization (PAN) using an electrospray (ESI) needle, which allowed for the direct deposit of the energetic material onto the substrate. The deposited nanoparticles were characterized by optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Raman Microscopy. SEM micrographs showed that the process produced particles with a mean size in the range of 80-500 nm and a narrow size distribution. For TNT, the process produced smaller particles with a narrower size distribution. The EDX spectrum showed the presence of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen consistent with the elemental composition of the energetic materials. The chemical properties of the nanoparticles were also determined by vibrational spectroscopy.

  19. Effect of Ni2+ substitution on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Ch.; Tirupanyam, B. V.; Satish, A.; Seshubai, V.; Sastry, D. L.; Caltun, O. F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of co-precipitated NixZn1-xFe2O4 (x=0.5, 0.6, 0.7) ferrite nanoparticles heat treated at 200 °C were produced in order to understand the influence of substitution level on structural and magnetic properties including magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The XRD, FE-SEM, VSM and FC-ZFC techniques were used to characterize the samples. It is observed that as Ni2+ concentration increases crystallite size (D), saturation magnetization (Ms) and blocking temperature (TB) and decreases coercive field (Hc). All particles exhibit superparamagnetism at room temperature and hence lie in the single domain range. The magnetic anisotropy constant (K) is estimated to be maximum for Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 sample, whose particle size is the smallest. The results are interpreted presuming the presence of core shell interactions and/or cation redistribution that influence the magnetic properties of these ferrite nano particles.

  20. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of naproxen-PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Javadzadeh, Yousef; Ahadi, Fatemeh; Davaran, Soodabeh; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Sabzevari, Araz; Adibkia, Khosro

    2010-12-01

    Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which can be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders like uveitis and arthirit rheumatoid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of naproxen-PLGA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of naproxen with PLGA were formulated using the solvent evaporation/extraction technique (the single emulsion technique). Several process parameters i.e., drug/polymer ratio, aqueous phase volume and speed of homogenization were considered with the aim of achieve optimal preparation conditions. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied applying particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The release rate of naproxen from various drug/polymer nanoparticles was investigated as well. All the prepared formulations using PLGA resulted in nano-range size particles (352-571 nm) with spherical smooth morphology. The nanoparticles of naproxen-PLGA displayed lower crystallinity with no chemical interactions between the drug and polymer molecules. The nanoparticles exhibited the slower release of drug in comparison with the intact drug and the physical mixtures. According of these findings, formulation of the naproxen-PLGA nanoparticles was able to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the drug and possibly will increase the anti-inflammatory effects of drug following its ocular or intra-joint administration. PMID:20719477

  1. Comparative study of NiFe{sub 2?x}Al{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and sol–gel combustion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gul, I.H.; Pervaiz, Erum

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: AFM images of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles at room temperature synthesized by sol–gel technique. Highlights: ? Particle size reduces to less than 30 nm. ? DC electrical resistivity increases with substitution of Cr{sup 3+}. ? Dielectric constant decreases. -- Abstract: A series of aluminum substituted Ni-ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and sol–gel techniques. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), DC electrical resistivity and dielectric properties. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples confirmed the formation of spinel structure. The crystallite sizes remain within the range 25–41 ± 3 nm. FTIR measurements show two fundamental absorption bands, assigned to the vibration of tetrahedral and octahedral sites. DC electrical resistivity increases from 6.60 × 10{sup 7} to 6.9 × 10{sup 10} ? cm as the Al{sup 3+} concentration increases from 0.00 to 0.50. The dielectric constant and loss tangent decreases with increasing Al{sup 3+} concentration from 22 to 14, 0.354 to 0.27 respectively at 5 MHz for all the samples. Impedance measurements as a function of frequency (1 kHz–5 MHz) at room temperature further helped in analyzing the electrical properties of the prepared samples.

  2. Effect of filler loading of nickel zinc ferrite on the tensile properties of PLA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdan, Dalila; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj

    2013-05-01

    The mechanical strength of magnetic polymer nanocomposite (MPNC) of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite nanoparticles incorporated with polylactic acid (PLA) and liquid natural rubber (LNR) as compatibilizer is reported. The matrix was prepared from PLA and LNR in the ratio of 90:10. The MPNC were prepared at constant mixing temperature at 180°C, mixing time of 15 min. and mixing speed of 100 rpm. In order to achieve a good dispersion of NiZn ferrite in the matrix, firstly an ultrasonic treatment had been employed to mix the LNR and NiZn ferrite for 1 hour. The MPNC of PLA/LNR/NiZn ferrite then were prepared via Thermo Haake internal mixer using melt-blending method from different filler loading from 1-5 wt% NiZn ferrite. The result of tensile tests showed that as the filler loading increases the tensile strength also increases until an optimum value of filler loading was reached. The Young's modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break have also increased. The study proves that NiZn ferrite is excellent reinforcement filler in PLA matrix. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were meant to show the homogeneity dispersion of nanoparticles within the matrix and to confirm the elemental composition of NiZn ferrites-PLA/LNR nanocomposites respectively.

  3. Preparation of platinum nanoparticle catalyst for propane dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jun; Ma, Zhanhua; Sun, Lanyi; Hu, Yangdong

    2014-09-01

    Supported Pt nanoparticle catalysts were prepared by combing a chemical reduction method with an ultrasonic sonication loading method. Several techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption technique and pyridine adsorption Fourier-transform infrared (Py-IR) were applied to characterize the physicochemical properties of these catalysts. The catalytic performance of catalysts was evaluated in the dehydrogenation of propane. The influence of the preparation method of Pt nanoparticles, the ratio of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) to Pt, loading method and different supports on the catalytic performance was investigated. PVP is useful for controlling the size of Pt nanoparticles and a PVP/Pt ratio of 15 is favorable to achieve a good catalytic performance. NaBH4 reduction is better than ethanol refluxing in preparing Pt nanoparticles. The ultrasonic sonication is effective to load the Pt nanoparticles onto the support channels. The mesoporous alumina proved to be a good catalyst support due to its high surface area and unique pore structure. PMID:25924358

  4. Preparation, characterization and optimization of glipizide controlled release nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Emami, J.; Boushehri, M.S. Shetab; Varshosaz, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop glipizide controlled release nanoparticles using alginate and chitosan thorough ionotropic controlled gelation method. Glipizide is a frequently prescribed second generation sulfonylurea which lowers the blood glucose in type-two diabetics. Quick absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract along with short half- life of elimination makes it a good candidate for controlled release formulations. Alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (ACNP) are convenient controlled delivery systems for glipizide, due to both the release limiting properties of the system, and the bioadhesive nature of the polymers. In the present study, glipizide loaded alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (GlACNP) were prepared, and the particle characteristics including particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE%), loading percent (LP), and mean release time (MRT), as well as the morphology of the nanoparticles, the drug-excipient compatibility, and the release kinetics along with the drug diffusion mechanism were evaluated. The results suggested that ionotropic controlled gelation method offers the possibility of preparing the nanoparticles in mild conditions in an aqueous environment, and can lead to the preparation of particles with favorable size, controlled release characteristics, and high entrapment efficiency, serving as a convenient delivery system for glipizide. The particle and release characteristics can be efficiently optimized using the Box-Behnken design. Based on the findings of the present study, it is expected that this novel formulation be a superior therapeutic alternative to the currently available glipizide delivery systems. PMID:25657802

  5. Preparation, characterization and optimization of glipizide controlled release nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Emami, J; Boushehri, M S Shetab; Varshosaz, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop glipizide controlled release nanoparticles using alginate and chitosan thorough ionotropic controlled gelation method. Glipizide is a frequently prescribed second generation sulfonylurea which lowers the blood glucose in type-two diabetics. Quick absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract along with short half- life of elimination makes it a good candidate for controlled release formulations. Alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (ACNP) are convenient controlled delivery systems for glipizide, due to both the release limiting properties of the system, and the bioadhesive nature of the polymers. In the present study, glipizide loaded alginate-chitosan nanoparticles (GlACNP) were prepared, and the particle characteristics including particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE%), loading percent (LP), and mean release time (MRT), as well as the morphology of the nanoparticles, the drug-excipient compatibility, and the release kinetics along with the drug diffusion mechanism were evaluated. The results suggested that ionotropic controlled gelation method offers the possibility of preparing the nanoparticles in mild conditions in an aqueous environment, and can lead to the preparation of particles with favorable size, controlled release characteristics, and high entrapment efficiency, serving as a convenient delivery system for glipizide. The particle and release characteristics can be efficiently optimized using the Box-Behnken design. Based on the findings of the present study, it is expected that this novel formulation be a superior therapeutic alternative to the currently available glipizide delivery systems. PMID:25657802

  6. Self-assembled organic–inorganic magnetic hybrid adsorbent ferrite based on cyclodextrin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Ângelo M L; De Sousa, Frederico B; Passos, Joel J; Guatimosim, Fernando C; Barbosa, Kirla D; Burgos, Ana E; de Oliveira, Fernando Castro; da Silva, Jeann C; Neves, Bernardo R A; Mohallem, Nelcy D S

    2012-01-01

    Summary Organic–inorganic magnetic hybrid materials (MHMs) combine a nonmagnetic and a magnetic component by means of electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds, and notable features can be achieved. Herein, we describe an application of a self-assembled material based on ferrite associated with ?-cyclodextrin (Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD) at the nanoscale level. This MHM and pure ferrite (Fe-Ni/Zn) were used as an adsorbent system for Cr3+ and Cr2O7 2? ions in aqueous solutions. Prior to the adsorption studies, both ferrites were characterized in order to determine the particle size distribution, morphology and available binding sites on the surface of the materials. Microscopy analysis demonstrated that both ferrites present two different size domains, at the micro- and nanoscale level, with the latter being able to self-assemble into larger particles. Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD presented smaller particles and a more homogeneous particle size distribution. Higher porosity for this MHM compared to Fe-Ni/Zn was observed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherms and positron-annihilation-lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the pKa values, potentiometric titrations demonstrated the presence of ?CD in the inorganic matrix, indicating that the lamellar structures verified by transmission electronic microscopy can be associated with ?CD assembled structures. Colloidal stability was inferred as a function of time at different pH values, indicating the sedimentation rate as a function of pH. Zeta potential measurements identified an amphoteric behavior for the Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD, suggesting its better capability to remove ions (cations and anions) from aqueous solutions compared to that of Fe-Ni/Zn. PMID:23209524

  7. Self-assembled organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid adsorbent ferrite based on cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Angelo M L; De Sousa, Frederico B; Passos, Joel J; Guatimosim, Fernando C; Barbosa, Kirla D; Burgos, Ana E; de Oliveira, Fernando Castro; da Silva, Jeann C; Neves, Bernardo R A; Mohallem, Nelcy D S; Sinisterra, Rubén D

    2012-01-01

    Organic-inorganic magnetic hybrid materials (MHMs) combine a nonmagnetic and a magnetic component by means of electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds, and notable features can be achieved. Herein, we describe an application of a self-assembled material based on ferrite associated with ?-cyclodextrin (Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD) at the nanoscale level. This MHM and pure ferrite (Fe-Ni/Zn) were used as an adsorbent system for Cr(3+) and Cr(2)O(7) (2-) ions in aqueous solutions. Prior to the adsorption studies, both ferrites were characterized in order to determine the particle size distribution, morphology and available binding sites on the surface of the materials. Microscopy analysis demonstrated that both ferrites present two different size domains, at the micro- and nanoscale level, with the latter being able to self-assemble into larger particles. Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD presented smaller particles and a more homogeneous particle size distribution. Higher porosity for this MHM compared to Fe-Ni/Zn was observed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherms and positron-annihilation-lifetime spectroscopy. Based on the pKa values, potentiometric titrations demonstrated the presence of ?CD in the inorganic matrix, indicating that the lamellar structures verified by transmission electronic microscopy can be associated with ?CD assembled structures. Colloidal stability was inferred as a function of time at different pH values, indicating the sedimentation rate as a function of pH. Zeta potential measurements identified an amphoteric behavior for the Fe-Ni/Zn/?CD, suggesting its better capability to remove ions (cations and anions) from aqueous solutions compared to that of Fe-Ni/Zn. PMID:23209524

  8. Platinum adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles, method for preparing, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tong, YuYe; Du, Bingchen

    2015-08-11

    A superior, industrially scalable one-pot ethylene glycol-based wet chemistry method to prepare platinum-adlayered ruthenium nanoparticles has been developed that offers an exquisite control of the platinum packing density of the adlayers and effectively prevents sintering of the nanoparticles during the deposition process. The wet chemistry based method for the controlled deposition of submonolayer platinum is advantageous in terms of processing and maximizing the use of platinum and can, in principle, be scaled up straightforwardly to an industrial level. The reactivity of the Pt(31)-Ru sample was about 150% higher than that of the industrial benchmark PtRu (1:1) alloy sample but with 3.5 times less platinum loading. Using the Pt(31)-Ru nanoparticles would lower the electrode material cost compared to using the industrial benchmark alloy nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  9. Preparation of mesoporous cadmium sulfide nanoparticles with moderate pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Han Zhaohui Zhu, Huaiyong; Shi, Jeffrey; Parkinson, Gordon; Lu, G.Q.

    2007-03-15

    The preparation of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles that have a moderate pore size is reported. This preparation method involves a hydrothermal process that produces a precursor mixture and a following acid treatment of the precursor to get the porous material. The majority of the particles have a pore size close to 20nm, which complements and fills in the gap between the existing cadmium sulfide materials, which usually have a pore size either less than 10nm or are well above 100nm.

  10. Preparation of cobalt-zinc ferrite (Co{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanopowder via combustion method and investigation of its magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefi, M.H.; Manouchehri, S.; Arab, A.; Mozaffari, M.; Physics Department, Razi University, Taghbostah, Kermanshah ; Amiri, Gh. R.; Department of Plasma Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran ; Amighian, J.

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Cobalt-zinc ferrite was prepared by combustion method. {yields} Properties of the sample were characterized by several techniques. {yields} Curie temperature was determined to be 350 {sup o}C. -- Abstract: Cobalt-zinc ferrite (Co{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was prepared by combustion method, using cobalt, zinc and iron nitrates. The crystallinity of the as-burnt powder was developed by annealing at 700 {sup o}C. Crystalline phase was investigated by XRD. Using Williamson-Hall method, the average crystallite sizes for nanoparticles were determined to be about 27 nm before and 37 nm after annealing, and residual stresses for annealed particles were omitted. The morphology of the annealed sample was investigated by TEM and the mean particle size was determined to be about 30 nm. The final stoichiometry of the sample after annealing showed good agreement with the initial stoichiometry using atomic absorption spectrometry. Magnetic properties of the annealed sample such as saturation magnetization, remanence magnetization, and coercivity measured at room temperature were 70 emu/g, 14 emu/g, and 270 Oe, respectively. The Curie temperature of the sample was determined to be 350 {sup o}C using AC-susceptibility technique.

  11. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemţanu, Monica R.; Bra?oveanu, Mirela; Iacob, Nicu?or

    2014-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ?Eab (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle ho was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  12. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nem?anu, Monica R. Bra?oveanu, Mirela Iacob, Nicu?or

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ?E{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  13. The optical nonlinearity of gold nanoparticles prepared by bioreduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbuena Ortega, A.; Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.; Gayou, V. L.; Orduña Díaz, A.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, Marlon

    2013-11-01

    Nonlinear optical and electronic properties of nanosized metal particles have drawn considerable attention because of their strong and size-dependent plasmon resonance absorption. In a metal nanoparticle system such as gold dispersed in a transparent matrix, an absorption peak due to surface plasmon resonance is usually observed in the visible spectral region. Metal nanoparticles are of special interest as nonlinear materials for optical switching and computing because of their relatively large third-order nonlinearity (?3) and ultrafast response time. The purpose of this study was to analyze the nonlinear optical properties of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. The samples were prepared by biosynthesis method using yeast extract as reducing agent and the nonlinear optical properties of the nanoparticles were investigated using a single beam Z-scan technique with a beam power of 20 mW and operated at wavelength of 514 nm. The reaction between metal ions and yeast extracts were monitored by UV-visible spectra of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different pH (3-6). The surface plasmon peak position was shifted from 528 nm to 573 nm, according to of pH variation 4 to 6. The average particle size was calculated by the absorption peak position using the Fernig method, from 42 to 103 nm. The z-scan curves showed a negative nonlocal nonlinear refractive index with a magnitude dependent on the nanoparticle size.

  14. Magnetic properties of nanosized Gd doped Ni-Mn-Cr ferrites prepared using the sol-gel autocombustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoila, P.; Sacarescu, L.; Borhan, A. I.; Timpu, D.; Grigoras, M.; Lupu, N.; Zaltariov, M.; Harabagiu, V.

    2015-03-01

    Ni0.8Mn0.2Cr0.5Fe1.5-xGdxO4 (where x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) spinel ferrites were synthesized by a sol-gel autocombustion technique using citric acid as fuel. Effect of Gd doping on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Cr ferrites is reported. The phase composition of the prepared samples was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the magnetic measurements were realized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. XRD and FT-IR analysis reveal pure spinel phase in all the samples, without traces of secondary phases. The grain sizes were estimated from the TEM micrographs and were found to decrease with the doping ions concentration from 43 to 10 nm. It was revealed from the hysteresis loop of the materials that magnetization and coercivity followed decreasing trend with substitution of Fe3+ magnetic ions by Gd3+ ions. Also, introducing Gd ions into the spinel lattice led to the decrease in Curie temperature.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    E-print Network

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  16. Preparation and characterization of supported magnetic nanoparticles prepared by reverse micelles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Luyang; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Ziemann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Summary Monatomic (Fe, Co) and bimetallic (FePt and CoPt) nanoparticles were prepared by exploiting the self-organization of precursor loaded reverse micelles. Achievements and limitations of the preparation approach are critically discussed. We show that self-assembled metallic nanoparticles can be prepared with diameters d = 2–12 nm and interparticle distances D = 20–140 nm on various substrates. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the particle arrays were characterized by several techniques to give a comprehensive view of the high quality of the method. For Co nanoparticles, it is demonstrated that magnetostatic interactions can be neglected for distances which are at least 6 times larger than the particle diameter. Focus is placed on FePt alloy nanoparticles which show a huge magnetic anisotropy in the L10 phase, however, this is still less by a factor of 3–4 when compared to the anisotropy of the bulk counterpart. A similar observation was also found for CoPt nanoparticles (NPs). These results are related to imperfect crystal structures as revealed by HRTEM as well as to compositional distributions of the prepared particles. Interestingly, the results demonstrate that the averaged effective magnetic anisotropy of FePt nanoparticles does not strongly depend on size. Consequently, magnetization stability should scale linearly with the volume of the NPs and give rise to a critical value for stability at ambient temperature. Indeed, for diameters above 6 nm such stability is observed for the current FePt and CoPt NPs. Finally, the long-term conservation of nanoparticles by Au photoseeding is presented. PMID:21977392

  17. Absorption and Decomposition of CO2 by Active Ferrites Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaowei; He, Zhida; Zheng, Yanjun; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-10-01

    Active ferrites, which play an important role in the catalytic decomposition of CO2, have been fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying to incorporate FeO and anoxic iron oxide [Fe3O4-? (0 < ? < 1)]. The complexity of phase composition, especially the presence of FeO, gives the resulting powder a greater ability to decompose CO2 when compared to hydrogen-reduced Fe3O4 or Fe2O3 particles. Spraying distance is found to play an important role in modulating the decomposition ability of the powders, while elevated temperatures can also enhance the catalytic decomposition of CO2.

  18. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamannan, B.; Mugundan, S.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  19. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajamannan, B; Mugundan, S; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R; Praveen, P

    2014-07-15

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP). PMID:24667428

  20. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  1. Preparation of nanoferrites and their applications.

    PubMed

    Hazra, S; Ghosh, N N

    2014-02-01

    Ferrites have a plethora of applications in the myriad fields of technology. Ferrites are widely used in conventional electronic, electrical, and magnetic devices. For the past two decades, since the discovery of the superparamagnetic nature of nanostructured ferrites, their applications in biotechnology and biomedical sciences as well as in advanced electronics and microwave devices have gained immense attention. In this review, the historical development of ferrite science and technology, and the synthesis methods for ferrite nanoparticle preparation and their applications have been discussed. Various synthetic methods with typical examples, their advantages as well as limitations have been discussed in details. Traditional industrial applications of various ferrites have also been discussed citing relevant patents. Recent developments on nanoferrite research in terms of synthetic methods as well as advanced applications have been discussed elaborately. PMID:24749468

  2. Preparation of Nanoparticles of Thermoelectric Materials by Ultrasonic Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Garcia, L.; Li, Wei; Bomphrey, J. J.; Jarvis, D. J.; Min, Gao

    2015-06-01

    The ability to produce nanoscale thermoelectric powders is particularly relevant to the development of nanostructured bulk materials. In this paper we report preparation of nanoscale thermoelectric powders by high-intensity ultrasonic milling (UM). The particles obtained have two unique features: the presence of a particle-size gap which distinguishes the newly created nanoparticles from the original particles, and significant changes of the surface morphology of the particles, suggesting potential manipulation of the surface states of micro or nano particles.

  3. Gold nanoparticles prepared using cape aloe active components.

    PubMed

    Krpeti?, Zeljka; Scarì, Giorgio; Caneva, Enrico; Speranza, Giovanna; Porta, Francesca

    2009-07-01

    A novel use of two components of Cape aloe, aloin A and aloesin, acting as stabilizers in the preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles, is reported. Stable water-soluble particles of different size and shape are prepared by varying the reaction conditions, temperature, reaction time, and reducing agents. Characterization of the obtained particles is performed using UV-visible, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), and 1H NMR spectroscopies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficient cellular uptake of 50 nm sized aloin A and aloesin stabilized gold particles into macrophages and HeLa cells was investigated, proposing these particles as nanovehicles. PMID:19505092

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles: preparation, physical properties, and applications in biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Finally, we have addressed some relevant findings on the importance of having well-defined synthetic strategies developed for the generation of MNPs, with a focus on particle formation mechanism and recent modifications made on the preparation of monodisperse samples of relatively large quantities not only with similar physical features, but also with similar crystallochemical characteristics. Then, different methodologies for the functionalization of the prepared MNPs together with the characterization techniques are explained. Theorical views on the magnetism of nanoparticles are considered. PMID:22348683

  5. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  6. Preparation of barium titanate nanoparticle sphere arrays and their dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Wada, Satoshi; Yazawa, Aki; Hoshina, Takuya; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Tsurumi, Takaaki; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO(3)) nanoparticles from 27 to 192 nm were prepared by the 2-step thermal decomposition method from barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. These particles were dispersed well into 1-propanol, and dense BaTiO(3); nanoparticle sphere arrays without stress-field were prepared by the meniscus method. Temperature dependence of dielectric properties was successfully measured using these dense nanoparticle sphere arrays, and size effect on dielectric properties was discussed. PMID:18986885

  7. Nanoparticle preparation of Mefenamic acid by electrospray drying

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkepali, Nurul Karimah Bakar, Noor Fitrah Abu Anuar, Nornizar; Naim, M. Nazli; Bakar, Mohd Rushdi Abu

    2014-02-24

    Nanoparticles preparation of Mefenamic acid (MA) by using an electrospray drying method was conducted in this study. Electrospray drying is a process that uses electrostatic force to disperse a conductive liquid stream into fine charged droplets through the coulomb fission of charges in the liquid and finally dry into fine particles. Electrospray drying modes operation usually in Taylor cone jet, and it was formed by controlling applied voltage and liquid flow rate. A conductive liquid (2.77–8.55?Scm{sup ?1}) which is MA solution was prepared by using acetone with concentration 0.041 and 0.055 M before pumping at a flow rate of 3–6ml/h. By applying the applied voltage at 1.3–1.5 kV, Taylor cone jet mode was formed prior to the electrospray. During electrospray drying process, solvent evaporation from the droplet was occurring that leads to coulomb disruption and may generate to nanoparticles. The dried nanoparticles were collected on a grounded substrate that was placed at varying distance from the electrospray. MA particle with size range of 100–400 nm were produced by electrospray drying process. Characterization of particles by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) show that particles formed into polymorph I.

  8. Effect of Ti-containing inclusions on the nucleation of acicular ferrite and mechanical properties of multipass weld metals.

    PubMed

    Fattahi, M; Nabhani, N; Hosseini, M; Arabian, N; Rahimi, E

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of Ti-containing inclusions on the development of acicular ferrite microstructure and mechanical properties in the multipass weld metals has been studied. Shielded metal arc weld deposits were prepared by varying titanium content in the range of 0.003-0.021%. The variation in the titanium content was obtained by the addition of different amounts of titanium oxide nanoparticles to the electrode coating. The dispersion of titanium oxide nanoparticles, composition of inclusions, microstructural analysis, tensile properties and Charpy impact toughness were evaluated. As the amount of Ti-containing inclusions in the weld metal was increased, the microstructure of the weld metal was changed from the grain boundary allotriomorphic ferrite structure to acicular ferrite with the intragranular nucleation of ferrite on the Ti-containing inclusions, and the mechanical properties were improved. This improvement is attributable to the increased percentage of acicular ferrite due to the uniform dispersion of Ti-containing inclusions and the pinning force of oxide nanoparticles against the growth of allotriomorphic ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite from the austenite grain boundaries. PMID:23238108

  9. Size dependence of magnetorheological properties of cobalt ferrite ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhika, B.; Sahoo, Rasmita; Srinath, S.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method at reaction temperatures of 40°C and 80°C. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm cubic phase formation. The average crystallite sizes were found to be ˜30nm and ˜48nm for 40°C sample and 80°C sample respectively. Magnetic properties measured using vibrating sample magnetometer show higher coercivety and magnetization for sample prepared at 80°C. Magnetorheological properties of CoFe2O4 ferrofluids were measured and studied.

  10. Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. • Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

  11. Preparation and Properties of FeCo Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zabransky, K.; David, B.; Pizurova, N.; Schneeweiss, O.; Zboril, R.; Maslan, M.

    2010-07-13

    Fe-Co nanoparticles were prepared from the binary Fe-Co oxalate. The formation of FeCo metallic phase begun at 290 deg. C as determined from the X-ray diffraction patterns recorded during heating of the oxalate sample in hydrogen atmosphere. The reduction finished at 500 deg. C by formation of bcc FeCo phase with a mean particle size of about 50 nm. Analysis of the Moessbauer spectra shows that the ferromagnetic FeCo phase is represented by two sextets corresponding to interiors and surfaces of the nanoparticles. In addition, a weak paramagnetic component, represented by the doublet, was observed which was ascribed to fine particles in a superparamagnetic state. TEM images have shown conglomerates of particles with the composition of about 50 at. % Fe and 50 at. % Co.

  12. Novel combustion route of synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline mixed ferrites of Ni-Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadharsini, P.; Pradeep, A.; Chandrasekaran, G.

    2009-06-01

    A novel combustion method of synthesis has been employed in this study for the preparation of nanoparticles of Ni-Zn ferrites. The preparation method is simple yet effective and its novelty lies in the direct mixing of reactants and the fuel. The structural and morphological studies on the nanoparticles of Ni-Zn ferrites have been carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The values of grain size of the ferrites obtained using the Scherrer's formula are in the range between 10 and 20 nm. The mean value of X-ray density of the Ni-Zn ferrites is around 5343 Kg/m 3, which is more than the one experimentally observed for their bulk counterparts. The distribution of cations has been proposed theoretically for each concentration of Ni-Zn ferrite with reference to their respective experimental lattice constant values. Room-temperature magnetic measurements are carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with a view to understand the impact of the nano-regime on the magnetic parameters. The observed values of magnetization are in the range from 4 to 26 emu/g which is lower than that of bulk particles of Ni-Zn ferrite.

  13. Relaxivities of hydrogen protons in aqueous solutions of PEG-coated rod-shaped manganese-nickel-ferrite (Mn0.4Ni0.6Fe2O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yousaf; Bae, Hongsub; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook

    2014-11-01

    Spinel-structured manganese (Mn)-nickel (Ni)-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method. Coating with PEG (polyethylene glycol) was simultaneously conducted along with the synthesis of Mn-Ni-ferrites. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analyses revealed a cubic spinel ferrite structure of the synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles were rod-shaped with a uniform size distribution and that the average length and width were 15.13 ± 1.32 nm and 3.78 ± 0.71 nm, respectively. The bonding status of PEG on the nanoparticle surface was checked by using FTIR. The relaxivities of the hydrogen protons in the aqueous solutions of the coated particles were determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The T1 and the T2 relaxivities were 0.34 ± 0.11 mM-1s-1 and 29.91 ± 0.98 mM-1s-1, respectively. This indicates that the synthesized PEG-coated Mn-Ni-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable for use as T2 contrast agents.

  14. Wear-resistant and electromagnetic absorbing behaviors of oleic acid post-modified ferrite-filled epoxy resin composite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zang, Chongguang; Jiao, Qingjie

    2015-03-01

    The post-modified Mn-Zn ferrite was prepared by grafting oleic acid on the surface of Mn-Zn ferrite to inhibit magnetic nanoparticle aggregation. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the particle surfaces. The friction and electromagnetic absorbing properties of a thin coating fabricated by dispersing ferrite into epoxy resin (EP) were investigated. The roughness of the coating and water contact angle were measured using the VEECO and water contact angle meter. Friction tests were conducted using a stainless-steel bearing ball and a Rockwell diamond tip, respectively. The complex permittivity and complex permeability of the composite coating were studied in the low frequency (10 MHz-1.5 GHz). Surface modified ferrites are found to improve magnetic particles dispersion in EP resulting in significant compatibility between inorganic and organic materials. Results also indicate that modified ferrite/EP coatings have a lower roughness average value and higher water contact angle than original ferrite/EP coatings. The enhanced tribological properties of the modified ferrite/EP coatings can be seen from the increased coefficient value. The composite coatings with modified ferrite are observed to exhibit better reflection loss compared with the coatings with original ferrite.

  15. Fluoride adsorption by doped and un-doped magnetic ferrites CuCexFe2-xO4: Preparation, characterization, optimization and modeling for effectual remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Abdur; Yusoff, Ismail; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-12-15

    A series of doped and un-doped magnetic adsorbents CuCexFe2-xO4 (x=0.0-0.5) for fluoride were prepared with the micro-emulsion method. Fluoride adsorption was optimized for solution pH, temperature, contact time, and initial concentration and was monitored via normal phase ion chromatography (IC). The effect of concomitant anions was also explored to perform and simulate competitive fluoride adsorption in real water samples. Optimal adsorption was discovered by a simple quadratic model based on central composite design (CCD) and the response surface method (RSM). The adsorption, electrochemical and magnetic properties were compared between doped and un-doped ferrites. Doped ferrites (x=0.1-0.5) were found to be superior to un-doped ferrites (x=0) regarding the active sites, functional groups and fluoride adsorption. The characterization, optimization and application results of the doped ferrites indicated enhanced fluoride adsorption and easy separation with a simple magnet. PMID:26143194

  16. Ligand-induced evolution of intrinsic fluorescence and catalytic activity from cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pal, Monalisa; Kundu, Anirban; Rakshit, Rupali; Mandal, Kalyan

    2015-06-01

    To develop CoFe(2)O(4) as magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, it would be advantageous to identify any intrinsic fluorescence of this important magnetic material by simply adjusting the surface chemistry of the NPs themselves. Herein, we demonstrate that intrinsic multicolor fluorescence, covering the whole visible region, can be induced by facile functionalization of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs with Na-tartrate. Moreover, the functionalized CoFe(2)O(4) NPs also show unprecedented catalytic efficiency in the degradation of both biologically and environmentally harmful dyes, pioneering the potential application of these NPs in therapeutics and wastewater treatment. Detailed investigation through various spectroscopic tools unveils the story behind the emergence of this unique optical property of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs upon functionalization with tartrate ligands. We believe our developed multifunctional CoFe(2)O(4) NPs hold great promise for advanced biomedical and technological applications. PMID:25867626

  17. Organically Capped Silicon Nanoparticles with Blue Photoluminescence Prepared by Hydrosilylation Followed by Oxidation

    E-print Network

    Swihart, Mark T.

    Organically Capped Silicon Nanoparticles with Blue Photoluminescence Prepared by Hydrosilylation-emitting silicon nanoparticles that are dispersible in common organic solvents is presented. Oxidation of yellow-emitting silicon nanoparticles with an organic monolayer grafted to their surface, using either UV irradiation

  18. Temperature dependent structural and magnetic properties of Cerium substituted Co-Cr ferrite prepared by auto-combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Islam, M. U.; Zhang, Wenli; Jamil, Yasir; Asif Iqbal, M.; Hussain, Mudassar; Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2015-03-01

    The effects of heat treatment on a nano-crystalline spinel ferrite with chemical formula CoCr0.04CexFe1.96-xO4 (x=0.06) were investigated in the present work. The sample was prepared by the auto-combustion method and then heat treated at 700-1200 °C for 8 h. The sample heat treated at these temperatures was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyses and differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometery. The XRD patterns and IR spectra confirmed that the synthesized materials were of single phase at and above 900 °C. The average particle size was found to be in the range of 30.8-63.8 nm estimated by the Scherer formula. IR studies confirm two main absorption bands in the frequency range of 400-800 cm-1 arising due to the tetrahedral (A-site) and octahedral (B-site) stretching vibrations. The average grain size increased with the increase of temperature while distribution of particles became homogeneous as observed by scanning electron microscope. The saturation magnetization was increased gradually from 7.4 to 59.6 emu/g with the increase of temperature. The coercivity lies in the range of 248-811 Oe as a function of temperature. The obtained results suggest that the investigated materials may be potential candidates for high density recording media applications.

  19. Structural analysis of emerging ferrite: Doped nickel zinc ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajinder; Kumar, Hitanshu; Singh, Ragini Raj; Barman, P. B.

    2015-08-01

    Ni0.6-xZn0.4CoxFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.033, 0.264) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method and annealed at 900°C. Structural properties of all prepared samples were examined with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The partial formation of hematite (?-Fe2O3) secondary phase with spinel phase cubic structure of undoped and cobalt doped nickel zinc ferrite was found by XRD peaks. The variation in crystallite size and other structural parameters with cobalt doping has been calculated for most prominent peak (113) of XRD and has been explained on the basis of cations ionic radii difference.

  20. A solution for the preparation of hexagonal M-type SrFe12O19 ferrite using egg-white: Structural and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Yang; Wu, Ruonan; Zhou, Han; Fang, Xiaochen; Su, Shubing; Xia, Ailin; Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo

    2015-11-01

    A new sol-gel route using egg-white as the binder of metal ions, is developed to prepare hexagonal M-type SrFe12O19 ferrite in this study, and the effects of different atomic ratio of Sr and Fe (Sr/Fe), sintering temperature (Ts) and usage of egg-white (Mew) on the phase formation, morphology and magnetic properties of specimens are studied. It is found that the single-phase SrFe12O19 ferrite only can be obtained under a Sr/Fe of 1:8 and a Ts between 1000 °C and 1300 °C. The magnetic properties of specimens are also obviously affected by the different Sr/Fe and Ts, primarily due to the emergency of impurities. The Mew has an obvious impact on the crystallinity of specimens, which consequently affects their magnetic properties. In our study, the optimum conditions to prepare the single-phase SrFe12O19 ferrite are Sr/Fe=1:8, Mew= 3 g and Ts =1200 °C.

  1. Synthesis of magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with controlled morphology, monodispersity and composition: the influence of solvent, surfactant, reductant and synthetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Le T; Dung, Ngo T; Tung, Le D; Thanh, Cao T; Quy, Ong K; Chuc, Nguyen V; Maenosono, Shinya; Thanh, Nguyen T K

    2015-12-14

    In our present work, magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesised by thermal decomposition of Fe(iii) and Co(ii) acetylacetonate compounds in organic solvents in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/ oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants and 1,2-hexadecanediol (HDD) or octadecanol (OCD-ol) as an accelerating agent. As a result, CoFe2O4 nanoparticles of different shapes were tightly controlled in size (range of 4-30 nm) and monodispersity (standard deviation only at ca. 5%). Experimental parameters, such as reaction time, temperature, surfactant concentration, solvent, precursor ratio, and accelerating agent, in particular, the role of HDD, OCD-ol, and OA/OLA have been intensively investigated in detail to discover the best conditions for the synthesis of the above magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have been successfully applied for producing oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and they have potential to be used in biomedical applications. PMID:26542630

  2. Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity of schizophyllan/silver nanoparticle composite.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Vojtova, L; Uhrova, L; Hassan, A F; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Shamy, Ibrahim E; Jancar, J

    2014-02-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been successfully prepared with a simple and "green" chemical reduction method. Triple helical schizophyllan (SPG) was used for the first time as reducing and stabilizing agents. The effect of temperature, silver nitrate/schizophyllan concentrations, pH of the reactions medium and the reaction time were investigated. The obtained schizophyllan/Ag-NP was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS, X-ray diffraction, TGA, and ATR-FTIR. The results revealed that, Ag-NPs attached to SPG through a strong non-covalent interaction, leading to good dispersion of Ag-NPs with a diameter of 6 nm within the biopolymer matrix. By increasing the pH of the reaction medium, the triple helical structure of SPG was partially broken. The SPG/AgNP nanocomposite was non-toxic for mouse fibroblast line (NIH-3T3) and human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). PMID:24507278

  3. Preparation of anionic polyurethane nanoparticles and blood compatible behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Min; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Bao, Jianchun; Shen, Jian

    2012-05-01

    The anionic polyurethane nanoparticles (APU-NPs) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization method. It was found that the average size of the prepared APU-NPs is about 84 nm, and the APU-NPs have zeta-potential of -38.9 mV. The bulk characterization of synthesized APU-NPs was investigated by FTIR. The blood compatibility of APU-NPs was characterized by in vitro for coagulation tests, complement activation, platelet activation, cytotoxicity experiments, and hemolysis assay. The results showed that the APU-NPs synthesized in this paper are blood compatible with low level of cell cytotoxicity, and the results were significant for their potential use in vivo. PMID:22852346

  4. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders prepared by a simple aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure shows the specific magnetization curves of the as-prepared MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders obtained from room temperature VSM measurement. These curves are typical for a soft magnetic material and indicate hysteresis ferromagnetism in the field ranges of ±500 Oe, ±1000 Oe, and ±2000 Oe for the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} respectively, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} show a superparamagnetic behavior. Highlights: ? Nanocrystalline MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method. ? Metal acetylacetonates and aloe vera plant-extracted solution are used. ? This biosynthetic route is very simple and provides high-yield oxide nanomaterials. ? XRD and TEM results indicate that the prepared samples have only spinel structure. ? The maximum M{sub s} of 68.9 emu/g at 10 kOe were observed for the samples of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) powders were synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using Fe(acac){sub 3}, M(acac){sub 3} (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Mg, Zn) and aloe vera plant extracted solution. The X-ray diffraction and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the synthesized nanocrystalline have only spinel structure without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the spinel ferrite powders, as revealed by TEM, show that the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples contain nanoparticles, whereas the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples consist of many nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Interestingly, the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample contains plate-like structure of networked nanocrystalline particles. Room temperature magnetization results show a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, whereas the samples of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibit a superparamagnetic behavior.

  5. Magnetic properties of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel autocombustion method and its ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Raghvendra Singh; Havlica, Jaromir; Hnatko, Miroslav; Šajgalík, Pavol; Alexander, Cigá?; Palou, Martin; Bartoní?ková, Eva; Bohá?, Martin; Frajkorová, Františka; Masilko, Jiri; Zmrzlý, Martin; Kalina, Lukas; Hajdúchová, Miroslava; Enev, Vojt?ch

    2015-03-01

    In this article, Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved at 800 °C by starch-assisted sol-gel autocombustion method. To further reduce the particle size, these synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were ball-milled for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated single phase formation of Co1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.0 and 0.5) spinel ferrite nanoparticles. FE-SEM analysis indicated the nanosized spherical particles formation with spherical morphology. The change in Raman modes and relative intensity were observed due to ball milling and consequently decrease of particle size and cationic redistribution. An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) result indicated that Co2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ exist in octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The cationic redistribution of Zn2+ and consequently Fe3+ occurred between octahedral and tetrahedral sites after ball-milling. The change in saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) with decrease of nanocrystalline size and distribution of cations in spinel ferrite were observed.

  6. Control of Particle Size and Morphology of Cobalt-Ferrite Nanoparticles by Salt-Matrix during Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, A.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.; Mostafavi, M.

    Salt-matrix annealing of mechanically alloyed Co-ferrite nanopowder was used to modify its particle size and morphology. Efficiency improvement due to suppression of sintering and growth resulted in reduction of average particle size from 100nm for salt-less to 40nm for salt-full annealing procedure. Nanosized single-phase cobalt-ferrite particles were observed after 2h annealing at 750°C in the samples milled for 20 hours both with and without NaCl. NaCl:CoFe2O4 ratio of 10:1 resulted in cabbage-like clusters containing particles smaller than 50 nm.

  7. Comparative studies on the structure and electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrites prepared via co-precipitation and conventional ceramic processing routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanbin, Tania; Hashim, Mansor; Amin Mantori, Khamirul

    2010-09-01

    The magnetic and physical properties of ferrites are very sensitive to microstructure, which in turn critically depends on the manufacturing process. In this study, nickel zinc ferrite powder with composition Ni 0.8Zn 0.2Fe 2O 4 has been prepared via conventional ceramic processing and co-precipitation methods. The toroidal and pellet form samples were sintered at various temperatures such as 1100, 1200 and 1300 °C. The microstructure, magnetic and dielectric properties of both samples were studied. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single-phase cubic spinel structure for the co-precipitation technique after sintering. The microstructure studies of Ni 0.8Zn 0.2Fe 2O 4 show the grain size increases and the porosity decreases with temperature for both methods. The controlled permeability with small loss and wide operational frequency range are found in the co-precipitation samples. Dielectric constants decrease with increase of frequency and increase with sintering temperature in both methods. Consequently, the homogenous microstructure with the low-loss high-performance of nickel zinc ferrite has been discovered by means of co-precipitation method.

  8. Comparison of Different Crosslinking Methods for Preparation of Docetaxel-loaded Albumin Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, Hassan; Mahmoudzadeh, Raziyeh

    2015-01-01

    In the last step of desolvation method for preparation of albumin nanoparticles, glutaraldehyde (GA) is added to stabilize the newly formed nanoparticles. Due to undesirable effects of GA, the objective of this study was to evaluate alternative methods of crosslinking including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, adding of glucose and combination of both methods. The nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation procedure. Final particle size, zeta potential, FTIR, scanning electron micrograph, cellular uptake and cell toxicity of nanoparticles crosslinked with UV and/or glucose were compared with commonly crosslinked nanoparticles with GA. Moreover, drug release and stability parameters of docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles were investigated. Size of all nanoparticles prepared by different methods was in the same range (100-200 nm). Zeta potential showed the same results except for those treated with UV. The results of FTIR assay were the same for all groups. Although crosslinking by UV or glucose alone resulted in cytotoxic effects, combination of UV and glucose had less cytotoxic effects compared to GA. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles crosslinked with UV + glucose and GA showed similar results. The release of docetaxel from UV + glucose and GA crosslinked nanoparticles showed the same biphasic release. These data support the idea that crosslinking with a combination of UV and glucose can be a promising alternative method for production of docetaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticles with the advantage of omitting toxic GA. PMID:25901145

  9. Study of structure and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn ferrite nano-particles synthesized via co-precipitation and reverse micro-emulsion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah Dar, M.; Shah, Jyoti; Siddiqui, W. A.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    Nano-crystalline Ni-Zn ferrites were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and reverse micro-emulsion technique with an average crystallite size of 11 and 6 nm, respectively. The reverse micro-emulsion method has been found to be more appropriate for nano-ferrite synthesis as the produced particles are monodisperse and highly crystalline. Zero-field cooled and field cooled magnetization study under different magnetic fields and magnetic hysteresis loops at different temperatures have been performed. The non-saturated M-H loops, absence of hysteresis, and coercivity at room temperature are indicative of the presence of super paramagnetic and single-domain nano-particles for both the materials. In sample `a', the blocking temperature ( T B) has been observed to decrease from 255 to 120 K on increasing the magnetic field from 50 to 1,000 Oe, which can be attributed to the reduction of magneto crystalline anisotropy constant. The M S and coercivity were found to be higher for sample `a' as compared with sample `b' since surface effects are neglected on increasing the crystallite size.

  10. Fluorescent nanoparticles from starch: facile preparation, tunable luminescence and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiying; Zhang, Xiqi; Yang, Bin; Li, Zhan; Deng, Fengjie; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-05-01

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) based on carbohydrate polymers were prepared through one-pot hydrothermal treatment of starch in the presence of polyethyleneimine. These FONs (named as PEI-Starch FONs) were characterized by a series of techniques including UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescent spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results showed that the size of PEI-Starch FONs is 10-30 nm. The PEI-Starch FONs exhibited high water dispersibility because of the existence of hydrophilic functional groups on their surface. After excited with different wavelength, PEI-Starch FONs emitted strong and excitation-dependent fluorescence. To evaluate their potential for biomedical applications, biocompatibility and cell uptake behavior of PEI-Starch FONs were further investigated. We demonstrated that PEI-Starch FONs are biocompatible with cells and can be easily internalized by cells within 3h. Taken together, novel FONs have been prepared via a simple and scalable hydrothermal method using starch and polyethyleneimine as precursors. These PEI-Starch FONs showed excellent fluorescence properties, high water dispersibility and good biocompatibility, making them highly potential for various biomedical applications. PMID:25659670

  11. Cation distribution and enhanced surface effects on the temperature-dependent magnetization of as-prepared NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atif, M.; Nadeem, M.; Siddique, M.

    2015-08-01

    Nickel ferrite, i.e., NiFe2O4, nanoparticles are synthesized by sol-gel method using urea as a neutralizing agent. The formation of spinel phase and crystal structure of the as-prepared sample is analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. In order to confirm phase formation and cation arrangement, room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is employed. The degree of inversion ( i) estimated from the relative peak area is found to be 0.6, which confirms a mixed spinel structure of the as-prepared sample. Zero-field-cooled/field-cooled measurements showed evidence of superparamagnetic behavior associated with the nanosized particles. Hysteresis loop measurements revealed temperature-dependent magnetic properties: The coercive field ( H C) decreases with increasing temperature and deviates from the Kneller's law for ferromagnetic nanostructures; and the saturation magnetization ( M s) follows modified Bloch's law in the temperature range between 25 and 400 K. However, below 25 K, an abrupt increase in magnetization of nanoparticles is observed. In order to understand this behavior, an additional contribution has to be added to the core magnetization to properly fit the data. Hence, a surface correction term to the Bloch's law is found to describe the temperature dependence of magnetization in the core-shell NiFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  12. Facile synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanotubes using bacterial nanocellulose as template.

    PubMed

    Menchaca-Nal, S; Londoño-Calderón, C L; Cerrutti, P; Foresti, M L; Pampillo, L; Bilovol, V; Candal, R; Martínez-García, R

    2016-02-10

    A facile method for the preparation of cobalt ferrite nanotubes by use of bacterial cellulose nanoribbons as a template is described. The proposed method relays on a simple coprecipitation operation, which is a technique extensively used for the synthesis of nanoparticles (either isolated or as aggregates) but not for the synthesis of nanotubes. The precursors employed in the synthesis are chlorides, and the procedure is carried out at low temperature (90°C). By the method proposed a homogeneous distribution of cobalt ferrite nanotubes with an average diameter of 217nm in the bacterial nanocellulose (BC) aerogel (3%) was obtained. The obtained nanotubes are formed by 26-102nm cobalt ferrite clusters of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with diameters in the 9-13nm interval. The nanoparticles that form the nanotubes showed to have a certain crystalline disorder, which could be attributed in a greater extent to the small crystallite size, and, in a lesser extent, to microstrains existing in the crystalline lattice. The BC-templated-CoFe2O4 nanotubes exhibited magnetic behavior at room temperature. The magnetic properties showed to be influenced by a fraction of nanoparticles in superparamagnetic state. PMID:26686185

  13. Experimental demonstration of all-optical weak magnetic field detection using beam-deflection of single-mode fiber coated with cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Somarpita; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate single-mode optical-fiber-beam-deflection configuration for weak magnetic-field-detection using an optimized (low coercive-field) composition of cobalt-doped nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Devising a fiber-double-slit type experiment, we measure the surrounding magnetic field through precisely measuring interference-fringe yielding a minimum detectable field ?100??mT and we procure magnetization data of the sample that fairly predicts SQUID measurement. To improve sensitivity, we incorporate etched single-mode fiber in double-slit arrangement and recorded a minimum detectable field, ?30??mT. To further improve, we redefine the experiment as modulating fiber-to-fiber light-transmission and demonstrate the minimum field as 2.0 mT. The device will be uniquely suited for electrical or otherwise hazardous environments. PMID:26193403

  14. Temperature Dependence of Saturation Magnetization and Coercivity in Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 Ferrite Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obaidat, I. M.; Issa, B.; Albiss, B. A.; Haik, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The influence of temperature on coercivity, Hc and saturation magnetization, Ms were investigated experimentally in Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 ferrite nanoparticles (average size 35 nm). Isothermal magnetization curves M (H) were obtained in the field range from -5 kOe to +5 kOe at different temperatures after the zero field cooling (ZFC) process. The temperature dependence of the coercivity, Hc(T) deviated slightly from the classical Kneller's law. The temperature dependence of saturation magnetization, Ms(T) was found to have an excellent agreement with the Bloch's law. These results are discussed in terms of several factors such as the size and size distribution of the particles, inter-particle interactions and the surface spin.

  15. Preparation and characterization of PEG-Mentha oil nanoparticles for housefly control.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2014-04-01

    Nanoparticles of Mentha × piperita essential oil were prepared by melt-dispersion method. The nanoparticles prepared at varying oil doses (5-10%, w/v) showed an encapsulation efficiency of 78.2-83.4%, while the oil load was observed to range between 3.64 and 7.46%. The average particle size of the nanoparticles varied between 226 and 331 nm, while polydispersity index showed variation between 0.547 and 1.000. DSC analysis indicated endothermic reaction during formation of nanoparticles, while a 2-term exponential kinetic model was followed during oil release. Nanoparticles showed considerable mortality against housefly larvae in lab (100%) as well as simulated field condition after first week (93%) and 6th week (57%) of application. This was the first study utilizing controlled release property of nanoparticles to formulate a cost effective product for breeding site application against housefly. PMID:24287110

  16. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties against E. coli K88 of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wen-Li; Xu, Ying-Lei; Xu, Zi-Rong; Fan, Cheng-Li

    2008-02-01

    The present study was conducted to prepare and characterize chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions, and evaluate their antibacterial activity. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on ionotropic gelation, and then the copper ions were loaded. The particle size, zeta potential and morphology were determined. Antibacterial activity was evaluated against E. coli K88 by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in vitro. Results showed that the antibacterial activity was significantly enhanced by the loading of copper ions compared to those of chitosan nanoparticles and copper ions. The MIC and MBC of chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were 21 times and 42 times lower than those of copper ions, respectively. To confirm the antibacterial mechanism, morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated by chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions were dynamically observed with an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that chitosan nanoparticle loaded copper ions killed E. coli K88 through damage to the cell membrane.

  17. Preparation of pure iron/Ni-Zn ferrite high strength soft magnetic composite by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minggang; Zan, Zhao; Deng, Na; Zhao, Zhankui

    2014-06-01

    A dense microcellular structure is fabricated using micron-sized pure iron powder cladded with 10 wt% Zn0.5Ni0.5Fe2O4 nanopowder by filling the pure iron with Ni-Zn-ferrites composite and subjecting the mixture to a temperature of 600 °C. The SEM image shows that the thickness of cell wall is in the range of 1.0-2.0 ?m, and the inner dimension of the alloy is in the range of 15-40 ?m. By coating Ni-Zn-ferrites, the electrical resistivity is increased. The composite exhibits not only good soft magnetic properties but also good mechanical strength.

  18. Controlled oxidation of FeCo magnetic nanoparticles to produce faceted FeCo/ferrite nanocomposites for rf heating applications

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, David E.

    and rates for plasma torch synthesized FeCo nanoparticles.1 FeCo nanoparticles are being studied for polydisperse FeCo magnetic nanoparticles MNPs synthesized using an induction plasma torch. X-ray diffraction of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3054376 INTRODUCTION We report a systematic study of the oxidation products

  19. Preparation and characterization of silver chloride nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong Trinh, Ngoc; Thanh Binh Nguyen, Thi; Hai Nguyen, Thanh

    2015-12-01

    Silver chloride nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride in an aqueous solution containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent. Different characteristics of the nanoparticles in suspension and in lyophilized powder such as size, morphology, chemical nature, interaction with stabilizing agent and photo-stability were investigated. Biological tests showed that the obtained silver chloride nanoparticles displayed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Khairy, M; Gouda, M E

    2015-07-01

    Polyaniline-NiFe2O4 nanocomposites (PANI-NiFe2O4) with different contents of NiFe2O4 (2.5, 5 and 50 wt%) were prepared via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization, while the nanoparticles nickel ferrite were synthesized by sol-gel method. The prepared samples were characterized using some techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and optical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Pure (PANI) and the composites containing 2.5 and 5 wt% NiFe2O4 showed amorphous structures, while the one with 50 wt% NiFe2O4 showed a spinel crystalline structure. The SEM images of the composites showed different aggregations for the different nickel ferrite contents. FTIR spectra revealed to the formation of some interactions between the PANI macromolecule and the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, while the thermal analyses indicated an increase in the composites stability for samples with higher NiFe2O4 nanoparticles contents. The electrical conductivity of PANI-NiFe2O4 nanocomposite was found to increase with the rise in NiFe2O4 nanoparticle content, probably due to the polaron/bipolaron formation. The optical absorption experiments illustrate direct transition with an energy band gap of Eg  = 1.0 for PANI-NiFe2O4 nanocomposite. PMID:26199745

  1. Electrical and optical properties of nickel ferrite/polyaniline nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Khairy, M.; Gouda, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Polyaniline–NiFe2O4 nanocomposites (PANI–NiFe2O4) with different contents of NiFe2O4 (2.5, 5 and 50 wt%) were prepared via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization, while the nanoparticles nickel ferrite were synthesized by sol–gel method. The prepared samples were characterized using some techniques such as Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and optical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. Pure (PANI) and the composites containing 2.5 and 5 wt% NiFe2O4 showed amorphous structures, while the one with 50 wt% NiFe2O4 showed a spinel crystalline structure. The SEM images of the composites showed different aggregations for the different nickel ferrite contents. FTIR spectra revealed to the formation of some interactions between the PANI macromolecule and the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, while the thermal analyses indicated an increase in the composites stability for samples with higher NiFe2O4 nanoparticles contents. The electrical conductivity of PANI–NiFe2O4 nanocomposite was found to increase with the rise in NiFe2O4 nanoparticle content, probably due to the polaron/bipolaron formation. The optical absorption experiments illustrate direct transition with an energy band gap of Eg = 1.0 for PANI–NiFe2O4 nanocomposite. PMID:26199745

  2. The morphology of silver nanoparticles prepared by enzyme-induced reduction.

    PubMed

    Schneidewind, Henrik; Schüler, Thomas; Strelau, Katharina K; Weber, Karina; Cialla, Dana; Diegel, Marco; Mattheis, Roland; Berger, Andreas; Möller, Robert; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an enzyme-induced growth process on solid substrates. In order to customize the enzymatically grown nanoparticles (EGNP) for analytical applications in biomolecular research, a detailed study was carried out concerning the time evolution of the formation of the silver nanoparticles, their morphology, and their chemical composition. Therefore, silver-nanoparticle films of different densities were investigated by using scanning as well as transmission electron microscopy to examine their structure. Cross sections of silver nanoparticles, prepared for analysis by transmission electron microscopy were additionally studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to probe their chemical composition. The surface coverage of substrates with silver nanoparticles and the maximum particle height were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Variations in the silver-nanoparticle films depending on the conditions during synthesis were observed. After an initial growth state the silver nanoparticles exhibit the so-called desert-rose or nanoflower-like structure. This complex nanoparticle structure is in clear contrast to the auto-catalytically grown spherical particles, which maintain their overall geometrical appearance while increasing their diameter. It is shown, that the desert-rose-like silver nanoparticles consist of single-crystalline plates of pure silver. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) activity of the EGNP structures is promising due to the exceptionally rough surface structure of the silver nanoparticles. SERS measurements of the vitamin riboflavin incubated on the silver nanoparticles are shown as an exemplary application for quantitative analysis. PMID:23016145

  3. The morphology of silver nanoparticles prepared by enzyme-induced reduction

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Thomas; Strelau, Katharina K; Weber, Karina; Cialla, Dana; Diegel, Marco; Mattheis, Roland; Berger, Andreas; Möller, Robert; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an enzyme-induced growth process on solid substrates. In order to customize the enzymatically grown nanoparticles (EGNP) for analytical applications in biomolecular research, a detailed study was carried out concerning the time evolution of the formation of the silver nanoparticles, their morphology, and their chemical composition. Therefore, silver-nanoparticle films of different densities were investigated by using scanning as well as transmission electron microscopy to examine their structure. Cross sections of silver nanoparticles, prepared for analysis by transmission electron microscopy were additionally studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to probe their chemical composition. The surface coverage of substrates with silver nanoparticles and the maximum particle height were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Variations in the silver-nanoparticle films depending on the conditions during synthesis were observed. After an initial growth state the silver nanoparticles exhibit the so-called desert-rose or nanoflower-like structure. This complex nanoparticle structure is in clear contrast to the auto-catalytically grown spherical particles, which maintain their overall geometrical appearance while increasing their diameter. It is shown, that the desert-rose-like silver nanoparticles consist of single-crystalline plates of pure silver. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) activity of the EGNP structures is promising due to the exceptionally rough surface structure of the silver nanoparticles. SERS measurements of the vitamin riboflavin incubated on the silver nanoparticles are shown as an exemplary application for quantitative analysis. PMID:23016145

  4. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and analytical applications

    E-print Network

    Tuscia, Università Degli Studi Della

    Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: Preparation 2013 Available online 25 December 2013 Keywords: Enzymatic biosensor Nanostructured materials Electron was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in Au

  5. Dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticle thin films on solid surfaces: preparation, characterization, and applications to electrocatalysis 

    E-print Network

    Ye, Heechang

    2009-05-15

    Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) were prepared, characterized, and immobilized on solid surfaces. The resulting films were applied as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). First, the synthesis, ...

  6. Preparation of PtNi Nanoparticles for the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol

    E-print Network

    Deivaraj, T.C.

    Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by hydrazine reduction of Pt and Ni precursor salts under different conditions, namely by conventional heating (PtNi-1), by prolonged reaction at room temperature (PtNi-2) ...

  7. Aqueous Solution Preparation, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Nano-Granular ZnxFe3?xO4 Ferrite Films

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and novel process for preparing nano-granular ZnxFe3?xO4 ferrite films (0 ? x ? 0.99) on Ag-coated glass substrates in DMAB-Fe(NO3)3-Zn(NO3)2 solutions. The deposition process may be applied in preparing other cations-doped spinel ferrite films. The Zn content x in the ZnxFe3?xO4 films depends linearly on the Zn2+ ion concentration ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 mM in the aqueous solutions. With x increasing from 0 to 0.99, the lattice constant increases from 0.8399 to 0.8464 nm; and the microstructure of the films changes from the non-uniform nano-granules to the fine and uniform nano-granules of 50–60 nm in size. The saturation magnetization of the films first increases from 75 emu/g to the maximum 108 emu/g with x increasing from 0 to 0.33 and then decreases monotonously to 5 emu/g with x increasing from 0.33 to 0.99. Meanwhile, the coercive force decreases monotonously from 116 to 13 Oe. PMID:20730079

  8. Fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chunyang Sui, Xin; Yang, Fang; Ma, Wei; Li, Jishun; Xue, Yujun; Fu, Xing

    2014-03-15

    A pulsed laser fabrication method is used to prepare fluorescent microstructures on silicon substrates in this paper. A 355 nm nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining system was designed, and the performance was verified and optimized. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the photoluminescence of the microstructures which were formed using the pulsed laser processing technique. Photoluminescence spectra of the microstructure reveal a peak emission around 500 nm, from 370 nm laser irradiation. The light intensity also shows an exponential decay with irradiation time, which is similar to attenuation processes seen in porous silicon. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the microstructure in the fabricated region was also analyzed with multifunction scanning electron microscopy. Spherical particles are produced with diameters around 100 nm. The structure is compared with porous silicon. It is likely that these nanoparticles act as luminescence recombination centers on the silicon surface. The small diameter of the particles modifies the band gap of silicon by quantum confinement effects. Electron-hole pairs recombine and the fluorescence emission shifts into the visible range. The chemical elements of the processed region are also changed during the interaction between laser and silicon. Oxidation and carbonization play an important role in the enhancement of fluorescence emission.

  9. Preparation and Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of 18-?-glycyrrhetinic Acid Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Behrad; Manoochehri, Saeed; Kamalinia, Golnaz; Samadi, Nasrin; Amini, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Seyyed Hossein; Maghazei, Shahab; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with 18-?-glycyrrhetinic acid (GLA) with appropriate physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity. GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared with different drug to polymer ratios, acetone contents and sonication times and the antibacterial activity of the developed nanoparticles was examined against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial effect was studied using serial dilution technique to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Results demonstrated that physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were affected by the above mentioned parameters where nanoscale size particles ranging from 175 to 212 nm were achieved. The highest encapsulation efficiency (53.2 ± 2.4%) was obtained when the ratio of drug to polymer was 1:4. Zeta potential of the developed nanoparticles was fairly negative (-11±1.5). In-vitro release profile of nanoparticles showed two phases: an initial phase of burst release for 10 h followed by a slow release pattern up to the end. The antimicrobial results revealed that the nanoparticles were more effective than pure GLA against P. aeuroginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. This improvement in antibacterial activity of GLA loaded nanoparticles when compared to pure GLA may be related to higher nanoparticles penetration into infected cells and a higher amount of GLA delivery in its site of action. Herein, it was shown that GLA loaded PLGA nanoparticles displayed appropriate physicochemical properties as well as an improved antimicrobial effect. PMID:25901144

  10. Load partitioning between ferrite/martensite and dispersed nanoparticles of a 9Cr ferritic/martensitic (F/M) ODS steel at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guangming; Mo, Kun; Miao, Yinbin; Liu, Xiang; Almer, Jonathan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-06-18

    In thisstudy,ahigh-energysynchrotronradiationX-raytechniquewasusedtoinvestigatethetensile deformation processesofa9Cr-ODSferritic/martensitic(F/M)steelatdifferenttemperatures.Twominor phases withinthe9Cr-ODSF/Msteelmatrixwereidentified asY2Ti2O7 and TiNbythehigh-energyX-ray diffraction, andconfirmed bytheanalysisusingenergydispersiveX-rayspectroscopy(EDS)ofscanning transmission electronmicroscope(STEM).Thelatticestrainsofthematrixandparticlesweremeasured through theentiretensiledeformationprocess.Duringthetensiletests,thelatticestrainsoftheferrite/ martensiteandtheparticles(TiNandY2Ti2O7) showedastrongtemperaturedependence,decreasing with increasingtemperature.Analysisoftheinternalstressatthreetemperaturesshowedthattheload partitioning betweentheferrite/martensiteandtheparticles(TiNandY2Ti2O7) wasinitiatedduring sample yieldingandreachedtoapeakduringsamplenecking.Atthreestudiedtemperatures,the internal stressofminorphases(Y2Ti2O7 and TiN)wasabout2timesthatofF/Mmatrixatyielding position, whiletheinternalstressofY2Ti2O7 and TiNreachedabout4.5–6 timesand3–3.5 timesthatof the F/Mmatrixatneckingposition,respectively.Itindicatesthatthestrengtheningofthematrixisdueto minor phases(Y2Ti2O7 and TiN),especiallyY2Ti2O7 particles. Althoughtheinternalstressesofallphases decreased withincreasingtemperaturefromRTto600 °C, theratioofinternalstressesofeachphaseat necking positionstayedinastablerange(internalstressesofY2Ti2O7 and TiNwereabout4.5–6 times and 3–3.5 timesofthatofF/Mmatrix,respectively).ThedifferencebetweeninternalstressoftheF/M matrix andtheappliedstressat600 °C isslightlylowerthanthoseatRTand300 °C, indicatingthatthe nanoparticles stillhavegoodstrengtheningeffectat600 °C.

  11. Hollow nanoparticles of metal oxides and sulfides: fast preparation via laser ablation in liquid.

    PubMed

    Niu, K Y; Yang, J; Kulinich, S A; Sun, J; Du, X W

    2010-11-16

    In this work, diverse hollow nanoparticles of metal oxides and sulfides were prepared by simply laser ablating metal targets in properly chosen liquids. The Kirkendall voiding and the selective heating with an infrared laser were shown to work as two independent mechanisms for the formation of such hollow nanoparticles in only one- or two-step synthesis approaches. One of the prepared materials, ZnS hollow nanoparticles, showed high performance in gas sensing. The simple, fast, inexpensive technique that is proposed demonstrates very promising perspectives. PMID:20942423

  12. Green preparation and spectroscopic characterization of plasmonic silver nanoparticles using fruits as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Ærøe Hyllested, Jes; Espina Palanco, Marta; Hagen, Nicolai; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chemicals typically available in plants have the capability to reduce silver and gold salts and to create silver and gold nanoparticles. We report the preparation of silver nanoparticles with sizes between 10 and 300 nm from silver nitrate using fruit extract collected from pineapples and oranges as reducing agents. The evolvement of a characteristic surface plasmon extinction spectrum in the range of 420 nm to 480 nm indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles after mixing silver nitrate solution and fruit extract. Shifts in plasmon peaks over time indicate the growth of nanoparticles. Electron microscopy shows that the shapes of the nanoparticles are different depending on the fruit used for preparation. The green preparation process can result in individual nanoparticles with a very poor tendency to form aggregates with narrow gaps even when aggregation is forced by the addition of NaCl. This explains only modest enhancement factors for near-infrared-excited surface enhanced Raman scattering. In addition to the surface plasmon band, UV–visible absorption spectra show features in the UV range which indicates also the presence of small silver clusters, such as Ag4 2+. The increase of the plasmon absorption correlates with the decrease of absorption band in the UV. This confirms the evolution of silver nanoparticles from silver clusters. The presence of various silver clusters on the surface of the “green” plasmonic silver nanoparticles is also supported by a strong multicolor luminesce signal emitted by the plasmonic particles during 473 nm excitation. PMID:25821667

  13. Preparation of silver nanoparticles and antibiotic test of its polycarbonate films composite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Sung, Kiwhan; Chung, Taek-Mo; Lee, Sung-Goo; Min, Kyung Dae; Koo, Sangman; Kim, Chang Gyoun

    2008-09-01

    General synthetic methods for silver nanoparticles are reduction of metal salt in aqueous solution or alcoholic solution. However, the preparation of silver nanoparticles in organic solvent is rarely reported. The most common preparation methods for silver nanoparticles in organic solvent are based on transfer of nanoparticles from aqueous phase to organic phase by phase transfer agent. We describe an easy synthetic method to prepare dispersed silver nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm) by reduction of silver cation in organic solvent such as toluene using a reducing agent and a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles and polycarbonate were mixed and molded to prepare a new composite in methylene chloride. The composite was tested to investigate antifungal effect by coliform (Escherichia coil ATCC 25922). The antifungal effect of the composite reached high after 24 h (99.9999%). The composite and the silver nanoparticles have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). PMID:19049097

  14. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of hydrophilic fenretinide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ledet, Grace A; Graves, Richard A; Glotser, Elena Y; Mandal, Tarun K; Bostanian, Levon A

    2015-02-20

    Fenretinide is an effective anti-cancer drug with high in vitro cytotoxicity and low in vivo systemic toxicity. In clinical trials, fenretinide has shown poor therapeutic efficacy following oral administration - attributed to its low bioavailability and solubility. The long term goal of this project is to develop a formulation for the oral delivery of fenretinide. The purpose of this part of the study was to prepare and characterize hydrophilic nanoparticle formulations of fenretinide. Three different ratios of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to fenretinide were used, namely, 3:1, 4:1, and 5:1. Both drug and polymer were dissolved in a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (2:23 v/v). Rotary evaporation was used to remove the solvents, and, following reconstitution with water, a high pressure homogenizer was used to form nanoparticles. The particle size and polydispersity index were measured before and after lyophilization. The formulations were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The effectiveness of the formulations was assessed by release studies and Caco-2 cell permeability assays. As the PVP content increased, the recovered particle size following lyophilization became more consistent with the pre-lyophilization particle size, especially for those formulations with less lactose. The DSC scans of the formulations did not show any fenretinide melting endotherms, indicating that the drug was either present in an amorphous form in the formulation or that a solid solution of the drug in PVP had formed. For the release studies, the highest drug release among the formulations was 249.2±35.5ng/mL for the formulation with 4:1 polymer-to-drug. When the permeability of the formulations was evaluated in a Caco-2 cell model, the mean normalized flux for each treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05) from the fenretinide control. The formulation containing 4:1 polymer-to-drug ratio and 6:5 lactose-to-formulation ratio emerged as the optimal choice for further evaluation as a potential oral delivery formulation for fenretinide. PMID:25542987

  15. Heat treatment effects on structural and dielectric properties of Mn substituted CuFe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Arunkumar, T.; Prakash, T.

    2015-09-01

    Manganese substituted copper and zinc ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by an auto-combustion technique using metal nitrates and urea. The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, and TEM techniques. The effect of annealing temperature on structural and dielectric properties of Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles was analyzed. The presenting elements in the prepared samples are recorded by EDX. TEM analysis clearly showed the particles are in the nanometer range. The dielectric loss and dielectric constant have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz-5 MHz. The variation in structural and dielectric properties of the prepared and annealed samples are discussed.

  16. Oleate-based hydrothermal preparation of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, and their magnetic properties with respect to particle size and surface coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repko, Anton; Vejpravová, Jana; Vacková, Ta?ana; Zákutná, Dominika; Niž?anský, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We present a facile and high-yield synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by hydrothermal hydrolysis of Co-Fe oleate in the presence of pentanol/octanol/toluene and water at 180 or 220 °C. The particle size (6-10 nm) was controlled by the composition of the organic solvent and temperature. Magnetic properties were then investigated with respect to the particle size and surface modification with citric acid or titanium dioxide (leading to hydrophilic particles). The as-prepared hydrophobic nanoparticles (coated by oleic acid) had a minimum inter-particle distance of 2.5 nm. Their apparent blocking temperature (estimated as a maximum of the zero-field-cooled magnetization) was 180 K, 280 K and 330 K for the particles with size of 6, 9 and 10.5 nm, respectively. Replacement of oleic acid on the surface by citric acid decreased inter-particle distance to less than 1 nm, and increased blocking temperature by ca. 10 K. On the other hand, coating with titanium dioxide, supported by nitrilotri(methylphosphonic acid), caused increase of the particle spacing, and lowering of the blocking temperature by ca. 20 K. The CoFe2O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were sufficiently stable in water, methanol and ethanol. The particles were also investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) susceptibility measurements, and their analysis with Vögel-Fulcher and power law. Effect of different particle coating and dipolar interactions on the magnetic properties is discussed.

  17. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over radiolytically prepared Pt nanoparticles supported on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, S. . E-mail: sudhirk@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Belapurkar, A.D.; Mittal, J.P.; Mukherjee, T. . E-mail: mukherji@magnum.barc.ernet.in

    2005-10-06

    Platinum nanoparticles have been prepared by radiolytic and chemical methods in the presence of stabilizer gelatin and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The formation of Pt nanoparticles was confirmed using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared particles were coated on the inner walls of the tubular pyrex reactor and tested for their catalytic activity for oxidation of CO. It was observed that Pt nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a stabilizer (gelatin) showed a higher tendency to adhere to the inner walls of the pyrex reactor as compared to that prepared in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The catalyst was found to be active at {>=}150 deg. C giving CO{sub 2}. Chemically reduced Pt nanoparticles stabilized on silica nanoparticles gave {approx}7% CO conversion per hour. However, radiolytically prepared Pt nanoparticles stabilized by gelatin gave {approx}10% conversion per hour. Catalytic activity of radiolytically prepared platinum catalyst, coated on the inner walls of the reactor, was evaluated as a function of CO concentration and reaction temperature. The rate of reaction increased with increase in reaction temperature and the activation energy for the reaction was found to be {approx}108.8 kJ mol{sup -1}. The rate of CO{sub 2} formation was almost constant ({approx}1.5 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} h{sup -1}) at constant O{sub 2} concentration (6.5 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}) with increase in CO concentration from 2 x 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} to 3.25 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}. The data indicate that catalytic oxidation of CO takes place by Eley-Rideal mechanism.

  18. Preparation and in-vitro evaluation of indomethacin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Mokarram, A.; Kebriaee zadeh, A.; Keshavarz, M.; Ahmadi, A.; Mohtat, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study During the last two decades one of the most important problems in drug formulations has been low aqueous solubility of new molecules. However, numerous techniques, such as milling, co-solvent solubilization and solid dispersion have been used conventionally for aqueous solubility enhancement and the rate of solubility. Recently, nanoparticle engineering processes have been developed and reported for pharmaceutical applications to increase the dissolution rate of low-soluble drugs which in turn may leads to substantial increases in bioavailability. In this study, a controlled precipitation method was used to produce indomethacin nano-solid suspension in a polymeric matrix (as a model), in order to increase the solubility and rate of the dissolution of poorly soluble model drug. Methods Nano-solid suspension of indomethacin in polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP) was prepared by controlled precipitation technique, characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and evaluated for in vitro solubility and dissolution rate. Results and major conclusion Absence of thermal and diffractional peaks in DSC and XRD studies indicated that indomethacin interacts with PVP in solid phase. The solubility of indomethacin in nano-solid suspension compared to crystalline form was increased to about four-fold. It was found that particle size distribution depend to the polymer MW and drug: polymer ratios. Spectroscopy methods and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images showed that indomethacin dispersed as amorphous nanosize particles in freeze dried powder. Enhanced solubility and dissolution rate of indomethacin compared to physical mixtures and crystalline form of indomethacin (polymorph I), demonstrated that it interacts with PVP via hydrogen bond and probably forming eutectic mixture. PMID:22615616

  19. Preparation and anti-bacterial properties of a temperature sensitive gel containing silver nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel temperature-sensitive spray gel containing silver nanoparticles and investigate its anti-bacterial properties in vitro. Methods: The aqueous complex gel was prepared by Pluronic F127 (18-22%) and Pluronic F68 (3-9%) through a cold method to obtain a p...

  20. Preparation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by combustion spray pyrolysis Sangjin Leea

    E-print Network

    Messing, Gary L.

    Preparation of BaTiO3 nanoparticles by combustion spray pyrolysis Sangjin Leea , Taehwan Sona were synthesized by combustion spray pyrolysis using a 1:1 molar ratio of oxidizer and fuel. To prepare. Keywords: BaTiO3; Nanomaterials; Spray pyrolysis; Combustion; Powder technology 1. Introduction Fine barium

  1. Enhanced bioavailability of sirolimus via preparation of solid dispersion nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent process

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Won Kyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble sirolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion of nanoparticles using a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Methods First, excipients for enhancing the stability and solubility of sirolimus were screened. Second, using the SAS process, solid dispersions of sirolimus-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30 nanoparticles were prepared with or without surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tocopheryl propylene glycol succinate, Sucroester 15, Gelucire 50/13, and Myrj 52. A mean particle size of approximately 250 nm was obtained for PVP K30-sirolimus nanoparticles. Solid state characterization, kinetic solubility, powder dissolution, stability, and pharmacokinetics were analyzed in rats. Results X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that sirolimus existed in an anhydrous amorphous form within a solid dispersion of nanoparticles and that no degradation occurred after SAS processing. The improved supersaturation and dissolution of sirolimus as a solid dispersion of nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced bioavailability of oral sirolimus in rats. With oral administration of a solid dispersion of PVP K30-SLS-sirolimus nanoparticles, the peak concentration and AUC0?12h of sirolimus were increased by approximately 18.3-fold and 15.2-fold, respectively. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that preparation of PVP K30-sirolimus-surfactant nanoparticles using the SAS process may be a promising approach for improving the bioavailability of sirolimus. PMID:22162657

  2. Preparation and characterization of magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with isoniazid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Wang, C. M.; Dong, Q. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Ma, Z. Y.; Han, Q. R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel and simple method has been proposed to prepare magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with isoniazid (Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites). Efforts have been made to develop isoniazid (INH) loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles by ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The factors that influence the preparation of chitosan nanoparticles, including the TPP concentration, the chitosan/TPP weight ratio and the chitosan concentration on loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles were studied. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method of Fe2+ and Fe3+. Then the magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites were prepared by ionic gelation method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, TEM, FTIR and SQUID magnetometry. The in vitro release of Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites showed an initial burst release in the first 10 h, followed by a more gradual and sustained release for 48 h. It is suggested that the magnetic Fe3O4/CS/INH nanocomposites may be exploited as potential drug carriers for controlled-release applications in magnetic targeted drugs delivery system.

  3. Preparation of compact nanoparticle clusters from polyethylene glycol-coated gold nanoparticles by fine-tuning colloidal interactions.

    PubMed

    Zámbó, Dániel; Radnóczi, György Z; Deák, András

    2015-03-10

    Low-molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) has a lower critical solution temperature well outside the boiling point of water at ambient pressure, but it can be reduced at high ionic strengths. We extend this concept to trigger the clustering of gold nanoparticles through the control of colloidal interactions. At high ionic strengths, low-molecular weight (<2000 Da) mPEG-SH-modified gold nanoparticles show clustering with an increase in the solution temperature. The clustering temperature decreases with an increasing ionic strength. The clustering is attributed to the delicate interplay between the high ionic strength and elevated temperature and is interpreted in terms of chain collapse of the surface-grafted PEG molecules. The chain collapse results in a change in the steric interaction term, whereas the high ionic strength eliminates the double-layer repulsion between the particles. The observations are backed by nanoparticle interaction model calculations. We found that the intermediate attractive potential on the order of a few kT allows the experimental fabrication of compact nanoparticle clusters in agreement with theoretical predictions. The approach presented here has the potential to be extended on the externally triggered preparation of nanoparticle clusters with different types of nanoparticles. PMID:25686160

  4. Characterization of soy protein nanoparticles prepared by high shear microfluidization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy protein nanoparticles were produced with a microfluidizer and characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, morphology, rheological properties, and aggregate structure. Three stages of structure breakdown were observed when the soy protein dispersion was passed through the microflu...

  5. A Novel Preparation Method for 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Loaded Eudragit S100 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Daode; Liu, Liang; Chen, Wenjuan; Li, Sining; Zhao, Yaping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) technique was applied for the preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) loaded Eudragit S100 (EU S100) nanoparticles. The effects of various process variables including pressure, temperature, 5-ASA concentration and solution flow rate on morphology, particle size, 5-ASA loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. Under the appropriate conditions, drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and small particle size with narrow particle size distribution. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that 5-ASA was imbedded into EU S100 in an amorphous state after SEDS processing and the SEDS process did not induce degradation of 5-ASA. PMID:22754377

  6. Sample preparation and EFTEM of Meat Samples for Nanoparticle Analysis in Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, L.; Dudkiewicz, A.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles are used in industry for personal care products and the preparation of food. In the latter application, their functions include the prevention of microbes' growth, increase of the foods nutritional value and sensory quality. EU regulations require a risk assessment of the nanoparticles used in foods and food contact materials before the products can reach the market. However, availability of validated analytical methodologies for detection and characterisation of the nanoparticles in food hampers appropriate risk assessment. As part of a research on the evaluation of the methods for screening and quantification of Ag nanoparticles in meat we have tested a new TEM sample preparation alternative to resin embedding and cryo-sectioning. Energy filtered TEM analysis was applied to evaluate thickness and the uniformity of thin meat layers acquired at increasing input of the sample demonstrating that the protocols used ensured good stability under the electron beam, reliable sample concentration and reproducibility.

  7. Microbial mediated preparation, characterization and optimization of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Barabadi, Hamed; Honary, Soheila; Ebrahimi, Pouneh; Mohammadi, Milad Ali; Alizadeh, Ahad; Naghibi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    The need for eco-friendly and cost effective methods for nanoparticles synthesis is developing interest in biological approaches which are free from the use of toxic chemicals as byproducts. This study aimed to biosynthesize and optimize the size of gold nanoparticles which produced by biotechnological method using Penicillium crustosum isolated from soil. Initially, Penicillium crustosum was grown in fluid czapek dox broth on shaker at 28 °C and 200 rpm for ten days and then the supernatant was separated from the mycelia to convert AuCl4 solution into gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles in the optimum conditions were formed with fairly well-defined dimensions and good monodispersity. The characterizations were done by using different methods (UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Fluorescence, FT-IR, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering). The bioconversion was optimized by Box-Behnken experimental design. The results show that the effective factors in this process were concentration of AuCl4, pH of medium and temperature of shaker incubator. The R2 value was calculated to be 0.9999 indicating the accuracy and ability of the polynomial model. It can be concluded that the use of multivariate analysis facilitated to find out the optimum conditions for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles induced by Penicillium crustosum in a time and cost effective process. The current approach suggested that rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a biological process for mass scale production of formulations. PMID:25763059

  8. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: Structure, Preparation and Application

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Neda; Valizadeh, Hadi; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have attracted special interest during last few decades. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) are two major types of Lipid-based nanoparticles. SLNs were developed to overcome the limitations of other colloidal carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles because they have advantages like good release profile and targeted drug delivery with excellent physical stability. In the next generation of the lipid nanoparticle, NLCs are modified SLNs which improve the stability and capacity loading. Three structural models of NLCs have been proposed. These LNPs have potential applications in drug delivery field, research, cosmetics, clinical medicine, etc. This article focuses on features, structure and innovation of LNPs and presents a wide discussion about preparation methods, advantages, disadvantages and applications of LNPs by focusing on SLNs and NLCs. PMID:26504751

  9. One-step microwave preparation of well-defined and functionalized polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    An, Zesheng; Tang, Wei; Hawker, Craig J; Stucky, Galen D

    2006-11-29

    Well-defined colloidal polymeric nanoparticles are important in advanced biomedical and optical technologies. We report a facile microwave methodology to prepare narrowly dispersed cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles at high solids content through a surfactant-free emulsion polymerization process. The nanoparticle size was controlled by using cross-linkers with enhanced reactivity through a one-step microwaving process, significantly simplifying the nanoparticle synthetic process. The successful size control was realized by confining the cross-linking to intraparticle cross-linking rather than interparticle cross-linking. We also discovered that the superheating/dielectric heating effect associated with microwave irradiation could be utilized to effectively reduce the nanoparticle size. PMID:17117833

  10. Influence of PVP in magnetic properties of NiSn nanoparticles prepared by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobadilla, L. F.; García, C.; Delgado, J. J.; Sanz, O.; Romero-Sarria, F.; Centeno, M. A.; Odriozola, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of PVP on the magnetic properties of NiSn nanoparticles prepared by polyol method has been studied. NiSn nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior although there is a ferromagnetic contribution due to particles agglomerated below the blocking temperature. The particle size is controlled by the addiction of PVP in varying amounts. The addition of PVP also favours the particles isolation, narrow the particle size distribution and decrease the interparticle interaction strength increasing the superparamagnetic contribution.

  11. Effects of Microemulsion Preparation Conditions on Drug Encapsulation Efficiency of PLGA Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Set Hui; Ooi, Ing Hong

    2011-12-01

    Emulsion solvent evaporation technique is widely used to prepare nanoparticles of many organic polymer drug carriers. The mechanism of nanoparticle generation by this technique involves oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion formation followed by solvent evaporation. Various microemulsion preparation conditions can affect the encapsulation efficiency of drug in the nanoparticulate carrier. In this study, emulsifying speed, emulsifying temperature, and organic-to-aqueous phase ratio were varied and the resulting encapsulation efficiency of a model drug in Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles was determined. The organic phase containing PLGA and a model drug dissolved in chloroform was first dispersed in an aqueous solution containing 0.5 %(w/v) Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which was then homogenized at high speeds. The resulting O/W microemulsion was subsequently subjected to stirring at room temperature for four hours during which the solvent diffused and evaporated gradually. The fine white suspension was centrifuged and freeze-dried. The model drug loading in the PLGA nanoparticles was determined using UV spectrophotometry. Results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of a model drug, salicylic acid, ranged from 8.5% to 17% depending on the microemulsion preparation conditions. Under the same temperature (15 °C) and homogenization speed (19000 rpm) conditions studied, a relatively high organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (1:5) provided salicylic acid loaded PLGA nanoparticles with significantly higher drug encapsulation efficiency. In addition, under all microemulsion preparation conditions, PLGA nanoparticles obtained after solvent evaporation and freeze drying were spherical and aggregation between the nanoparticles was not observed under a high power microscope. This indicates that PLGA nanoparticles with desirable amount of drug and with anticipated size and shape can be realized by controlling emulsification process conditions.

  12. Barium carbonate nanoparticle to enhance oxygen reduction activity of strontium doped lanthanum ferrite for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Chen, Fanglin; Xia, Changrong

    2015-03-01

    BaCO3 nanoparticles are demonstrated as outstanding catalysts for high-temperature oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the La0.8Sr0.2FeO3-? (LSF) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on ytrria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. Thermal gravitational and X-ray diffraction measurements show that BaCO3 is stable and chemically compatible with LSF under the fabrication and operation conditions of intermediate-temperature SOFCs. The BaCO3 nanoparticles can greatly reduce the interfacial polarization resistance; from 2.96 to 0.84 ? cm2 at 700 °C when 12.9wt% BaCO3 is infiltrated to the porous LSF electrode on the YSZ electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that there is about one order of magnitude decrease in the low-frequency resistance, indicating that BaCO3 nanoparticles can greatly enhance the surface steps for ORR. Electrical conductivity relaxation investigation indicates about one order of magnitude increase in the chemical oxygen surface exchange coefficient when BaCO3 is applied, directly demonstrating significant increase in the kinetics for ORR. In addition, LSF cathodes with infiltrated BaCO3 nanoparticles have shown excellent stability and substantially enhanced cell performance as demonstrated with single cells, suggesting BaCO3 nanoparticles are very effective in enhancing ORR on LSF.

  13. NMR-D study of the local spin dynamics and magnetic anisotropy in different nearly monodispersed ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bordonali, L; Kalaivani, T; Sabareesh, K P V; Innocenti, C; Fantechi, E; Sangregorio, C; Casula, M F; Lartigue, L; Larionova, J; Guari, Y; Corti, M; Arosio, P; Lascialfari, A

    2013-02-13

    We present a systematic experimental comparison of the superparamagnetic relaxation time constants obtained by means of dynamic magnetic measurements and (1)H-NMR relaxometry, on ferrite-based nanosystems with different composition, various core sizes and dispersed in different solvents. The application of a heuristic model for the relaxivity allowed a comparison between the reversal time of magnetization as seen by NMR and the results from the AC susceptibility experiments, and an estimation of fundamental microscopic properties. A good agreement between the NMR and AC results was found when fitting the AC data to a Vogel-Fulcher law. Key parameters obtained from the model have been exploited to evaluate the impact of the contribution from magnetic anisotropy to the relaxivity curves and estimate the minimum approach distance of the bulk solvent. PMID:23315450

  14. Influence of zinc doping in nickel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by using an oxalic-acid-based precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjaneyulu, T.; Raghavender, A. T.; Kumar, K. Vijaya; Murthy, P. Narayana; Narendra, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni1- x Zn x Fe2O4 ( 0.0 ? x ? 0.8) ferrites have been synthesized by using an oxalic-acid-based precursor method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of a single-phase spinel structure at very low annealing temperature. The particle size was observed to decrease with increasing Zn content x. The lattice constants was observed to increase with increasing Zn content x due to large ionic radii of the zinc ion when compared to that of the nickel ion. Magnetic measurements at room temperature revealed that the magnetization did not change monotonically with increasing Zn content x. The coercivity and the remanence were observed to decrease with increasing non-magnetic Zn content x. The observed magnetic properties may be due to a reduction in the number of exchange interactions and the nanocrystalline size with increasing Zn content x.

  15. Dextrin-coated zinc substituted cobalt-ferrite nanoparticles as an MRI contrast agent: In vitro and in vivo imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Sattarahmady, N; Zare, T; Mehdizadeh, A R; Azarpira, N; Heidari, M; Lotfi, M; Heli, H

    2015-05-01

    Application of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) as a negative contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been of widespread interest. These particles can enhance contrast of images by altering the relaxation times of the water protons. In this study, dextrin-coated zinc substituted cobalt-ferrite (Zn0.5Co0.5Fe2O4) NPs were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, and the morphology, size, structure and magnetic properties of the NPs were investigated. These NPs had superparamagnetic behavior with an average size of 3.9 (±0.9, n=200)nm measured by transmission electron microscopy. Measurements on the relaxivities (r2 and r2(*)) of the NPs were performed in vitro by agarose phantom. In addition, after subcutaneous injection of the NPs into C540 cell line in C-57 inbred mice, the relaxivities were measured in vivo by a 1.5T MRI system. These NPs could effectively increase the image contrast in both T2-and T2(*)-weighted samples. PMID:25819361

  16. Preparation and thermal behavior of aerosol-derived BaFe 12O 19 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu; Lin, Hsin-Yi

    2004-12-01

    Pure BaFe12O19 nanoparticles, having single magnetic domain sizes, were obtained at 700 °C using a process combining the citrate precursor method and spray technique. A neutralized aqueous solution, containing Ba2+ and Fe3+ chelated by citric acid, was nebulized to undergo thermal decomposition in a flowing air with a maximum temperature of 250 °C. The dried solid precursor so obtained was calcined at different temperatures and was then chemically and physically characterized. Crystalline barium hexaferrites were formed at temperatures as low as 650 °C, but calcination temperatures higher than 680 °C were required to produce pure barium ferrite powder. Based on the obtained experimental results, the reaction mechanism for the aerosol-derived precursor to form BaFe12O19 was proposed and discussed in this study.

  17. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Asadollah

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  18. Streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Asadollah

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles for their potential therapeutic use in Salmonella subsp. enterica ATCC 14028 infections. The streptomycin nanoparticle was prepared by solvent diffusion method, and the other properties such as size, zeta potential, loading efficacy, release kinetics, and antimicrobial strength were evaluated. The survey shows that nanoparticles may serve as a carrier of streptomycin and may provide localized antibacterial activity in the treatment of Salmonellosis. Electron microscopy showed spherical particles with indentations. The average size of the nanoparticles was 90 nm. At pH 7.2, the release kinetics of streptomycin from the nanoparticles was successfully illustrated as an initial burst defined by a first order equation that after this stage, it has a drastic tendency to obtain steady state. Nevertheless, nanoparticles showed loading efficacy nearly about 70-75 %. In addition, the tendency of concentration of streptomycin released from nanoparticles to reach antibacterial activity was similar to that of free streptomycin against PLGA-alginate, but it had threefold more antimicrobial strength in comparison with free streptomycin. This work shows the potential use of streptomycin-loaded PLGA-alginate nanoparticles and its capability.

  19. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Fazry, Shazrul; Lazim, Azwan Mat

    2015-09-01

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  20. Preparation and optical studies of PbS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamiyev, Zamin Q.; Balayeva, Narmina O.

    2015-08-01

    In the present report formation of nano-sized PbS in MA/octene-1 copolymer matrix at 80 °C temperature is being reported. A size and distribution of particles were observed in AFM results and the images are correlated with the results on X-ray diffraction measurements. The structure and phase of the PbS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD studies reveal that as-synthesized PbS nanoparticles are in single phase cubic structure and the grain size have been calculated 10-15 nm from XRD results. The size distribution was further supported by UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of the colloid nanoparticles. The obtained nanocomposites show an emission peak at 418 nm.

  1. Multiplexed TEM Specimen Preparation and Analysis of Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Anchi; Crum, John; Jain, Tilak; Duggan, Erika; Liu, Er; Nolan, John P.; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system for rapidly screening hundreds of nanoparticle samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The system uses a liquid handling robot to place up to 96 individual samples onto a single standard TEM grid at separate locations. The grid is then transferred into the TEM and automated software is used to acquire multi-scale images of each sample. The images are then analyzed to extract metrics on the size, shape, and morphology of the nanoparticles. The system has been used to characterize plasmonically-active nanomaterials. PMID:26223550

  2. Preparation of Gold Nanoparticles Using Tea: A Green Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, R. K.; Gulati, Shikha; Mehta, Shilpa

    2012-01-01

    Assimilating green chemistry principles in nanotechnology is a developing area of nanoscience research nowadays. Thus, there is a growing demand to develop environmentally friendly and sustainable methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles that utilize nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents, and renewable materials to avoid their…

  3. Preparation and evaluation of PEG-PCL nanoparticles for local tetradrine delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Rutian; Li, Xiaolin; Xie, Li; Ding, Dan; Hu, Yong; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Ding, Yitao; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui

    2009-09-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for local delivery of Tetradrine (Tet), four kinds of core-shell nanoparticles were prepared from di-block copolymer of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (MePEG-PCL) and tri-block copolymer of polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol)-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL). The physiochemical traits of the four kinds of nanoparticles including morphology, particle size, zeta-potential, drug-loading content, stability, and in vitro release profile were studied. We also evaluated the four kinds of nanoparticles by in vitro cellular uptake experiment, cytotoxicity assay against LoVo cells, and biocmpatibility study. Histoculture Drug Response Assay (HDRA), a more predictive method usually used to evaluate chemosensitivity was firstly applied in our study to evaluate the antitumor potency of polymeric nanoparticles. The current study showed that all the four kinds of copolymers exhibited remarkable in vitro antitumor effects, especially in HDRA assay. The configuration and composition of the copolymers were important for the properties and functions of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles prepared from the di-block copolymer with a particle size around 300nm and the hydrophobic composition about 80% was determined as the most effective drug carrier for further studies. PMID:19524653

  4. Silk fibroin nanoparticles prepared by electrospray as controlled release carriers of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jing; Liu, Yu; Yu, Yanni; Li, Jing; Luo, Jingwan; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-11-01

    To maintain the anti-tumor activity of cis-dichlorodiamminoplatinum (CDDP) while avoiding its cytotoxicity and negative influence on normal tissue, CDDP-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles approximately 59 nm in diameter were successfully prepared by electrospray without using organic solvent. CDDP was incorporated into nanoparticles through metal-polymer coordination bond exchange. In vitro release tests showed that the cisplatin in the nanoparticles could be slowly and sustainably released for more than 15 days. In vitro anti-cancer experiments and intracellular Pt content testing indicated that CDDP-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles were easily internalized by A549 lung cancer cells, transferring CDDP into cancer cells and then triggering their apoptosis. In contrast, the particles were not easily internalized by L929 mouse fibroblast cells and hence showed weaker cell growth inhibition. The CDDP-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles showed sustained and efficient killing of tumor cells but weaker inhibition of normal cells. In general, this study provides not only a novel method for preparing CDDP-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles but also a new carrier system for clinical therapeutic drugs against lung cancers and other tumors. PMID:25280693

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Cationic PLA-PEG Nanoparticles for Delivery of Plasmid DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Weiwei; Liu, Chunxi; Chen, Zhijin; Zhang, Na

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to formulate and evaluate cationic poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) nanoparticles as novel non-viral gene delivery nano-device. Cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. The gene loaded nanoparticles were obtained by incubating the report gene pEGFP with cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties (e.g., morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding efficiency) and biological properties (e.g., integrity of the released DNA, protection from nuclease degradation, plasma stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vitro transfection ability in Hela cells) of the gene loaded PLA-PEG nanoparticles were evaluated, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles and gene loaded nanoparticles were both spherical in shape with average particle size of 89.7 and 128.9 nm, polydispersity index of 0.185 and 0.161, zeta potentials of +28.9 and +16.8 mV, respectively. The obtained cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with high binding efficiency (>95%) could protect the loaded DNA from the degradation by nuclease and plasma. The nanoparticles displayed sustained-release properties in vitro and the released DNA maintained its structural and functional integrity. It also showed lower cytotoxicity than Lipofectamine 2000 and could successfully transfect gene into Hela cells even in presence of serum. It could be concluded that the established gene loaded cationic PLA-PEG nanoparticles with excellent properties were promising non-viral nano-device, which had potential to make cancer gene therapy achievable.

  6. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles decorated on exfoliated graphene oxide, application for amperometric determination of NADH and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Alinajafi, Hossein A; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghazaei, F

    2016-03-01

    Here, cobalt ferrite nanohybrid decorated on exfoliated graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/EGO) was synthesized. The nanohybrid was characterized by different methods such as X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The CoFe2O4/EGO nanohybrid was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The voltammetric investigations showed that CoFe2O4/EGO nanohybrid has synergetic effect towards the electro-reduction of H2O2 and electro-oxidation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used for their quantitative analysis. The calibration curves were observed in the range of 0.50 to 100.0?molL(-1) NADH and 0.9 to 900.0?molL(-1) H2O2 with detections limit of 0.38 and 0.54?molL(-1), respectively. The repeatability, reproducibility and selectivity of the electrochemical sensor for analysis of the analytes were studied. The new electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for the determination of NADH and H2O2 in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26706531

  7. Preparation of tourmaline nano-particles through a hydrothermal process and its infrared emission properties.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; Han, Chao; Liang, Jinsheng; Wang, Saifei; Zhao, Chaoyue

    2014-05-01

    Tourmaline nano-particles were successfully prepared via a hydrothermal process using HCl as an additive. The reaction temperature (T) and the concentration of HCI (C(HCl)) had effects on the size and morphology of the tourmaline nano-particles. The optimum reaction condition was that: T = 180 degrees C and C(HCl) = 0.1 mol/l. The obtained nano-particles were spherical with the diameter of 48 nm. The far-infrared emissivity of the product was 0.923. The formation mechnism of the tourmaline nano-particles might come from the corrosion of grain boundary between the tourmaline crystals in acidic hydrothermal conditions and then the asymmetric contraction of the crystals. PMID:24734669

  8. Preparation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Removal of Methylene Blue through Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo Hernandez, J. S.; Aragón Muriel, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Bolaños, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we studied the catalytic activity, structural properties, and behavior of a Fe3O4 magnetic system. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a structural Fe3O4 phase, where acicular shape of the grains is shown. Transmission Mossbauer spectroscopy showed a wide distribution of particle sizes at room temperature, some of these present superparamagnetic behavior and are responsible of paramagnetic sites. The hysteresis loops obtained by the use of a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that these nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior. However, the cycles present a significant contribution from a ferrimagnetic component at 2 K, which agrees with Mossbauer results. Through scanning electron microscopy, a tendency to the agglomeration of nanoparticles was observed. Nanoparticle activity in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) was studied through fluorescence spectroscopy, finding dye adsorption properties.

  9. Preparation and antibacterial activity of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Li, Huimin; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Hu, Jianbing; Tan, Weihong; Zhang, Shouchun; Yang, Xiaohai

    2007-07-01

    Bifunctional Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles with both superparamagnetic and antibacterial properties were prepared by reducing silver nitrate on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles using the water-in-oil microemulsion method. Formation of well-dispersed nanoparticles with sizes of 60 ± 20 nm was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. X-ray diffraction patterns and UV-visible spectroscopy indicated that both Fe3O4 and silver are present in the same particle. The superparamagnetism of Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles was confirmed with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated by means of minimum inhibitory concentration value, flow cytometry, and antibacterial rate assays. The results showed that Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles presented good antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli (gram-negative bacteria), Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive bacteria) and Bacillus subtilis (spore bacteria). Furthermore, Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can be easily removed from water by using a magnetic field to avoid contamination of surroundings. Reclaimed Fe3O4@Ag nanoparticles can still have antibacterial capability and can be reused.

  10. Pure single crystallographic form of TiO2 nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Piyush J.; Tomar, Laxmi J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, Bishwajit S.

    2015-06-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles in three pure crystallographic forms (anatase, rutile and Brookite) have been prepared by hydrothermal and precipitation method. XRD analysis showed that the prepared nanoparticles using hydrothermal method for 2h and 24h were pure Brookite and pure anatase respectively. Pure rutile phase of TiO2 nanoparticles has been obtained by precipitation method. The average crystallite size for anatase, rutile and Brookite was found to be 14.71 nm, 12.88 nm and 5.27 nm respectively. This nano size of crystals has produced lattice strain in material, and this strain varies with size and structure. The UV-Visible absorption analysis showed that the energy gaps for anatase, rutile and Brookite are 3.32 eV, 2.45 eV and 2.60 eV respectively. Refractive index of all the samples has been changed compared to the bulk TiO2.

  11. Semiconductor nanoparticle-based hydrogels prepared via self-initiated polymerization under sunlight, even visible light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Yang, Jinhu; Bao, Song; Wu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qigang

    2013-01-01

    Since ancient times, people have used photosynthesized wood, bamboo, and cotton as building and clothing materials. The advantages of photo polymerization include the mild and easy process. However, the direct use of available sunlight for the preparation of materials is still a challenge due to its rather dilute intensity. Here, we show that semiconductor nanoparticles can be used for initiating monomer polymerization under sunlight and for cross-linking to form nanocomposite hydrogels with the aid of clay nanosheets. Hydrogels are an emerging multifunctional platform because they can be easily prepared using solar energy, retain semiconductor nanoparticle properties after immobilization, exhibit excellent mechanical strength (maximum compressive strength of 4.153?MPa and tensile strength 1.535?MPa) and high elasticity (maximum elongation of 2784%), and enable recyclable photodegradation of pollutants. This work suggests that functional nanoparticles can be immobilized in hydrogels for their collective application after combining their mechanical and physiochemical properties. PMID:23466566

  12. Preparation and characterization of functional silica hybrid magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digigow, Reinaldo G.; Dechézelles, Jean-François; Dietsch, Hervé; Geissbühler, Isabelle; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Geers, Christoph; Hirt, Ann M.; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of functional silica hybrid magnetic nanoparticles (SHMNPs). The co-condensation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in presence of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) leads to hybrid magnetic silica particles that are surface-functionalized with primary amino groups. In this work, a comprehensive synthetic study is carried out and completed by a detailed characterization of hybrid particles' size and morphology, surface properties, and magnetic responses using different techniques. Depending on the mass ratio of SPIONs and the two silanes (TEOS and APTES), we were able to adjust the number of surface amino groups and tune the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic hybrid particles.

  13. Characterization of ferrogels prepared using ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthar, Kamlesh J.; Ghantasala, Muralidhar K.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we compare the characteristics of ferrogels prepared using ?-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles with ~ 20 nm diameter were distributed in N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel prepared using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), ammonium persulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). Particle distribution and agglomeration characteristics of the prepared ferrogels were investigated using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ferrogel samples prepared using Fe3O4 and ?-Fe2O3 particles have similar particle distribution. The ferrogels, prepared with ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, however, demonstrate significantly different agglomeration characteristics compared to the ferrogels prepared using Fe3O4. In both systems, the agglomerated particles appear to be spherical, with few of those indicating chain like structures. Based on the particle concentration and sizes, the DC SQUID magnetometry data of these samples showed the magnetic moments range between 0.9 to 2.5 emu/g. Details of our results and analysis are presented.

  14. Process for Preparing Macroscopic Quantities of Brightly Photoluminescent Silicon Nanoparticles with Emission

    E-print Network

    Swihart, Mark T.

    with Emission Spanning the Visible Spectrum Xuegeng Li, Yuanqing He, Suddha S. Talukdar, and Mark T. Swihart interest in the preparation and characterization of light emitting silicon nanoparticles. Because material. These particles also have exciting potential applications as fluorescent tags for biological

  15. Preparation of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles from amylose-sodium palmitate inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles were prepared from amylose-sodium palmitate complexes by first converting sodium palmitate to silver palmitate by reaction with silver nitrate and then reducing the silver ion to metallic silver. This process produced water solutions that could be dried and the...

  16. High frequency AC response, DC resistivity and magnetic studies of holmium substituted Ni-ferrite: A novel electromagnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Gul, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of holmium substituted nickel ferrites (NiHoxFe2-xO4) with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.15 have been prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Structural and morphology studies have been performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XRD patterns revealed the formation of pure spinel phase ferrites without any impurity phase. Lattice parameter increases along with a decrease in crystallite size with increasing the concentration of Ho3+ in the parent nickel ferrite due to large ionic radius of Ho3+ (0.901 Å) as compared to Fe3+ (0.67 Å). SEM shows the spherical, uniformly distributed homogenous nanoparticles grown by controlled reaction parameters of the sol-gel method. Complex permittivity (?*) and complex electric modulus (M*) have been studied for the present nanoferrites in the frequency ranges of 1 MHz-1 GHz. Frequency dependent dielectric parameters (relative permittivity (?'), dielectric loss (??), dielectric loss tangent (tan ?)) decreases due to holmium substitution in nickel ferrites, showing the electrical conduction is decreasing in the nickel holmium ferrites with increase in the concentration of holmium. Complex modulus plots shows the poorly resolved semi circles and relaxation of nanoferrite is studied in the high frequency region. Also the relaxation time increases due to increase in x (0.0-0.15). DC electrical resistivity increases (107 ?-cm-1010 ?-cm) due to holmium ions substitution in nickel ferrites. Magnetic behavior was also characterized using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) under an applied magnetic field of 10 kOe and shows that magnetization decreases with increase in composition of holmium in nickel ferrites. High frequency behavior, low losses and very high DC electrical resistivity made the material a novel one for electromagnetic devices.

  17. PEGylated human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and quantification of the PEGylation extent.

    PubMed

    Fahrländer, E; Schelhaas, S; Jacobs, A H; Langer, K

    2015-04-10

    Modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used method for the prolongation of plasma half-life of colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles prepared from human serum albumin (HSA). However, the quantification of the PEGylation extent is still challenging. Moreover, the influence of different PEG derivatives, which are commonly used for nanoparticle conjugation, has not been investigated so far. The objective of the present study is to develop a method for the quantification of PEG and to monitor the influence of diverse PEG reagents on the amount of PEG linked to the surface of HSA nanoparticles. A size exclusion chromatography method with refractive index detection was established which enabled the quantification of unreacted PEG in the supernatant. The achieved results were confirmed using a fluorescent PEG derivative, which was detected by photometry and fluorimetry. Additionally, PEGylated HSA nanoparticles were enzymatically digested and the linked amount of fluorescently active PEG was directly determined. All the analytical methods confirmed that under optimized PEGylation conditions a PEGylation efficiency of up to 0.5 mg PEG per mg nanoparticle could be achieved. Model calculations made a 'brush' conformation of the PEG chains on the particle surface very likely. By incubating the nanoparticles with fetal bovine serum the reduced adsorption of serum proteins on PEGylated HSA nanoparticles compared to non-PEGylated HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the positive effect of PEGylation on plasma half-life was demonstrated in an in vivo study in mice. Compared to unmodified nanoparticles the PEGylation led to a four times larger plasma half-life. PMID:25789544

  18. PEGylated human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and quantification of the PEGylation extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrländer, E.; Schelhaas, S.; Jacobs, A. H.; Langer, K.

    2015-04-01

    Modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used method for the prolongation of plasma half-life of colloidal carrier systems such as nanoparticles prepared from human serum albumin (HSA). However, the quantification of the PEGylation extent is still challenging. Moreover, the influence of different PEG derivatives, which are commonly used for nanoparticle conjugation, has not been investigated so far. The objective of the present study is to develop a method for the quantification of PEG and to monitor the influence of diverse PEG reagents on the amount of PEG linked to the surface of HSA nanoparticles. A size exclusion chromatography method with refractive index detection was established which enabled the quantification of unreacted PEG in the supernatant. The achieved results were confirmed using a fluorescent PEG derivative, which was detected by photometry and fluorimetry. Additionally, PEGylated HSA nanoparticles were enzymatically digested and the linked amount of fluorescently active PEG was directly determined. All the analytical methods confirmed that under optimized PEGylation conditions a PEGylation efficiency of up to 0.5 mg PEG per mg nanoparticle could be achieved. Model calculations made a ‘brush’ conformation of the PEG chains on the particle surface very likely. By incubating the nanoparticles with fetal bovine serum the reduced adsorption of serum proteins on PEGylated HSA nanoparticles compared to non-PEGylated HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated using sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the positive effect of PEGylation on plasma half-life was demonstrated in an in vivo study in mice. Compared to unmodified nanoparticles the PEGylation led to a four times larger plasma half-life.

  19. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  20. Dispersoid Distribution and Microstructure in Fe-Cr-Al Ferritic Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloy Prepared by Friction Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Catalini, David; Kaoumi, Djamel; Reynolds, Anthony; Grant, Glenn J.

    2015-07-09

    INCOLOY® MA956 is a ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloy. Three different oxides, Y4Al2O9, YAlO3 and Y3Al5O12, have been observed in this alloy. The oxide particle sizes range from just a few up to hundreds of nm and these particles are responsible of the high temperature mechanical strength of this alloy. Mechanically alloyed MA956 powder was consolidated via Friction Consolidation using three different processing conditions. As a result, three small compacts of low porosity were produced. The compacts exhibited a refined equiaxed grain structure with grain sizes smaller than 10 µm and the desired oxide dispersion.YAlO3 and Y3Al5O12 were identified in the compacts by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size distribution of precipitates above 50 nm showed a direct proportionality between average precipitate size and grain size. The total energy input during processing was correlated with the relative amount of each of the oxides in the disks: the higher the total processing energy input, the higher the relative amount of Y3Al5O12 precipitates. The elemental composition of the oxide precipitates was also probed individually by EDS showing an aluminum enrichment trend as precipitates grow in size.

  1. Transmetallation as an effective strategy for the preparation of bimetallic CoPd and CuPd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersani, Marco; Conte, Luca; Martucci, Alessandro; Guglielmi, Massimo; Mattei, Giovanni; Bello, Valentina; Rosei, Renzo; Centazzo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of palladium alloy nanoparticles is of great interest for many applications, especially in catalysis. Starting from presynthesized nanoparticles of a less noble metal, a transmetallation reaction involving a redox process at the nanoparticle surface can be exploited to modify the nanoparticle composition and crystalline phase. As an example, monodispersed ?-cobalt and face-centered cubic copper nanoparticles were synthesized in organic solvents at high temperature and the as-formed nanoparticles were reacted with palladium(ii) hexafluoroacetylacetonate resulting in the formation of alloyed nanoparticles whose composition closely follows the reactant ratio. The oxidative state of the nanoparticle surface greatly affects the success of the transmetallation reaction and a reduction treatment was necessary to achieve the desired final product. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that for cobalt a limiting palladium content for the ?-phase alloy is found, above which an fcc alloy nucleates, while for copper the fcc crystalline phase is preserved throughout the whole composition range.

  2. Jingle-bell-shaped ferrite hollow sphere with a noble metal core: Simple synthesis and their magnetic and antibacterial properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li Siheng; Wang Enbo Tian Chungui; Mao Baodong; Kang Zhenhui; Li Qiuyu; Sun Guoying

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, a simple strategy is developed for rational fabrication of a class of jingle-bell-shaped hollow structured nanomaterials marked as Ag(MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn), consisting of ferrite hollow shells and metal nanoparticle cores, using highly uniform colloidal Ag(C) microspheres as template. The final composites were obtained by direct adsorption of metal cations Fe{sup 3+} and M{sup 2+} on the surface of the Ag(C) spheres followed by calcination process to remove the middle carbon shell and transform the metal ions into pure phase ferrites. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometer. The results showed that the composites possess the magnetic property of the ferrite shell and the optical together with antibacterial property of the Ag core. - Graphical abstract: MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M=Ni, Co, Mg, Zn) hollow spheres with a noble metal nanoparticle core were successfully prepared by using colloidal metal(C) core-shell spheres as templates with no need of surface modification. The shell thickness and magnetic properties of the ferrite hollow spheres could be controlled by varying the synthetic parameters.

  3. Tuning the magnetic properties of Co-ferrite nanoparticles through the 1,2-hexadecanediol concentration in the reaction mixture.

    PubMed

    Moya, Carlos; Morales, María del Puerto; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amílcar

    2015-05-21

    This work reports on the effect of the 1,2-hexadecanediol content on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal decomposition of metal-organic precursors in 1-octadecene. Although pseudo-spherical particles having an average size of about 8 nm and similar stoichiometry have been observed in all studied samples, a high level of variability in the crystal quality and, in turn, in the magnetic properties has been found as a function of the amount of 1,2-hexadecanediol added to the reaction mixture. The magnetic study reveals that samples progress from glassy magnetic behavior to bulk-like, ferrimagnetic order as the crystal quality improves. The analysis of the reaction mixtures by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at various stages of the reaction shows the key role of the 1,2-hexadecanediol in favoring the decomposition of the metal-organic precursor, formation of an intermediate Co(2+)Fe(3+)-oleate complex and, finally, the nucleation of nanoparticles at lower temperatures. PMID:25917308

  4. Novel combustion method to prepare octahedral NiO nanoparticles and its photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • NiO nanoparticles were synthesized by solution combustion method. • Prepared NiO nanoparticles are fcc structure. • Synthesized NiO nanoparticles are octahedral shape. • Shows good photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) were synthesized by solution combustion method using glycine and citric acid as fuels. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) result confirms the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of NiO. The octahedral shape of NiO NPs was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It is possible to suggest that the organic fuel (citric acid/glycine) is responsible for the formation of the octahedral shape due to the easier complex formation. Photocatalytic activity of NiO NPs also evaluated and found that the prepared NiO NPs have high photocatalytic degradation. In the present study, the crystalline nature and shape of the NiO nanoparticles plays a vital role in determining the photocatalytic activity.

  5. A convenient method to prepare emulsified polyacrylate nanoparticles from powders [corrected] for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C; Turos, Edward

    2011-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain purified, polyacrylate nanoparticles in a homogeneous powdered form that can be readily reconstituted in aqueous media for in vivo applications. Polyacrylate-based nanoparticles can be easily prepared by emulsion polymerization using a 7:3 mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene in water containing sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant and potassium persulfate as a water-soluble radical initiator. The resulting emulsions contain nanoparticles measuring 40-50 nm in diameter with uniform morphology, and can be purified by centrifugation and dialysis to remove larger coagulants as well as residual surfactant and monomers associated with toxicity. These purified emulsions can be lyophilized in the presence of maltose (a non-toxic cryoprotectant) to provide a homogeneous dried powder, which can be reconstituted as an emulsion by addition of an aqueous diluent. Dynamic light scattering and microbiological experiments were carried out on the reconstituted nanoparticles. This procedure allows for ready preparation of nanoparticle emulsions for drug delivery applications. PMID:21704525

  6. Preparation of E-selectin-targeting nanoparticles and preliminary in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jubeli, Emile; Moine, Laurence; Nicolas, Valérie; Barratt, Gillian

    2012-04-15

    Targeted delivery aims to concentrate therapeutic agents at their site of action and thereby enhance treatment and limit side-effects. E-selectin on endothelial cells is markedly up-regulated by cytokine stimulation of inflamed and some tumoral tissues, promoting the adhesion of leukocytes and metastatic tumor cells, thus making it an interesting molecular target for drug delivery systems. We report here the preparation of targeted nanoparticles from original amphiphilic block copolymers functionalized with an analog of sialyl Lewis X (SLEx), the physiological ligand of E-selectin. Nanoparticles, prepared by nanoprecipitation, caused no significant cytotoxicity. Ligand-functionalized nanoparticles were specifically recognized and internalized better by tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?)-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than control nanoparticles or HUVECs with low E-selectin expression. These nanoparticles are designed to carry the ligand at the end of a PEG spacer to improve accessibility. This system has potential for the treatment of inflammation, inhibition of tumor metastasis, and for molecular imaging. PMID:22322211

  7. Preparation of Iron Nanoparticles from Iron Pentacarbonyl Using an Atmospheric Microwave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin; Liao, Shanshan; Wang, Zhong; Li, Guobin

    2015-10-01

    A novel method is introduced for preparing iron nanoparticles from iron pentacarbonyl using an atmospheric microwave plasma. The prepared iron nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results show that the size of the particles can be controlled by adjusting the microwave power and the flow rate of the carrier gas. The magnetic properties of the synthesized iron particles were studied and a saturation magnetization of ?95 emu/g was obtained. The convenient preparation process and considerable production rate were also found to be satisfactory for industrial applications. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177085), the State Key Laboratory Foundation of Power System of China (No. SKLD10M07) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2013M540942)

  8. Magnetic properties of ultrafine cobalt ferrite particles L. D. Tung,a)

    E-print Network

    Spinu, Leonard

    Magnetic properties of ultrafine cobalt ferrite particles L. D. Tung,a) V. Kolesnichenko, D of a diluted system of ultrafine cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (d 3.3 nm). From the peak of the zero for cobalt ferrite, at 2 K, the reduced remanence Mr /Ms is equal to 0.46 which is close to the theoretical

  9. Application of a new coordination compound for the preparation of AgI nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver iodide nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate complex, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. A series of control experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures. - Highlights: • Silver salicylate as a new precursor was applied to fabricate ?-AgI nanoparticles. • To further decrease the particle size of AgI, SDS was used as surfactant. • The effect of preparation parameters on the particle size of AgI was investigated. - Abstract: AgI nanoparticles have been sonochemically synthesized by using silver salicylate, [Ag(HSal)], as silver precursor. To investigate the effects of solvent, surfactant concentration, sonication time and temperature on the morphology of AgI nanostructures, several experiments were carried out. The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA/DTA, UV–vis, and FT-IR. Based on the experimental findings in this research, it was found that the size of AgI nanoparticles was dramatically dependent on the silver precursor, sonochemical irradiation, and surfactant concentration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was applied as surfactant. When the concentration of SDS was 0.055 mM, very uniform sphere-like AgI nanoparticles with grain size of about 25–30 nm were obtained. These results indicated that the high concentration of SDS could prevent the aggregation between colloidal nanoparticles due to its steric hindrance effect.

  10. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yongqin; Alejandro, Fernando Maya; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40 nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60 wt% being achieved with 40 nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30 nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. PMID:22542442

  11. Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized Using Chitosan Films: Preparation, Properties and Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Kolarova, K; Vosmanska, V; Rimpelova, S; Ulbrich, P; Svorcik, V

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present silver nanoparticles coated with chitosan films synthesized by a simple, environmentally friendly method. Silver nanoparticles were prepared and stabilized by reduction of silver nitrate with chitosan without addition of harmful reduction agents. The presence of silver nanoparticles in the solid films was studied by the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solid films were dissolved and the solution was observed by the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The amount of silver in the solid samples was studied by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of solid films with silver nanoparticles was tested by disc test on two bacterial strains, Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The presence of silver nanoparticles was confirmed both in solid film and in solution by the above mentioned methods. The films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against both bacterial strains. These films could be used as a wound dressing, antimicrobial packaging material or for long-term storage of silver nanoparticles for various applications. PMID:26682457

  12. Preparation of spherical ceria coated silica nanoparticle abrasives for CMP application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peedikakkandy, Lekha; Kalita, Laksheswar; Kavle, Pravin; Kadam, Ankur; Gujar, Vikas; Arcot, Mahesh; Bhargava, Parag

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes synthesis of spherical and highly mono-dispersed ceria coated silica nanoparticles of size ?70-80 nm for application as abrasive particles in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) process. Core silica nanoparticles were initially synthesized using micro-emulsion method. Ceria coating on these ultrafine and spherical silica nanoparticles was achieved using controlled chemical precipitation method. Study of various parameters influencing the formation of ceria coated silica nanoparticles of size less than 100 nm has been undertaken and reported. Ceria coating over silica nanoparticles was varied by controlling the reaction temperature, pH and precursor concentrations. Characterization studies using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis show formation of crystalline CeO2 coating of ?10 nm thickness over silica with spherical morphology and particle size <100 nm. Aqueous slurry of ceria coated silica abrasive was prepared and employed for polishing of oxide and nitride films on silicon substrates. Polished films were studied using ellipsometry and an improvement in SiO2:SiN selective removal rates up to 12 was observed using 1 wt% ceria coated silica nanoparticles slurry.

  13. Sonochemical Process for the Preparation of Novel Calcium Zinc Molybdate Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanvase, B. A.; Kadam, V. B.; Rode, T. D.; Jadhao, P. R.

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with the use of sonochemical and conventional mixing process for the preparation of calcium zinc molybdate (CZM) nanoparticles using calcium chloride and sodium zinc molybdate as a precursor material without addition of any emulsifying agent. This new process is useful to control the size and shape of the CZM nanoparticles. The formed product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The formation of CZM was confirmed through XRD, FTIR and elemental analysis. The pH and conductivity results show that sonochemical process takes less time compared to conventional process for the preparation of CZM nanoparticles. The use of sonochemical process during the preparation of CZM nanoparticles results in reduction of the size and nearly the cubic shape is obtained due to the improved solute transfer rate, rapid nucleation, and formation of a large number of nuclei in the presence of cavitation.

  14. Dispersoid Distribution and Microstructure in Fe-Cr-Al Ferritic Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloy Prepared by Friction Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalini, David; Kaoumi, Djamel; Reynolds, Anthony P.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2015-10-01

    INCOLOY® MA956 is a ferritic oxide dispersion-strengthened alloy manufactured by mechanical alloying followed by hot extrusion in vacuum-sealed cans or by degassing and hot isostatic pressing. This could be followed by a tailored heat treatment sequence in order to obtain a desired microstructure and to allow the oxide dispersion to precipitate. Three different oxides, responsible for the high-temperature mechanical strength, have been observed in this alloy: Y4Al2O9, YAlO3, and Y3Al5O12. Their sizes range from just a few to hundreds of nanometers. In this work, mechanically alloyed MA956 powder was consolidated via friction consolidation, a single-step and potentially cheaper processing alternative. Three fully dense compacts were produced. The compacts exhibited a refined, equiaxed grain structure with grain sizes smaller than 10 µm and the desired oxide dispersion. YAlO3 and Y3Al5O12 were identified by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction. The size distribution of precipitates above 50 nm showed a direct proportionality between average precipitate size and grain size. The total energy input during processing was correlated with the relative amount of each of the oxides in the disks: the higher the total processing energy input, the higher the relative amount of Y3Al5O12 precipitates. The elemental composition of the oxide precipitates was also probed individually by EDS, showing an aluminum enrichment trend as precipitates grew in size.

  15. A facile water-based process for preparation of stabilized Bi nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yi; Zhao Jingzhe Zhao Xu; Tang Lanqin; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen

    2009-01-08

    Stabilized bismuth nanoparticles have been prepared by reducing bismuth chloride with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of sodium oleate under a facile water-based process. The obtained samples are investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry (DTA/TG). The present results indicate that the bismuth nanoparticles are spherical, small diameter and in a high purity. In addition, measurement of water contact angle indicates that Bi samples are hydrophobic, which gives defense to samples from further oxidation, samples are steady in 6 months without obvious oxidation.

  16. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial applications of ZnO-nanoparticles coated polyethylene films for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Tankhiwale, Rasika; Bajpai, S K

    2012-02-01

    The present work describes the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles loaded starch-coated polyethylene film. The presence of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ZnO loaded film was tested for its biocidal action against model bacteria Escherichia coli using zone inhibition and killing kinetics of bacterial growth methods. This newly developed material bears potential to be used as food packaging material to prevent food stuff from bacterial contamination. PMID:22015180

  17. Investigation on Sized-Regulated Iron Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid Phase Plasma Reduction Process.

    PubMed

    Heon, Lee; Kim, Hwan-Gi; Kim, Byung Hoon; Yun, Je-Jung; Chung, Minchul; Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lee, Young-Seak; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase plasma reduction method has been applied to prepare iron nanoparticles from iron chloride solution using a bipolar pulsed electrical discharge system. The excited states of atomic iron, hydrogen, and oxygen as well as the molecular bands of hydroxyl radicals were detected in the emission spectra. The iron nanoclusters formed at the initial stage convert to dispersion of small iron nanoparticles, which then grows slowly to form anisotropic, tetragonal shape. The cationic surfactant of CTAB was shown to exhibit a large influence on the particle generation procedure. PMID:26328393

  18. Preparation and properties of amorphous titania-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Minhung . E-mail: liaomh@mail.tit.edu.tw; Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, D.-H. . E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-07-15

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2}-coated ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol and the followed by sol-gel coating of TiO{sub 2} nanolayer. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the resultant ZnO nanoparticles were hexagonal with a wurtzite structure and a mean diameter of about 60 nm. Also, after TiO{sub 2} coating, the TEM images clearly indicated the darker ZnO nanoparticles being surrounded by the lighter amorphous TiO{sub 2} layers. The zeta potential analysis revealed the pH dependence of zeta potentials for ZnO nanoparticles shifted completely to that for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles after TiO{sub 2} coating, confirming the formation of core-shell structure and suggesting the coating of TiO{sub 2} was achieved via the adhesion of the hydrolyzed species Ti-O{sup -} to the positively charged surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the analyses of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra were also conducted to confirm that amorphous TiO{sub 2} were indeed coated on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, the analyses of ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that the absorbance of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-coated ZnO nanoparticles at 375 nm gradually decreased with an increase in the Ti/Zn molar ratio and the time for TiO{sub 2} coating, and the emission intensity of ZnO cores could be significantly enhanced by the amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell. - Graphical abstract: Amorphous titania-coated ZnO nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were prepared. It was found that the emission intensity of ZnO cores could be significantly enhanced by the amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell.

  19. Influence of calcination temperature on Cd0.3Co0.7Fe2O4 nanoparticles: Structural, thermal and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Ch. Venkata; PrabhakarVattikuti, S. V.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Moon, Sang Jun; Shim, Jaesool

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesis using the chemical method. The as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles are calcinated at 300 °C and 600 °C respectively. The samples are studied using; Powder XRD, SEM with EDX, TEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in order to study the calcination temperature effect on structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The magnetic properties, like saturation magnetization and coercivity increases with increasing the calcination temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the transition from amulti-domain to a single-domain nature. The absorption bands observed at 588 cm-1 (?1) and 440 cm-1 (?2) are attributed to the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes. The TG-DTA curves reveal the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystalline size.

  20. Preparation and magnetic properties of spindle porous iron nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lv Baoliang; Xu Yao Wu Dong; Sun Yuhan

    2009-05-06

    Spindle porous iron nanoparticles were firstly synthesized by reducing the pre-synthesized hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) spindle particles with hydrogen gas. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). A lattice shrinkage mechanism was employed to explain the formation process of the porous structure, and the adsorbed phosphate was proposed as a protective shell in the reduction process. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption result showed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 29.7 m{sup 2}/g and a continuous pore size distribution from 2 nm to 100 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loop of the synthesized iron particles showed a saturation magnetization of 84.65 emu/g and a coercivity of 442.36 Oe at room temperature.

  1. Polymer-nanoparticles composites in bioanalytical sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gallardo, Emilia María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    The term composite refers to a class of synthetic materials made from different constituents which exhibit final properties which are different from those of the individual components. Composites have been extensively used in the sample treatment context as sorbents since the resulting solid presents better extraction efficiency. In this realm, polymeric nanocomposites are raised as a powerful alternative. They can be tailored-synthesized for selectivity enhancement or include a magnetic core to simplify the extraction/elution process. This review article points out the relevance of such nanomaterials in bioanalysis. Several synergic combinations of nanoparticles (magnetic, carbon-based) as well as polymeric coatings (conventional, conductive or molecularly imprinted) are commented on. Finally, the potential of biopolymers in the microextraction field is briefly highlighted. PMID:26270780

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles in ethanol: Preparation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinlong; Hu, Xiaoyan; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a low-cost, non-toxic and convenient one-pot solvothermal route to synthesize Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticles is reported. The effects of solvothermal temperature and reaction time on the structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized product were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the crystallinity of the CZTS powders was influenced by the solvothermal temperature and reaction time. The band gap of selected CZTS samples was near the optimum value for photovoltaic solar conversion in a single-band-gap device.

  3. Sustainable synthesis of monodispersed spinel nano-ferrites

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sustainable approach for the synthesis of various monodispersed spinel ferrite nanoparticles has been developed that occurs at water-toluene interface under both conventional and microwave hydrothermal conditions. This general synthesis procedure utilizes readily available and ...

  4. Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies of dextrin-coated zinc-iron ferrite nanoparticles (Zn0.5Fe0.5Fe2O4) as contrast agent in MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, T.; Lotfi, M.; Heli, H.; Azarpira, N.; Mehdizadeh, A. R.; Sattarahmady, N.; Abdollah-dizavandi, M. R.; Heidari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles, such as ferrites, offer some attractive possibilities in biomedicine, especially in MRI applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of dextrin-coated zinc-iron ferrite nanoparticles (IFNPs) as an MRI contrast agent in in vivo and in vitro media. IFNPs were synthesized by an aqueous precipitation method in the presence of dextrin. An agarose phantom with different concentrations of dextrin-coated IFNPs was performed on a 1.5-T MRI. For in vivo MRI studies, implanted melanoma tumors in mice were immediately scanned after intra-tumoral injection of dextrin-coated IFNPs. Microscopic studies showed that the average diameter of dextrin-coated IFNPs was 12 ± 2.4 nm and the saturation magnetization for IFNPs was 31.5 emu g-1; r 1 and r 2 relaxivities of these ultrasmall superparamagnetic IFNPs in agarose phantom were obtained as 0.99 and 17.4 mmol L-1 s-1, respectively. The relaxivity measurements revealed that the dextrin-coated IFNPs can serve as a negative contrast agent. In vivo MRI showed that the dextrin-coated IFNPs can be used for tumor detection. The dextrin-coated IFNPs were suggested to be applied for lymph node and targeted imaging.

  5. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-01

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual.

  6. Preparation of gold nanoparticles using Salicornia brachiata plant extract and evaluation of catalytic and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ayaz Ahmed, Khan Behlol; Subramanian, Swetha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Ganapathy; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-09-15

    The current study deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Salicornia brachiata (Sb) and evaluation of their antibacterial and catalytic activity. The SbAuNPs showed purple color with a characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at 532 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed polydispersed AuNPs with the size range from 22 to 35 nm. Energy dispersive X-ray and thin layer X-ray diffraction analysis clearly shows that SbAuNPs was pure and crystalline in nature. As prepared gold nanoparticles was used as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol and methylene blue to leucomethylene blue. The green synthesized nanoparticles exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria, as evidenced by their zone of inhibition. In addition, we showed that the SbAuNPs in combination with the regular antibiotic, ofloxacin, exhibit superior antibacterial activity than the individual. PMID:24762573

  7. A preliminary ferritic-martensitic stainless steel constitution diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Balmforth, M.C.; Lippold, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary research to develop a constitution diagram that will more accurately predict the microstructure of ferritic and martensitic stainless steel weld deposits. A button melting technique was used to produce a wide range of compositions using mixtures of conventional ferritic and martensitic stainless steels, including types 403, 409, 410, 430, 439 and 444. These samples were prepared metallographically, and the vol-% ferrite and martensite was determined quantitatively. In addition, the hardness and ferrite number (FN) were measured. Using this data, a preliminary constitution diagram is proposed that provides a more accurate method for predicting the microstructures of arc welds in ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.

  8. Revealing local variations in nanoparticle size distributions in supported catalysts: a generic TEM specimen preparation method.

    PubMed

    Pingel, Torben; Skoglundh, Magnus; Grönbeck, Henrik; Olsson, Eva

    2015-11-01

    The specimen preparation method is crucial for how much information can be gained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of supported nanoparticle catalysts. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows for observation of size and location of nanoparticles deposited on a porous oxide support material. A bimetallic Pt-Pd/Al2 O3 catalyst in powder form was embedded in acrylic resin and lift-out specimens were extracted using combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). These specimens allow for a cross-section view across individual oxide support particles, including the unaltered near surface region of these particles. A site-dependent size distribution of Pt-Pd nanoparticles was revealed along the radial direction of the support particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. The developed specimen preparation method enables obtaining information about the spatial distribution of nanoparticles in complex support structures which commonly is a challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:26139081

  9. Controllable preparation and properties of composite materials based on ceria nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Changqing; Sun Nijuan; Ni Jiangfeng; Wang Jinyong; Chu Haibin; Zhou Henghui; Li Meixian; Li Yan

    2008-10-15

    We report a method to prepare composites based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs). The CeO{sub 2} NPs were attached to CNTs by hydrothermal treatment of Ce(OH){sub 4}/CNT mixture in NaOH solution at 180 deg. C. It was found that larger CeO{sub 2} NPs were formed in the presence of CNTs. Grain size of CeO{sub 2} NPs in the composites can be reduced when NaNO{sub 3} was added in the hydrothermal process. Electrochemical characterizations have shown that the composites possess a specific capacity between those of CNTs and CNTs mechanically mixed with CeO{sub 2}. These CeO{sub 2}/CNT composites could serve as promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Composites based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared with a mild hydrothermal treatment. Larger CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles were formed in the presence of CNTs. Grain size of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in composites could be reduced when NaNO{sub 3} was added. The size modulation mechanism was discussed. This CeO{sub 2}/CNTs composites could serve as promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  10. Preparation of multi-functionalized Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles for medical purposes.

    PubMed

    del Mar Ramos-Tejada, María; Viota, Julian L; Rudzka, Katarzyna; Delgado, Angel V

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we investigate a route towards the synthesis of multi-functionalized nanoparticles for medical purposes. The aim is to produce magnetite/gold (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles combining several complementary properties, specifically, being able to carry simultaneously an antitumor drug and a selected antibody chosen so as to improve specificity of the drug vehicle. The procedure included, firstly, the preparation of Fe3O4 cores coated with Au nanoparticles: this was achieved by using initially the layer-by-layer technique in order to coat the magnetite particles with a three polyelectrolyte (cationic-anionic-cationic) layer. With this, the particles became a good substrate for the growth of the gold layer in a well-defined core-shell structure. The resulting nanoparticles benefit from the magnetic properties of the magnetite and the robust chemistry and the biostability of gold surfaces. Subsequently, the Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles were functionalized with a humanized monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, and a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Taken together, bevacizumab enhances the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy agents on some kinds of tumors. In this work we first discuss the morphology of the particles and the electrical characteristics of their surface in the successive synthesis stages. Special attention is paid to the chemical stability of the final coating, and the physical stability of the suspensions of the nanoparticles in aqueous solutions and phosphate buffer. We describe how optical absorbance and electrokinetic data provide a follow up of the progress of the nanostructure formation. Additionally, the same techniques are employed to demonstrate that the composite nanoparticles are capable of loading/releasing doxorubicin and/or bevacizumab. PMID:25710633

  11. Preparation and quality control of silver nanoparticle-antibody conjugate for use in electrochemical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Mateusz S; Porter, Robert A

    2013-01-31

    Metal nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are often used as optical or electrochemical markers in applications like immunohistochemistry, lateral flow tests, biosensors and immunoassays. In order to serve that role, an antibody needs to be immobilized on the surface of the nanoparticle. This is easily done, as proteins bind to gold and silver nanoparticles spontaneously. However, this immobilization process might result in nanoparticle aggregation or the loss of the bioactivity of the conjugated antibodies. In this work the optimization of antibody immobilization on silver colloid in order to obtain conjugates with the best possible activity is investigated. The parameters investigated were the type of immobilization buffer, its molarity and pH, the nanoparticle/antibody ratio and also blocking and washing protocols to reduce non-specific binding. The functionality of the obtained conjugates was tested with electrochemical immunoassay. It was found out that the optimum environment for immobilization of an anti-myoglobin antibody on silver nanoparticles was 0.2M boric acid pH 6.5 with 10 ?g of antibody loading per 1 mL of silver colloid. For an anti-troponin antibody it was 0.1M boric acid pH 7.5 also with 10 ?g/mL of antibody loading. The main problem for silver conjugation was the tendency of silver nanoparticles to aggregate during the immobilization process, but by choosing the optimum conditions the aggregation problem was completely removed. Here it is demonstrated that by using the conjugates prepared with an optimized protocol an increase in the sensitivity of the assay 10 times can be achieved. The electrochemical immunoassay described here can be used as a test for quality control of conjugates and for the estimation of batch-to-batch variability. PMID:23153725

  12. Gantrez AN as a new polymer for the preparation of ligand-nanoparticle conjugates.

    PubMed

    Arbós, P; Wirth, M; Arangoa, M A; Gabor, F; Irache, J M

    2002-10-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and in vitro activity of ligand-conjugates based on the use of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA or Gantrez AN). Fluorescently labelled PVM/MA nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation and cross-linkage with 1,3-diaminopropane (DP). Conjugates were obtained by incubation between the carriers and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) for 1 h in an aqueous medium. The lectin binding to the surface of nanoparticles was increased by both increasing the bulk ligand concentration and decreasing the amount of cross-linker. However, a concentration of about 0.3-0.4 mg DP per mg polymer was necessary to obtain maximum agglutination activity. Under optimal conditions, the amount of fixed ligand was 46 microg/mg nanoparticle (binding efficiency of 86%); although the activity of SNA conjugates was 13.3 microg/mg particle. The activity of nanoparticles, measured by the association to Caco-2 monolayers, was higher when SNA was covalently bound onto their surface. The lectin-conjugate interaction was 6-fold higher than conventional nanoparticles. Moreover, energy-dependent mechanisms were only observed in SNA-PVM/MA particles. Finally, the decrease in association in the presence of lactose demonstrates that both SNA- and SNA-conjugate-binding was due to a true lectin-sugar interaction. PMID:12387941

  13. Preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation of tanshinone IIA solid dispersions with silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan-rong; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Liu, Qi-yuan; Hu, Shao-ying; Chen, Xiao-yun; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2013-01-01

    We prepared solid dispersions (SDs) of tanshinone IIA (TSIIA) with silica nanoparticles, which function as dispersing carriers, using a spray-drying method and evaluated their in vitro dissolution and in vivo performance. The extent of TSIIA dissolution in the silica nanoparticles/TSIIA system (weight ratio, 5:1) was approximately 92% higher than that of the pure drug after 60 minutes. However, increasing the content of silica nanoparticles from 5:1 to 7:1 in this system did not significantly increase the rate or extent of TSIIA dissolution. The physicochemical properties of SDs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. Studying the stability of the SDs of TSIIA revealed that the drug content of the formulation and dissolution behavior was unchanged under the applied storage conditions. In vivo tests showed that SDs of the silica nanoparticles/TSIIA had a significantly larger area under the concentration-time curve, which was 1.27 times more than that of TSIIA (P < 0.01). Additionally, the values of maximum plasma concentration and the time to reach maximum plasma concentration of the SDs were higher than those of TSIIA and the physical mixing system. Based on these results, we conclude that the silica nanoparticle based SDs achieved complete dissolution, increased absorption rate, maintained drug stability, and showed improved oral bioavailability compared to TSIIA alone. PMID:23836971

  14. Preparation, characterisation and antibacterial activity of a florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Chen, Xiaojin; Lu, Mengmeng; Li, Xihe; Zhou, WenZhong

    2015-12-01

    A florfenicol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (FFC-SLN) suspension was prepared by hot homogenisation and ultrasonic technique. The suspension was characterised for its release profile, stability, toxicity, and the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of the suspension was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the mean diameter, polydispersity index and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were 253 ± 3 nm, 0.409 ± 0.022 and 47.5 ± 0.21 mV, respectively. In vitro release profile showed the FFC-SLN suspension had sustained release effect. The minimum inhibition concentration values of the FFC-SLN suspension were 6 and 3 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively, compared with 3.5 and 2 µg/mL of native florfenicol. The suspension was relatively stable at 4°C and less stable at room temperature during 9 months storage. Although the nanoparticle carriers exhibited cytotoxicity in cell cultures, the LD50 of the lyophilised dry power of the suspension was higher than 5 g/kg body weight. Mortality protection against E. coli lethal infection in mice showed that the nanoparticle suspension had much better efficacy (6/10) than native drug (1/10). These results indicate that FFC-SLN suspension could be a promising formulation in veterinary medicine. PMID:26647811

  15. Preparation, characterization, photocytotoxicity assay of PLGA nanoparticles containing zinc (II) phthalocyanine for photodynamic therapy use.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Marchetti, Juliana M

    2006-08-01

    Nanoparticles containing Zinc (II) Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were prepared by a spontaneous emulsification diffusion method utilizing poly-(D,L lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), characterized and available in cellular culture. The process yield and encapsulation efficiency were 60% and 80%, respectively. The nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 200 nm, a narrow size distribution with polydispersive index of 0.15, smooth surface and spherical shape. ZnPc loaded nanoparticles maintain their photophysical behaviour after the encapsulation process. Photosensitizer released from nanoparticles was sustained with a burst effect of 10% for 3 days. The photocytotoxicity was evaluated on P388-D1 cells. They were incubated with ZnPc loaded Np by 6 h and exposed to light (675 nm) for 120 s, and light dose of 30 J cm-2. After 24 h of incubation, the cellular viability was determined, obtaining 60% of cellular death. All the physical-chemical and photobiological measurements performed allowed one conclude that ZnPc loaded PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug delivery system for PDT. PMID:16980274

  16. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of polypyrrole/stainless steel electrodes decorated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pineda, Eduart; Alcaide, Francisco; Rodríguez Presa, María J; Bolzán, Agustín E; Gervasi, Claudio A

    2015-02-01

    The electrosynthesis and characterization of polypyrrole(PPy)/stainless steel electrodes decorated with gold nanoparticles and the performance of the composite electrode for sensing applications is described. PPy films were grown in potassium perchlorate and sodium salicylate solutions under comparable electropolymerization conditions. Polymer films prepared in the presence of perchlorate ions exhibited worm-like structures, whereas columnar structures were obtained in salicylate-containing solutions. Voltammetric response of PPy films prepared in salicylate solutions was more reversible. PPy films were decorated with gold nanoparticles obtained by a double step potentiostatic electrodeposition routine that allowed fine control of deposit characteristics. Analysis of deposits was performed by means of SEM and confocal Raman spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the Au/PPy electrodes was assessed for the electro-oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Results showed a successful optimization of the route of synthesis that rendered nanocomposite electrode materials with promising applications in electrochemical sensing. PMID:25569325

  17. Preparation of ?-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles by high-energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Li; Jiang, Ji-Sen

    2007-03-01

    ?-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by high-energy ball milling using ?-FeOOH as raw materials. The prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The results showed that after 90 h milling ?-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles were obtained, and the particle size is about 20 nm. The mechanism of reaction during milling is supposed that the initial ?-FeOOH powder turned smaller and smaller by the high-speed collision during ball milling, later these particles turned to be superparamagnetic, at last these superparamagnetic ?-FeOOH particles were dehydrated and transformed into ?-Fe 2O 3.

  18. Facile preparation of silver nanoparticle films as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yujing; Zhang, Yue; Shi, Yan; Xiao, Xianping; Dai, Haichao; Hu, Jingting; Ni, Pengjuan; Li, Zhuang

    2013-10-01

    Here, we report a new and facile method to prepare silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) film for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing. The porous Ni foam was used as a template to generate high quality of Ag NPs by seed-mediated growth of metallic nanoparticles. The preparation process is very economic and environment-friendly, can achieve the recovery of the raw materials. We found that the type of silver-plating solution and the growth time are two key factors to determine the magnitude of SERS signal enhancement. Using rhodamine 6G (R6G) and 4-animothiophenol (4-ATP) as probe molecules, the created Ag NP films exhibited relatively high enhancement ability, good stability, and well reproducibility. The synthesized SERS-active substrate was further used to detect melamine molecules, an illegal additive in infant milk powder, and the limitation of detection can reach 1 ?M.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  20. SERS enhancement of silver nanoparticles prepared by a template-directed triazole ligand strategy.

    PubMed

    Kashmery, Heba A; Thompson, David G; Dondi, Ruggero; Mabbott, Samuel; Graham, Duncan; Clark, Alasdair W; Burley, Glenn A

    2015-08-21

    Two advances in the development of a one-pot method to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Tollens' reagent are described. First, a template-directed process of AgNP synthesis using resorcinol triazole ligands bearing two pendent galactose sugars is shown. Second, the conversion of these AgNPs into SERS nanotags is demonstrated using malachite green isothiocyanate as the Raman reporter molecule. PMID:26179948

  1. Preparation of ferrocene-functionalized gold nanoparticles by primer extension reaction on the particle surface.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tadao; Tochi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Yamana, Kazushige

    2014-06-15

    DNA molecules possessing multiple ferrocene (Fc) molecules as a redox active probe were prepared by the primer extension (PEX) reaction using a 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-triphosphate derivative in which Fc was connected to the C5-position of the uridine by a diethylene glycol linker. Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) covered with DNA possessing the Fc molecules were prepared by the PEX reaction on the surface. The AuNP-FcDNA conjugates exhibit a detectable electrochemical signal due to the Fc molecules. Possible application of the PEX reaction on AuNP is demonstrated for the detection of a single nucleotide mutation in the target DNA. PMID:24803364

  2. Rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite nanoparticles for the determination of free fatty acid content in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhao, Qin; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xu-Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a rapid magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) based on monodisperse magnetic single-crystal ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (NPs) for determining the quantities of eight free fatty acids (FFAs), including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and behenic acid (C22:0) in oil. The amine-functionalized mesoporous Fe(3)O(4) magnetic NPs were applied as a sorbent for MSPE of FFAs from oil samples in a process that is based on hydrophilic interaction. The extraction can be completed rapidly in a dispersive mode with the aid of vigorous vortex. Additional tedious processing steps such as centrifugation and evaporation of organic solvent were not necessary with this procedure. Furthermore, esterification of FFAs can be accomplished during the desorption procedure by using methanol/sulfuric acid (99:1, v/v) as the desorption solvent. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, including the matrix solvent for extraction, the desorption solvent and desorption time, and the amount of sorbent and extraction time. The pretreatment process was rapid under optimal conditions, being accomplished within 15 min. When coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID), a rapid, simple, and convenient MSPE-GC-FID method for the determination of FFAs in oil samples was established with a total analysis time within 25 min. The limits of detection for the target FFAs were found to be 7.22-26.26 ng/mL. Recoveries in oil samples were in the range of 81.33-117.75%, with RSDs of <6.4% (intraday) and <6.9% (interday). This method was applied successfully to the analysis of dynamic FFA formation in four types of edible oils subjected to an accelerated storage test. The simple, rapid, and cost-effective method developed in the current study offers a potential application for the extraction and preconcentration of FFAs from hydrophobic sample matrices, including edible fats and oils, fatty foods, and biological samples with high amounts of lipid. PMID:23230865

  3. Preparation of nanoscale Bacillus thuringiensis chitinases using silica nanoparticles for nematicide delivery.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu; Xiang, Xuemei; Sun, Xiaowen; Ni, Hong; Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    A series of amino, carboxylic, and aldehydic surface-grafted silica nanoparticles (SNPs) was prepared based on SiO2 NYSi40 nanoparticles to develop an efficient, biocompatible, and cost-effective biopesticide delivery system. Bacillus thuringiensis chitinase (Chi9602) was immobilized onto SNP surface to prepare nanoscale chitinases (SNPCs) through electrostatic adsorption and covalent binding. The specimens were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta-potential analyses. The delivery capacity of the SNPs in Caenorhabditis elegans N2 was observed by immunofluorescence. Results demonstrated that amino-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles with Chi9602 electrostatically adsorbed onto their surface (SNPC2) exhibited a relatively high enzyme immobilization rate (80.2%) and the highest (94.1%) residual enzyme activity among all SNPCs. SNPC2 also showed wider pH tolerance and relatively higher thermostability and ultraviolet radiation resistance capacity than Chi9602. Bioassays further showed that SNPC2 synergistically enhanced the nematicidal effect of B. thuringiensis YBT-020 preparation against C. elegans, with a reduced LC50 of 8.35mg/mL and a shortened LT50 of 12.04h. Immunofluorescence assays showed that SNPC2 had considerable delivery capacity to carry a large protein into C. elegans. Therefore, SNP2 can serve as an efficient nanocarrier for the delivery of macromolecular proteic biopesticides or drugs, indicating potential agricultural or biotechnological applications. PMID:26476241

  4. Preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by sol-gel method with optimum processing parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yusoff, Yusriha Mohd; Salimi, Midhat Nabil Ahmad; Anuar, Adilah

    2015-05-15

    Many studies have been carried out in order to prepare hydroxyapatite (HAp) by various methods. In this study, we focused on the preparation of HAp nanoparticles by using sol-gel technique in which few parameters are optimized which were stirring rate, aging time and sintering temperature. HAp nanoparticles were prepared by using precursors of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and phosphorous pentoxide, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Both precursors are mixed in ethanol respectively before they were mixed together in which it formed a stable sol. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for its characterization in terms of functional group, phase composition, crystallite size and morphology of the nanoparticles produced. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups that present in all five samples were corresponding to the formation of HAp. Besides, XRD shows that only one phase was formed which was hydroxyapatite. Meanwhile, SEM shows that the small particles combine together to form agglomeration.

  5. Preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by sol-gel method with optimum processing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Yusriha Mohd; Salimi, Midhat Nabil Ahmad; Anuar, Adilah

    2015-05-01

    Many studies have been carried out in order to prepare hydroxyapatite (HAp) by various methods. In this study, we focused on the preparation of HAp nanoparticles by using sol-gel technique in which few parameters are optimized which were stirring rate, aging time and sintering temperature. HAp nanoparticles were prepared by using precursors of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and phosphorous pentoxide, P2O5. Both precursors are mixed in ethanol respectively before they were mixed together in which it formed a stable sol. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for its characterization in terms of functional group, phase composition, crystallite size and morphology of the nanoparticles produced. FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups that present in all five samples were corresponding to the formation of HAp. Besides, XRD shows that only one phase was formed which was hydroxyapatite. Meanwhile, SEM shows that the small particles combine together to form agglomeration.

  6. Efficient Catalytic Activity BiFeO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Gong, Wanyun; Ma, Jinai; Li, Lu; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwave-assisted sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of the single-phase perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO NPs) with the mean diameter ca. 73.7 nm. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. The weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was affirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DSR), the band gap energy of BFO NPs was determined to be 2.18 eV. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by BFO NPs-chitosan-glassy carbon electrode (BFO-CS-GCE) sensor for detection of p-nitrophenol contaminants. The material showed an efficient oxidation catalytic activity by degrading methylene blue (MB). It was found that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg L-1 MB at pH 6.0 was above 90.9% after ultrasound- and microwave-combined-assisted (US-MW) irradiation for 15 min with BFO NPs as catalyst and H202 as oxidant. A possible reaction mechanism of degradation of MB was also proposed. PMID:26353647

  7. Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin film

    E-print Network

    Millimeter wave phase shifter based on ferromagnetic resonance in a hexagonal barium ferrite thin of an M-type barium ferrite BaM thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and a coplanar waveguide

  8. Facilely preparation and microwave absorption properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guiqin; Chang, Yongfeng; Wang, Lifang; Liu, Lidong; Liu, Chao

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? A bran-new method is firstly used to fabricate Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. ? The detailed analysis of formation mechanism is discussed. ? The electromagnetic absorption properties are defined. ? The effect of nanometer-sized is considered for the excellent microwave absorption. - Abstract: The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by a novel wet-chemical method which shows its highly synthesizing efficiency and controllability. A possible formation mechanism was also proposed to explain the synthesizing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed and yielded an examination of an average diameter of 77 nm of the as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with face-centered cubic structure. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer were employed to measure the magnetic property and electromagnetic parameters of the nanoparticles, then reflection losses (RL (dB)) were calculated in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. A large saturation magnetization (72.36 emu/g) and high coercivity (95 Oe) were determined and indicated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles own strong magnetic performance. Following simulation results showed that the lowest reflection loss of the sample was ?21.2 dB at 5.6 GHz with layer thickness of 6 mm. Effect of nanometer-sized further provided an explanation for the excellent microwave absorption behavior shown by the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  9. Preparation of biodegradable cyclosporine nanoparticles by high-pressure emulsification-solvent evaporation process.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Jagdish; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kreuter, Jorg

    2004-04-16

    The cyclic endecapeptide cyclosporine (CsA), a potent immunosuppressive drug, was incorporated into biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-gylcolide) (DL-PLG) 50/50, 65/35 and PEG 5000-70/30 DL-PLG to improve the oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. Nanoparticles were prepared by a high-pressure emulsification-solvent evaporation (HPESE) process. The CsA-loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), encapsulation efficiency (E.E.%) and in vitro release. The amount of CsA loaded into the nanoparticles was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at a detection wavelength of 210 nm. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (70:30% v/v) and flow rate was set at 1.5 ml min(-1). The photon correlation spectroscopy showed that the particles size were <250 nm and polydispersity index (PI) <0.14. The zeta potential was positive for 200 mg and negative for 400 mg of polymer composition, respectively. The SEM micrographs revealed that the nanoparticles were spherical and smooth. The drug loading was between 82% and 92%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies did not show the melting endotherm for CsA in the drug-loaded nanoparticles. In-vitro release in intestinal fluid pH 6.8 (USP XXIV) showed a cumulative percent release of 30-45% CsA in 8 h. The physicochemical properties showed that the DL-PLG and PEG-DLPLG nanoparticles could be an effective carrier for oral CsA delivery. The reported method is easy, reproducible and can be automated for batch scale production. PMID:15063039

  10. Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles Prepared by a Micellar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Zhang, X. W.; Yin, Z. G.; Qu, S.; You, J. B.; Chen, N. F.

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles with average size of 9 nm were synthesized using a diblock polymer micellar method combined with plasma treatment. To prevent from oxidation under ambient conditions, immediately after plasma treatment, the FePt nanoparticle arrays were in situ transferred into the film-growth chamber where they were covered by an SiO2 overlayer. A nearly complete transformation of L10 FePt was achieved for samples annealed at temperatures above 700 °C. The well control on the FePt stoichiometry and avoidance from surface oxidation largely enhanced the coercivity, and a value as high as 10 kOe was obtained in this study. An evaluation of magnetic interactions was made using the so-called isothermal remanence (IRM) and dc-demagnetization (DCD) remanence curves and Kelly-Henkel plots (? M measurement). The ? M measurement reveals that the resultant FePt nanoparticles exhibit a rather weak interparticle dipolar coupling, and the absence of interparticle exchange interaction suggests no significant particle agglomeration occurred during the post-annealing. Additionally, a slight parallel magnetic anisotropy was also observed. The results indicate the micellar method has a high potential in preparing FePt nanoparticle arrays used for ultrahigh density recording media.

  11. Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate containing acyclovir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Venkata Bharadwaz; Chopra, Maulick; Joseph, Emil; Mazumder, Sonal

    2015-02-01

    Nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate complexed with the poorly soluble antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) were produced by precipitation process and the formulation process and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Two different particle synthesis methods were explored—a conventional precipitation method and a rapid precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. The particles were processed by rotavap followed by freeze-drying. Particle diameters as measured by dynamic light scattering were dependent on the synthesis method used. The conventional precipitation method did not show desired particle size distribution, whereas particles prepared by the mixer showed well-defined particle size ~125-450 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively, with narrow polydispersity indices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed chemical stability and intactness of entrapped drug in the nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the drug was in amorphous state in the polymer matrix. ACV drug loading was around 10 wt%. The release studies showed increase in solution concentration of drug from the nanoparticles compared to the as-received crystalline drug.

  12. Preparation and cellular targeting study of VEGF-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaling; Zhou, Mingyao; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Wen

    2015-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) is over-expressed on a variety of tumour cells and tumour neovasculature, and so becomes well-documented target for cancer treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the cellular targeting and anti-tumor potency of VEGF-conjugated nanoparticles (VEGF-NPs). The poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles were prepared using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method and the VEGF was conjugated on surface of nanoparticles by covalent coupling method. The obtained particles were found to be of spherical shape exhibiting a size of 710?nm and VEGF conjugation efficiency was 16.6%. The results in vitro test showed that VEGF-NPs were more associated to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by binding to VEGFR. In vitro cell proliferation test, IC50 showed the superior antiproliferative activity of paclitaxel-loaded VEGF-NPs over unconjugated nanoparticles and native paclitaxel due to higher cellular association on tumour cells. So, the VEGF-NPs offer a promising active targeting carrier for tumour selective treatment. PMID:26004370

  13. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M.; Wender, Heberton; Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande ; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  14. Study on the interaction between bovine serum albumin and starch nanoparticles prepared by isoamylolysis and recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Ji, Na; Qiu, Chao; Li, Xiaojing; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-04-01

    The current study primarily investigated the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared by isoamylolysis and recrystallization using UV-vis, fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD). The enhanced absorbance observed by UV-vis spectroscopy and decreased intensity of fluorescence spectroscopy suggested that BSA could bind to SNPs and form a BSA-SNP complex. The synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed that the emission maximum of Tyr residue (at ??=15nm) was red-shifted at the investigated concentrations range, indicating that the conformation of BSA was changed. Quenching parameters showed that the quenching effect of SNPs was static quenching. TEM images showed that the SNPs were surrounded by protein coronae, indicating that nanoparticle-protein complexes had formed. The FTIR and CD characterization indicated that the SNPs induced structural changes in the secondary structure of BSA. PMID:25805153

  15. Surface engineered nanoparticles for improved surface enhanced Raman scattering applications and method for preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA)

    2009-11-27

    A method for producing metal nanoparticles that when associated with an analyte material will generate an amplified SERS spectrum when the analyte material is illuminated by a light source and a spectrum is recorded. The method for preparing the metal nanoparticles comprises the steps of (i) forming a water-in-oil microemulsion comprising a bulk oil phase, a dilute water phase, and one or more surfactants, wherein the water phase comprises a transition metal ion; (ii) adding an aqueous solution comprising a mild reducing agent to the water-in-oil microemulsion; (iii) stirring the water-in-oil microemulsion and aqueous solution to initiate a reduction reaction resulting in the formation of a fine precipitate dispersed in the water-in-oil microemulsion; and (iv) separating the precipitate from the water-in-oil microemulsion.

  16. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles on localized surface plasmon-enhanced optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijanur Rahman, Md.; Hattori, Nampei; Nakagawa, Yuta; Lin, Xu; Yagai, Shiki; Sakai, Masatoshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazunuki

    2014-11-01

    Self-assembly silver nanoparticles were successfully prepared on indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by means of a vacuum vapor evaporation method followed by thermal annealing. The nanoparticles were characterized using a field-emission scanning election microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and a UV-vis spectrometer. It was found that the particle morphology was drastically changed depending both on the evaporated silver mass thickness and the length of time of the thermal annealing. Some absorption peaks were observed in the UV-vis spectra and the peaks showed red-shift with the average particle size increase. These facts suggest that the absorption peaks may arise from the localized surface plasmon resonance. These controllable absorptions may be suitable for photon management in dye sensitized solar cells.

  17. Biomimetic glycopolymers tethered gold nanoparticles: preparation, self-assembly and lectin recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Pei, Danfeng; Li, Yanchun; Huang, Qingrong; Ren, Qu; Li, Fan; Shi, Tongfei

    2015-02-01

    Biomimetic glycopolymers poly(gluconamidoethylmethacrylate)-b-poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(gluconamidoethylmethacrylate) with degradable disulfide groups in the backbone (PGAMA-PCL-SS-PCL-PGAMA) were synthesized by the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The internal disulfide bonds were cleaved by reduction with dl-dithiothreitol to yield the corresponding thiol terminated glycopolymers. The thiol terminated glycopolymers were effectively anchored on the surface of gold nanoparticles to prepare the biomimetic glycopolymers modified gold nanoparticles (Gly@Au NPs). Moreover, the properties of the Gly@Au NPs in aqueous solution were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the self-assembly morphology of the Gly@Au NPs can be fine-tuned, from irregular clusters to spherical aggregates, by changing the weight fraction of the hydrophobic PCL block. Furthermore, the Gly@Au NPs had specific recognition with Concanavalin A (Con A). PMID:25533190

  18. Size tuned polyol-made Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles as potential heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia: from synthesis control to toxicity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basti, H.; Hanini, A.; Levy, M.; Ben Tahar, L.; Herbst, F.; Smiri, L. S.; Kacem, K.; Gavard, J.; Wilhelm, C.; Gazeau, F.; Chau, F.; Ammar, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zn-rich substituted Zn0.9M0.1Fe2O4 (M = Mn, Co, Ni) ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) of about 5 and 10 nm were produced by the so-called polyol method. They were engineered for hyperthermia therapy based on their magnetic and morphological properties. Indeed, because of their comparatively low Curie temperature and reasonable magnetization, these probes may turn into useful self-regulated heating agents under suitable conditions. For such a purpose, the structure, the microstructure, the magnetic and magnetocalorimetric properties of the produced NPs as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity were investigated. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of these magnetically diluted spinel ferrite particles can be largely modified by just changing their size. They also show that the about 10 nm sized manganese-based ones exhibit the highest heating power under a 700 kHz ac magnetic field and the lowest cytotoxicity on Immortalized human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC).

  19. New Method to Prepare Mitomycin C Loaded PLA-Nanoparticles with High Drug Entrapment Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhenqing; Wei, Heng; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Chunxiao; Zhan, Chuanming; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2009-01-01

    The classical utilized double emulsion solvent diffusion technique for encapsulating water soluble Mitomycin C (MMC) in PLA nanoparticles suffers from low encapsulation efficiency because of the drug rapid partitioning to the external aqueous phase. In this paper, MMC loaded PLA nanoparticles were prepared by a new single emulsion solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of MMC by formation of MMC-SPC complex. Four main influential factors based on the results of a single-factor test, namely, PLA molecular weight, ratio of PLA to SPC (wt/wt) and MMC to SPC (wt/wt), volume ratio of oil phase to water phase, were evaluated using an orthogonal design with respect to drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release study was performed in pH 7.2 PBS at 37 degrees C with drug analysis using UV/vis spectrometer at 365 nm. MMC-PLA particles prepared by classical method were used as comparison. The formulated MMC-SPC-PLA nanoparticles under optimized condition are found to be relatively uniform in size (594 nm) with up to 94.8% of drug entrapment efficiency compared to 6.44 mum of PLA-MMC microparticles with 34.5% of drug entrapment efficiency. The release of MMC shows biphasic with an initial burst effect, followed by a cumulated drug release over 30 days is 50.17% for PLA-MMC-SPC nanoparticles, and 74.1% for PLA-MMC particles. The IR analysis of MMC-SPC complex shows that their high liposolubility may be attributed to some weak physical interaction between MMC and SPC during the formation of the complex. It is concluded that the new method is advantageous in terms of smaller size, lower size distribution, higher encapsulation yield, and longer sustained drug release in comparison to classical method. PMID:20596446

  20. New Method to Prepare Mitomycin C Loaded PLA-Nanoparticles with High Drug Entrapment Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhenqing; Wei, Heng; Wang, Qian; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Chunxiao; Zhan, Chuanming; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2009-07-01

    The classical utilized double emulsion solvent diffusion technique for encapsulating water soluble Mitomycin C (MMC) in PLA nanoparticles suffers from low encapsulation efficiency because of the drug rapid partitioning to the external aqueous phase. In this paper, MMC loaded PLA nanoparticles were prepared by a new single emulsion solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of MMC by formation of MMC-SPC complex. Four main influential factors based on the results of a single-factor test, namely, PLA molecular weight, ratio of PLA to SPC (wt/wt) and MMC to SPC (wt/wt), volume ratio of oil phase to water phase, were evaluated using an orthogonal design with respect to drug entrapment efficiency. The drug release study was performed in pH 7.2 PBS at 37 °C with drug analysis using UV/vis spectrometer at 365 nm. MMC-PLA particles prepared by classical method were used as comparison. The formulated MMC-SPC-PLA nanoparticles under optimized condition are found to be relatively uniform in size (594 nm) with up to 94.8% of drug entrapment efficiency compared to 6.44 ?m of PLA-MMC microparticles with 34.5% of drug entrapment efficiency. The release of MMC shows biphasic with an initial burst effect, followed by a cumulated drug release over 30 days is 50.17% for PLA-MMC-SPC nanoparticles, and 74.1% for PLA-MMC particles. The IR analysis of MMC-SPC complex shows that their high liposolubility may be attributed to some weak physical interaction between MMC and SPC during the formation of the complex. It is concluded that the new method is advantageous in terms of smaller size, lower size distribution, higher encapsulation yield, and longer sustained drug release in comparison to classical method.

  1. Preparation of amyloid-like fibrils containing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Effect of protein aggregation on proton relaxivity

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor Andersson, B.; Skoglund, Caroline; Uvdal, Kajsa; Solin, Niclas

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of amyloid materials labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of amyloid materials by electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of protein aggregation on the magnetic nanoparticle properties. -- Abstract: A method to prepare amyloid-like fibrils functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles has been developed. The amyloid-like fibrils are prepared in a two step procedure, where insulin and magnetic nanoparticles are mixed simply by grinding in the solid state, resulting in a water soluble hybrid material. When the hybrid material is heated in aqueous acid, the insulin/nanoparticle hybrid material self assembles to form amyloid-like fibrils incorporating the magnetic nanoparticles. This results in magnetically labeled amyloid-like fibrils which has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography. The influence of the aggregation process on proton relaxivity is investigated. The prepared materials have potential uses in a range of bio-imaging applications.

  2. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of gatifloxacin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as colloidal ocular drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Kalam, Mohd Abul; Sultana, Yasmin; Ali, Asgar; Aqil, Mohd; Mishra, Anil K; Chuttani, Krishna

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared with stearic acid (SLN-A) and a mixture of stearic acid and Compritol (SLN-B) as lipid matrix and poloxamer-188 as surfactant, using sodium taurocholate and ethanol as co-surfactant mixture, with a view to applying the SLN in topical ocular drug delivery. The SLNs were prepared by o/w microemulsion technique and characterized by time-resolved particle size analysis, polydispersity index, zeta(zeta)-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR-spectroscopy, and wide-angle X-ray diffractometry (WAXD). The results obtained in these studies were compared with SLN prepared with stearic acid alone. IR, WAXD, and DSC studies revealed low-crystalline SLN and were having positive zeta-potentials after three-months of storage. Results indicated mixed lipid-matrix produced SLN with low-crystallinity and smaller particle sizes and higher drug entrapment compared with SLN prepared with stearic acid alone, therefore SLN-B would be suitable for the preparation of nanosuspension. Nanosuspensions were subjected to rheological and physicochemical evaluation, in vitro drug release and ex vivo corneal permeation studies and their effect were evaluated on corneal hydration-level. SLN composed of stearic acid and compritol would prove to be a good ocular drug delivery system considering the smaller particle size, particle size stability, and physiologically tolerable components. PMID:19839712

  3. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  4. Facile Preparation of a Platinum Silicide Nanoparticle-Modified Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, James; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we propose an ultra-facile approach to prepare a platinum silicide nanoparticle-modified tip apex (PSM tip) used for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). We combined a localized fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (LFAGRR) and atmospheric microwave annealing (AMA) to deposit a single platinum silicide nanoparticle with a diameter of 32 nm on the apex of a bare silicon tip of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The total process was completed in an ambient environment in less than 3 min. The improved potential resolution in the SKPM measurement was verified. Moreover, the resolution of the topography is comparable to that of a bare silicon tip. In addition, the negative charges found on the PSM tips suggest the possibility of exploring the use of current PSM tips to sense electric fields more precisely. The ultra-fast and cost-effective preparation of the PSM tips provides a new direction for the preparation of functional tips for scanning probe microscopy.

  5. Facile Preparation of a Platinum Silicide Nanoparticle-Modified Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, James; Wu, Chien-Ting; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we propose an ultra-facile approach to prepare a platinum silicide nanoparticle-modified tip apex (PSM tip) used for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM). We combined a localized fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement reaction (LFAGRR) and atmospheric microwave annealing (AMA) to deposit a single platinum silicide nanoparticle with a diameter of 32 nm on the apex of a bare silicon tip of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The total process was completed in an ambient environment in less than 3 min. The improved potential resolution in the SKPM measurement was verified. Moreover, the resolution of the topography is comparable to that of a bare silicon tip. In addition, the negative charges found on the PSM tips suggest the possibility of exploring the use of current PSM tips to sense electric fields more precisely. The ultra-fast and cost-effective preparation of the PSM tips provides a new direction for the preparation of functional tips for scanning probe microscopy. PMID:26471480

  6. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-01-14

    We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

  7. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles activate IL-1b, NFKB1, CCL21 and NOS2 signaling to induce mitochondrial dependent intrinsic apoptotic pathway in WISH cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ahmad, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Shams T.; Musarrat, Javed

    2013-12-01

    The present study has demonstrated the translocation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs) into the cytoplasm of human amnion epithelial (WISH) cells, and the ensuing cytotoxicity and genetic damage. The results suggested that in situ NPs induced oxidative stress, alterations in cellular membrane and DNA strand breaks. The [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assays indicated 64.48 ± 1.6% and 50.73 ± 2.1% reduction in cell viability with 100 ?g/ml of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs exposure. The treated WISH cells exhibited 1.2-fold higher ROS level with 0.9-fold decline in membrane potential (??m) and 7.4-fold higher DNA damage after 48 h of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs treatment. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of p53, CASP 3 (caspase-3), and bax genes revealed 5.3, 1.6, and 14.9-fold upregulation, and 0.18-fold down regulation of bcl 2 gene vis-à-vis untreated control. RT{sup 2} Profiler™ PCR array data elucidated differential up-regulation of mRNA transcripts of IL-1b, NFKB1, NOS2 and CCL21 genes in the range of 1.5 to 3.7-folds. The flow cytometry based cell cycle analysis suggested the transfer of 15.2 ± 2.1% (p < 0.01) population of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs (100 ?g/ml) treated cells into apoptotic phase through intrinsic pathway. Over all, the data revealed the potential of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs to induce cellular and genetic toxicity in cells of placental origin. Thus, the significant ROS production, reduction in ??m, DNA damage, and activation of genes linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation, DNA damage and repair could serve as the predictive toxicity and stress markers for ecotoxicological assessment of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induced cellular and genetic damage. - Highlights: • First report on the molecular toxicity of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs in cells of placental origin • WISH cells treated with ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs exhibited cytoplasmic localization of NPs. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs induce DNA damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in WISH cells. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NPs activate inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in WISH cells. • Elevation of p53, CASP 3, bax and bcl 2 genes affirms intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  8. An imine-based approach to prepare amine-functionalized Janus gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaojue; Tan, Si Yu; Ang, Chung Yen; Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Menghuan; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-07-25

    An imine-based approach was developed to prepare Janus gold nanoparticles (Janus AuNPs) having amine functionality on one patch of the surface and a polyethylene glycol unit on the other. This unique technique features covalent bonding as the force to immobilize AuNPs on the template, enabling direct modification of AuNPs in both water and organic solvents. Colloidal clusters were then obtained via electrostatic assembly of these Janus AuNPs with citrate stabilized AuNPs or AgNPs. PMID:26097920

  9. Influences of surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruimin; Wu, Xinfeng; Hao, Xufeng; Zhou, Fei; Li, Hongbin; Rao, Weihong

    2008-02-01

    Electron beam radiation was applied to prepare nano-size copper in water system using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, gluten and polyethylene glycol as the surfactants, respectively. The irradiated products were characterized by XRD, TEM and LSPSDA. The XRD and TEM showed that relative pure copper products with an average size of 20 nm, 40 nm and 20 nm can be obtained by using gluten, PEG and SDBS as surfactant, respectively. An admixture of copper and cuprous oxide was obtained in PVA system. The LSPSDA showed that the size of the Cu nanoparticles decreased with increasing the glutin concentration.

  10. Intercalated carbon nanotubes as a template for the preparation of supported heteroatomic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schouler, Marie-Claude; Chamssedine, Fadel; Claves, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Chemistry in confined conditions is explored at the level of the interlayer space of multiwall carbon nanotubes. Starting from preliminary intercalated tubes, a ligand exchange reaction has been successfully conducted within the former Van der Waals gap, resulting in a final dispersion of heteroatomic particles, around 2 nm large and nearly homogeneous in size, on the outer surface of the tubes. Intercalated tubular carbon architectures thus prove to be interesting templates for a bottom-up preparation of chemically complex supported nanoparticles, with potential activities for versatile applications. PMID:21449382

  11. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  12. Preparation of Mn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles as the anode material for lithium secondary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Shuijin Tang Kaibin Chen Chunhua; Jin Yi; Zhou Lang

    2009-02-04

    The ultrafine Mn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameters of 5-10 nm have been prepared by thermal decomposition of precursor MnSn(OH){sub 6}. The MnSn(OH){sub 6} nanoparticles precursor was synthesized by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction have been employed to characterize the crystal structures and morphologies of the as-prepared samples. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the as-synthesized nanoparticles were single crystals. The thermal characterization was studied by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry analysis measurements. Electrochemical test showed that the Mn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited a high initial charge-discharge capacity of 1320 mAh/g.

  13. Preparation of starch nanoparticles in a water-in-ionic liquid microemulsion system and their drug loading and releasing properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gang; Luo, Zhigang; Fu, Xiong

    2014-08-13

    An ionic liquid microemulsion consisting of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim]PF?), surfactant TX-100, 1-butanol, and water was prepared. The water-in-[Bmim]PF? (W/IL), bicontinuous, and [Bmim]PF?-in-water (IL/W) microregions of the microemulsion were identified by conductivity measurements. Starch nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 91.4 nm were synthesized with epichlorohydrin as cross-linker through W/IL microemulsion cross-linking reaction at 50 °C for 4 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data demonstrated the formation of cross-linking bonds in starch molecules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that starch nanoparticles were spherical and that some particles showed aggregation formation. Furthermore, drug loading and releasing properties of starch nanoparticles were investigated with mitoxantrone hydrochloride as a drug model. This work provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach for the preparation of starch nanoparticles, which is beneficial to their further application. PMID:25069988

  14. Preparation of surface bound silver nanoparticles on polyimide by surface modification method and its application on electroless metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Lu, Qinghua; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhu, Zikang; Yin, Jie

    2004-06-01

    Polyimide is well-known high-performance material, but it is difficult to bind nanoparticles on polyimide surface. In this paper, surface bound silver nanoparticles on polyimide were prepared by a surface modification method. The approach involved an alkali hydrolyzation of polyimide and ion-exchange reaction leading to silver doped in polyimide. The silver ions were reduced during thermally re-imidization of the hydrolyzed polyimide and agglomerated to silver nanoparticles on polyimide surface. The detailed reaction progress and resulted silver nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, EDX, XRD, AFM and TEM. The surface bound silver nanoparticles allowed for interfacing of the wide range of organic and biological thiol-containing molecules and could directly serve as catalyst site for electroless metal plating. Satisfactory electroless copper patterns were obtained on this substrate using alkanethiol SAM on silver particles as a simple photoresist.

  15. Magnetic and ultrasonic studies on stable cobalt ferrite magnetic nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Nabeel Rashin, M; Hemalatha, J

    2014-03-01

    Stable cobalt ferrite nanofluids of various concentrations have been prepared through co-precipitation method. Structural and morphological studies of nanoparticles are made with the help of X-ray diffraction technique and Transmission Electron Microscope respectively and it is found that the particles exhibit face centered cubic structure with an average size of 14 nm. The magnetic properties of the nanofluids have been analyzed at room temperature which revealed ferromagnetic behavior and also the very low value of coupling constant which ensures the negligible interparticle interaction in the absence of magnetic field. Ultrasonic investigations have been made for the nanofluids at different temperatures and magnetic fields. The temperature effects are explained with the help of open and close-packed water structure. The inter particle interactions of surface modified CoFe2O4 particles and the cluster formation at higher concentrations are realized through the variations in ultrasonic parameters. PMID:24188514

  16. Preparation and characterization of ferrite with Co substituted NiCuZn sheets application for 13.56 MHz radio frequency identification communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuoqing; Liu, Weihu; Chen, Zhongyan; Nie, Yan; Wang, Xian; Feng, Zekun

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic (EM) shielding sheets could be an effective solution to increase the detection distance of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags attached on metal. The eddy current induced on the metal surface can be reduced when a ferrite sheet sandwiched between RFID tag and metal. The magnetic spectra of Ni0.36Cu0.19Zn0.45Fe1.92O3.88 ferrite added with BiBSi-glass and CoO were investigated. It shows that the real part of permeability could reach above 150 while the imaginary part maintains below 2 at 13.56 MHz with 0.2 wt. % CoO and 0.4 wt. % BiBSi-glass doping content. The ferrites could be fabricated as EM shielding sheets by laminate process. The experimental results show that the doped ferrites could be a good candidate for EM shielding sheet. The final sheet size could be as large as 135 mm × 135 mm while the thickness is 0.1 mm and the density is above 5.0 g/cm3. By inserting the EM shielding sheet between the RFID antenna and metal surface, the improved communication performances are characterized and corresponding explanation is given.

  17. Microstructure and magnetic properties of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn) ferrite nanocrystals prepared using colloid mill and hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei Ding, Zui; Zhao, Xiruo; Wu, Sizhu; Li, Feng; Yue, Ming; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-05-07

    Three kinds of spinel ferrite nanocrystals, MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn), are synthesized using colloid mill and hydrothermal method. During the synthesis process, a rapid mixing and reduction of cations with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) take place in a colloid mill then through a hydrothermal reaction, a slow oxidation and structural transformation of the spinel ferrite nanocrystals occur. The phase purity and crystal lattice parameters are estimated by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals. Raman spectrum reveals active phonon modes at room temperature, and a shifting of the modes implies cation redistribution in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Magnetic measurements show that all the obtained samples exhibit higher saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). Meanwhile, experiments demonstrate that the hydrothermal reaction time has significant effects on microstructure, morphologies, and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals.

  18. Preparation and characterization of zinc sulfide nanoparticles under high-gravity environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jianfeng; Li Yaling; Wang Yuhong; Yun, Jimmy; Cao Dapeng

    2004-02-02

    Nanosized ZnS particles were prepared under high-gravity environment generated by the rotating packed bed reactor (RPBR) using zinc nitrate solution and hydrogen sulfide gas as raw materials. The effects of experimental conditions such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, rotating speed of the RPBR and aging time, on the preparation of nanosized ZnS particles were investigated. A set of suitable operating parameters (the aging time of 48 h, concentration of zinc nitrate of 0.1 mol/l, reaction temperature of 45 deg. C and rotating speed of the RPBR of 1500-1800 rotation/min) for the preparation of nanosized ZnS were recommended. Under these optimum conditions, well-dispersed ZnS nanoparticles was obtained. The crystal structure, optical properties, size and morphology of the product were also characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and TEM, respectively. Results indicate that the prepared ZnS has a good absorption for light in the wavelength range of 200-330 nm. XRD analysis also shows the prepared ZnS is in a sphalerite crystal phase. The process has great potential of commercialization.

  19. Comparative studies of salinomycin-loaded nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation and single emulsion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Puyuan; Ren, Wei; Xin, Kai; Yang, Yang; Xie, Chen; Yang, Chenchen; Liu, Qin; Yu, Lixia; Jiang, Xiqun; Liu, Baorui; Li, Rutain; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-07-01

    To establish a satisfactory delivery system for the delivery of salinomycin (Sal), a novel, selective cancer stem cell inhibitor with prominent toxicity, gelatinase-responsive core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were prepared by nanoprecipitation method (NR-NPs) and single emulsion method (SE-NPs). The gelatinase-responsive copolymer was prepared by carboxylation and double amination method. We studied the stability of NPs prepared by nanoprecipitation method with different proportions of F68 in aqueous phase to determine the best proportion used in our study. Then, the NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method with the best proportion of F68 and single emulsion method, and their physiochemical traits including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles were studied. The SE-NPs showed significant differences in particle size, drug loading content, stability, and in vitro release profiles compared to NR-NPs. The SE-NPs presented higher drug entrapment efficiency and superior stability than the NR-NPs. The drug release rate of SE-NPs was more sustainable than that of the NR-NPs, and in vivo experiment indicated that NPs could prominently reduce the toxicity of Sal. Our study demonstrates that the SE-NPs could be a satisfactory method for the preparation of gelatinase-responsive NPs for intelligent delivery of Sal.

  20. Ferromagnetism of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gui-Jun; Wang, Jin-Bin; Zhong, Xiang-Li; Zhou, Gong-Cheng; Yan, Hai-Long

    2006-11-01

    Mn-doped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoparticles are prepared by an ultrasonic assisted solgel process. Transmission electron microscopy shows pseudo-hexagonal nanoparticles with an average size of about 24 nm. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles are identified to be a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases. The magnetic properties are measured by using superconducting quantum interference device. For the ZnO with 2% Mn doping concentration, a good hysteresis loop indicates fine ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature higher than 350 K.

  1. Preparation of nanoparticles by electrocoagulation from soluble exopolysaccharide produced by Claviceps viridis.

    PubMed

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Benada, O; Kofronová, O; Sobotka, M; Cvak, J; Votruba, J

    2004-01-20

    Electrocoagulation is an evolving technology that has been effectively applied for wastewater treatment but its applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology are very limited. This method was applied for the preparation of nanoparticles from soluble exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Claviceps viridis in a submerged batch culture. A cathode/anode pair electrode (Al or Fe) system was used for determination of the separation rates of electrocoagulation and the yields of EPS nanoparticles production. The separation rates of 0.170 +/- 0.003 mg EPS/sec (Fe electrodes) and 0.250 +/- 0.003 mg EPS/sec (Al electrodes) were calculated for voltage gradient 1 V/1 cm of electrodes distance and were constant during experiments. The specific yield of EPS nanoparticles production based on the consumed electric power was dependent on the material of the electrodes and its value was determined as 0.71 +/- 0.01 mg EPS/W for Fe electrodes and 0.91 +/- 0.01 mg EPS/W for Al electrodes, respectively. PMID:14705006

  2. Preparation and near-infrared photothermal conversion property of cesium tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cs0.33WO3 nanoparticles have been prepared successfully by a stirred bead milling process. By grinding micro-sized coarse powder with grinding beads of 50 ?m in diameter, the mean hydrodynamic diameter of Cs0.33WO3 powder could be reduced to about 50 nm in 3 h, and a stable aqueous dispersion could be obtained at pH 8 via electrostatic repulsion mechanism. After grinding, the resulting Cs0.33WO3 nanoparticles retained the hexagonal structure and had no significant contaminants from grinding beads. Furthermore, they exhibited a strong characteristic absorption and an excellent photothermal conversion property in the near-infrared (NIR) region, owing to the free electrons or polarons. Also, the NIR absorption and photothermal conversion property became more significant with decreasing particle size or increasing particle concentration. When the concentration of Cs0.33WO3 nanoparticles was 0.08 wt.%, the solution temperature had a significant increase of above 30°C in 10 min under NIR irradiation (808 nm, 2.47 W/cm2). In addition, they had a photothermal conversion efficiency of about 73% and possessed excellent photothermal stability. Such an effective NIR absorption and photothermal conversion nanomaterial not only was useful in the NIR shielding, but also might find great potential in biomedical application. PMID:23379652

  3. Preparation and characterization of chondroitin-sulfate-A-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Illés, Erzsébet; Szekeres, Márta; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-04-01

    Polysaccharides are promising candidates for manufacturing biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles with potential in vivo use. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have prospective application in both diagnosis and therapy, and so developing a novel polysaccharide shell on MNP core is of great challenge. MNPs were prepared by co-precipitation, then the surface of purified MNPs was coated with chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain core-shell structured magnetite nanoparticles (CSA@MNP). The effect of the added amount of CSA on the surface charging and the aggregation state of MNPs at various pHs and 10 mM NaCl was measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The amphoteric behavior of MNPs was fundamentally modified by adsorption of CSA polyanions. A very low CSA-loading induces the aggregation of MNPs, while four times more stabilizes the dispersions over the whole pH-range studied. The coagulation kinetics experiments measured at pH=6.3±0.3 showed that salt tolerance of CSA@MNPs rises up to ~150 mM NaCl.

  4. Size dependence of the magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    By means of thermal decomposition, we prepared single-phase spherical Ni nanoparticles (23 to 114 nm in diameter) that are face-centered cubic in structure. The magnetic properties of the Ni nanoparticles were experimentally as well as theoretically investigated as a function of particle size. By means of thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis, the Curie temperature TC of the 23-, 45-, 80-, and 114-nm Ni particles was found to be 335°C, 346°C, 351°C, and 354°C, respectively. Based on the size-and-shape dependence model of cohesive energy, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the size dependence of TC. The measurement of magnetic hysteresis loop reveals that the saturation magnetization MS and remanent magnetization increase and the coercivity decreases monotonously with increasing particle size, indicating a distinct size effect. By adopting a simplified theoretical model, we obtained MS values that are in good agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, with increase of surface-to-volume ratio of Ni nanoparticles due to decrease of particle size, there is increase of the percentage of magnetically inactive layer. PMID:24164907

  5. Preparation and photoelectric property of TiO2 nanoparticles with controllable phase junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongmei; Tan, Xin; Yu, Tao

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effect of phase composition on the photoelectric property of anatase-rutile mixed crystal nanoparticles, a series of TiO2 nanoparticles with phase junctions controlling were synthetized by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in hydrochloric acid, an ionic liquid-assisted method was used during this process. Crystalline size and the ratio of anatase to rutile of as-prepared samples were calculated by the XRD. The surface area was measured by nitrogen sorption measurements using the BET method. The micro-structure of phase junctions was characterized by TEM. Optical transmittance properties of TiO2 with controllable phase junctions were examined via ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The particles were manufactured into films using the doctor-blade technique on FTO glasses. To test photocurrent density, and spatial separation capacity of electron-holes pairs, photo-electro method was employed. The photocatalytic activities of the resulting samples were examined in the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under artificial solar light irradiation. Mechanisms of separation and transfer of photogenerated charge and the effect of phase composition on photoelectric property of anatase-rutile nanoparticles were discussed.

  6. Preparation of iron oxides using ammonium iron citrate precursor: Thin films and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sangmoon

    2009-09-15

    Ammonium iron citrate (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}.nFe.nH{sub 3}N) was used as a precursor for preparing both iron-oxide thin films and nanoparticles. Thin films of iron oxides were fabricated on silicon (111) substrate using a successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction (SILAR) method and subsequent hydrothermal or furnace annealing. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the iron-oxide films obtained under various annealing conditions show the changes of the micro-scale surface structures and the magnetic properties. Homogenous Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles around 4 nm in diameter were synthesized by hydrothermal reduction method at low temperature and investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Graphical abstract: Both iron-oxide thin films and nanoparticles (about 4 nm in diameter) are successfully achieved via successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-and-reaction and hydrothermal techniques in the use of ammonium iron citrate as a precursor.

  7. Preparation of crystalline starch nanoparticles using cold acid hydrolysis and ultrasonication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Dong June; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2013-10-15

    Waxy maize starch in an aqueous sulfuric acid solution (3.16 M, 14.7% solids) was hydrolyzed for 2-6 days, either isothermally at 40 °C or 4 °C, or at cycled temperatures of 4 and 40 °C (1 day each). The starch hydrolyzates were recovered as precipitates after centrifuging the dispersion (10,000 rpm, 10 min). The yield of starch hydrolyzates depended on the hydrolysis temperature and time, which varied from 6.8% to 78%. The starch hydrolyzed at 40 °C or 4/40 °C exhibited increased crystallinity determined by X-ray diffraction analysis, but melted in broader temperature range (from 60 °C to 110 °C). However, the starch hydrolyzed at 4 °C displayed the crystallinity and melting endotherm similar to those of native starch. The starch hydrolyzates recovered by centrifugation were re-dispersed in water (15% solids), and the dispersion was treated by an ultrasonic treatment (60% amplitude, 3min). The ultrasonication effectively fragmented the starch hydrolyzates to nanoparticles. The hydrolyzates obtained after 6 days of hydrolysis were more resistant to the ultrasonication than those after 2 or 4 days, regardless of hydrolysis temperatures. The starch nanoparticles could be prepared with high yield (78%) and crystallinity by 4 °C hydrolysis for 6 days followed by ultrasonication. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the starch nanoparticles had globular shapes with diameters ranging from 50 to 90 nm. PMID:23987348

  8. Synthesis, structure, and scintillation of Ce-doped gadolinium oxyorthosilicate nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Tornga, S. C.; Blair, M. W.; Bennett, B. L.; Muenchausen, R. E.; Wang, R.; Crozier, P. A.; Cooke, D. W.

    2011-10-01

    The synthesis of Ce-doped Gd oxyorthosilicate nanoparticles using the solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method was investigated as a function of the amount of SiO2 in the precursor mixture. The SCS product consists of mixtures of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5, Gd4.67(SiO4)3O, and Gd2O3, whose relative concentrations depend on the amount of SiO2 in the precursor mixture; the synthesis of GSO:Ce was obtained with a reduction by 30% of the SiO2 content. Accordingly, this is the brightest material produced, with a photoluminescence signal that is comparable to that obtained from the bulk sample. Thermoluminescence (TL) results showed a considerably lower concentration of trapping defects in the nanoparticles than in the bulk sample. A previous study [E. G. Yukihara, L. G. Jacobsohn, M. W. Blair, B. L. Bennett, S. C. Tornga, and R. E. Muenchausen, J. Lumin. 130, 2309-2316 (2010)] reporting a comparison between photoluminescence and scintillation measurements, coupled to the TL characterization, suggests that surfaces play a major role in decreasing the scintillation efficiency of the nanoparticles. These results show that it is possible to prepare relatively bright scintillator powders using the SCS method.

  9. Preparation of polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of chitosan and poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) for doxorubicin release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Jie; Ni, Caihua; Zhang, Yanan; Shi, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A new kind of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) based on cationic chitosan (CS) and anionic poly(2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) was prepared using a polymer-monomer pair reaction system. Chitosan was mixed with 2-acry1amido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (AMPS) in an aqueous solution, followed by polymerization of AMPS. The complex was formed by electrostatic interaction of NH3(+) groups of CS and SO3(-) groups of AMPS, leading to a formation of complex nanoparticles of CS-PAMPS. A series of nanoparticles were obtained by changing the weight ratio of CS to AMPS, the structure and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. It was observed that the nanoparticles possessed spherical morphologies with average diameters from 255nm to 390nm varied with compositions of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were used as drug vehicles for doxorubicin, displaying relative high drug loading rate and encapsulation rate. The vitro release profiles revealed that the drug release could be controlled by adjusting pH of the release media. The nanoparticles demonstrated apparent advantages such as simple preparation process, free of organic solvents, size controllable, good biodegradability and biocompatibility, and they could be potentially used in drug controlled release field. PMID:26478364

  10. La-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Simple solution-combusting preparation and applications in the wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tingting; Ni, Yonghong; Ma, Xiang; Hong, Jianming

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: La-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by a simple solution combustion route and exhibit good adsorption for Cu and Pb ion from water systems. - Highlights: • La-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a simple solution-combustion route. • The integration of La{sup 3+} ions into ZnO decreased the band-gap of ZnO nanoparticles. • La-doped ZnO nanoparticles could remove more Pb and Cu ions from water resources than undoped ZnO. - Abstract: La-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple solution combustion method via employing a mixture of ethanol and ethyleneglycol (v/v = 60/40) as the solvent. Zinc acetate and oxygen gas in the atmosphere were used as zinc and oxygen sources, and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as the doping reagent. The as-obtained product was characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Experiments showed that La-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the higher capacities for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions in water resource than undoped ZnO nanoparticles.

  11. Nanoparticles prepared from porous silicon nanowires for bio-imaging and sonodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osminkina, Liubov A.; Sivakov, Vladimir A.; Mysov, Grigory A.; Georgobiani, Veronika A.; Natashina, Ulyana A.; Talkenberg, Florian; Solovyev, Valery V.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu

    2014-09-01

    Evaluation of cytotoxicity, photoluminescence, bio-imaging, and sonosensitizing properties of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by ultrasound grinding of porous silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been investigated. SiNWs were formed by metal (silver)-assisted wet chemical etching of heavily boron-doped (100)-oriented single crystalline silicon wafers. The prepared SiNWs and aqueous suspensions of SiNPs exhibit efficient room temperature photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of 600 to 1,000 nm that is explained by the radiative recombination of excitons confined in small silicon nanocrystals, from which SiNWs and SiNPs consist of. On the one hand, in vitro studies have demonstrated low cytotoxicity of SiNPs and possibilities of their bio-imaging applications. On the other hand, it has been found that SiNPs can act as efficient sensitizers of ultrasound-induced suppression of the viability of Hep-2 cancer cells.

  12. Preparation of curcumin-loaded pluronic F127/chitosan nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Le, Thi Minh; Phuc Pham, Van; Lua Dang, Thi Minh; Huyen La, Thi; Hanh Le, Thi; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven to be an effective delivery system with few side effects for anticancer drugs. In this study, curcumin-loaded NPs have been prepared by an ionic gelation method using chitosan (Chi) and pluronic®F-127 (PF) as carriers to deliver curcumin to the target cancer cells. Prepared NPs were characterized using Zetasizer, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was approximately 50%. The average size of curcumin-loaded PF/Chi NPs was 150.9 nm, while the zeta potential was 5.09 mV. Cellular uptake of curcumin-loaded NPs into HEK293 cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Preparation of an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film for increasing the shelf-life of fruits.

    PubMed

    Gudadhe, Janhavi A; Yadav, Alka; Gade, Aniket; Marcato, Priscyla D; Durán, Nelson; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-12-01

    Preparation of protective coating possessing antimicrobial properties is present day need as they increase the shelf life of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, preparation of agar-silver nanoparticle film for increasing the shelf life of fruits is reported. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) biosynthesised using an extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves, were mixed with agar-agar to prepare an agar-silver nanoparticles (A-AgNp) film. This film was surface-coated over the fruits, Citrus aurantifolium (Thornless lime) and Pyrus malus (Apple), and evaluated for the determination of antimicrobial activity of A-AgNp films using disc diffusion method, weight loss and shelf life of fruits. This study demonstrates that these A-AgNp films possess antimicrobial activity and also increase the shelf life of fruits. PMID:25429496

  14. Nonaqueous synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles: Short review and doped titanium dioxide as case study for the preparation of transition metal-doped oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Djerdj, Igor Arcon, Denis; Jaglicic, Zvonko; Niederberger, Markus

    2008-07-15

    The liquid-phase synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents under exclusion of water is nowadays a well-established alternative to aqueous sol-gel chemistry. In this article, we highlight some of the advantages of these routes based on selected examples. The first part reviews some recent developments in the synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanoparticles by surfactant-free nonaqueous sol-gel routes, followed by the discussion of the morphology-controlled synthesis of lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles, and the presentation of structural peculiarities of manganese oxide nanoparticles with an ordered Mn vacancy superstructure. These examples show that nonaqueous systems, on the one hand, allow the preparation of compositionally complex oxides, and, on the other hand, make use of the organic components (initially present or formed in situ) in the reaction mixture to tailor the morphology. Furthermore, obviously even the crystal structure can differ from the corresponding bulk material like in the case of MnO nanoparticles. In the second part of the paper we present original results regarding the synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductor TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles doped with cobalt and iron. The structural characterization as well as the magnetic properties with special attention to the doping efficiency is discussed. - Graphical abstract: In the first part of this article, nonaqueous sol-gel routes to ternary metal oxide nanoparticles are briefly reviewed, followed by the discussion of the morphology-controlled synthesis of lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles, and the appearance of an unprecedented superstructure in MnO nanoparticles. In the second part, doping experiments of TiO{sub 2} with Fe and Co are presented, along with their characterization including magnetic measurements.

  15. Preparation and testing of quaternized chitosan nanoparticles as gene delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Feng; Wang, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Xin-Min; Liu, Zhen-Dong; Jiang, Chao-Yong; Yang, Jian-Dong

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a chitosan (CS) derivative, a quaternary ammonium salt crystal called N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC), and test a series of HACC and pEGFP-DNA complexes at different weight ratios for their efficiency of gene delivery into human cells. CS was modified with cationic etherifying agent to obtain the CS derivative. Fourier transform infrared spectra were recorded on KBr pellets with a spectrometer. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of HACC were obtained using a spectrometer. HACC was subsequently used to prepare HACC/DNA complexes at different weight ratios by coacervation method. The resulting particle size and surface charge were assessed by laser light scattering using a zeta potential analyzer. The HACC/DNA complex formation and DNA protection in the nanoparticle complex was investigated by gel mobility shift assay and DNase I protection assay, respectively. The cytotoxicity of HACC and HACC/DNA nanoparticles was evaluated by MTT assay using (mesenchymal stem cell) MSC lines. The nanoscale structure of the particles was obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FTIR spectrum of HACC showed the characteristic quaternary ammonium group absorption band at 1475 cm(-1), which indicated the presence of quaternary ammonium group. The successful synthesis of HACC was also confirmed by (1)H NMR spectrum. HACC showed good solubility in water and was electropositive. HACC efficiently packed and protected pEGFP-DNA at a weight ratio of 10. With increased weight ratios, the surface charge of the composite particle increased from negative to positive, the average particle size increased, and HACC nanoparticle had a higher carrying efficiency. The nanoparticles released DNA in two distinct phases, and 55 % was released within the first 20 h of solubilization. The nanoparticles under TEM showed circular or oval shapes. The particles exhibited no cytotoxicity against human cells. No significant difference in gene delivery efficiency was detected between HACC/pEGFP-GDNF and liposome/pEGFP-GDNF complexes (33.8 vs. 34 %, P?=?0.363). In this study, HACC was successfully synthesized, and HACC/DNA complex assembled efficiently. HACC showed strong DNA binding affinity and high protection of DNA and was non-cytotoxic to human cells. The particles had appropriate nanostructure, mean diameter, and DNA release time. The results suggest that HACC nanoparticles are a novel tool for efficient and safe gene delivery. PMID:25686559

  16. Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles from Synthetic and Natural Sources: Remediation Model for PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Saeed, Fatima; Rafique, Uzaira

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of nanoscience and technology is gaining popularity with an increasing demand for metal nanoparticles applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In this work, an attempt is made to compare the efficiency of two different synthesis methods and application of each for the remediation of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this regard, silver nanoparticles are prepared by green and wet chemical method using plant extract of garlic (Allium sativum). The extract is known to reduce the metal during synthesis and acts as stabilizing ligand. These synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agp) and (AgW) were applied as adsorbents in synthetic batch mode experiments at varying parameters of pH and temperature. A concentration of 0.01mg/L of Phenanthrene, Anthracene, and Pyrene were induced at fixed dosage of 1mg/Kg of adsorbent. Residual concentration of each PAH was analyzed on UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results indicated that both adsorbents follow the sequence of Phenanthrene>Pyrene>Anthracene with optimal removal of higher than 85% in each case. A distinguishing privilege is attained by Agp adsorbent showing 3, 3 and 11 orders of magnitude higher efficiency than Agw. It may be attributed to more functional groups in the plant extract participating in binding of PAH to the surface. Each synthesized adsorbents was characterized by FTIR, SEM and EDX. The average particle size was determined to be of the order of 13-26 nm. The study concludes the use of alternate economical and green adsorbents for control of poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  17. Chitosan based micro- and nanoparticles for colon-targeted delivery of vancomycin prepared by alternative processing methods.

    PubMed

    Cerchiara, T; Abruzzo, A; di Cagno, M; Bigucci, F; Bauer-Brandl, A; Parolin, C; Vitali, B; Gallucci, M C; Luppi, B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare chitosan (CH) based particulate formulations for colon delivery of vancomycin (VM). Chitosan microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with VM were prepared using different CH/tripolyphosphate (TPP) molar ratios and different technological processes. In particular, nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation and freeze-drying to recover these particles, or, alternatively, by spray-drying method. Microparticles were prepared using a different spray-dryer. Micro- and nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size distributions by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), while encapsulation and drug loading efficiencies were studied using a dialysis method. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was employed to determine the surface composition of the micro- and nanoparticles respectively, and the morphologies of the developed systems were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water uptake as well as drug release profiles were also measured. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive model strain, was evaluated. FT-IR results suggested an electrostatic interaction between VM and CH/TPP particles. Moreover, the particles were found to hold a positive zeta-potential, indicating the presence of CH on the particle surfaces. Particle size and encapsulation efficiency were mainly influenced by the different manufacturing processes employed. Nanoparticles obtained by spray-drying showed the best results in terms of water uptake and drug release rate. Moreover, they showed a good bactericidal activity against S. aureus. PMID:25769679

  18. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Shi, Ci; Guo, Chen; Dai, Chunxiao; Chen, Qian; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Yan; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs) were determined. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were prepared according to a complex coacervation method. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 199.5 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 98.37%±0.87%, loading capacity of 36.12%±0.19%, and a zeta potential of +12.11 mV. The in vitro release assay showed that the plasmid DNA was sustainably released from the pFNDV-CS-NPs, up to 82.9%±2.9% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F gene in cells and maintained good bioactivity. Additionally, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-CS-NPs was also tested in vitro by cell cytotoxicity and in vivo by safety test in chickens. In vivo immunization showed that better immune responses of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with the pFNDV-CS-NPs were induced, and prolonged release of the plasmid DNA was achieved compared to the chickens immunized with the control plasmid. This study lays the foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. PMID:24426783

  19. Active targeted nanoparticles: Preparation, physicochemical characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity effect

    PubMed Central

    Heidarian, Sh.; Derakhshandeh, K.; Adibi, H.; Hosseinzadeh, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the folate decorated biodegradable poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were developed for tumor targeting of anticancer agents. Due to the overexpression of the folate receptor on tumor surface, the folate has been efficiently employed as a targeting moiety for various anticancer agents to avoid their non-specific attacks on normal tissues and also to increase their cellular uptake within target cells. Folate conjugate PLGA was synthesized successfully and its chemical structure was evaluated by FTIR, DSC and 1HNMR spectroscopy. PLGA-folate nanoparticles (PLGA-Fol NPs) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method, adopting PLGA as a drug carrier, folic acid as a targeting ligand and 9-nitrocampthotecin as a model anticancer drug. The average size and encapsulation efficiency of the prepared PLGA-Fol NPs were found to be around 115 ± 12 nm and 57%, respectively. In vitro release profile indicated that nearly 85% of the drug was released in 50 h. The in vitro intracellular uptakes of PLGA-Fol NPs showed greater cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines compared to non-folate mediated carriers. PMID:26600851

  20. Preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihui; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Chai, Miaolin; Xiong, Yan; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-12-30

    This paper reports studies on preparation and evaluation of amoxicillin loaded dual molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (Amo/Dual-MIPs) designed for anti-H. pylori therapy. Both MNQA and AmoNa were chosen as templates to prepare Dual-MIPs using inverse microemulsion polymerization method. NQA was modified with myristic acid (MNQA) to become amphiphilic and assist in leaving NQA cavities on the surface of Dual-MIPs for H. pylori adhesion. AmoNa was applied to produce imprinting sites in Dual-MIPs for rebinding AmoNa to exert its anti-H. pylori effect. Batch rebinding test demonstrated a preferential rebinding effect of NQA toward the Dual-MIPs. In vivofluorescence imaging showed the prolonged residence time of Dual-MIPs in H. pylori infected mice stomachs after intragastric administration of nanoparticles.In vivo H. pylori clearance tests indicated Amo/Dual-MIPs had a better aniti-H. pylori effect than amoxicillin powder did. In conclusion, Amo/Dual-MIPs may provide an alternative drug delivery strategy for anti-H. pylori therapy. PMID:26524712

  1. Gelucire-Based Nanoparticles for Curcumin Targeting to Oral Mucosa: Preparation, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; Hazzah, Walaa A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to prepare and characterize curcumin (Cur) solid lipid nanoparticles (CurSLN) with a high-loading capacity and chemical stability for the treatment of oral mucosal infection. CurSLN were formulated using different lipids, namely, Gelucire 39/01, Gelucire 50/13, Precirol, Compritol, and poloxamer 407 as a surfactant. Formulae were evaluated for their entrapment efficiency, particle size, and ex vivo mucoadhesion test. Microbiological evaluation was carried out on six microorganisms, five of which are the most commonly affecting oral cavity in terms of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration. Transmission electron microscopy was conducted for ultrathin section for Candida albicans-treated with formulated Cur. The results showed high entrapment efficiency and stability enhancement for Cur powder. Significant amount of Cur was retained onto the mucosal tissue indicating preferential mucosal uptake. CurSLN showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared with Cur raw material and chemically stabilized Cur where it showed MIC (0.185, 0.09375, 0.75, 3, 1.5, and 0.1875 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Viridansstrept, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Candida albicans, respectively. The prepared lipid nanoparticles maintained Cur chemical stability and microbiological activity. The lack of local antimicrobial therapeutics with minimum side effects augments the importance of studying natural products for this purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3913-3924, 2015. PMID:26202796

  2. Preparation of platinum modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles with the use of laser ablation in water.

    PubMed

    Siuzdak, K; Sawczak, M; Klein, M; Nowaczyk, G; Jurga, S; Cenian, A

    2014-08-01

    We report on the preparation method of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide modified with platinum by using nanosecond laser ablation in liquid (LAL). Titania in the form of anatase crystals has been prepared in a two-stage process. Initially, irradiation by laser beam of a titanium metal plate fixed in a glass container filled with deionized water was conducted. After that, the ablation process was continued, with the use of a platinum target placed in a freshly obtained titania colloid. In this work, characterization of the obtained nanoparticles, based on spectroscopic techniques--Raman, X-ray photoelectron and UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy--is given. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to describe particle morphology. On the basis of photocatalytic studies we observed the rate of degradation process of methylene blue (MB) (a model organic pollution) in the presence of Pt modified titania in comparison to pure TiO2--as a reference case. Physical and chemical mechanisms of the formation of platinum modified titania are also discussed here. Stable colloidal suspensions containing Pt modified titanium dioxide crystalline anatase particles show an almost perfect spherical shape with diameters ranging from 5 to 30 nm. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated with platinum exhibit much higher (up to 30%) photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of MB under UV illumination than pure titania. PMID:24937772

  3. Nano-composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering containing silver nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Marsich, Eleonora; Bellomo, Francesca; Turco, Gianluca; Travan, Andrea; Donati, Ivan; Paoletti, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    In this study nano-composite scaffolds to be used as bone grafts have been endowed with antibacterial properties owing to the presence of silver nanoparticles. The alginate/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds were prepared by internal gelation followed by a freeze-drying procedure to obtain a porous structure. The nanoparticles were prepared in presence of a lactose modified-chitosan and this colloidal solution was adsorbed on the scaffolds by exploiting electrostatic interactions. The adsorption and release of the silver from the composite scaffold was measured by ICP-AES and spectrofluorimetry measurements. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the scaffolds showed a homogeneous porous structure with average pore sizes of 341.5 ?m and porosity of 80 %. In vitro biological tests (MTS and killing kinetics assays) demonstrated that silver does not affect the ability of the scaffolds to promote osteoblasts proliferation and that at the same time it exerts a strong bactericidal effect against both Gram+ and Gram- bacterial strains. Overall, the combined results indicate that these biocompatible antimicrobial scaffolds possess ideal characteristics for tissue engineering applications. PMID:23553569

  4. Preparation and evaluation of nanocellulose-gold nanoparticle nanocomposites for SERS applications.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haoran; Rodriguez, Katia; Renneckar, Scott; Leng, Weinan; Vikesland, Peter J

    2015-08-21

    Nanocellulose is of research interest due to its extraordinary optical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The incorporation of guest nanoparticles into nanocellulose substrates enables production of novel nanocomposites with a broad range of applications. In this study, gold nanoparticle/bacterial cellulose (AuNP/BC) nanocomposites were prepared and evaluated for their applicability as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. The nanocomposites were prepared by citrate mediated in situ reduction of Au(3+) in the presence of a BC hydrogel at 303 K. Both the size and morphology of the AuNPs were functions of the HAuCl4 and citrate concentrations. At high HAuCl4 concentrations, Au nanoplates form within the nanocomposites and are responsible for high SERS enhancements. At lower HAuCl4 concentrations, uniform nanospheres form and the SERS enhancement is dependent on the nanosphere size. The time-resolved increase in the SERS signal was probed as a function of drying time with SERS 'hot-spots' primarily forming in the final minutes of nanocomposite drying. The application of the AuNP/BC nanocomposites for detection of the SERS active dyes MGITC and R6G as well as the environmental contaminant atrazine is illustrated as is its use under low and high pH conditions. The results indicate the broad applicability of this nanocomposite for analyte detection. PMID:26133311

  5. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development. PMID:24920902

  6. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by introducing a novel method of nanoparticle metal oxide co-entrapped sol-gel that gave the highest metal loading with precise control and reproducibility, and greater mechanical strength of granules than the metal nitrate solution co-entrapping and wet impregnation methods. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used for syngas conversion reactions. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited micro-reactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. The catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion was observed in the increasing order for the nanocatalysts Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe in alumina sol-gel support, and Co/Fe showed the highest yield for methane. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina. We could estimate the activity of catalysts (involving Co, Fe) during hydrogenation and after catalytic reaction using magnetization studies. In summary our accomplishments are: (1) Novel chemical methods for the synthesis of (5 nm) Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. (2) Developing a method of metal oxide nanoparticles addition to alumina/silica sol-gel to control metal loading of pure and mixed metal catalysts compositions in high yields. (3) A low-cost GC-TCD system to analyze wide spectrum of alkanes (F-T reaction products). (4) Fe/Co mixed metal alumina/silica mesoporous catalysts with higher FT activity. (5) Characterizing nanoparticle catalysts and supports for detail understanding of FT-process.

  7. Compact magnetooptical isolator with cobalt ferrite on silicon photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanaga, Megumi; Shoji, Yuya; Takamura, Yota; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Mizumoto, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    In the telecom wavelength range, the magnetooptical effect of cobalt ferrites is approximately 10 times larger than that of conventional magnetooptical materials such as yttrium iron garnets. In this study, we focus on an application of cobalt ferrite to a magnetooptical isolator that is to be miniaturized and made suitable for integration. First, we prepare polycrystalline cobalt ferrite films deposited on a silicon substrate using a MgO buffer layer. Next, we fabricate a waveguide optical isolator of silicon waveguides by the partial deposition of the cobalt ferrite films. An optical isolation ratio of 5.5 dB is demonstrated.

  8. Preparation of Concanavalin A-Chelating Magnetic Nanoparticles for Selective Enrichment of Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liping; Feng, Shun; Li, Shanshan; Song, Peipei; Wang, Jide

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a soft and nondestructive approach was developed to prepare concanavalin A-chelating magnetic nanoparticles (Con A-MNPs) for selective enrichment of glycoproteins. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-modified-MNPs (EDTA-MNPs) were prepared by a one-pot chemical coprecipitation method first, and then, Cu(II) cations were used as bridge groups to immobilize Con A on EDTA-MNPs. The as-prepared absorbents with a mean diameter of 15 nm showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field. The results of thermogravimetric analysis showed the content of immobilized Con A was up to 28 wt %. For glycoprotein ovalbumin, the maximum capacity and equilibrium constant were 72.41 mg/g and 0.6035 L/mg, respectively. The as-prepared nanocomposites exhibited a remarkable selectivity for glycoproteins and can enrich glycoproteins specifically from a mixture of glycoprotein and nonglycoprotein even at a molar ratio of 1:600. It was also successfully applied for the enrichment of glycoproteins from real egg white samples. We expect that our finding will serve as a helpful template for others to design new adsorbents for enriching glycoproteins. PMID:26066908

  9. Flash microwave synthesis of trevorite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bousquet-Berthelin, C. Chaumont, D.; Stuerga, D.

    2008-03-15

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles have several possible applications as cathode materials for rechargeable batteries, named 'lithium-ion' batteries. In this study, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by microwave induced thermohydrolysis. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET method, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). All the results show that the microwave one-step flash synthesis leads in a very short time to NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with elementary particles size close to 4-5 nm, and high specific surfaces (close to 240 m{sup 2}/g). Thus, microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce quickly nanoparticles with complex composition as ferrite. - Graphical abstract: At the end of the 20th century, a new concept of battery was introduced, named 'Li ion', where electrodes are both lithium-storage materials. Compounds with a spinel structure are so investigated and microwave heating appears as an efficient source of energy to produce nanoparticles in a very short time and at low temperature, with controlled size (4-5 nm) and high specific area (240 m{sup 2}/g). Legend: Pictogram represents our original microwave reactor, the RAMO (French acronym of Reacteur Autoclave Micro-Onde), containing the reactants and submitted to the microwave irradiation. Multicolor candy represents obtained material.

  10. Nonaqueous synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles: Short review and doped titanium dioxide as case study for the preparation of transition metal-doped oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djerdj, Igor; Ar?on, Denis; Jagli?i?, Zvonko; Niederberger, Markus

    2008-07-01

    The liquid-phase synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles in organic solvents under exclusion of water is nowadays a well-established alternative to aqueous sol-gel chemistry. In this article, we highlight some of the advantages of these routes based on selected examples. The first part reviews some recent developments in the synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanoparticles by surfactant-free nonaqueous sol-gel routes, followed by the discussion of the morphology-controlled synthesis of lanthanum hydroxide nanoparticles, and the presentation of structural peculiarities of manganese oxide nanoparticles with an ordered Mn vacancy superstructure. These examples show that nonaqueous systems, on the one hand, allow the preparation of compositionally complex oxides, and, on the other hand, make use of the organic components (initially present or formed in situ) in the reaction mixture to tailor the morphology. Furthermore, obviously even the crystal structure can differ from the corresponding bulk material like in the case of MnO nanoparticles. In the second part of the paper we present original results regarding the synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductor TiO 2 nanoparticles doped with cobalt and iron. The structural characterization as well as the magnetic properties with special attention to the doping efficiency is discussed.

  11. Nanoparticles prepared by the sol gel method and their use in the formation of nanocomposites with polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, E.; Quijada, R.; Retuert, J.

    2007-08-01

    Hybrid layered aluminosilicate nanoparticles (HLNP) containing octadecylamine (ODA) as the organic part, and silica nanoparticles with spherical morphology containing ODA (HSNP) or without ODA (SNP) were prepared by the sol-gel method and used for the formation of nanocomposites with polypropylene. The polypropylene matrices, of different molecular weight and polydispersity, were prepared using polymers obtained via Ziegler-Natta or metallocene catalysts. A strong influence of the morphology and the presence of ODA on the surface of the nanoparticles was found on the formation and characteristics of the nanocomposites. The mechanical properties and thermal stability of these materials were determined and compared with those of nanocomposites prepared with 2:1 phylosilicate clays such as montmorillonite and hectorite in similar polymer matrices. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and the study of mechanical properties showed that the use of HLNP allows nanocomposites with considerably improved mechanical properties to be obtained, compared with nanocomposites prepared with exfoliated clays. In the case of nanocomposites prepared with spherical particles functionalized with ODA (HSNP), materials with high specific strength combined with high elongation before rupture were obtained. The thermal stabilization of polypropylene matrices containing the synthesized nanoparticles (HLNP, HSNP or SNP) occurs about 50 °C higher than that attained with clays.

  12. Amino acid mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and preparation of antimicrobial agar/silver nanoparticles composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using amino acids (tyrosine and tryptophan) as reducing and capping agents, and they were incorporated into the agar to prepare antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs solutions exhibited characteristic absorption peak at 420 nm that showed a red shift to ?434 nm after forming composite with agar. XRD data demonstrated the crystalline structure of AgNPs with dominant (111) facet. Apparent surface color and transmittance of agar films were greatly influenced by the AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNPs into agar did not exhibit any change in chemical structure, thermal stability, moisture content, and water vapor permeability. The water contact angle, tensile strength, and modulus decreased slightly, but elongation at break increased after AgNPs incorporation. The agar/AgNPs nanocomposite films possessed strong antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. The agar/AgNPs film could be applied to the active food packaging by controlling the food-borne pathogens. PMID:26076636

  13. Facile preparation of TiO2-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid nanoparticles with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippo, Emanuela; Carlucci, Claudia; Capodilupo, Agostina Lina; Perulli, Patrizia; Conciauro, Francesca; Corrente, Giuseppina Anna; Gigli, Giuseppe; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid inorganic/organic core/shell nanoparticles were prepared through a two step synthesis procedure. In the first step, pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized though a rapid microwave assisted non-aqueous route. Then, the obtained titania nanoparticles were coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a simple solution method followed by relatively low temperature treatment. The PVA-coated titania nanoparticles samples were prepared at different TiO2-PVA weight ratio and they were characterized using X-Ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. Photocatalytic performance was also evaluated for all samples and the results indicated that TiO2:PVA weight ratio was a key factor to obtain an improvement of the photocatalytic activity with respect to bare TiO2 nanoparticles, since PVA concentration influenced the surface area and the aggregation of nanoparticles and the thickness of the coating layer. This inexpensive system provides a simple, quick and effective approach which allows to obtain core/shell hybrid nanostructures.

  14. Preparation and characterization of radioactive dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded PLLA nanoparticles for radionuclide intra-tumoral therapy.

    PubMed

    Hamoudeh, Misara; Salim, Hani; Barbos, Dumitru; Paunoiu, Coustantin; Fessi, Hatem

    2007-11-01

    This study describes the development of biocompatible radioactive rhenium-loaded nanoparticles for radionuclide anti-cancer therapy. To achieve this goal, dirhenium decacarbonyl [Re2(CO)10] has been encapsulated in poly(L-lactide) based nanoparticles by an oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A 3(3) factorial design method was applied to investigate the influence of both the proceeding and formulation parameters including the stirring speed and the concentration of both the PLLA polymer and the poly(vinyl alcohol) stabiliser on both nanoparticles size and the Re2(CO)10 encapsulation efficacy. The factorial design results attributed a clear negative effect for the stirring speed and the stabiliser concentration on the nanoparticles size while the polymer concentration exhibited a positive one. Regarding the Re2(CO)10 encapsulation efficacy, higher values were obtained when higher polymer concentrations, lower stabiliser concentrations or slower stirring speeds were applied in the preparation. Different tests were thereafter performed to characterize the Re2(CO)10-loaded nanoparticles. The nanoparticles size, being experimentally controlled by the above mentioned parameters, ranged between 330 and 1500 nm and the maximum rhenium loading was 24% by nanoparticles weight as determined by atomic emission assays and neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the rhenium distribution within nanoparticles has been shown to be homogeneous as confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. DSC assays demonstrated that Re2(CO)10 was encapsulated in its crystalline initial state. Other experiments including FT-IR and NMR did not show interactions between PLLA and Re2(CO)10. To render them radioactive, these nanoparticles have been bombarded with a neutron flux of 1.45x10(13) n/cm2/s during 1 h. The SEM micrographs of nanoparticles after neutron bombardment showed that the nanoparticles remained spherical and separated but slightly misshaped. These applied neutron activation conditions yielded a specific activity of about 32.5 GBq per gram of nanoparticles. Preliminary estimations allow us to think that a sole injection of 50 mg of these activated nanoparticles into a brain tumor model (4.2 cm diameter) would deliver a tumor absorbed dose of up to 47 Gy. In conclusion, these dirhenium decacarbonyl-loaded nanoparticles represent a novel promising tool for radionuclide anti-cancer therapy. PMID:17521895

  15. Preparation of immunomagnetic nanoparticles and their application in the separation of mouse CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin; Xu, Ke; Xu, Jianhe; Chen, Wei; Shen, Hebai; Liu, Jianwen

    2009-06-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles with a diameter of about 60 nm were synthesized by coprecipitation from ferrous and ferric iron solutions and coated with silica. Then the nanoparticles were modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AEAPS) in order to immobilize anti-CD34 + monoclonal antibodies to the surface of modified magnetic particles. The results of transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) indicated that the nanoparticles were successfully prepared. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo confirmed that the mouse CD34 + cells (cells expressing CD34) were separated by the immunomagnetic nanoparticles. The viability of the separated cells was studied by hematopoietic colony-forming assay, the result of which showed that the target cells still had an ability of proliferation and differentiation. The application of the separated CD34 + cells was in testing the pharmacological effect of three samples isolated from enzyme-digested traditional Chinese medicine Colla corii asini.

  16. The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to ?-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, ?-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed.

  17. Synthesis and size dependent magnetic behaviour of nanocrystalline Cu0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolia, S. N.; Sharma, P. K.; Dhawan, M. S.; Samariya, A.; Pareek, S. P.; Prasad, Arun S.; Singhal, R. K.; Kumar, Sudhish

    2011-10-01

    Particle size has significant effect on the magnetic properties of nano-particles. Nano-particles of Cu-Ni ferrite have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Different particle sizes (3nm-9 nm) were obtained by annealing the prepared samples at various temperatures. The specimens characterized using XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure. The samples show typical superparamagnetic behaviour above blocking temperature. The particle size increases with increasing the annealing temperature. The saturation magnetization & blocking temperature increases with particle size which is characteristic of superparamagnetism. The hysteresis curves show reduction in saturation magnetization in the case of nanoparticles as compared to their bulk counterpart, which have been explained on the basis that the magnetic moments in the surface layers of a nanoparticle are in a state of frozen disorder. However the saturation magnetization increases with particle size, which is the characteristic property of single domain superparamagnetic particles.

  18. Preparation of monodispersed cobalt-boron spherical nanoparticles and their behavior during the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, D.G.; Zeng, X.L.; Chu, W.; Wang, D.; Wu, P.

    2010-04-15

    Monodispersed cobalt-boron spherical nanoparticles have been prepared through solution plasma processing in the presence of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide for the first time. The particle size of cobalt-boron can be adjusted by changing either the plasma time or the concentration of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. During the decomposition of hydrous hydrazine, the obtained monodispersed cobalt-boron spherical nanoparticles exhibit higher catalytic activity and hydrogen selectivity than regular cobalt-boron prepared by direct reduction of Co{sup 2+} with BH{sub 4}{sup -}. The experimental investigations indicate that hydrous hydrazine along with the monodispersed cobalt-boron spherical nanoparticles may find application in small-scale on-board hydrogen storage and supply.

  19. Preparation,-Characterization and Anti-Glioma Effects of Docetaxel-Incorporated Albumin-Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huile; Cao, Shijie; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2015-12-01

    Poor aqueous solubility is a serious problem for most chemotherapeutics. Docetaxel (DTX), an inhibitor of microtubule depolymerization, is frequently used to treat many malignancies. However, the surfactant used in its commercial preparation (Taxotere) has proven problematic in clinical use because it has been associated with several side effects. By utilizing the high DTX-loading property of albumin, a new formulation, DTX-incorporated albumin-lipid nanoparticles (DNPs), was prepared and evaluated. DTX was bound to albumin in vitro and dispersed by egg yolk lecithin. The DNP particle size was 110.1 nm, while the average DNP zeta potential was -2.95 mV. The median lethal dose of DNPs was 180.6 mg/kg, which was 75.3% higher than that of Taxotere. DNPs could effectively inhibit the proliferation of several cell lines and induce cell apoptosis. In vivo imaging suggested that DNPs localize to and accumulate at the glioma site, which is likely due to the enhanced permeation and retention effects of DNPs. These pharmacological experiments further confirmed that DNPs can inhibit tumor growth, prolong the median survival time of mice with gliomas and induce higher levels of apoptosis. In conclusion, this novel formulation of DTX (DNPs) displayed lower toxicity and a superior anti-glioma effect relative to standard DTX preparations. PMID:26510308

  20. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of biocomposite films containing chitosan and sago starch impregnated with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arockianathan, P Marie; Sekar, S; Kumaran, B; Sastry, T P

    2012-05-01

    The positive attributes of excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability of biopolymers with versatile biological activities have provided ample opportunities for further development of functional biomaterials of high potential in various fields. The biopolymers used in this study, i.e. chitosan and sago starch are abundantly available in nature and can be used in various biomedical applications. In the present study, the composite films of chitosan (Ch) and sago starch (SG) impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with and without antibiotic gentamicin (G) were prepared by solvent casting method. The films prepared were characterized for their physic-chemical properties using conventional methods. The results obtained showed that with the increase of chitosan content in the composite results in decrease in its water absorption capacity. The FTIR and SEM studies have shown the composite nature of the films prepared. Ch-SG-AgNP and Ch-SG-AgNP-G composites were used as wound dressing materials in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern of the wounds was evaluated by planimetric studies, macroscopic observations, biochemical studies and histopathological observations. The results have shown faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with Ch-SG-AgNP and Ch-SG-AgNP-G composites compared to untreated control. This study suggests that Ch-SG-AgNP film may be a potential candidate as a dressing material for wound healing applications. PMID:22390849

  1. Properties of Organic Coatings with Nonisometric Ferrite Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Miroslav; Kalendová, Andrea

    Ferrite pigments were synthesized through a high-temperature process during a solid phase. Zinc ferrites were prepared from hematite, goethite, magnetite and specularite entering into reaction with zinc oxide at temperatures ranging from 650 °C up to 1,150 °C. The nature of the initial raw material, primarily the shape of its particles, affects the shape of the particles of the synthesized zinc ferrite. The formulated zinc ferrites had a rod-shape, lamellar, and/or isometric shape. The shape of the particles of synthesized zinc ferrites was studied with regard to its effects on the mechanical and corrosion resistance of organic coatings. The obtained pigments were characterized by means of X- ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized anticorrosion pigments were used to prepare epoxy-ester coatings and water-borne styrene-acrylate coatings that were subjected to post-application tests for physical-mechanical properties and anticorrosion properties.

  2. [Preparation Polyacrylonitrile/Ag Nanoparticle Composite Nanofibers Via an Elelctrospinning Technique and Their Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Study].

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Li, Ting-ting; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Bing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have prepared polyacrylonitrile (PAN) /Ag nanoparticle composite nanofibers as a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate via an electrospinning technique. First, the PAN and AgNO3 were dissolved in N, N'-dimethylformamide solvent to get PAN/Ag seed solution; then the PAN/Ag seed solution was electrospun for the preparation of PAN/Ag seed composite nanofibers; Finally, the PAN/Ag seed composite nanofibers were treated by hydrazine hydrate to syn- thesize PAN/Ag nanoparticle composite nanofibers. The as-prepared PAN/Ag nanoparticle composite nanofibers were mixed with the probes for the SERS detection to get the SERS spectrum of the probes. The PAN/Ag nanoparticle composite nanofibers substate showed a good SERS signal when the concentration of PATP is as low as 10(-6) mol x L(-1). Furthermore, this kind of SERS substrate could be large-scale prepared, which showed a high commercial value. PMID:26717748

  3. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cel...

  4. Selection of a Suitable Method for the Preparation of Polymeric Nanoparticles: Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Kannan; Mahalingam, Manikandan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study is aimed to select the suitable method for preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles by utilizing the multi-criteria decision making method. Novel approaches of drug delivery by formulation using nanotechnology are revolutionizing the future of medicine. Recent years have witnessed unprecedented growth of research and application in the area of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles have become an important area of research in the field of drug delivery because they have the ability to deliver a wide range of drug to varying areas of body. Methods: Despite of extensive research and development, polymeric nanoparticles are frequently used to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs. A number of techniques are available for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method for decision making, which are derived from individual judgements for qualitative factors, using the pair-wise comparison matrix. In AHP, a decision hierarchy is constructed with a goal, criteria and alternatives. Results: The model uses three main criteria 1) Instrument, 2) Process and Output and 3) Cost. In addition, there are eight sub-criteria’s as well as eight alternatives. Pair-wise comparison matrixes are used to obtain the overall priority weight and ranking for the selection of suitable method. Nanoprecipitation technique is the most suitable method for the preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles with the highest overall priority weight of 0.297 Conclusion: In particular, the result indicates that the priority weights obtained from AHP could be defined as a multiple output for finding out the most suitable method for preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID:25789220

  5. Preparation of birnessite-supported pt nanoparticles and their application in catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linlin; Tian, Hua; He, Junhui; Wang, Donghui; Yang, Qiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Flaky and nanospherical birnessite and birnessite-supported Pt catalysts were successfully prepared and characterized by means of Xray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and N2 adsorption-desorption. Effects of the birnessite morphology and Pt reduction method on the catalytic activity for the complete oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) were investigated. It was found that flaky birnessite exhibited higher catalytic activity than nanospherical birnessite. The promoting effect of Pt on the birnessite catalyst indicated that the reduction method of the Pt precursor greatly influenced the catalytic performance. Flaky birnessite-supported Pt nanoparticles reduced by KBH4 showed the highest catalytic activity and could completely oxidize HCHO into CO2 and H20 at 50 degreesC, whereas the sample reduced using H2-plasma showed lower activity for HCHO oxidation. The differences in catalytic activity of these materials were jointly attributed to the effects of pore structure, surface active sites exposed to HCHO and the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. PMID:23505880

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Tripterygium wilfordii Multi-Glycoside Nanoparticle Using Supercritical Anti-Solvent Process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengli; Li, Tong; Li, Shuangyang; Hou, Kexin; Liu, Zaizhi; Li, Lili; Cui, Guoqiang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare nanosized Tripterygium wilfordii multi-glycoside (GTW) powders by the supercritical antisolvent precipitation process (SAS), and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. Ethanol was used as solvent and carbon dioxide was used as an antisolvent. The effects of process parameters such as precipitation pressure (15–35 MPa), precipitation temperature (45–65 °C), drug solution flow rates (3–7 mL/min) and drug concentrations (10–30 mg/mL) were investigated. The nanospheres obtained with mean diameters ranged from 77.5 to 131.8 nm. The processed and unprocessed GTW were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of the GTW nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. The processed and unprocessed GTW were tested against Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Blood samples were collected for the estimation of interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). It was concluded that physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW nanoparticles could be improved by physical modification, such as particle size reduction using supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory activity of GTW. PMID:24549173

  7. Understanding the Metal Distribution in Core-Shell Nanoparticles Prepared in Micellar Media.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Concha; Buceta, David; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2015-12-01

    The factors that govern the reaction rate of Au/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles prepared in microemulsions by a one-pot method are examined in the light of a simulation model. Kinetic analysis proves that the intermicellar exchange has a strong effect on the reaction rates of the metal precursors. Relating to Au, reaction rate is controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate whenever concentration is high enough. With respect to Pt, the combination of a slower reduction rate and the confinement of the reactants inside micelles gives rise to an increase of local Pt salt concentration. Two main consequences must be emphasized: On one hand, Pt reduction may continue independently whether or not a new intermicellar exchange takes place. On the other hand, the accumulation of Pt reactants accelerates the reaction. As the reactant accumulation is larger when the exchange rate is faster, the resulting Pt rate increases. This results in a minor difference in the reduction rate of both metals. This difference is reflected in the metal distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticle, which shows a greater degree of mixture as the intermicellar exchange rate is faster. PMID:26303140

  8. Preparation of ruby red glasses from gold nanoparticles: Influence of stannic oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangtaweep, Y.; A-nupan, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, effects of stannic oxide concentration to red glass prepared from gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) have been investigated. The glasses were fabricated by conventional melt quench method using SiO2, CaO, K2CO3, Na2CO3, SeO2, AuNPs and vary stannic oxide concentration by 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % by weight. The result found that, the red colors of glasses were obtained from gold nanoparticles at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 % of stannic oxide. At 0.0, 0.3 and 0.4 % are show purple-blue colors. The results reflecting that the particle size of gold particle in glass matrices at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 % of stannic oxide are smaller than 0.3 and 0.4 %. The color of glasses were confirmed by uv-visible spectrophotometer and color coordinate in CIEL*a*b*.

  9. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. PMID:26123815

  10. Understanding the Metal Distribution in Core-Shell Nanoparticles Prepared in Micellar Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tojo, Concha; Buceta, David; López-Quintela, M. Arturo

    2015-08-01

    The factors that govern the reaction rate of Au/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles prepared in microemulsions by a one-pot method are examined in the light of a simulation model. Kinetic analysis proves that the intermicellar exchange has a strong effect on the reaction rates of the metal precursors. Relating to Au, reaction rate is controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate whenever concentration is high enough. With respect to Pt, the combination of a slower reduction rate and the confinement of the reactants inside micelles gives rise to an increase of local Pt salt concentration. Two main consequences must be emphasized: On one hand, Pt reduction may continue independently whether or not a new intermicellar exchange takes place. On the other hand, the accumulation of Pt reactants accelerates the reaction. As the reactant accumulation is larger when the exchange rate is faster, the resulting Pt rate increases. This results in a minor difference in the reduction rate of both metals. This difference is reflected in the metal distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticle, which shows a greater degree of mixture as the intermicellar exchange rate is faster.

  11. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by a thermal decomposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Lan, Hoang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Hien, Tran Minh; Huy, Tran Quang; Quy, Nguyen Van; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Tung, Le Minh; Tuan, Pham Anh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing need of efficient synthetic protocols using eco-friendly conditions including low costs and green chemicals for production of metal nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with average particle size about 10 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition technique. Unlike the colloidal chemistry method, the thermal decomposition method developed has advantages such as the high crystallinity, single-reaction synthesis, and easy dispersion ability of the synthesized NPs in organic solvents. In a modified synthesis process, we used sodium oleate as a capping agent to modify the surface of silver NPs because the oleate has a C18 tail with a double bond in the middle, therefore, forming a kink which is to be effective for aggregative stability. Importantly, the as-synthesized silver NPs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against various bacteria and fungi strains. Electron microscopic studies reveal physical insights into the interaction and bactericidal mechanism between the prepared silver NPs and tested bacteria in question. The observed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity of the silver NPs make them ideal for disinfection and biomedicine applications.

  12. Sonochemically synthesis of pyrazolones using reusable catalyst CuI nanoparticles that was prepared by sonication.

    PubMed

    Ziarati, Abolfazl; Safaei-Ghomi, Javad; Rohani, Sahar

    2013-07-01

    A simple and green process to prepare copper iodide in nano scale via sonication was carried out. Subsequently, this nanoparticles was used as an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 2-aryl-5-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolones via four-component reaction of hydrazine, ethyl acetoacetate, aldehyde and ?-naphthol in water under ultrasound irradiation. The combinatorial synthesis was attained for this procedure with applying ultrasound irradiation while making use of water as green ambient. Simple work-up, excellent yield of products and short reaction times are some of the important features of this protocol. Notably, this catalyst could be recycled and reused for five times without noticeably decreasing the catalytic activity. PMID:23414833

  13. Preparation, characterization and properties of novel covalently surface-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Moriyuki; Harada, Hajime; Morito, Shigekazu; Fujita, Yasuhisa; Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Urano, Takeshi; Nakamura, Morihiko

    2010-05-01

    Novel covalently surface-modified zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP) (ZHIE) were successfully prepared, which have organic chains composed of hydrophilic amide and urethane linkages, and terminal amino groups on the surfaces, using zinc acetate monohydrate. FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray analysis and TEM observation suggested that the resultant ZHIE NPs have the mean sizes of about 10 nm in diameters, the organic chains linking the amino groups in the terminals and wurtzite crystal structure. UV-vis absorption spectrum of the ZHIE NPs in methanol showed maximum absorption band at 348 nm, supporting the TEM observations. Photoluminescent spectrum measurements depicted that the ZHIE NPs show broad visible emission band on the basis of trapped-electron emission. Cytotoxicity and phagocytosis assays suggested that the ZHIE NPs are noncytotoxic, and the ZHIE-labeled zymosan particles derived by conjugation of the ZHIE NPs with zymosan are internalized into the cells and generate fluorescence based on the ZHIE NPs.

  14. Preparation of uniform Si nanoparticles for high-performance Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Su, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Du, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-21

    Nanostructured silicon has attracted a great deal of attention as an excellent anode material for Li ion batteries (LIBs). However, the use of Si nanomaterials in LIBs is severely hindered by their preparative methods owing to the high cost, low yield, and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we report a new method for the synthesis of uniform Si nanocrystals based on the magnesiothermic reduction of natural attapulgite clay. The obtained Si nanocrystals with a uniform size of ca. 10 nm are coated with polypyrrole (denoted ppy@Si) and show excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for LIBs. After charging-discharging for 200 cycles at a current density of 0.6 A g(-1), the specific capacity value of the ppy@Si anode is ?954 mA h g(-1). Because of the abundance of attapulgite, the obtained silicon nanoparticles can be exploited as a practical anode material for high-performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26667776

  15. Zirconium nanoparticles prepared by the reduction of zirconium oxide using the RAPET method

    PubMed Central

    Eshed, Michal; Pol, Swati; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam

    2011-01-01

    Summary The aim of the current work is the synthesis and characterization of metallic Zr nanoparticles. The preparation is carried out by using the RAPET method (Reaction under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperatures) developed in our lab. The RAPET reaction of commercial ZrO2 with Mg powder was carried out in a closed stainless steel cell, at 750 °C. On completion of the reaction, the additionally formed MgO is removed by treatment with acid. The characterization of the product was performed by XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and elemental analysis. The XRD pattern reveals that the product is composed of pure metallic zirconium, without any traces of the MgO by-product. PMID:21977431

  16. Production of antibacterial colored viscose fibers using in situ prepared spherical Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Emam, Hossam E; Mowafi, Salwa; Mashaly, Hamada M; Rehan, Mohamed

    2014-09-22

    In situ incorporation technique was used for coloration and acquiring excellent antibacterial properties for viscose fibers by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs were prepared in situ and incorporated in viscose matrix directly without using any other reducing and stabilizing agents. The main objective of this research was to successfully employ the reducing and stabilizing features of cellulose to produce nanosilver-viscose composites. Coloration of fibers after in situ AgNPs incorporation is related to surface plasmon resonance of silver. Colorimetric data were recorded as a function of washings to characterize the final colored fibers. Fastness properties and silver release were all measured to study the washable and wear off properties. Depending on the silver concentration, yellowish colored fibers with different shades were produced. Good fastness properties were obtained after 20 washings without using any crosslinker or binder. The colored fibers had excellent antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, even after 20 washings. PMID:24906741

  17. Biomimetic Preparation and Dual-Color Bioimaging of Fluorescent Silicon Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sicong; Zhong, Yiling; Zhou, Yanfeng; Song, Bin; Chu, Binbin; Ji, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2015-11-25

    Fluorescent silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), as the most important zero-dimensional silicon nanostructures, hold high promise for long-awaited silicon-based optic applications. There currently remain major challenges for the green, inexpensive, and mass production of fluorescent SiNPs, resulting in difficulties in sufficiently exploiting the properties of these remarkable materials. Here, we show that fluorescent small-sized (?3.8 nm) SiNPs can be produced through biomimetic synthesis in rapid (10 min), low-cost, and environmentally benign manners. The as-prepared SiNPs simultaneously feature bright fluorescence (quantum yield (QY), ?15-20%), narrow emission spectral width (full width at half-maximum (fwhm), ?30 nm), and nontoxicity, making them as high-quality fluorescent probes for biological imaging in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26510478

  18. Preparation of airborne Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles using an aerosol process and their application to antimicrobial air filtration.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hee; Hwang, Gi Byoung; Lee, Jung Eun; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-08-16

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used in a variety of applications because of their unique structure and excellent mechanical and electrical properties. Additionally, silver (Ag) nanoparticles exhibit broad-spectrum biocidal activity toward many different bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we prepared Ag-coated CNT hybrid nanoparticles (Ag/CNTs) using aerosol nebulization and thermal evaporation/condensation processes and tested their usefulness for antimicrobial air filtration. Droplets were generated from a CNT suspension using a six-jet collison nebulizer, passed through a diffusion dryer to remove moisture, and entered a thermal tube furnace where silver nanoparticles were generated by thermal evaporation/condensation at ?980 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The CNT and Ag nanoparticle aerosols mixed together and attached to each other, forming Ag/CNTs. For physicochemical characterization, the Ag/CNTs were introduced into a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size distribution measurements and were sampled by the nanoparticle sampler for morphological and elemental analyses. For antimicrobial air filtration applications, the airborne Ag/CNT particles generated were deposited continuously onto an air filter medium. Physical characteristics (fiber morphology, pressure drop, and filtration efficiency) and biological characteristics (antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli bioaerosols) were evaluated. Real-time SMPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data showed that Ag nanoparticles that were <20 nm in diameter were homogeneously dispersed and adhered strongly to the CNT surfaces. Because of the attachment of Ag nanoparticles onto the CNT surfaces, the total particle surface area concentration measured by a nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM) was lower than the summation of each Ag nanoparticle and CNT generated. When Ag/CNTs were deposited on the surface of an air filter medium, the antimicrobial activity against test bacterial bioaerosols was enhanced, compared with the deposition of CNTs or Ag nanoparticles alone, whereas the filter pressure drop and bioaerosol filtration efficiency were similar to those of CNT deposition only. At a residence time of 2 h, the relative microbial viabilities of gram-positive S. epidermidis were ?32, 13, 5, and 0.9% on the control, CNT-, Ag nanoparticle-, and Ag/CNT-deposited filters, respectively, and those of gram-negative E. coli were 13, 2.1, 0.4, and 0.1% on the control, CNTs, Ag nanoparticles, and Ag/CNTs, respectively. These Ag/CNT hybrid nanoparticles may be useful for applications in biomedical devices and antibacterial control systems. PMID:21751779

  19. Preparation and Efficacy of Newcastle Disease Virus DNA Vaccine Encapsulated in PLGA Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomei; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Chen; Dai, Chunxiao; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Yan; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND) for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice. Methodology/Principal Findings The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o) DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs) were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5±7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8±0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Conclusions/Significance The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles. PMID:24386106

  20. Temporal and preparation effects in the magnetic nanoparticles of Apis mellifera body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambarelli, L. L.; Pinho, M. A.; Abraçado, L. G.; Esquivel, D. M. S.; Wajnberg, E.

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the Apis mellifera abdomens are well accepted as involved in their magnetoreception mechanism. The effects of sample preparation on the time evolution of magnetic particles in the honeybee body parts (antennae, head, thorax and abdomen) were investigated by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) at room temperature (RT), for about 100 days. Three preparations were tested: (a) washed with water (WT); (b) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) for 24 h and washed with cacodylate buffer (C); (c) as (a), kept in glutaraldehyde 2.5% for 24 h and washed with glutaraldehyde 2.5% in cacodylate buffer (GLC). The four body parts of young and adult worker presented magnetic nanoparticles. The Mn 2+ lines are observed except for the antennae spectra. The high field (HF) and low field (LF) components previously observed in the spectra of social insects, are confirmed in these spectra. The HF line is present in all spectra while the LF is easily observed in the spectra of the young bee and it appears as a baseline shift in spectra of some adult parts. The HF intensity of the abdomen is commonly one order of magnitude larger than any other body parts. This is the first systematic study on the conservation of magnetic material in all body parts of bees. The results show that the time evolution of the spectra depends on the body part, conserving solution and bee age. Further measurements are necessary to understand these effects and extend it to other social insects.

  1. Stable nanoparticles prepared by heating electrostatic complexes of whey protein isolate-dextran conjugate and chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xiuling; Abbas, Shabbar; Karangwa, Eric; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin; Feng, Biao; Jia, Chengsheng

    2015-04-29

    A simple and green method was developed for preparing the stable biopolymer nanoparticles with pH and salt resistance. The method involved the macromolecular crowding Maillard process and heat-induced gelation process. The conjugates of whey protein isolate (WPI) and dextran were produced by Maillard reaction. The nanoparticles were fabricated by heating electrostatic complexes of WPI-dextran conjugate and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) above the denaturation temperature and near the isoelectric point of WPI. Then, the nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic laser scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the nanoparticles were stable in the pH range from 1.0 to 8.0 and in the presence of high salt concentration of 200 mM NaCl. WPI-dextran conjugate, WPI, and ChS were assembled into the nanoparticles with dextran conjugated to WPI/ChS shell and WPI/ChS core. The repulsive steric interactions, from both dextran covalently conjugated to WPI and ChS electrostatically interacted with WPI, were the major formation mechanism of the stable nanoparticles. As a nutrient model, lutein could be effectively encapsulated into the nanoparticles. Additionally, the nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and homogeneous size distribution regardless of lutein loading. The results suggested that the stable nanoparticles from proteins and strong polyelectrolyte polysaccharides would be used as a promising target delivery system for hydrophobic nutrients and drugs at physiological pH and salt conditions. PMID:25844903

  2. Magnetic properties of LiZnCu ferrite synthesized by the microwave sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, Sujata S.; Shinde, Neelam S.; Basavaiah, Nathani; Watawe, Shrikant C.; Vaidya, Milind M.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium ferrites have attracted considerable attention because they have been used as replacements for garnets due to their low cost. A series of polycrystalline ferrite samples were prepared with the composition of LiXZn(0.6-2X)Cu0.4Fe2O4(X=0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) at chemical reaction temperature 150 °C by sintering with microwave assisted combustion method. The characterization shows the formation of single phase cubic structure when carried out by using the X-rays technique and I-R technique. Magnetization parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity, magnetic moment were calculated by using the Hysteresis graph. The Curie temperature obtained using the susceptibility data are found to be in the range 350-700 °C. Anhysteric remanent magnetization is used for estimating the grain size and domain structure of the composition. An attempt has been made to synthesis the nano-particles at lower reaction temperature by using non-conventional microwave sintering method. The advantage of this method is its lower sintering temperature and time compared to the conventional ceramic technique and direct formation of nano-ferrites without ball-milling.

  3. Stable Oligomeric Clusters of Gold Nanoparticles: Preparation, Size Distribution, Derivatization, and Physical and Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reducing dilute aqueous HAuCl4 with NaSCN under alkaline conditions produces 2–3 nm diameter yellow nanoparticles without the addition of extraneous capping agents. We here describe two very simple methods for producing highly stable oligomeric grape-like clusters (oligoclusters) of these small nanoparticles. The oligoclusters have well-controlled diameters ranging from ?5 to ?30 nm, depending mainly on the number of subunits in the cluster. Our first [“delay-time”] method controls the size of the oligoclusters by varying from seconds to hours the delay time between making the HAuCl4 alkaline and adding the reducing agent, NaSCN. Our second [“add-on”] method controls size by using yellow nanoparticles as seeds onto which varying amounts of gold derived from “hydroxylated gold”, Na+[Au(OH4–x)Clx]?, are added-on catalytically in the presence of NaSCN. Possible reaction mechanisms and a simple kinetic model fitting the data are discussed. The crude oligocluster preparations have narrow size distributions, and for most purposes do not require fractionation. The oligoclusters do not aggregate after ?300-fold centrifugal-filter concentration, and at this high concentration are easily derivatized with a variety of thiol-containing reagents. This allows rare or expensive derivatizing reagents to be used economically. Unlike conventional glutathione-capped nanoparticles of comparable gold content, large oligoclusters derivatized with glutathione do not aggregate at high concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or in the circulation when injected into mice. Mice receiving them intravenously show no visible signs of distress. Their sizes can be made small enough to allow their excretion in the urine or large enough to prevent them from crossing capillary basement membranes. They are directly visible in electron micrographs without enhancement, and can model the biological fate of protein-like macromolecules with controlled sizes and charges. The ease of derivatizing the oligoclusters makes them potentially useful for presenting pharmacological agents to different tissues while controlling escape of the reagents from the circulation. PMID:25317930

  4. Facile and economical synthesis of large hollow ferrites and their applications in adsorption for As(V) and Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Dui, Jingna; Zhu, Gongyu; Zhou, Shaomin

    2013-10-23

    Unlike the previous ferrites (MFe2O4; M=Fe, Co, Zn, and Mn) solid nanospheres/nanoparticles, which were prepared by polluted solvothermal (glycol) approaches, here controllable monodisperse porous ferrites hollow nanospheres are promptly synthesized by a nontemplate hydrothermal method which has introduced an addition agent, polyacrylamide. The hollow nanospheres with different size can be prepared by varying the synthetic compositions. Scanning/transmission micros-graphs show the outside diameters of ferrite nanospheres are 180-380 nm and the shell thicknesses of that are only 20-45 nm, which could be adjusted by controlling CH3COONa concentration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), the measurement of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQID) magnetometer were adopted to analyze their phase composition, morphology, porosity, and magnetic properties, respectively. The results of controlled experiments show that citrate and polyacrylamide are vital for the phase purities and morphology of ferrites. In particular, the as-obtained samples exhibit a large adsorption capacity for the toxic solution containing As(V) and Cr(VI) ions, and the calculated result of the maximum adsorption capacity is 340 mg/g based on Langmuir model, which shows excellent As(V) and Cr(VI) ions uptake capacity in contrast to other solid nanosphere materials. PMID:24066850

  5. Intensification of ultrasound-assisted process for the preparation of spindle-shape sodium zinc molybdate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhanvase, B A; Patel, M A; Sonawane, S H; Pandit, A B

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, sodium zinc molybdate (SZM) nanoparticles were prepared using conventional and an innovative ultrasound assisted co-precipitation of sodium molybdate, zinc oxide and HNO3 at different temperatures. Prepared product was characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, particle size distribution (PSD), TGA and DTA techniques. TEM analysis shows the spindle-shaped morphology of the formed SZM nanoparticles. The average particle size of SZM nanoparticles is found to be lower in case of sonochemical method (78.3nm) compared to conventional method (340.2nm) which is attributed to faster solute transfer rate due to ultrasonic irradiation leading to rapid nucleation and restricted growth of SZM nanoparticles. Further, the kinetics of synthesis of SZM nanoparticles are studied using the sonochemical method at different operating temperature and conventional method at 80°C. It is shown that the rate of reaction is significantly faster at 40°C compared to other temperatures and also conventional method. This can be attributed to intense cavity collapse at lower temperature (low vapour pressure) compared to higher temperature (high vapour pressure) of the reaction mixture. PMID:26384913

  6. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shenyong; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y-M-O and TiC), submicron particles (Y-M-O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  7. Development of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins: the influence of preparation method on the immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Juliana De Souza; Irache, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Ana I; Esparza, Irene; Del Pozo, Victoria; Sanz, María L; Ferrer, Marta; Gamazo, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is based on the administration of allergens with the main disadvantage of inducing an allergic reaction. Within this context, we report the generation of an adjuvant and allergen-delivery system for peanut allergen immunotherapy with reduced IgE induction. Therefore, we prepared and characterized poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins using the solvent displacement method, with some modifications in the manufacturing process. The precipitation of polymer was performed with either a mixture of ethanol and water or water. The resultant nanoparticles were dried by either freeze-drying or spray-drying, respectively. Poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with peanut proteins were successfully developed, achieving both high encapsulation efficiency (70-80%) and manufacturing yield (60-80%). After intradermal immunization of mice (C57Bl/6) with peanut proteins incorporated into poly(anhydride) nanoparticles, a strong mixed T(H)1/T(H)2-type immune response was observed. Furthermore, we also provide, to our knowledge for the first time, clear evidence of the influence of formulation design on the immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles. Taken together, our findings indicate that poly(anhydride) nanoparticles are efficient stimulators of immune responses and promising adjuvants and allergen-delivery systems applied for immunotherapy. PMID:22782031

  8. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of magnetically reusable Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Jinghai; Li, Xiuyan; Wang, Dandan; Wei, Bing; Song, Hang; Li, Xuefei; Fu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Fe3O4@ZnO binary nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple two-step chemical method and characterized using various analytical instruments. TEM result proved the binary nanoparticles have core/shell structures and average particle size is 60 nm. Photocatalytic investigation of Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles was carried out using rhodamine B (RhB) solution under UV light. Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic performance in comparison with the as prepared ZnO nanoparticles. The enhanced photocatalytic activity for Fe3O4@ZnO might be resulting from the higher concentration of surface oxygen vacancies and the suppressing effect of the Fe3+ ions on the recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. Magnetization saturation value (5.96 emu/g) of Fe3O4@ZnO core/shell nanoparticles is high enough to be magnetically removed by applying a magnetic field. The core/shell photocatalyst can be easily separated by using a commercial magnet and almost no decrease in photocatalytic efficiency was observed even after recycling six times.

  9. Preparation and tribological properties of fluorosilane surface-modified lanthanum trifluoride nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiao; He, Jie; Yu, Laigui; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-10-01

    LaF3 nanoparticles surface-modified with fluorosilane were synthesized by surface modification technology. The size, morphology and phase structure of as-prepared surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The tribological properties of surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles as additive of fluoro silicone oil were evaluated with a four-ball machine, and the morphology and elemental composition of worn steel surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results show that 3-(heptafluoroisopropoxy)propyltriethoxysilane as the modifier is able to improve the dispersibility of LaF3 nanoparticles in fluoro silicone oil. Moreover, when the optimum concentration, 0.08 wt.% of fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 is added into fluoro silicone oil, as-synthesized fluorosilane surface-modified LaF3 nanoparticles exhibit excellent anti-wear as additive in fluoro silicone oil. The wear scar diameter under the optimum concentration is always smaller than that under the lubrication of fluoro silicone oil alone. Especially, when the load is 500 N, 600 N and 700 N, the wear scar diameter is reduced by 17%, 43% and 42%, respectively. In addition, during the friction process, LaF3 nanoparticles are deposited on the rubbed steel surface to form LaF3 deposition layer which functions jointly with the boundary lubricating film thereby resulting in improved tribological properties.

  10. A General Strategy to Prepare TiO2-core Gold-shell Nanoparticles as SERS-tags

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenbing; Guo, Yanyan; Zhang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of TiO2-based core-shell nanoparticles as surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) tags are reported. A hydrolysis approach is first used to generate colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles, which are subsequently tagged with Raman probe molecules and encapsulated within a gold nanoshell. The resulting core-shell nanoparticles are characterized by using a number of techniques including UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to confirm the successful coating of the Au shells. These core-shell nanoparticles exhibit very strong and reproducible SERS signals of the Raman probe molecules. Three different types of Raman probe molecules are used to prepare different SERS-active nanoparticles (SERS-tags), which demonstrates the versatility of the design. Such TiO2-based metal-coated core-shell nanoparticles will be useful as SERS-tags in biological assay and imaging applications. They may also provide a platform for fundamental studies in the ongoing investigations on the mechanisms of SERS. PMID:20473348

  11. Pegylated nanoparticles based on poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride): preparation and evaluation of their bioadhesive properties.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Krassimira; Lizarraga, Elena; Irache, Juan M

    2005-04-01

    Pegylated nanoparticles based on poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) were prepared by simple solvent displacement method, in the absence of catalysts or specific chemical conditions. Pegylation efficiency increased with the increasing of molecular weight and bulk concentration of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs) investigated. In fact, the use of PEG with molecular weight less than 1000 Da did not lead to its attachment. 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed in order to estimate the conformation state of PEG-chains and to predict the nanoparticle structure. Pegylation with PEG 2000 gave surface modified nanoparticles ("brush" conformation), while the chains of PEG 1000 were distributed either in the core or physically adsorbed on the nanoparticle surface. The capacity of nanoparticles to adsorb mucin at pH 7.4 was significantly higher for PEG 1000-NP than for PEG 2000-NP. The "brush" layer seemed to decrease the interaction between PEG 2000-NP and mucin, which facilitated their penetration through the mucus gel. As a consequence, PEG 2000-NP displayed higher capacity to develop adhesive interactions with rat intestinal mucosa in vivo. Independent on the weaker bioadhesive potential of PEG 1000-NP, both types of pegylated nanoparticles demonstrated very high affinity to the intestinal mucosa rather than to the stomach wall, which could be established for drug targeting to the small intestine. PMID:15784331

  12. Fast preparation of printable highly conductive polymer nanocomposites by thermal decomposition of silver carboxylate and sintering of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongwei; Lin, Wei; Moon, Kyoung-sik; Wong, C P

    2010-09-01

    We show the fast preparation of printable highly conductive polymer nanocomposites for future low-cost electronics. Highly conductive polymer nanocomposites, consisting of an epoxy resin, silver flakes, and incorporated silver nanoparticles, have been prepared by fast sintering between silver flakes and the incorporated silver nanoparticles. The fast sintering is attributed to: 1) the thermal decomposition of silver carboxylate-which is present on the surface of the incorporated silver flakes-to form in situ highly reactive silver nanoparticles; 2) the surface activation of the incorporated silver nanoparticles by the removal of surface residues. As a result, polymer nanocomposites prepared at 230 °C for 5 min, at 260 °C for 10 min, and using a typical lead-free solder reflow process show electrical resistivities of 8.1×10(-5), 6.0×10(-6), and 6.3×10(-5) ? cm, respectively. The correlation between the rheological properties of the adhesive paste and the noncontact printing process has been discussed. With the optimal rheological properties, the formulated highly viscous pastes (221 mPa s at 2500 s(-1)) can be non-contact-printed into dot arrays with a radius of 130 ?m. The noncontact printable polymer nanocomposites with superior electrical conductivity and fast processing are promising for the future of printed electronics. PMID:20735013

  13. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  14. Superparamagnetic state by linear and non-linear AC magnetic susceptibility in Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrites nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Suneetha, T; Kundu, S; Kashyap, Subhash C; Gupta, H C; Nath, T K

    2013-01-01

    The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles has been synthesized using citrate-gel-precursor method. The direct mixing of nitrates and acetates yields homogeneous nanoparticles. Phase formation and crystal structure of the synthesized powder were examined through the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the sample confirm the spinel structure. The average particle size was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The average particle size is found to be about 13 nm. Superparamagnetic-like nature of the nanoparticles of Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 has been revealed through various dc and linear and non-linear ac magnetization measurements. However, the nanoparticles do not behave like ideal non-interacting superparamagnets. The magnetic particle size is found to be about 8 nm with saturation magnetization about 18.1 emu/g. The blocking temperature (T(B)) of the nanoparticle assembly is found to be about 150 K as observed from dc and ac magnetization measurements. The frequency dependence of the blocking temperature (T(B)) is found to follow Vogel-Fulcher law. The associated characteristic time tau0 is found to be 10(-5) s. This value is different from that generally found for non-interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) systems (tau0 = 10(-9)-10(-10) s). PMID:23646726

  15. Magnetic properties of barium ferrite nanoparticles: Quantitative test of the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory for uniaxial single-domain magnetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hong-yan; Wang, Jun; Li, Le; Aguilar, Victor; Zhao, Guo-meng

    2013-11-01

    We have successfully synthesized single-domain barium ferrite particles with uniaxial anisotropy. We have coated them with amorphous silica to reduce interparticle interactions so that the assembly of these particles behaves like a noninteracting randomly oriented uniaxial single-domain particle system, a prototype for the Stoner-Wohlfarth model. From the magnetic hysteresis loops of the particle system in a wide temperature range (10-700 K), we simultaneously determine the magnetic anisotropic field HK, the reduced remanence Mr/Ms, and the coercive field HC in the whole temperature range below the Curie temperature. These complete sets of data allow us to quantitatively test the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory and the agreement between experiment and theory is good.

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. Incident angle-tuned, broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity plasmonic antennas prepared from nanoparticles on imprinted mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen-Chieh; Tseng, Yi-Chuan; Su, Pao-Yun; Lin, Keng-Te; Shao, Chang-Ching; Chou, Sin-Yi; Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hsuen-Li

    2015-02-01

    We have used a direct imprint-in-metal method that is cheap and rapid to prepare incident angle-tuned, broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity plasmonic antennas from nanoparticles (NPs) and imprinted metal mirrors. By changing the angle of incidence, the nanoparticle-imprinted mirror antennas (NIMAs) exhibited broadband electromagnetic enhancement from the visible to the near-infrared (NIR) regime, making them suitable for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. Unlike other SERS-active substrates that feature various structures with different periods or morphologies, the NIMAs achieved broadband electromagnetic enhancement from single configurations. The enhancement of the electric field intensity in the NIMAs originated from coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance of the NPs and the periodic structure-excited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the imprinted mirror. Moreover, the coupling wavelengths could be modulated because the SPR wavelength was readily tuned by changing the angle of the incident light. Herein, we demonstrate that such NIMAs are robust substrates for visible and NIR surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering under multiple laser lines (532, 633, and 785 nm) of excitation. In addition, we have found that NIMAs are ultrasensitive SERS-active substrates that can detect analytes (e.g., rhodamine 6G) at concentrations as low as 10-15 M.We have used a direct imprint-in-metal method that is cheap and rapid to prepare incident angle-tuned, broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity plasmonic antennas from nanoparticles (NPs) and imprinted metal mirrors. By changing the angle of incidence, the nanoparticle-imprinted mirror antennas (NIMAs) exhibited broadband electromagnetic enhancement from the visible to the near-infrared (NIR) regime, making them suitable for use as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. Unlike other SERS-active substrates that feature various structures with different periods or morphologies, the NIMAs achieved broadband electromagnetic enhancement from single configurations. The enhancement of the electric field intensity in the NIMAs originated from coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance of the NPs and the periodic structure-excited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the imprinted mirror. Moreover, the coupling wavelengths could be modulated because the SPR wavelength was readily tuned by changing the angle of the incident light. Herein, we demonstrate that such NIMAs are robust substrates for visible and NIR surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering under multiple laser lines (532, 633, and 785 nm) of excitation. In addition, we have found that NIMAs are ultrasensitive SERS-active substrates that can detect analytes (e.g., rhodamine 6G) at concentrations as low as 10-15 M. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SERS spectra of malachite green and CF790 dye. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05902f

  18. Preparation and enhanced properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles reinforced polyimide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Daowei; Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; He, Qingliang; Qiu, Bin; Jiang, Dawei; Wei, Huige; Guo, Jiang; Umar, Ahmad; Sun, Luyi; Wang, Qiang; Khan, Mojammel A.; Young, David P.; Zhang, Xin; Weeks, Brandon; Ho, Thomas C.; Guo, Zhanhu; Wei, Suying

    2015-09-01

    Polyimide (PI) nanocomposite reinforced with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) at various NPs loadings levels of 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 wt% were prepared. The chemical interactions of the Fe3O4 NPs/PI nanocomposites were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the addition of NPs had a significant effect on the crystallization of PI. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to characterize the dispersion and surface morphology of the Fe3O4 NPs and the PI nanocomposites. The obtained optical band gap of the nanocomposites characterized using Ultraviolet-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS) was decreased with increasing the Fe3O4 loading. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed a continuous increase of Tg with increasing the Fe3O4 NPs loading. Some differences were observed in the onset decomposition temperature between the pure PI and nanocomposites since the NPs and the PI matrix were physically entangled together to form the nanocomposites. The contact angle of pure PI was larger than that of Fe3O4/PI nanocomposites films, and increased with increasing the loading of Fe3O4. The degree of swelling was increased with increasing the Fe3O4 loading and the swelling time. The dielectric properties of the nanocomposite were strongly related to the Fe3O4 loading levels. The Fe3O4/PI magnetic property also had been improved with increasing the loading of the magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Ultrasonic assisted preparation of lanthanide-oleate complexes for the synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles for multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Jianing; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Dong, Lu-Xi; Kong, Deling; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-07-21

    The synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of high quality is highly desired for bioimaging. Lanthanide-oleate complexes are excellent precursors for the synthesis of high quality UCNPs with controllable size and shape. In this work, lanthanide-oleate complexes were prepared by an ultrasonic assisted procedure, and used as precursors for further synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse NaYF4:59%Yb(3+),0.5% Tm(3+)@NaYF?:20%Gd(3+) nanoparticles without the need for further purification. Heavy doping of Yb(3+) in the core and incorporation of Gd(3+) in the shell made the UCNPs promising for upconversion luminescence (UCL), magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) multimodal imaging. The nanoparticles were further functionalized with bombesin peptide for in vivo UCL/MR/CT imaging of prostate tumors. PMID:24906042

  20. Preparation of mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles assisted by chitosan-g-poly(?-caprolactone) micelles and their antimicrobial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunhua; Zhang, Huan; Lang, Meidong

    2014-05-01

    Amphiphilic chitosan-graft-poly(?-caprolactone) (CS-g-PCLs) copolymers were synthesized by a homogeneous coupling method and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR and ninhydrin assay. The graft copolymers were subsequently self-assembled into micelles, which were measured by DLS and TEM. The particle size of the micelles decreased as the segment grafting fraction was increased. Thereafter, silver nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of chitosan-based micelles under UV irradiation. The molar ratio and radiation time of silver to micelles were optimized with process monitored via UV-vis spectrophotometer. DLS and TEM were used to illustrate the particle structure and size while XRD patterns were applied to characterize the crystal structures of polymer-assisted silver nanoparticles. Films impregnated with silver nanoparticles were conducted with results of strong antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model Gram-negative and positive bacteria.

  1. Preparation of Size-tunable, Highly Monodisperse PVP-Protected Pt-nanoparticles by Seed-mediated Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Koebel, Matthias Michael; Jones, Louis C.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-04-02

    We demonstrate a preparative method which produces highly-monodisperse Pt-nanoparticles of tunable size without the external addition of seed particles. Hexachloroplatinic acid is dosed slowly to an ethylene glycol solution at 120 C and reduced in the presence of a stabilizing polymer poly-N-vinylpyrollidone (PVP). Slow addition of the Pt-salt first will first lead to the formation of nuclei (seeds) which then grow further to produce larger particles of any desired size between 3 and 8nm. The amount of added hexachloroplatinic acid precursor controls the size of the final nanoparticle product. TEM was used to determine size and morphology and to confirm the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Good reproducibility of the technique was demonstrated. Above 7nm, the particle shape and morphology changes suddenly indicating a change in the deposition selectivity of the Pt-precursor from (100) towards (111) crystal faces and breaking up of larger particles into smaller entities.

  2. Bi-Functional Silica Nanoparticles Doped with Iron Oxide and CdTe Prepared by a Facile Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cuiling; Sun, Jiefang; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide; Xue, Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) and iron oxide nanoparticles doped silica nanospheres were prepared by a multistep method. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first coated with silica and then modified with amino group. Thereafter, CdTe nanoparticles were assembled on the particle surfaces by their strong interaction with amino group. Finally, an outer silica shell was deposited. The final products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, vibration sample magnetometer, photoluminescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and fluorescent microscopy. The characterization results showed that the final nanomaterial possessed a saturation magnetization of about 5.8 emu g-1 and an emission peak at 588 nm when the excitation wavelength fixed at 380 nm.

  3. Electrical transport behavior of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, S.; Sinha, M.; Meikap, A.K.; Pradhan, S.K.

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the direct current conductivity, alternate current conductivity and dielectric properties of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite below room temperature. The frequency exponent (s) of conductivity shows an anomalous temperature dependency. The magnitude of the temperature exponent (n) of dielectric permittivity strongly depends on frequency and its value decreases with increasing frequency. The grain boundary contribution is dominating over the grain contribution in conduction process and the temperature dependence of resistance due to grain and grain boundary contribution exhibits two activation regions. The ferrite shows positive alternating current magnetoconductivity. The solid state processing technique was used for the preparation of nanocrystalline ferrite powder from oxides of magnesium, zinc and iron. The X-ray diffraction methods were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained ferrite, while multimeter, impedance analyzer, liquid nitrogen cryostat and electromagnet were used in the study of conducting and dielectric properties of ferrite.

  4. Ultrasonic assisted preparation of lanthanide-oleate complexes for the synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles for multimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Jianing; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Dong, Lu-Xi; Kong, Deling; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of high quality is highly desired for bioimaging. Lanthanide-oleate complexes are excellent precursors for the synthesis of high quality UCNPs with controllable size and shape. In this work, lanthanide-oleate complexes were prepared by an ultrasonic assisted procedure, and used as precursors for further synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse NaYF4:59%Yb3+,0.5% Tm3+@NaYF4:20%Gd3+ nanoparticles without the need for further purification. Heavy doping of Yb3+ in the core and incorporation of Gd3+ in the shell made the UCNPs promising for upconversion luminescence (UCL), magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) multimodal imaging. The nanoparticles were further functionalized with bombesin peptide for in vivo UCL/MR/CT imaging of prostate tumors.The synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) of high quality is highly desired for bioimaging. Lanthanide-oleate complexes are excellent precursors for the synthesis of high quality UCNPs with controllable size and shape. In this work, lanthanide-oleate complexes were prepared by an ultrasonic assisted procedure, and used as precursors for further synthesis of multifunctional monodisperse NaYF4:59%Yb3+,0.5% Tm3+@NaYF4:20%Gd3+ nanoparticles without the need for further purification. Heavy doping of Yb3+ in the core and incorporation of Gd3+ in the shell made the UCNPs promising for upconversion luminescence (UCL), magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) multimodal imaging. The nanoparticles were further functionalized with bombesin peptide for in vivo UCL/MR/CT imaging of prostate tumors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00806e

  5. Bulk Synthesis of Monodisperse Ferrite Nanoparticles at Water-Organic Interfaces under Conventional and Microwave Hydrothermal Treatment and Their Surface Functionalization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthesis of monodisperse MFe2O4 (M=, Ni, Co, Mn) and ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles at a water-toluene interface under conventional as well as microwave hydrothermal conditions using readily available nitrate or chloride salts and oleic acid as the dispersing agent is described. The ens...

  6. Rapid phase synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavel, T.; Raj, S. Gokul; Rajarajan, G.; Kumar, G. Ramesh

    2014-04-24

    Synthesis of single phase nanocrystalline Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was achieved by single step autocombustion technique with the use of citric acid as a chelating agent in mono proportion with metal. Specimens prepared with this method showed significantly higher initial permeability's than with the conventional process. Single phase nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites were formed at very low temperature. Surface morphology identification were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The average grain size and density at low temperature increased gradually with increasing the temperature. The single phase formation is confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Magnetization measurements were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behaviors. Temperature dependent magnetization results showed improved behavior for the nanocrystalline form of cobalt ferrite when compared to the bulk nature of materials synthesized by other methods.

  7. Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive nanoparticles of poly (methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) containing glycyrrhizic acid intended for vaginal administration.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Llera-Rojas, Viridiana; Ganem-Rondero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Traditional vaginal preparations reside in the vaginal cavity for relatively a short period of time, requiring multiple doses in order to attain the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, mucoadhesive systems appear to be appropriate to prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity. In the current study, mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) intended for vaginal delivery of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) (a drug with well-known antiviral properties) were prepared and characterized. Nanoparticles were generated by a solvent displacement method. Incorporation of GA was performed during nanoprecipitation, followed by adsorption of drug once nanoparticles were formed. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, Z-potential, morphology, drug loading, interaction of GA with PVM/MA (by differential scanning calorimetry) and the in vitro interaction of nanoparticles with pig mucin (at two pH values, 3.6 and 5; with and without GA adsorbed). The preparation method led to nanoparticles of a mean diameter of 198.5?±?24.3?nm, zeta potential of -44.8?±?2.8?mV and drug loading of 15.07?±?0.86?µg/mg polymer. The highest mucin interaction resulted at pH 3.6 for nanoparticles without GA adsorbed. The data obtained suggest the promise of using mucoadhesive nanoparticles of PVM/MA for intravaginal delivery of GA. PMID:25391332

  8. A new porphyrin for the preparation of functionalized water-soluble gold nanoparticles with low intrinsic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Penon, Oriol; Patiño, Tania; Barrios, Lleonard; Nogués, Carme; Amabilino, David B; Wurst, Klaus; Pérez-García, Lluïsa

    2015-04-01

    A potential new photosensitizer based on a dissymmetric porphyrin derivative bearing a thiol group was synthesized. 5-[4-(11-Mercaptoundecyloxy)-phenyl-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (PR-SH) was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles in order to obtain a potential drug delivery system. Water-soluble multifunctional gold nanoparticles GNP-PR/PEG were prepared using the Brust-Schiffrin methodology, by immobilization of both a thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the porphyrin thiol compound (PR-SH). The nanoparticles were fully characterized by transmission electron microscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, the ability of GNP-PR/PEGs to induce singlet oxygen production was analyzed to demonstrate the activity of the photosensitizer. Cytotoxicity experiments showed the nanoparticles are nontoxic. Finally, cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the functionalized gold nanoparticles are internalized. Therefore, this colloid can be considered to be a novel nanosystem that could potentially be suitable as an intracellular drug delivery system of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. PMID:25969810

  9. Preparation of poly(MePEGCA-co-HDCA) nanoparticles with confined impinging jets reactor: experimental and modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lince, Federica; Bolognesi, Sara; Marchisio, Daniele L; Stella, Barbara; Dosio, Franco; Barresi, Antonello A; Cattel, Luigi

    2011-06-01

    In this work, the biodegradable copolymer poly(methoxypolyethyleneglycolcyanoacrylate-co-hexadecylcyanoacrylate) is used to prepare nanoparticles via solvent displacement in a confined impinging jets reactor (CIJR). For comparison, nanoparticles constituted by the homopolymer counterpart are also investigated. The CIJR is a small passive mixer in which very fast turbulent mixing of the solvent (i.e., acetone and tetrahydrofuran) and of the antisolvent (i.e., water) solutions occurs under controlled conditions. The effect of the initial copolymer concentration, solvent type, antisolvent-to-solvent ratio, and mixing rate inside the mixer on the final nanoparticle size distribution, surface properties, and morphology is investigated from the experimental point of view. The effect of some of these parameters is studied by means of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, capable of quantifying the mixing conditions inside the CIJR. Results show that the CIJR can be profitably used for producing nanoparticles with controlled characteristics, that there is a clear correlation between the mixing rate calculated by CFD and the mean nanoparticle size, and therefore that CFD can be used to design, optimize, and scale-up these processes. PMID:21259236

  10. Preparation and application of crosslinked poly(sodium acrylate)--coated magnetite nanoparticles as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel alloy.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; El-Saeed, Ashraf M

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new method to prepare poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. Core/shell type magnetite nanocomposites were synthesized using sodium acrylate as monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. Microemulsion polymerization was used for constructing core/shell structures with magnetite nanoparticles as core and poly(sodium acrylate) as shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanocomposite chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the morphology of the modified poly(sodium acrylate) magnetite composite nanoparticles. These particle will be evaluated for effective anticorrosion behavior as a hydrophobic surface on stainless steel. The composite nanoparticles has been designed by dispersing nanocomposites which act as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition effect of AA-Na/magnetite composites on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization measurements indicated that the studied inhibitor acts as mixed type corrosion inhibitor. EIS spectra exhibit one capacitive loop. The different techniques confirmed that the inhibition efficiency reaches 99% at 50 ppm concentration. This study has led to a better understanding of active anticorrosive magnetite nanoparticles with embedded nanocomposites and the factors influencing their anticorrosion performance. PMID:25594340

  11. Preparation of fluorescent mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles via selective etching for combined chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Song, Hao; Wang, Yue; Yu, Chengzhong

    2015-07-01

    Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy.Well-dispersed mesoporous hollow silica-fullerene nanoparticles with particle sizes of ~50 nm have been successfully prepared by incorporating fullerene molecules into the silica framework followed by a selective etching method. The fabricated fluorescent silica-fullerene composite with high porosity demonstrates excellent performance in combined chemo/photodynamic therapy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02769a

  12. Charge generation and morphology in P3HT?:?PCBM nanoparticles prepared by mini-emulsion and reprecipitation methods.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Kyra N; Farley, Sam B; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P

    2015-12-21

    Organic semiconductor nanoparticles provide a potentially scalable approach for photovoltaics that can be processed from aqueous media. Particles of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)?:?phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were prepared using two techniques; those produced by a mini-emulsion method contained greater amounts of crystalline P3HT domains with charge generation resembling phase-separated annealed solvent-cast films. PMID:26567986

  13. Pharmacokinetics of intravenously injected Tc-99m labeled ferrite nanobeads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chao-Ming; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Guo, Yu-Feng; Wang, Li-Shin; Chuang, May-Haw; Cham, Thau-Ming

    2009-04-01

    We study the time varying biodistribution of ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles upon in vivo injection. For this purpose, a novel process of directly labeling radioactive Tc-99m with ferrite nanoparticles was developed. The radiobeads serve as a tracer to provide information on the uptake of injected particles by organs. In the course of our study, Tc-99m labeled ferrite beads were intravenously injected into the tail vein of rats. The time course of changes in the radio-intensity of heart, lung, and liver could be achieved by real-time scintigraphic images. It was observed that the particle uptake by organs is very fast and completed within the first few minutes after intravenous injection. The pharmacokinetic behavior of the radiobead uptake was quantitatively described by a two-compartment model.

  14. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80°C for 15 min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI proteins in the water phase, the emulsions displayed turbid-transparent-turbid phase transitions, which is ascribed to the change in the size of the protein-containing water droplets caused by thermal cross-linking between denatured protein molecules. The transparent stage indicated the formation of WPI NPs. WPI NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying the mixing speed. WPI NPs of 200-500 nm were selected to prepare o/w Pickering emulsions because of their good stability against coalescence. By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, it was observed that WPI NPs were closely packed and distributed at the surface of the emulsion droplets. By measuring water contact angles of WPI NPs films, it was found that under most conditions WPI NPs present good partial wetting properties, but that at the isoelectric point (pI) and high ionic strength the particles become more hydrophobic, resulting in less stable Pickering emulsion. Thus, at pH above and below the pI of WPI NPs and low to moderate ionic strengths (1-10 mM), and with a WPI NPs concentration of 2% (w/v), a stable Pickering emulsion can be obtained. The results may provide useful information for applications of WPI NPs in environmentally friendly and food grade applications, notably in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. PMID:25660092

  15. Preparation, characterization and optimization of sildenafil citrate loaded PLGA nanoparticles by statistical factorial design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the aim of the study The objective of the present study was to formulate and optimize nanoparticles (NPs) of sildenafil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) by double emulsion solvent evaporation (DESE) method. The relationship between design factors and experimental data was evaluated using response surface methodology. Method A Box-Behnken design was made considering the mass ratio of drug to polymer (D/P), the volumetric proportion of the water to oil phase (W/O) and the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the independent agents. PLGA-NPs were successfully prepared and the size (nm), entrapment efficiency (EE), drug loading (DL) and cumulative release of drug from NPs post 1 and 8 hrs were assessed as the responses. Results The NPs were prepared in a spherical shape and the sizes range of 240 to 316 nm. The polydispersity index of size was lower than 0.5 and the EE (%) and DL (%) varied between 14-62% and 2-6%, respectively. The optimized formulation with a desirability factor of 0.9 was selected and characterized. This formulation demonstrated the particle size of 270 nm, EE of 55%, DL of 3.9% and cumulative drug release of 79% after 12 hrs. In vitro release studies showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by a sustained release of sildenafil from NPs up to 12 hrs. The release kinetic of the optimized formulation was fitted to Higuchi model. Conclusions Sildenafil citrate NPs with small particle size, lipophilic feature, high entrapment efficiency and good loading capacity is produced by this method. Characterization of optimum formulation, provided by an evaluation of experimental data, showed no significant difference between calculated and measured data. PMID:24355133

  16. Preparation and distribution of 5-fluorouracil 125I sodium alginate-bovine serum albumin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yi-Mu; Yang, Tang-Yu; Pan, Wei-Min

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To prepare 5-FU sodium alginate 125I bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA NP), to de-termine the radioactive count in different organs of rats at different time points after oral adminis-tration of 5-FU 125I sodium alginate-BSA NP and to calculate the kinetic parameters of its metabolism. METHODS: Emulsion solidification method was used to prepare 5-FU 125I sodium alginate-BSA NP, and to determine its diameter under trans-mission electronic microscope (TEM). Then the rate of NP and external drug releasing velocity were measured. Radioactive counting in different organs of rats wa s made after oral adminis-tration of the NP by GAMA Counter, and the ki-netic para meters of drug metabolism were calcu-lated by handling the data with the two-depart-ment model. RESULTS: The average arithmatic diameter of the NP was 166 nm ± 34 nm, the rate of 5-FU was 32.8% and the cumulative external releasing ra-tio amounted to 84.0% within 72 hours. The NP was mainly distributed in the liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys after NP oral administration to rats. The mic ro-radioautographic experiment showed that NP was distributed in the Kupffers cells of liver, liver parenchymal cells and the phagocytes of spleen and lungs. The kinetic pa-rameters of matabolism were: T1/2 = 9.42 h, Cmax =2.45 × 107 Bq, Tmax = 2.18 h, AUC = 148 × 109 Bq. CONCLUSION: NP is difficult to pass through the blood-cerebral barrier,and 125I sodium alginate-BSA NP enters the body circulation by gastroin testinal passage. PMID:11819388

  17. Urokinase-coated chitosan nanoparticles for thrombolytic therapy: preparation and pharmacodynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai-jiang; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Min-li; Zhang, Bai-gen; Zhang, Ji-wei

    2013-11-01

    Blood reperfusion of affected limbs is the most effective therapy for peripheral vascular thrombotic disease, restoring nutrition and blood flow to threatened tissues. Because it is more cost-effective than other thrombolytics, urokinase (UK) is widely used to treat venous thrombosis in China. However, its use is limited because of the risk of UK-related hemorrhagic complications. UK-coated nanoparticles (NPs) may decrease adverse effects while simultaneously increasing thrombolytic benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the sustained-release properties of NPs with the clinical benefits of catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) to create a promising new therapy. NPs were prepared via self-assembled chitosan and tripolyphosphate, introduced into a thrombosis model in New Zealand white rabbits, and the ratio of the residual thrombus cross-sectional area to the vascular cross-sectional area was calculated. The NPs had a drug-bearing efficiency of 14.5 ± 1.3%, an encapsulation efficiency of 94.8 ± 2.1% while the particle size of UK-coated NPs was 236 nm. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the shape of the NPs were spherical and regular. Whether delivered by intravenation or catheter, UK-coated NPs produced a significant increase in the thrombolytic effect compared with free UK and confirmed the superiority of CDT for improving clot lysis over drug-induced systemic thrombolysis. The intravenous NPs caused an abnormal increase in fibrinogen. In conclusion, a water-soluble UK-WCS-NP suspension with good encapsulation efficiency was easily prepared UK-WCS-NPs were capable of maintaining UK activity, provided sustained-release of UK and exhibited better thrombolytic function than free UK. PMID:23728739

  18. Preparative separation of enantiomers based on functional nucleic acids modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Wang, Daifang; Liu, Shuzhen; Guo, Longhua; Wang, Fangfang; Lin, Zhenyu; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Guonan

    2013-11-01

    The preparative-scale separation of chiral compounds is vitally important for the pharmaceutical industry and related fields. Herein we report a simple approach for rapid preparative separation of enantiomers using functional nucleic acids modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The separation of DL-tryptophan (DL-Trp) is demonstrated as an example to show the feasibility of the approach. AuNPs modified with enantioselective aptamers were added into a racemic mixture of DL -Trp. The aptamer-specific enantiomer (L-Trp) binds to the AuNPs surface through aptamer-L-Trp interaction. The separation of DL-Trp is then simply accomplished by centrifugation: the precipitate containing L-Trp bounded AuNPs is separated from the solution, while the D-Trp remains in the supernatant. The precipitate is then redispersed in water. The aptamer is denatured under 95 °C and a second centrifugation is then performed, resulting in the separation of AuNPs and L-Trp. The supernatant is finally collected to obtain pure L-Trp in water. The results show that the racemic mixture of DL-Trp is completely separated into D-Trp and L-Trp, respectively, after 5 rounds of repeated addition of fresh aptamer-modified AuNPs to the DL-Trp mixture solution. Additionally, the aptamer-modified AuNPs can be repeatedly used for at least eight times without significant loss of its binding ability because the aptamer can be easily denatured and renatured in relatively mild conditions. The proposed approach could be scaled up and extended to the separation of other enantiomers by the adoption of other enantioselective aptamers. PMID:23846867

  19. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Improve the Oral Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Narala, Arjun; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9%) due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200-250?nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2?months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism. PMID:26555970

  20. Preparation and characterization of amphiphilic calixarene nanoparticles as delivery carriers for paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Yu; Han, Jin; Zhu, Hui-Dong; An, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two types of amphoteric calix[n]arene carboxylic acid (CnCA) derivative, i.e., calix[6]arene hexa-carboxylic acid (C6HCA) and calix[8]arene octo-carboxylic acid (C8OCA), were synthesized by introducing acetoxyls into the hydroxyls of calix[n]arene (n=6, 8). C6HCA and C8OCA nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared successfully using the dialysis method. CnCA NPs had regular spherical shapes with an average diameter of 180-220?nm and possessed negative charges of greater than -30?mV. C6HCA and C8OCA NPs were stable in 4.5% bovine serum albumin solutions and buffers (pH 5-9), with a low critical aggregation concentration value of 5.7?mg·L(-1) and 4.0?mg·L(-1), respectively. C6HCA and C8OCA NPs exhibited good paclitaxel (PTX) loading capacity, with drug loading contents of 7.5% and 8.3%, respectively. The overall in vitro release behavior of PTX from the CnCA NPs was sustained, and C8OCA NPs had a slower release rate compared with C6HCA NPs. These favorable properties of CnCA NPs make them promising nanocarriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery. PMID:25757488

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Quetiapine Fumarate Solid Lipid Nanoparticles to Improve the Oral Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Narala, Arjun; Veerabrahma, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Quetiapine fumarate is an antipsychotic drug with poor oral bioavailability (9%) due to first-pass metabolism. Present work is an attempt to improve oral bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by incorporating in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Six quetiapine fumarate SLN formulations were developed using three different lipids by hot homogenisation followed by ultrasonication. The drug excipient compatibility was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Stable quetiapine fumarate SLNs having a mean particle size of 200–250?nm with entrapment efficiency varying in between 80% and 92% were developed. The physical stability of optimized formulation F3 was checked at room temperature for 2?months. Comparative bioavailability studies were conducted in male Wistar rats after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate suspension and SLN formulation. The relative bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate from optimized SLN preparation was increased by 3.71 times when compared with the reference quetiapine fumarate suspension. The obtained results are indicative of SLNs as potential lipid carriers for improving the bioavailability of quetiapine fumarate by minimizing first-pass metabolism. PMID:26555970

  2. Preparation of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2012-10-01

    A thin layer of nano-scaled Fe-doped TiO2 particles prepared by hydrothermal method is immobilized on the surface of polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber using tetrabutyl titanate as the precursor, ferric trichloride as the doping agent and chitosan as the dispersant agent. The morphology, crystal structure, thermal behavior, composition and chemical structure of PA6 fabric before and after treatments are characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques. The properties of diffuse reflectance spectrum, tensile, air permeability, whiteness, yellowness and photocatalytic activity are also analyzed. It is found that the anatase phase Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with crystal size of 12 nm or so are synthesized, and simultaneously grafted onto the fiber surface during the processing. Compared with the TiO2-coated fabric, the thermal stability of the Fe-doped TiO2-coated fabric changes a little. The absorption ability to ultraviolet (UV) rays and visible light is greatly improved. The breaking force and breaking elongation increase to some extent because of the shrinkage of fabric. The air permeability decreases distinctly. The color of PA6 fabric changes from white to light brownish because of the introduction of ferric trichloride. The photocatalytic activity of methylene blue decolorization is enhanced under sunlight and UV irradiation.

  3. Structural and topographic study of ceria nanoparticles prepared via different techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Bishay, Samiha T.; El-Masry, Mai M.

    2015-01-01

    Nano-crystalline ceria was synthesized using four different techniques. The oleic acid was used as a surfactant in the first technique while Polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) was used instead in the third. On the other hand, the other two techniques were carried out in the absence of any surfactant. The first technique produced samples characterized by the smallest crystallite size (2.8 nm (XRD)), and the lowest hydrodynamic diameter (DLS). Also, if the powder of these samples was dispersed in toluene, its nanoparticles would appear in high agglomerated form in (TEM) and (AFM) photographic images. Accordingly, these samples are suitable to be used as a catalytic agent. Moreover, the results revealed that, the samples prepared in the presence of Tween 80 as a surfactant are recommended to be applied in biological fields. These samples are characterized by small crystallite size 6 nm (XRD) and high surface area (BET). They further produced completely free particles without agglomeration when their powder was dispersed in water. The results confirmed also that, the particle size measurements using (UV-Vis) are greater by about 0.34% than the corresponding values calculated from XRD and BET data. This may be attributed to the significant role of the dispersive medium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum confirmed the reverse linear proportionality between the percentage ratio of Ce3+/Ce4+ and the particle size of the investigated samples.

  4. Solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with lipoyl-memantine codrug: preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Laserra, Sara; Basit, Abdul; Sozio, Piera; Marinelli, Lisa; Fornasari, Erika; Cacciatore, Ivana; Ciulla, Michele; Türkez, Hasan; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Di Stefano, Antonio

    2015-05-15

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are considered very attractive drug-delivery systems (DDS) able to enhance the efficacy of some therapeutic agents in several pathologies difficult to treat in a conventional way. Starting from these evidences, this study describes the preparation, physicochemical characterization, release, and in vitro cytotoxicity of stealth SLNs as innovative approach to improve solubility and absorption through the gastrointestinal tract of lipoyl-memantine (LA-MEM), a potential anti-Alzheimer codrug. Physico-chemical properties of LA-MEM loaded SLNs have been intensively investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to clarify the state and crystalline structure of the formulation. The results obtained from particles size analysis, polydispersity (PDI), and zeta potential measurements allowed the identification of the optimized formulation, which was characterized by a drug-lipid ratio 1:5, an average intensity diameter of 170nm, a PDI of 0.072, a zeta potential of -33.8mV, and an entrapment efficiency of 88%. Moreover, in vitro stability and release studies in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies revealed that LA-MEM loaded SLNs could represent potential candidate for an in vivo investigation as DDS for the brain since it resulted devoid of citotoxicity and able to release the free codrug. PMID:25747452

  5. Size-controlled platinum nanoparticles prepared by modified-version atomic layer deposition for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Hsiao, Jin-Qiang; Hsiao, Han-Tsung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Huq, Mohammad Mahmudul

    2015-02-01

    This study adopts a modified atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to prepare size-controlled Pt nanoparticles on the surface of carbon black, showing superior catalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation. Two types of ALD precursors, (methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethyl platinum (MeCpPtMe3) and oxygen (O2), were used to grow Pt deposits at 250 °C. For 30 ALD cycles, the pulse period of MeCpPtMe3 serves as a key factor in controlling the particle size and the weight loading of Pt deposits. The Pt growth rates over the carbon support can be attributed to the surface coverage of Pt-O* sites, diffusion rate of MeCpPtMe3, and lateral interaction between each active site. Since the MeCpPtMe3 dose strongly affects the Pt particle size and the deposit density, the growth of ALD-Pt can be assumed as being diffusion-limited. Because of the surface-catalyzed reaction steps, the small-sized ALD-Pt catalysts offer better catalytic activity, CO tolerance, and long-term stability as compared with the large-sized ones. On the basis of the results, the modified ALD technique exhibits a great potential for tuning the Pt particle size and weight loading onto the carbon support for fuel cell application.

  6. Preparation of abiotic polymer nanoparticles for sequestration and neutralization of a target peptide toxin.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Koide, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Yu; Shea, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    Synthetic polymer nanoparticles (NPs) with intrinsic affinity for target biomacromolecules hold great promise in the development of novel tools for biological and biomedical research. We recently reported the design and synthesis of abiotic, synthetic polymer NPs with high intrinsic affinity for a peptide toxin melittin. The NP was selected by screening a small library of NPs (?100 nm) composed of various ratios of monomers that contain functional groups complementary to the peptide melittin. The selected polymer NP, a co-polymer of acrylic acid (AAc), N-tert-butylacrylamide (TBAm), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), effectively captures and neutralizes the toxicity of the peptide through a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. This protocol describes a step-by-step procedure for the preparation and evaluation of synthetic polymer NPs for sequestration and neutralization of the target peptide toxin. The polymer NPs can be synthesized in a one-step polymerization reaction using commercially available reagents. The polymerization reaction for the synthesis of polymer NPs takes several hours, and the total protocol including subsequent purification and characterization by dynamic light scattering, NMR and toxicity neutralization assays takes 1-2 weeks in total. PMID:25790112

  7. Preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticle loaded amorphous hydrogel of carboxymethylcellulose for infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup; Kumar, Ajay; Patil, Niranjan B; Viswanathan, Chandra; Ghosh, Deepa

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing demand for an appropriate and safe antimicrobial dressing to treat infected deep wounds. An amorphous gel formulation (SNP-CMC), containing silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), was prepared in one step by the reduction of silver nitrate in situ. Spectrophotometric and microscopic analysis revealed that the SNPs were 7-21 nm in diameter. In simulated wound experiments, SNP-CMC gel was found to absorb 80.48 ± 4.69% w/w of saline and donate 17.43 ± 0.76% w/w of moisture within 24h indicating its dual fluid affinity. Cytocompatibility of the gel was assessed by proliferation studies with primary human skin cells. The antimicrobial activity studies showed that SNP-CMC containing 50 ppm of SNPs was effective against the growth of both Gram negative and Gram positive strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These results indicate that SNP-CMC could be ideal for the treatment of deep infected wounds. PMID:26076624

  8. Oxidative stress-mediated hemolytic activity of solvent exchange-prepared fullerene (C60) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trpkovic, Andreja; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Kleut, Duska; Misirkic, Maja; Janjetovic, Kristina; Vucicevic, Ljubica; Pantovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Dramicanin, Miroslav; Markovic, Zoran; Trajkovic, Vladimir

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the hemolytic properties of fullerene (C60) nanoparticles prepared by solvent exchange using tetrahydrofuran (nC60THF), or by mechanochemically assisted complexation with macrocyclic oligosaccharide gamma-cyclodextrin (nC60CDX) or the copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate-ethylene vinyl versatate (nC60EVA-EVV). The spectrophotometrical analysis of hemoglobin release revealed that only nC60THF, but not nC60CDX or nC60EVA-EVV, was able to cause lysis of human erythrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Atomic force microscopy revealed that nC60THF-mediated hemolysis was preceded by erythrocyte shrinkage and increase in cell surface roughness. A flow cytometric analysis confirmed a decrease in erythrocyte size and demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species production in red blood cells exposed to nC60THF. The nC60THF-triggered hemolytic activity was efficiently reduced by the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and butylated hydroxyanisole, as well as by serum albumin, the most abundant protein in human blood plasma. These data indicate that nC60THF can cause serum albumin-preventable hemolysis through oxidative stress-mediated damage of the erythrocyte membrane.

  9. PtRu nanoparticle electrocatalyst with bulk alloy properties prepared through a sonochemical method.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Rukma; Li, Zhengrong; Katar, Srilakshmi; Zhou, Wei; Rivera, Harry; Smotkin, Eugene S; Casadonte, Dominick J; Korzeniewski, Carol

    2006-12-01

    Properties of PtRu nanoparticles prepared using high-intensity sonochemistry are reported. Syntheses were carried out in tetrahydrofuran (THF) containing Ru3+ and Pt4+ in a fixed mole ratio of either 1:10 or 1:1. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed sonocation produces an alloy phase and showed that the composition of the nanometer scale metal particles is close to the mole fraction of Ru3+ and Pt4+ in solution with deviations that tend toward Ru enrichment in the alloy phase. The materials gave responses that are similar in terms of peak potential and current density, referenced to the catalyst active surface area, to those of bulk alloys in voltammetry experiments involving CO stripping and CH3OH electrochemical oxidation in 0.1 M H2SO4. The results show that sonochemical methods have the potential to produce nanometer scale bimetallic electrocatalysts that possess alloy properties. The materials have application in mechanistic studies of fuel cell reactions and as platforms for the development of CO tolerant fuel cell catalyst. PMID:17129014

  10. Bevacizumab loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the coacervation technique: preliminary in vitro studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Solazzi, Ilaria; Giordano, Susanna Marzia Adele; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Riganti, Chiara; Dianzani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer—an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.

  11. Preparation and application of micro/nanoparticles based on natural polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jisheng; Han, Suya; Zheng, Haicheng; Dong, Hongbiao; Liu, Jiubing

    2015-06-01

    Polysaccharides have attracted more and more attentions and been recognized to be the most promising materials in recent years because of their outstanding merits such as easily available, non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and easily modified. Considerable research efforts have been directed toward developing polysaccharides-based micro/nanoparticles (PM/NPs). The new major studies of PM/NPs over the past few years are outlined in this review. Methods of preparation, including self-assembly, ionic-gelation, complex coacervation, emulsification, and desolvation method and some others, are summarized. Different applications of PM/NPs in the field of drug-delivery system are highlighted. Besides, another novel application of PM/NPs that are used as emulsifiers to stabilize Pickering emulsion is also introduced. These environmental-friendly particle emulsifiers have received reasonable attention due to their novel applications, especially in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. From literature surveys, we realized that studies on PM/NP systems for different applications have increased rapidly. Hence, the present review is timely. PMID:25843834

  12. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by biological method.

    PubMed

    Anbuvannan, M; Ramesh, M; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N; Kannadasan, N

    2015-05-15

    Zinc oxide have been produced via a simple green method from zinc nitrate and leaf extract aqueous solutions. Prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated by employing through UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The present investigation, confirmed the estimated band gap 3.51eV and the PL intensity at 402nm in visible region are dependent upon the geometrical shape and size of the ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph and XRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The presence of functional groups and the chemical bonding are confirmed by FTIR spectra. EDS shows that the highly pure ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized ZnO in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of process conditions on the morphology and size of ZnO have been found from FE-SEM and TEM analyses, respectively. PMID:25756552

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles prepared by biological method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbuvannan, M.; Ramesh, M.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.

    2015-05-01

    Zinc oxide have been produced via a simple green method from zinc nitrate and leaf extract aqueous solutions. Prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated by employing through UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The present investigation, confirmed the estimated band gap 3.51 eV and the PL intensity at 402 nm in visible region are dependent upon the geometrical shape and size of the ZnO NPs. The TEM micrograph and XRD pattern confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. The presence of functional groups and the chemical bonding are confirmed by FTIR spectra. EDS shows that the highly pure ZnO nanostructures. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized ZnO in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of process conditions on the morphology and size of ZnO have been found from FE-SEM and TEM analyses, respectively.

  14. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F

    2015-05-19

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 ?m × 800 ?m square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 ?L min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 ?M. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  15. Ball shear strength and fracture modes of lead-free solder joints prepared using nickel nanoparticle doped flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujan, G. K.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Amalina, M. A.; Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Miniaturization and the need for the replacement of lead (Pb) based solders in microelectronic devices raise concerns over their reliability in the recent years. Particularly, the rapid growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layers in Pb free solders can lead to brittle fracture. A novel nanoparticle doped fluxing method was used to prepare ball grid array solder joints between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder balls and Cu pads. In this method, nickel nanoparticles were mixed with a water soluble flux prior to its use. The shear strength and fracture modes of the resulting solder joints were investigated as a function of aging time. Results showed that IMC layer growth was suppressed in solder joints prepared with 0.1 wt.% Ni doped flux. The average shear strength was marginally higher for solder joints prepared using 0.1 wt. % Ni doped flux compared with the joints prepared with undoped flux. Samples prepared using Ni doped flux showed a better resistant against brittle fracture for up to 30 days of aging.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Binder-free Si nanoparticle electrode with 3D porous structure prepared by electrophoretic deposition for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Dingqiong; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-04-15

    A binder-free silicon (Si) based electrode for lithium-ion battery was fabricated in an organic solvent through one-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The nanosized Si and acetylene black (AB) particles were bonded tightly together to form a homogeneous co-deposited film with 3D porous structure through the EPD process. The 3D porous structure provides buffer spaces to alleviate the mechanical stress due to silicon volume change during the cycling and improves lithium-ion conductivity by shortening ion diffusion length and better ion conducting pathway. The electrode prepared with 5 s deposition duration shows the best cycling performance among electrodes fabricated by EPD method, and thus, it was selected to be compared with the silicon electrode prepared by the conventional method. Our results demonstrate that the Si nanoparticle electrode prepared through EPD exhibits smaller cycling capacity decay rate and better rate capability than the electrode prepared by the conventional method. PMID:25816108

  17. Composition, Electronic and Magnetic Investigation of the Encapsulated ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles in Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Containing Ni Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Khabouri, Saja; Al Harthi, Salim; Maekawa, Toru; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Elzain, Mohamed E.; Al Hinai, Ashraf; Al-Rawas, AD; Gismelseed, AM; Yousif, Ali A.

    2015-06-01

    We report investigation on properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (mCNTs) containing Ni residuals before and after encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The pristine tubes exhibit metallic character with a 0.3 eV reduction in the work function along with ferromagnetic behavior which is attributed to the Ni residuals incorporated during the preparation of tubes. Upon encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles, 0.5 eV shift in Fermi level position and a reduction in both the ? band density of state along with a change in the hybridized sp2/sp3 ratio of the tubes from 2.04 to 1.39 are observed. As a result of the encapsulation, enhancement in the ? bands density of state and coating of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles by the internal layers of the CNTs in the direction along the tube axis is observed. Furthermore, Ni impurities inside the tubes are attracted to the encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles, suggesting the possibility of using these particles as purifying agents for CNTs upon being synthesized using magnetic catalyst particles. Charge transfer from Ni/mCNTs to the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles is evident via reduction of the density of states near the Fermi level and a 0.3 eV shift in the binding energy of C 1 s core level ionization. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles in mCNTs resulted in two interacting sub-systems featured by distinct blocking temperatures and enhanced magnetic properties; i.e., large coercivity of 501 Oe and saturation magnetization of 2.5 emu/g at 4 K.

  18. Composition, Electronic and Magnetic Investigation of the Encapsulated ZnFe2O 4 Nanoparticles in Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Containing Ni Residuals.

    PubMed

    Al Khabouri, Saja; Al Harthi, Salim; Maekawa, Toru; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Elzain, Mohamed E; Al Hinai, Ashraf; Al-Rawas, A D; Gismelseed, A M; Yousif, Ali A

    2015-12-01

    We report investigation on properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (mCNTs) containing Ni residuals before and after encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The pristine tubes exhibit metallic character with a 0.3 eV reduction in the work function along with ferromagnetic behavior which is attributed to the Ni residuals incorporated during the preparation of tubes. Upon encapsulation of zinc ferrite nanoparticles, 0.5 eV shift in Fermi level position and a reduction in both the ? band density of state along with a change in the hybridized sp(2)/sp(3) ratio of the tubes from 2.04 to 1.39 are observed. As a result of the encapsulation, enhancement in the ? bands density of state and coating of the zinc ferrite nanoparticles by the internal layers of the CNTs in the direction along the tube axis is observed. Furthermore, Ni impurities inside the tubes are attracted to the encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles, suggesting the possibility of using these particles as purifying agents for CNTs upon being synthesized using magnetic catalyst particles. Charge transfer from Ni/mCNTs to the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles is evident via reduction of the density of states near the Fermi level and a 0.3 eV shift in the binding energy of C 1 s core level ionization. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that encapsulated zinc ferrite nanoparticles in mCNTs resulted in two interacting sub-systems featured by distinct blocking temperatures and enhanced magnetic properties; i.e., large coercivity of 501 Oe and saturation magnetization of 2.5 emu/g at 4 K. PMID:26068078

  19. Microwave magnetic and absorption properties of Li0.5Mn x/2Zn0.75- x/2Fe2O4 soft nano ferrites prepared by Sol-Gel auto combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Humaira; Maqsood, Asghari

    2013-09-01

    Polycrystalline nano ferrites with composition Li0.5Mn x/2Zn0.75- x/2Fe2O4 ( x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2) were prepared from sol-gel auto combustion method. The formation of single phase cubic spinel structure was confirmed from XRD analysis and IR-spectroscopy (FT-IR), particle morphology with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and DC electrical resistivity from two probe method. Electromagnetic measurements were performed from 1 MHz - 1 GHz. The results showed Mn addition improves the magneto-dielectric properties of the prepared samples. The low magnetic loss in very high frequency and ultra-high frequency (VHFUHF) makes them useful in miniaturizing the antennas in the frequency range 1MHz to 1000 MHz. The high reflection loss (RL) of 45 dB for x = 0 and relatively wide-band gap made them suitable to use in the lower micro wave (MW) region.

  20. Magnetically tunable wideband microwave filter using ferrite-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Zhu, Wenting; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2015-04-01

    Magnetically tunable wideband microwave filters have been designed and prepared by using ferrite-based metamaterial structures. The microwave properties of the filters have been investigated by experiments and simulations. The negative permeability appears around the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, which leads to a remarkable stopband for the bandstop filter. The bandpass filter is composed of two kinds of ferrite rods with different saturation magnetization. The bandwidth of the passband can be tuned by adjusting the saturation magnetization of the ferrite rods. Both the experimental and the simulated results show that those filters possess magnetically tunable property. This approach opens a way for designing tunable wideband microwave filters.

  1. Preparation Of Gold Nanoparticle-Quercetin Complexes By Citrate Reduction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rajat; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin is an important flavonoid and possesses strong antioxidant property. The aim of the present study is to formulate and characterize quercetin coated gold nanoparticles. Quercetin was conjugated with gold nanoparticle during synthesis of the particle by citrate reduction of chloroauric acid. The conjugates were characterized by different techniques like Atomic Force Microscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Absorption Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. All these studies suggest formation of stable quercetin-gold nanoparticle complex.

  2. Preparation and Structural Analysis of CdS Nanoparticle Embedded Polyurethane Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indolia, Ajay Pal; Kumar, Purushottam; Gaur, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    Polymer nanocomposite samples of different weight ratio of CdS were developed by solution embedding of nanoparticles in polyurethane. XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to understand the structural properties of polymer nanocomposite samples. SEM micrograph demonstrates the dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in polymer matrix. It has been observed that crystallinity of PU decreases with increase in concentration of CdS nanoparticles. The XRD data show the characteristic peaks of nanoparticles (i.e.CdS) in nanocomposite samples, which confirm the nanostructure formation in polymer matrix.

  3. Investigation of magnetic properties of MnZn-substituted strontium ferrite nanopowders prepared via conventional ceramic technique followed by a high energy ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arab, A.; Mardaneh, M. R.; Yousefi, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium ferrite powders with substitution of Mn2+ and Zn2+ ions for Fe3+ ions according to the formula SrMnxZnxFe12-2xO19, wherein x ranging from 0 to 1 with a step of 0.2, has been pre-milled via conventional ceramic method and calcined at 1200 °C for 4 h in the air. In order to get nanopowders, the obtained powders were milled again in a high energy SPEX mill for 1 h and 15 min. XRD study was performed to investigation the phases and structural properties of samples. Lattice parameters and mean crystallite sizes of the milled powders were determined from the XRD data and Scherrer's formula. Size of particles was studied by TEM. The DC electrical resistivities of the milled samples have been measured by the two-point probe method. In addition, room temperature magnetizations and coercivities of the samples in a magnetic field of 14.7 kOe have been determined from the hysteresis loops. The behavior of magnetizations of samples has been discussed based on core-shell model and according to the site occupation of substituted cations on the sublattices. The discussion of site occupation also supports the increase of lattice parameters as x increases.

  4. Structural characteristic, Raman analysis and optical properties of indium-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Chen, K J; Hung, F Y; Chang, S J

    2009-05-01

    Un-doped and indium (0-9 at.%) doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were heated at 700 degrees C-800 degrees C for 1 hour in air and then analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results were compared to investigate the structural characteristics and physical properties. XRD patterns of the Indium-doped ZnO (IZO) nanoparticles were similar to those of the ZnO nanoparticles. Notably, the crystalline quality of the ZnO nanoparticles had reduced with increasing the concentration of indium doping. The In2O3 phase of IZO and the crystallized structures affected the UV emission band and the green emission band of PL. The Indium-doped (5 at.% - 7 at.%) ZnO nanoparticles possessed higher crystalline quality and better optical properties. PMID:19453011

  5. Effects of water depth and laser pulse numbers on size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammd Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium in a distilled water medium. The interaction was performed in a water cell in which the target was placed at different depths of water. The effects of the number of laser pulses and the water depth in which the interaction occurred on average size and size distribution of prepared colloidal nanoparticles were investigated. A UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer and a scanning electron microscope were used for the characterization of the produced nanoparticles. Using image processing techniques and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles size properties were achieved. According to the results, position of the target in different water depths has strong effect on size properties of the synthesized nanoparticles. Our results also showed that higher number of laser pulses produces smaller mean size nanoparticles with narrower size distribution.

  6. A novel inorganic precipitation-peptization method for VO2 sol and VO2 nanoparticles preparation: Synthesis, characterization and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Jiang, Peng; Xiang, Wei; Ran, Fanyong; Cao, Wenbin

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, a simple, safe and cost-saving precipitation-peptization method was proposed to prepare VO2 sol by using inorganic VOSO4-NH3?H2O-H2O2 reactants system in air under room temperature. In this process, VOSO4 was firstly precipitated to form VO(OH)2, then monometallic species of VO(O2)(OH)(-) were formed through the coordination between VO(OH)2 and H2O2. The rearrangement of VO(O2)(OH)(-) in a nonplanar pattern and intermolecular condensation reactions result in multinuclear species. Finally, VO2 sol is prepared through the condensation reactions between the multinuclear species. After drying the obtained sol at 40°C, VO2 xerogel exhibiting monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of C2/m was prepared. The crystal structure of VO2 nanoparticles was transferred to monoclinic crystal structure with the space group of P21/c (VO2(M)) by annealing the xerogel at 550°C. Both XRD and TEM analysis indicated that the nanoparticles possess good crystallinity with crystallite size of 34.5nm as estimated by Scherrer's method. These results suggest that the VO2 sol has been prepared successfully through the proposed simple method. PMID:26433476

  7. Synthesis of Trimagnetic Multishell MnFe2 O4 @CoFe2 O4 @NiFe2 O4 Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov-Isaac, Véronica; Neveu, Sophie; Dupuis, Vincent; Taverna, Dario; Gloter, Alexandre; Cabuil, Valérie

    2015-06-10

    The synthesis and characterization of original ferrite multishell magnetic nanoparticles made of a soft core (manganese ferrite) covered with two successive shells, a hard one (cobalt ferrite) and then a soft one (nickel ferrite), are described. The results demonstrate the modulation of the coercivity when new magnetic shells are added. PMID:25684735

  8. Magnetic properties of Cr doped Fe3O4 porous nanoparticles prepared through a co-precipitation method using surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy Nguyen, Hoang; Dzung Nguyen, Trung; Hai Nguyen, Dai; Nguyen, Phuong Tung

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic Cr3+xFe3+2 - xFe2+O4 (0 ?? x ?? 0.1) porous nanoparticles were prepared by the aqueous co-precipitation method. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by using an x-ray diffraction (XRD), field enhanced scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and vibrating sampling magnetometer (VSM). The nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption isotherm showed a microporous structure of the obtained magnetic materials. A rod and round shape of Fe3O4 was observed as using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant, respectively. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties with easy separation and re-dispersion in solution by using an external magnet. More remarkably, the saturation magnetization (Ms) was enhanced up to 1.2 times for doping Cr3+ into the Fe3O4 lattice. The effect of surfactants and Cr3+ doping concentrations on size and the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles are studied.

  9. Solid lipid nanoparticles co-loaded with simazine and atrazine: preparation, characterization, and evaluation of herbicidal activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Gonçalves da Silva, Camila Morais; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-21

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing the herbicides atrazine and simazine were prepared and characterized, and in vitro evaluation was made of the release kinetics, herbicidal activity, and cytotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was investigated over a period of 120 days, via analyses of particle size, ? potential, polydispersion, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. SLN showed good physicochemical stability and high encapsulation efficiencies. Release kinetics tests showed that use of SLN modified the release profiles of the herbicides in water. Herbicidal activity assays performed with pre- and postemergence treatment of the target species Raphanus raphanistrum showed the effectiveness of the formulations of nanoparticles containing herbicides. Assays with nontarget organisms (Zea mays) showed that the formulations did not affect plant growth. The results of cytotoxicity assays indicated that the presence of SLN acted to reduce the toxicity of the herbicides. The new nanoparticle formulations enable the use of smaller quantities of herbicide and therefore offer a more environmentally friendly method of controlling weeds in agriculture. PMID:25537071

  10. Ultrasonication assisted preparation of carbonaceous nanoparticles modified polyurethane foam with good conductivity and high oil absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hengchong; Shi, Dean; Yin, Ligang; Yang, Zhihua; Luan, Shifang; Gao, Jiefeng; Zha, Junwei; Yin, Jinghua; Li, Robert K Y

    2014-11-21

    In this work, we report a facile, low cost and time-saving method for the fabrication of compressible, electrically conductive, oil absorptive, cost-effective and flexible polyurethane (PU) foam through ultrasonication induced carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNP) onto flexible PU foam (CNP-PU foam). SEM images showed that the CNP could be firmly anchored onto the PU foam, and made the PU foam surface much rougher. Zero-dimensional carbonaceous nanoparticles were easier to anchor onto the PU foam surface than one-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotube) or two-dimensional nanoparticles (e.g., graphene oxide). The CNP-PU foam exhibited excellent elasticity and high mechanical durability even when it was subjected to 500 cyclic compression. The CNP-PU foam had excellent absorption of organic solvents up to 121 times the weight of the initial PU foam. In addition, the electrical conductivity of PU foams was considerably increased with the anchoring of CNP onto the matrix. In addition, compression experiments confirmed that the electrical conductivity of CNP-PU foams changed with their compression ratios, thus exhibiting excellent pressure sensitivity. The as-prepared materials have significant potential as oil absorbents, elastic conductors, flexible electrodes, pressure sensors, etc. PMID:25285907

  11. Single source preparation of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by simple cyclic microwave approach

    SciTech Connect

    Emadi, Hamid; Nemati Kharat, Ali

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized in high yield. • PEG-200 was applied as both solvent and reductive agent. • Single source synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was performed. • Nontoxic materials and surfactant were used in current investigation. • Reaction time and temperature significantly decreased in current experiment. - Abstract: Polyol mediated process was applied for the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles under microwave irradiation. By combination of polyol medium and microwave irradiation different advantages including low reaction time, low consumption of energy, and simplicity were achieved. Different parameters affecting on products including microwave irradiation power, reaction time, reactants concentration, and solvent were changed to reach the optimum condition for synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Facile preparation and separation are important features of this route. This work has provided a general, simple, and effective method to control the composition and morphology of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in nonaqueous solution, which will be important for inorganic synthesis methodology.

  12. Magnetic properties and microwave absorption in Ni-Zn and Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Gh. R.; Yousefi, M. H.; Abolhassani, M. R.; Manouchehri, S.; Keshavarz, M. H.; Fatahian, S.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 and Ni0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 nanoparticles with super-paramagnetic properties and size distribution from 10 to 52 nm were investigated. These particles were produced by a low-temperature solid-state reaction method without the ball-milling process. The size and morphology of the nanocrystallites were determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy methods. Magnetic measurements such as alternating gradient field magnetometers were used to justify the super-paramagnetic properties of these nanoparticles. Their microwave absorption in the range of 8-18 GHz was studied by a vector network analyzer. Responses of the device under tests were studied. Also, the percentage of the resin, the size and thickness of the mount were determined. The band width of 2.3 GHz was obtained with reflection-loss/written-loss of -16 dB around 10.4 GHz.

  13. Zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles prepared through chemical co-precipitation method and its function as solid acid catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Manoj; Bhaskaran, Beena

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of zirconium(IV) tungstate nanoparticles, a new and efficient catalyst for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and esterification of acetic acid with various alcohols. The nanoparticle catalyst was prepared using the room temperature chemical co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized with thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. The crystallite size was found to be ~20 nm as revealed by XRD, HRTEM and AFM. The Na+ exchange capacity was found to be 2.76 meq g-1 and the surface area of the compound measured using BET method was found to be 250-265 m2 g-1. The high value of ion exchange capacity indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. The prepared nanoparticles have proven to be excellent catalysts for both oxidation and ester synthesis under mild reaction conditions. The mechanism of the catalytic reaction was studied as well.

  14. Magneto-optic Faraday effect in maghemite nanoparticles/silica matrix nanocomposites prepared by the Sol-Gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, M.; Ortega, D.; Garitaonandía, J. S.; Litrán, R.; Barrera-Solano, C.; Blanco, E.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    Bulk monolithic samples of ?-Fe 2O 3/SiO 2 composites with different iron oxide/silica ratios have been prepared by the sol-gel technique. Iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained in-situ during heat treatment of samples and silica matrix consolidation. Preparation method was previously optimized to minimize the percentage of antiferromagnetic ?-Fe 2O 3 and parallelepipeds of roughly 2×5×12 mm 3, with good mechanical stability, are obtained. RT magnetization curves show a non-hysteretic behavior. Thus, magnetization measurements have been well fitted to an expression that combines the Langevin equation with an additional linear term, indicating that some of the nanoparticles are still superparamagnetic as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy measurements. Zero field cooled /field cooled experiments show curves with slightly different shapes, depending on the size and shape distribution of nanoparticles for a given composition. Magneto-optical Faraday effect measurements show that the Faraday rotation is proportional to magnetization of the samples, as expected. As a demonstration of their sensing possibilities, the relative intensity of polarized light, measured at 5° from the extinction angle, was plotted versus applied magnetic field.

  15. Effects of different precursors on size and optical properties of ceria nanoparticles prepared by microwave-assisted method

    SciTech Connect

    Samiee, Sara; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and efficient microwave method was applied for synthesis of nano ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Changing precursor has great effects on optical properties and size of nano ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ceria nanoparticles using Ce{sup 4+} salts leads to better results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band gap energies of ceria nanoparticles were evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy. -- Abstract: Cerium oxide, ceria (CeO{sub 2}), is one of the favourable nanoparticles (NPs) that possesses many remarkable properties so that it can be used in medicine, chemistry, environment, energy, information, industry, and so on. In this study, the crystalline ceria NPs were successfully prepared by an efficient microwave-assisted heating technique from an aqueous solution using different cerium salts (Ce(IV) and Ce(III) salts). The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results revealed that changing the precursor led to great effects on size, band gap energy, and the reaction time of preparing the ceria NPs. The significant feature of this manuscript is that the effects of different precursors on the structural and optical properties of ceria NPs were investigated for the first time. The average particle size of different samples was below 8 nm.

  16. Preparation, Characterization, and Size Control of Chemically Synthesized CdS Nanoparticles Capped with Poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoudi, R.; Allehyani, S. H. A.; Said, D. A.; Lashin, A. R.; Abouelsayed, A.

    2015-10-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles of a specific size via chemical precipitation at room temperature and characterized them using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The results showed that the samples were grown with a cubic phase; the particle size could be changed from 2 nm to 4 nm by varying the molar ratios of the precursors (cadmium chloride and sodium sulfide) in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as an effective capping agent. The optical bandgap of the synthesized nanoparticles was calculated and ranged from 2.73 eV to 2.92 eV depending on the particle size. A large blue-shift from the bulk bandgap (2.42 eV) was observed owing to the quantum size effect. Surface passivation and adsorption of PEG on the CdS nanoparticles was explained on the basis of FTIR measurements; two bands were observed at 476 cm-1 and 622 cm-1, corresponding to cadmium and sulfide stretching vibrations. We conclude that particle size can be controlled by varying the molar ratios of the precursors. Owing to the PEG encapsulation, the as-prepared samples were extremely stable over time.

  17. Nanoparticle formation form amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes prepared by steam jet cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch-based nanoparticles are of increasing interest for use as biobased fillers in polymer composites. Many different methods have been reported for producing these nanoparticles, many requiring lengthy or complicated procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the previously re...

  18. The preparation and characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapeutic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jonathan W.

    Effective clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer is reliant upon the positive identification of damaged tissue before and after surgical or radiation treatment. The promise of next generation contrast agents is the sensitive and selective recognition of cancerous tissue using highly specific targeting ligands. Multimodal nanoparticles may fill this role as cell-targeted agents capable of exhibiting contrast enhancement in both magnetic resonance (MR) and optical imaging. Specifically, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with biocompatible polymers serve as both a biodegradable MR imaging agent as well as a platform for small molecule, protein and fluorophore modification. In the work presented here, iron oxide nanoparticles have been coated with either poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or a graft copolymer chitosan-PEG for prolonged stability, and functionalized with: (1) peptide-major histocompatibility complexes for T-cell trafficking during immunotherapy, (2) annexin V for apoptosis detection during post-therapy evaluation, or (3) biotin for fusion protein pretreatment imaging (e.g. for use in non-Hodgekin's lymphoma). Each nanoparticle system has been characterized for proper surface modification, physical profile, targeting functionality and bioactivity. Additionally, two novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for sensitive iron oxide nanoparticle quantification, and direct PEG coating quantification of nanoparticles. These techniques may be applicable to multiple nanoparticle formulations using NMR systems ubiquitous in academic and professional laboratories. The development of new nanoparticle systems for a variety of clinical applications, as well as novel characterization techniques will offer new possibilities for both clinicians and researchers alike.

  19. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai, Ranajit; Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (fFMR) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5 nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200 °C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5 K) is found to decrease from 38 emu/g to 24 emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525 Oe to 1040 Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of fFMR has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  20. Oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite: One-step processing and tunable high-frequency magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sai, Ranajit; Endo, Yasushi; Shimada, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-05-07

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the in situ growth of oriented nanometric aggregates of partially inverted zinc ferrite can potentially pave a way to alter and tune magnetocrystalline anisotropy that, in turn, dictates ferromagnetic resonance frequency (f{sub FMR}) by inducing strain due to aggregation. Furthermore, the influence of interparticle interaction on magnetic properties of the aggregates is investigated. Mono-dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles (<5?nm) with various degrees of aggregation were prepared through decomposition of metal-organic compounds of zinc (II) and iron (III) in an alcoholic solution under controlled microwave irradiation, below 200?°C. The nanocrystallites were found to possess high degree of inversion (>0.5). With increasing order of aggregation in the samples, saturation magnetization (at 5?K) is found to decrease from 38?emu/g to 24?emu/g, while coercivity is found to increase gradually by up to 100% (525?Oe to 1040?Oe). Anisotropy-mediated shift of f{sub FMR} has also been measured and discussed. In essence, the result exhibits an easy way to control the magnetic characteristics of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite, boosted with significant degree of inversion, at GHz frequencies.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidant Nanoparticles Composed of Chitosan and Fucoidan for Antibiotics Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Cheng; Li, Rou-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we developed novel chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles (CS/F NPs) using a simple polyelectrolyte self-assembly method and evaluated their potential to be antioxidant carriers. As the CS/F weight ratio was 5/1, the CS/F NPs were spherical and exhibited diameters of approximately 230–250 nm, as demonstrated by TEM. These CS/F NPs maintained compactness and stability for 25 day in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 6.0–7.4). The CS/F NPs exhibited highly potent antioxidant effects by scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anion (O2?) in stimulated macrophages. The DPPH scavenging effect of CS/F NPs primarily derives from fucoidan. Furthermore, these CS/F NPs activated no host immune cells into inflammation-mediated cytotoxic conditions induced by IL-6 production and NO generation. The MTT cell viability assay revealed an absence of toxicity in A549 cells after exposure to the formulations containing 0.375 mg NPs/mL to 3 mg NPs/mL. Gentamicin (GM), an antibiotic, was used as a model drug for an in vitro releasing test. The CS/F NPs controlled the release of GM for up to 72 h, with 99% of release. The antioxidant CS/F NPs prepared in this study could thus be effective in delivering antibiotics to the lungs, particularly for airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:25089950

  2. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production. PMID:26028773

  3. Aggregates of perylene bisimide stabilized superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: an efficient catalyst for the preparation of propargylamines and quinolines via C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Manoj; Bhalla, Vandana

    2015-11-01

    Aggregates of the perylene bisimide derivative act as reactors and stabilizers for the preparation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) which exhibit excellent catalytic efficiency in (i) A(3)-coupling and aldehyde free coupling reactions for the preparation of propargylamines and (ii) tandem intramolecular cyclization reaction for the synthesis of quinolines via C-H activation. PMID:26399895

  4. Morphological and magnetic characterization of Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles prepared by surfactants-assisted ball milling

    E-print Network

    Liu, J. Ping

    that the surfactant-assisted ball milling technique is not only useful in controlling the particles' sizes, but also prepared by surfactants-assisted ball milling Narayan Poudyal, Chuan-bing Rong, and J. Ping Liua report here the preparation of Fe, Co, and FeCo nanoplates and nanoparticles by ball milling

  5. Preparation of composite with silica-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide spinels for applications based on magnetically induced hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Angela L.; Fabris, José D.; Pereira, Márcio C.; Domingues, Rosana Z.; Ardisson, José D.

    2013-04-01

    It is reported a novel method to prepare magnetic core (iron oxide spinels)-shell (silica) composites containing well-dispersed magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The synthetic process consists of two steps. In a first step, iron oxide nanoparticles obtained through co-precipitation are dispersed in an aqueous solution containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide; in a second step, particles of this sample are coated with silica, through hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The intrinsic atomic structure and essential properties of the core-shell system were assessed with powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The heat released by this ferrofluid under an AC-generated magnetic field was evaluated by following the temperature evolution under increasing magnetic field strengths. Results strongly indicate that this ferrofluid based on silica-coated iron oxide spinels is technologically a very promising material to be used in medical practices, in oncology.

  6. Size selected synthesis of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Gurgel, A. L.; Soares, J. M.; Chaves, D. S.; Xavier, M. M. Jr.; Morales, M. A.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.; Chaves, D. S.

    2010-05-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 6 to 20 nm were prepared in a chitosan matrix. Size selection was achieved by introducing a nonionic surfactant Tween-X, where X={l_brace}20, 60, 80, and 85{r_brace}. Aqueous dispersions of Tween-X show micelles with increasing hydrodynamic sizes as X increases. Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements at 300 K show superparamagnetic behavior for the small particles, changing gradually to a blocked magnetic regime as the particle size increases. Magnetization measurements at 300 K show increasing values for the ratio M{sub r}/M{sub Hmax} and coercive fields (H{sub c}).

  7. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in pure CeO2 nanoparticles prepared by a simple direct thermal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phokha, Sumalin; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2015-10-01

    This study reports the structural and magnetic properties of CeO2 nanoparticles synthesized using a simple thermal decomposition method. The samples show room-temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) when thermally decomposed at above 500°C. Ferromagnetic ordering occurs due to the presence of Ce3+ as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). High resolution TEM results also reveal the Ce2O3 (Ce3+) phase can be attributed to the formation of defects/oxygen vacancies at its surface. The F-center exchange interaction has been proposed as playing an important role in the magnetic behavior of the prepared CeO2 nanoparticles.

  8. Preparation of a novel biodegradable nanocomposite scaffold based on poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)/bioglass nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hajiali, Hadi; Karbasi, Saeed; Hosseinalipour, Mohammad; Rezaie, Hamid Reza

    2010-07-01

    One of the most important challenges in composite scaffolds is pore architecture. In this study, poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) with 10% bioglass nanoparticles was prepared by the salt leaching processing technique, as a nanocomposite scaffold. The scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DTA. The SEM images demonstrated uniformed porosities of appropriate sizes (about 250-300 microm) which are interconnected. Furthermore, higher magnification SEM images showed that the scaffold possesses less agglomeration and has rough surfaces that may improve cell attachment. In addition, the FTIR and DTA results showed favorable interaction between polymer and bioglass nanoparticles which improved interfaces in the samples. Moreover, the porosity of the scaffold was assessed, and the results demonstrated that the scaffold has uniform and high porosity in its structure (about 84%). Finally it can be concluded that this scaffold has acceptable porosity and morphologic character paving the way for further studies to be conducted from the perspective of bone tissue engineering. PMID:20372984

  9. Preparation of a novel biodegradable nanocomposite scaffold based on poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)/bioglass nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Hajiali H; Karbasi S; Hosseinalipour M; Rezaie HR

    2010-07-01

    One of the most important challenges in composite scaffolds is pore architecture. In this study, poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) with 10% bioglass nanoparticles was prepared by the salt leaching processing technique, as a nanocomposite scaffold. The scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DTA. The SEM images demonstrated uniformed porosities of appropriate sizes (about 250-300 microm) which are interconnected. Furthermore, higher magnification SEM images showed that the scaffold possesses less agglomeration and has rough surfaces that may improve cell attachment. In addition, the FTIR and DTA results showed favorable interaction between polymer and bioglass nanoparticles which improved interfaces in the samples. Moreover, the porosity of the scaffold was assessed, and the results demonstrated that the scaffold has uniform and high porosity in its structure (about 84%). Finally it can be concluded that this scaffold has acceptable porosity and morphologic character paving the way for further studies to be conducted from the perspective of bone tissue engineering.

  10. Preparation of Ag nanoparticles on PAN/TiO2 nanofibers and their photocatalytic and antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Hyun-Bin; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/titania (PAN/TiO2) nanofibrous mats were prepared by an electrospinning method and silver nanoparticles were deposited by electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of silver ions in aqueous solutions. The morphology of the electrospun fibers was characterized by SEM analysis. The deposition of silver particles was not of a uniform coverage on the PAN/TiO2 surface, but of a heterogeneous growth of the silver particles on the PAN/TiO2 surface. The photocatalytic efficiency of the composites against methylene blue dye in an aqueous solution improved and the actibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus was found to increase with the silver nanoparticles being induced.

  11. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  12. Self-assembled amphotericin B-loaded polyglutamic acid nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro potential against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Zia, Qamar; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed; Swaleha, Zubair; Owais, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we developed a self-assembled biodegradable polyglutamic acid (PGA)-based formulation of amphotericin B (AmB) and evaluated its in vitro antifungal potential against Candida albicans. The AmB-loaded PGA nanoparticles were prepared in-house and had a mean size dimension of around 98±2 nm with a zeta potential of ?35.2±7.3 mV. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the drug predominantly acquires an aggregated form inside the formulation with an aggregation ratio above 2. The PGA-based AmB formulation was shown to be highly stable in phosphate-buffered saline as well as in serum (only 10%–20% of the drug was released after 10 days). The AmB–PGA nanoparticles were less toxic to red blood cells (<15% lysis at an AmB concentration of 100 ?g/mL after 24 hours) when compared with Fungizone®, a commercial antifungal product. An MTT assay showed that the viability of mammalian cells (KB and RAW 264.7) was negligibly affected at AmB concentrations as high as 200 ?g/mL. Histopathological examination of mouse kidney revealed no signs of tissue necrosis. The AmB–PGA formulation showed potent antimicrobial activity similar to that of Fungizone against C. albicans. Interestingly, AmB-bearing PGA nanoparticles were found to inhibit biofilm formation to a considerable extent. In summary, AmB–PGA nanoparticles showed highly attenuated toxicity when compared with Fungizone, while retaining equivalent active antifungal properties. This study indicates that the AmB–PGA preparation could be a promising treatment for various fungal infections. PMID:25784804

  13. Magnetic properties of hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadic, Marin; Panjan, Matjaz; Damnjanovic, Vesna; Milosevic, Irena

    2014-11-01

    Hematite (?-Fe2O3) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal synthesis method. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) of the sample shows formation of the nanocrystalline ?-Fe2O3 phase. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show spherical morphology of the hematite nanoparticles and narrow size distribution. An average hematite nanoparticle size is estimated to be about 8 nm by TEM and XRD. Magnetic properties were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Investigation of the magnetic properties of hematite nanoparticles showed a divergence between field-cooled (FC) and zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization curves below Tirr = 103 K (irreversibility temperature). The ZFC magnetization curve showed maximum at TB = 52 K (blocking temperature). The sample did not exhibit the Morin transition. The M(H) (magnetization versus magnetic field) dependence at 300 K showed properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). The M(H) data were successfully fitted by the Langevin function and magnetic moment ?p = 657 ?B and diameter d = 8.1 nm were determined. Furthermore, magnetic measurements showed high magnetization at room temperature (MS = 3.98 emu/g), which is desirable for application in spintronics and biomedicine. Core-shell structure of the nanoparticles was used to describe high magnetization of the hematite nanoparticles.

  14. Preparation of novel stable antibacterial nanoparticles using hydroxyethylcellulose and application in paper.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dafu; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Youwei

    2016-01-20

    Taking advantage of the self-assembly between the components, novel stable antibacterial nanoparticles were efficiently fabricated via a facile one-step co-polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) on a mixed aqueous solution of poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) (PHMG) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). The z-average hydrodynamic diameters of the nanoparticles ranged from 220nm to 450nm. The inner layer of the nanoparticles is composed of water-insoluble interpolymer complexes of PHMG and PAA networks, while the outer layer is composed of PHMG and HEC. The nanoparticles are stabilized by electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions, and the chemical bonds. The nanoparticle solution remained stable in a wide pH range of 2.0-12.0 and at salt concentrations below 0.25mol/L. The nanoparticles were incorporated into handsheets using a dipping treatment. The resulted handsheets exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities even after multiple water washing treatments. The nanoparticles are promising in fabricating paper, water-based coatings and textiles with permanent antibacterial activity. PMID:26572386

  15. Electrical and thermal behavior of PS/ferrite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, A. H.; Hemeda, O. M.; Heiba, Z. K.; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the effect of gamma radiation on the structure, thermal and electrical properties of PS/ferrite composite. The Ni0.6Cd0.4Fe2-xSmxO4 was prepared using a conventional sintering ceramic process. Ferrite powder and Styrene was mixed and achieve polymerization process by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. The composite samples have single spinel phase structure. Stability of the crystalline structure and no phase transition due to irradiation are found. The bulk density decreases whereas X-ray density increases with increasing Sm contents for both ferrite and PS/ferrite. The tetrahedral radii rA remains constant with Sm content but octahedral radii rB increases for both ferrite and PS/ferrite composite. The grain size shows increasing trend for PS/ferrite composite. The PS nearly coat the grains and so their boundaries become faint and not sharp. The gamma radiation transfer Fe3+ to Fe2+ due to its ionizing effect.The Fe2+ occupy octahedral site and the stretching vibration of its bond with oxygen (Fe2+-O2-) gives absorption at about 392 cm-1, near octahedral absorption at 462 cm-1.The PS/Ni0.6Cd0.4SmxFe2-xO4 composite becomes thermally more stable than pure polystyrene. The activation energy of conduction E? has a small values and in the range of hopping conduction mechanism.

  16. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  17. Screen-printed (La,Sr)CrO3 coatings on ferritic stainless steel interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells using nanopowders prepared by means of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylewski, Tomasz; Dabek, Jaroslaw; Przybylski, Kazimierz; Morgiel, Jerzy; Rekas, Mieczyslaw

    2012-06-01

    In order to protect the cathode from chromium poisoning and improve electrical resistance, a perovskite (La,Sr)CrO3 coating was deposited on the surface of a DIN 50049 ferritic stainless steel by means of the screen-printing method, using a paste composed of an ultra-fine powder prepared via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. Investigations of the oxidation process of the coated steel in air and the Ar-H2-H2O gas mixture at 1073 K for times up to 820 h showed high compactness of the protective film, good adhesion to the metal substrate, as well as area specific resistance (ASR) at a level acceptable for metallic SOFC interconnect materials. The microstructure, nanostructure, phase composition of the thick film, and in particular the film/substrate interface, were examined via chemical analyses by means of SEM-EDS and TEM-SAD. It was shown that the (La,Sr)CrO3 coating interacts with the steel during long-term thermal oxidation in the afore-mentioned conditions and intermediate, chromia-rich and/or spinel multilayer interfacial zones are formed. Cr-vaporization tests showed that the (La,Sr)CrO3 coating may play the role of barriers that decrease the volatilization rate of chromia species.

  18. Optical properties of tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water: Influence of laser ablation time duration and laser fluence

    SciTech Connect

    Desarkar, Himadri Sankar; Kumbhakar, P. Mitra, A.K.

    2012-11-15

    Colloidal tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by laser (having a wavelength of 1064 nm) ablation of tin metallic target immersed in pure deionized water. The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence on the size and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are studied. Prepared tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared tin oxide nanoparticles is found to be mostly spherical and with sizes in the nanometric range (mean radius of 3.2 to 7.3 nm). The measured UV-Visible absorption spectra show the presence of absorption peaks in the ultraviolet region. The band gap energy of samples prepared with different laser ablation time duration is calculated and is found to be increased with decrease in size (radius) of the prepared nanoparticles. Photoluminescence emission measurements at room temperature show that all the samples exhibit photoluminescence in the visible region. The peak photoluminescence emission intensity in the sample prepared with 50 min of laser ablation time is 3.5 times larger than that obtained in the sample prepared with 10 min of laser ablation time. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (6.4-14.6 nm) are prepared by laser ablation in liquid technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples are characterized by TEM and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-Visible absorption spectra exhibit quantum confinement effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples exhibit enhanced photoluminescence emissions in the visible region.

  19. Critical roles of cationic surfactants in the preparation of colloidal mesostructured silica nanoparticles: control of mesostructure, particle size, and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hironori; Urata, Chihiro; Higashitamori, Sayuri; Aoyama, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2014-03-12

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are promising materials for various applications, such as drug delivery and catalysis, but the functional roles of surfactants in the formation and preparation of mesostructured silica nanoparticles (MSN-as) remain to be seen. It was confirmed that the molar ratio of cationic surfactants to Si of alkoxysilanes (Surf/Si) can affect the degree of mesostructure formation (i.e., whether the mesochannels formed inside the nanoparticles actually pass through the outer surface of the particles), the particle diameter, and the dispersibility of MSN-as. Wormhole-like mesostructures formed with low Surf/Si ratios; however, the mesopores did not pass through the outer surface of the particles completely. At high Surf/Si ratios, the mesostructures extended. The particle diameter was 100 nm or larger at low Surf/Si ratios, and the primary particle diameter decreased as the Surf/Si ratio increased. This was because the surfactants enhanced the dispersity of the alkoxysilanes in water and the hydrolysis rate of the alkoxysilanes became faster, leading to an increased nucleation as compared to the particle growth. Moreover, primary particles aggregated at low Surf/Si ratios because of the hydrophobic interactions among the surfactants that were not involved in the mesostructure formation but were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. At high Surf/Si ratios, the surfactant micelles were adsorbed on the surface of primary particles (admicelles), resulting in the dispersion of the particles due to electrostatic repulsion. In particular, molar ratios of 0.13 or higher were quite effective for the preparation of highly dispersed MSN-as. Surfactants played important roles in the mesostructure formation, decreasing the particle diameters, and the dispersibility of the particles. All of these factors were considerably affected by the Surf/Si ratio. The results suggested novel opportunities to control various colloidal mesostructured nanoparticles from the aspects of composition, structure, and morphology and will also be useful in the development of novel methods to prepare nanomaterials in various fields. PMID:24471488

  20. The effect of annealing on the structural and magnetic properties of Ni-ferrite nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Chaturbhuj; Verma, A. K.; Chauhan, S. S.; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles NiFe2O4 were prepared by chemical co-precipitation technique using the chlorides of Ni, Fe (III) and oleic acid. The precursors were annealed at different temperature 500, 700, and 900 °C. The XRD of samples show the presence of inverse cubic spinel structure. Grain size was determined using Scherrer formula and SEM technique. The Particle size, Lattice parameter and X-ray density were also estimated from X-ray diffraction data. The particles size was found to vary from 17nm to 37 nm and largely depends on the annealing temperature. Magnetization measurements have also carried out using VSM and it was found that saturation magnetization (Ms), Remanance (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) of nano ferrite materials are lower compared to bulk materials.