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Sample records for ferroelectric single crystal

  1. Ferroelectric polarization reversal in single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    Research on the reversal of polarization in ferroelectric crystals is reviewed. Particular attention is given to observation methods for polarization reversal, BaTiO3 polarization reversal, crystal thickness dependence of polarization reversal, and domain wall movement during polarization reversal in TGS.

  2. Shear mode properties of single crystal ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, E. A.; Robinson, H. C.

    2003-10-01

    Single crystal ferroelectrics or piezocrystals were recently introduced into the electroactive materials community. The 33-mode electromechanical coupling factor of piezocrystals is typically greater than 0.90, which is significantly larger than typical values for piezoelectric ceramics (0.62-0.74). For sonar projector applications this large k33 has been responsible for more than doubling the bandwidth of active sonar arrays over what is currently achievable with ceramics. Last year a crystal grower produced a cut of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal with piezoelectric shear coefficient values of 7000 pm/V and shear coupling factors of 0.97. (For PZT5H, d15 is 730 pm/V.) This piezocrystal d15 coefficient implies significantly improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio for accelerometers and hydrophones, while the high coupling promises bandwidth increases greater than those realized in 33-mode projectors using piezocrystals. This research studies the shear-mode behavior of PMN-PT piezocrystals for use in sensors and projectors. By measuring the response of the materials to high and low level electrical bias and excitation fields, frequency, and temperature, the materials' effective material properties as a function of these operational variables were determined. [Work sponsored by ONR and NUWC ILIR.

  3. Single crystal ternary oxide ferroelectric integration with Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Youun, Long; Khan, Asif; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-03-01

    Integrating single crystal, ternary oxide ferroelectric thin film with Silicon or other arbitrary substrates has been a holy grail for the researchers since the inception of microelectronics industry. The key motivation is that adding ferroelectric materials to existing electronic devices could bring into new functionality, physics and performance improvement such as non-volatility of information, negative capacitance effect and lowering sub-threshold swing of field effect transistor (FET) below 60 mV/decade in FET [Salahuddin, S, Datta, S. Nano Lett. 8, 405(2008)]. However, fabrication of single crystal ferroelectric thin film demands stringent conditions such as lattice matched single crystal substrate and high processing temperature which are incompatible with Silicon. Here we report on successful integration of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 in single crystal form with by using a layer transfer method. The lattice structure, surface morphology, piezoelectric coefficient d33, dielectric constant, ferroelectric domain switching and spontaneous and remnant polarization of the transferred PZT are as good as these characteristics of the best PZT films grown by pulsed laser deposition on lattice matched oxide substrates. We also demonstrate Si based, FE gate controlled FET devices.

  4. Ultra-thin single crystal perovskite ferroelectric on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Ramamoorthy, Ramesh; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Single crystalline ultra-thin films (sub-10 nm) of ferroelectric complex oxides are important for tunnelling memory devices. Commercially viable realization of such devices requires their integration with the peripheral Si-based input-output electronics. Integration of single crystalline films of such oxides using direct synthesis remains challenging due to the fundamental crystal chemistry and mechanical incompatibility of dissimilar interfaces. In this work we report epitaxial transfer of ultra-thin single crystalline, oxide films (down to 1 unit cell) onto Si substrates, at room temperature. The thickness of the transferred films has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Piezoelectric force microscopy shows ferroelectric property is retained in the transferred film. Electrical transport studies on these transferred ultra-thin films are ongoing.

  5. Ferroelectric Single-Crystal Gated Graphene/Hexagonal-BN/Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Park, Jeongmin; Lee, Yourack; Yun, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-11-24

    The effect of a ferroelectric polarization field on the charge transport in a two-dimensional (2D) material was examined using a graphene monolayer on a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) field-effect transistor (FET) fabricated using a ferroelectric single-crystal substrate, (1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT). In this configuration, the intrinsic properties of graphene were preserved with the use of an hBN flake, and the influence of the polarization field from PMN-PT could be distinguished. During a wide-range gate-voltage (VG) sweep, a sharp inversion of the spontaneous polarization affected the graphene channel conductance asymmetrically as well as an antihysteretic behavior. Additionally, a transition from antihysteresis to normal ferroelectric hysteresis occurred, depending on the V(G) sweep range relative to the ferroelectric coercive field. We developed a model to interpret the complex coupling among antihysteresis, current saturation, and sudden conductance variation in relation with the ferroelectric switching and the polarization-assisted charge trapping, which can be generalized to explain the combination of 2D structured materials with ferroelectrics. PMID:26487348

  6. Single-crystal relaxor ferroelectric piezoactuators with interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Miguel; Vanga, Raghav; Moon, Kee S; Park, Heung K; Hong, Yong K

    2004-12-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of (1-x) Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single-crystal relaxor piezoactuators with interdigitated electrodes patterned on a single surface. An electric field gradient across the sample thickness induces a differential contraction between opposite faces, and it is responsible for the actuation. The samples are poled by energizing the electrodes at 100 degrees C and cooling in a field. Calculations of the piezoelectric response based on a periodically modulated dipolar field yield good agreement with experiment. Discrepancies with the model are ascribed to multidomain formation in the ferroelectric sample as a result of field reversals in the applied electric field along the sample length. PMID:15690720

  7. Ferroelectric domain pattern in barium titanate single crystals studied by means of digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrý, Pavel; Psota, Pavel; Steiger, Kateřina; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vápenka, David; Lédl, Vít

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we report on the observation of a ferroelectric domain pattern in the whole volume of the ferroelectric barium titanate single crystal by means of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Our particular implementation of DHM is based on the Mach–Zehnder interferometer and the numerical processing of data employs the angular spectrum method. A modification of the DHM technique, which allows a fast and accurate determination of the domain walls, i.e. narrow regions separating the antiparallel domains, is presented. Accuracy and sensitivity of the method are discussed. Using this approach, the determination of important geometric parameters of the ferroelectric domain patterns (such as domain spacing or the volume fraction of the anti-parallel domains) is possible. In addition to the earlier DHM studies of domain patterns in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate, our results indicate that the DHM is a convenient method to study a dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domain patterns in all perovskite single crystals.

  8. Investigation on crystalline perfection, mechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of L-tartaric acid single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Murugan, G. Senthil Ramasamy, P.

    2014-04-24

    Polar organic nonlinear optical material, L-tartaric acid single crystals have been grown from slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicates that the grown crystal crystallized in monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}. Crystalline perfection of the crystal has been evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffraction technique and it reveals that the crystal quality is good and free from structural grain boundaries. Mechanical stability of the crystal has been analyzed by Vickers microhardness measurement and it exhibits reverse indentation size effect. Piezoelectric d{sub 33} co-efficient for the crystal has been examined and its value is 47 pC/N. The ferroelectric behaviour of the crystal was analyzed by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop measurement.

  9. Mechanical confinement for tuning ferroelectric response in PMN-PT single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-02-01

    Ferroelectrics form an important class of materials and are employed for a variety of applications. However, specific applications dictate the need of tailored ferroelectric response. This creates a requirement to obtain ferroelectric materials with tunable properties. Generally, chemical modifications or domain engineering are employed to this effect. This study attempts to shed light on the use of compressive pre-stresses for tuning and enhancing the ferroelectric properties. For the purpose, polarization versus electric field hysteresis data for 68Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3-32PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals were obtained as a function of uniaxial compressive stresses and operating temperatures. These data were utilized to investigate the effects of mechanical confinement for four individual case studies of electrocaloric effect, electrical energy storage, pyroelectric, and piezoelectric effect. A significant improvement was obtained for all case studies. The adiabatic temperature change was improved by ≈80% (28 MPa, 353 K); energy storage density increased by a factor of five (28 MPa, 353 K); pyroelectric figure of merits improved by an order of magnitude (21 MPa) and the piezoelectric coefficient was tailored (variable stress). The results offer promising insight into the use of directional confinement for improving application specific ferroelectric properties in PMN-PT single crystal.

  10. Effect of amino acid doping on the growth and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, C.M.; Sankar, R.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-02-05

    Effect of amino acids (L-leucine and isoleucine) doping on the growth aspects and ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulphate crystals has been studied. Pure and doped crystals were grown from aqueous solution by low temperature solution growth technique. The cell parameter values were found to significantly vary for doped crystals. Fourier transform infrared analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups in the grown crystal. Morphology study reveals that amino acid doping induces faster growth rate along b-direction leading to a wide b-plane and hence suitable for pyroelectric detector applications. Ferroelectric domain structure has been studied by atomic force microscopy and hysteresis measurements reveal an increase of coercive field due to the formation of single domain pattern.

  11. High performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  12. High Performance Relaxor-Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals for Ultrasonic Transducer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Zhou, Dan; Yue, Qingwen; Yu, Yanxiong; Wu, Jinchuan; Qiu, Weibao; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Haosu; Chan, Helen L. W.; Dai, Jiyan

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33∼2000 pC/N, kt∼60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed. PMID:25076222

  13. Optimization of electrooptic and pieozoelectric coupling effects in tetragonal relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Sang, Shijing; Yuan, Zhongyuan; Qi, Xudong; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    The electrooptic and piezoelectric coupling effects in tetragonal relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.62Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.38PbTiO3 (PMN-0.38PT) and 0.88Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.12PbTiO3 (PZN-0.12PT) single-domain crystals have been analyzed by the coordinate transformation. The orientation dependence of the electrooptic and half-wave voltage was calculated based on the full sets of refractive indices, electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients. The optimum orientation cuts for achieving the best electrooptic coefficient and half-wave voltage were found. The lowset half-wave voltage is only 76 V for the PMN-0.38PT single-domain crystal. Compared to commonly used electrooptic crystal LiNbO3, tetragonal relaxor-PT ferroelectric single-domain crystals are much superior for optical modulation applications because of their much higher linear electrooptic coefficients and substantially lower half-wave voltages when the piezoelectric strain influence is considered. PMID:25954059

  14. Giant photovoltaic effect of ferroelectric domain walls in perovskite single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ryotaro; Ishikawa, Shotaro; Imura, Ryota; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) effect in polar materials offers great potential for light-energy conversion that generates a voltage beyond the bandgap limit of present semiconductor-based solar cells. Ferroelectrics have received renewed attention because of the ability to deliver a high voltage in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls (DWs). In recent years, there has been considerable debate over the impact of the DWs on the PV effects, owing to lack of information on the bulk PV tensor of host ferroelectrics. In this article, we provide the first direct evidence of an unusually large PV response induced by ferroelastic DWs—termed ‘DW’-PV effect. The precise estimation of the bulk PV tensor in single crystals of barium titanate enables us to quantify the giant PV effect driven by 90° DWs. We show that the DW-PV effect arises from an effective electric field consisting of a potential step and a local PV component in the 90° DW region. This work offers a starting point for further investigation into the DW-PV effect of alternative systems and opens a reliable route for enhancing the PV properties in ferroelectrics based on the engineering of domain structures in either bulk or thin-film form. PMID:26443381

  15. Giant photovoltaic effect of ferroelectric domain walls in perovskite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Ryotaro; Ishikawa, Shotaro; Imura, Ryota; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2015-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) effect in polar materials offers great potential for light-energy conversion that generates a voltage beyond the bandgap limit of present semiconductor-based solar cells. Ferroelectrics have received renewed attention because of the ability to deliver a high voltage in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls (DWs). In recent years, there has been considerable debate over the impact of the DWs on the PV effects, owing to lack of information on the bulk PV tensor of host ferroelectrics. In this article, we provide the first direct evidence of an unusually large PV response induced by ferroelastic DWs—termed ‘DW’-PV effect. The precise estimation of the bulk PV tensor in single crystals of barium titanate enables us to quantify the giant PV effect driven by 90° DWs. We show that the DW-PV effect arises from an effective electric field consisting of a potential step and a local PV component in the 90° DW region. This work offers a starting point for further investigation into the DW-PV effect of alternative systems and opens a reliable route for enhancing the PV properties in ferroelectrics based on the engineering of domain structures in either bulk or thin-film form.

  16. Giant photovoltaic effect of ferroelectric domain walls in perovskite single crystals.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryotaro; Ishikawa, Shotaro; Imura, Ryota; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) effect in polar materials offers great potential for light-energy conversion that generates a voltage beyond the bandgap limit of present semiconductor-based solar cells. Ferroelectrics have received renewed attention because of the ability to deliver a high voltage in the presence of ferroelastic domain walls (DWs). In recent years, there has been considerable debate over the impact of the DWs on the PV effects, owing to lack of information on the bulk PV tensor of host ferroelectrics. In this article, we provide the first direct evidence of an unusually large PV response induced by ferroelastic DWs-termed 'DW'-PV effect. The precise estimation of the bulk PV tensor in single crystals of barium titanate enables us to quantify the giant PV effect driven by 90° DWs. We show that the DW-PV effect arises from an effective electric field consisting of a potential step and a local PV component in the 90° DW region. This work offers a starting point for further investigation into the DW-PV effect of alternative systems and opens a reliable route for enhancing the PV properties in ferroelectrics based on the engineering of domain structures in either bulk or thin-film form. PMID:26443381

  17. Growth and characterization of ferroelectric Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Siqi; Bokov, Alexei A.; Paterson, Alisa; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-10-01

    Single crystals of Pb(Sc1/2Nb1/2)O3 were grown by the high-temperature solution method using PbO + B2O3 as flux. The size of the as-grown crystals varies from 1 to 2 mm. X-ray diffraction indicates a pure perovskite phase without B-site ordering. Polarized light microscopy shows that the crystals are of rhombohedral symmetry at room temperature and become cubic at TC = 112 °C on heating. A ferroelectric-to-relaxor phase transition is verified at TC by dielectric spectroscopy. Frequency-dependent permittivity is observed in dielectric measurements, revealing relaxor behavior above TC. Poling the crystal at room temperature does not change TC, but suppresses the permittivity. Typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop is displayed at room temperature, indicating the ferroelectric nature of the rhombohedral phase.

  18. Millimeter-Wave Dielectric Properties of Single Crystal Ferroelectric and Dielectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Korolev, Konstantin A.; Li, Zijing; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-03

    Transmittance measurements on various single crystal ferroelectric materials over a broad millimeter-wave frequency range have been performed. Frequency dependence of the complex dielectric permittivity has been determined in the millimeter wave region for the first time. The measurements have been employed using a free-space quasi-optical millimeter-wave spectrometer equipped with a set of high power backward wave oscillators (BWOs) as sources of coherent radiation, tunable in the range from 30 - 120 GHz. The uncertainties and possible sources of instrumentation and measurement errors related to the free-space millimeter-wave technique are discussed. This work has demonstrated that precise MMW permittivities can be obtained even on small thin crystals using the BWO quasi-optical approach.

  19. Measuring and Altering Ferroelectric Domain Structures in Lead Perovskite Single-Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harker, John Chamberlain

    Relaxor ferroelectric single-crystal materials PMN-PT and PZN-PT are currently of interest to the scientific community due to their enhanced properties and possible role as next-generation piezoelectric transducers in applications such as sonar and medical ultrasound. One key phenomenon affecting both the properties and the mechanical integrity of these materials is the ferroelectric domain structure within the material. In this work we examine the morphology and behavior of domain structures in PMN-29%PT. In order to do this we first present details of the construction and testing of a working piezo-response force microscope (PFM), and then use the PFM to verify a new domain observation technique called "relief polishing". Relief polishing is shown to reveal surface domains in the same manner as acid etching, preserving domain details as small as 0.5mum. Using these two techniques, we then determine that cutting and polishing strongly affect the surface and subsurface ferroelectric domain structures in PMN-29%PT. Specifically, we show that saw cutting can create characteristic striated domain structures as deep as 130mum within a sample, while straight polishing creates a characteristic domain structure known as the "fingerprint" pattern to a depth proportional to the size of the polishing grit, on the order of 0--12mum for grits as large as 15mum. We hypothesize that most samples contain these "skin effect" domain structures. In consequence, it is suggested that researchers presenting experimental results on domain structures should report the physical treatment history of the samples along with the experimental data.

  20. Ferroelectric InMnO3: Growth of single crystals, structure and high-temperature phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekheet, Maged F.; Svoboda, Ingrid; Liu, Na; Bayarjargal, Lkhamsuren; Irran, Elisabeth; Dietz, Christian; Stark, Robert W.; Riedel, Ralf; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2016-09-01

    To understand the origin of the ferroelectricity in InMnO3, single crystals with average size of 1 mm were grown in PbF2 flux at 950 °C. The results of single crystal X-ray diffraction, second harmonic generation and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of high-quality InMnO3 single crystals reveal that the room-temperature state in this material is ferroelectric with P63cm symmetry. The polar InMnO3 specimen undergoes a reversible phase transition from non-centrosymmetric P63cm structure to a centrosymmetric P63/mmc structure at 700 °C as confirmed by the in situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments.

  1. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-08-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-x Ti x O3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k 33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe "PureWave". The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery

  3. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals: growth, domain engineering, characterization and applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, domain engineered relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals, including (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) and (1-x-y)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT), with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have triggered a revolution in electromechanical devices owing to their giant piezoelectric properties and ultra-high electromechanical coupling factors. Compared to traditional PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) ceramics, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 is increased by a factor of 5 and the electromechanical coupling factor k33 is increased from < 70% to > 90%. Many emerging rich physical phenomena, such as charged domain walls, multi-phase coexistence, domain pattern symmetries, etc., have posed challenging fundamental questions for scientists. The superior electromechanical properties of these domain engineered single crystals have prompted the design of a new generation electromechanical devices, including sensors, transducers, actuators and other electromechanical devices, with greatly improved performance. It took less than 7 years from the discovery of larger size PMN-PT single crystals to the commercial production of the high-end ultrasonic imaging probe “PureWave”. The speed of development is unprecedented, and the research collaboration between academia and industrial engineers on this topic is truly intriguing. It is also exciting to see that these relaxor-PT single crystals are being used to replace traditional PZT piezoceramics in many new fields outside of medical imaging. The new ternary PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, particularly the ones with Mn-doping, have laid a solid foundation for innovations in high power acoustic projectors and ultrasonic motors, hinting another revolution in underwater SONARs and miniature actuation devices. This article intends to provide a comprehensive review on the development of relaxor-PT single crystals, spanning material discovery

  4. Néel-like domain walls in ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xian-Kui; Jia, Chun-Lin; Sluka, Tomas; Wang, Bi-Xia; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the flexible rotation of magnetization direction in ferromagnets, the spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric materials is highly confined along the symmetry-allowed directions. Accordingly, chirality at ferroelectric domain walls was treated only at the theoretical level and its real appearance is still a mystery. Here we report a Néel-like domain wall imaged by atom-resolved transmission electron microscopy in Ti-rich ferroelectric Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 crystals, where nanometre-scale monoclinic order coexists with the tetragonal order. The formation of such domain walls is interpreted in the light of polarization discontinuity and clamping effects at phase boundaries between the nesting domains. Phase-field simulation confirms that the coexistence of both phases as encountered near the morphotropic phase boundary promotes the polarization to rotate in a continuous manner. Our results provide a further insight into the complex domain configuration in ferroelectrics, and establish a foundation towards exploring chiral domain walls in ferroelectrics. PMID:27539075

  5. Néel-like domain walls in ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xian-Kui; Jia, Chun-Lin; Sluka, Tomas; Wang, Bi-Xia; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the flexible rotation of magnetization direction in ferromagnets, the spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric materials is highly confined along the symmetry-allowed directions. Accordingly, chirality at ferroelectric domain walls was treated only at the theoretical level and its real appearance is still a mystery. Here we report a Néel-like domain wall imaged by atom-resolved transmission electron microscopy in Ti-rich ferroelectric Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3 crystals, where nanometre-scale monoclinic order coexists with the tetragonal order. The formation of such domain walls is interpreted in the light of polarization discontinuity and clamping effects at phase boundaries between the nesting domains. Phase-field simulation confirms that the coexistence of both phases as encountered near the morphotropic phase boundary promotes the polarization to rotate in a continuous manner. Our results provide a further insight into the complex domain configuration in ferroelectrics, and establish a foundation towards exploring chiral domain walls in ferroelectrics. PMID:27539075

  6. Above-room-temperature ferroelectricity in a single-component molecular crystal.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Giovannetti, Gianluca; Picozzi, Silvia; Itoh, Hirotake; Shimano, Ryo; Kumai, Reiji; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2010-02-11

    Ferroelectrics are electro-active materials that can store and switch their polarity (ferroelectricity), sense temperature changes (pyroelectricity), interchange electric and mechanical functions (piezoelectricity), and manipulate light (through optical nonlinearities and the electro-optic effect): all of these functions have practical applications. Topological switching of pi-conjugation in organic molecules, such as the keto-enol transformation, has long been anticipated as a means of realizing these phenomena in molecular assemblies and crystals. Croconic acid, an ingredient of black dyes, was recently found to have a hydrogen-bonded polar structure in a crystalline state. Here we demonstrate that application of an electric field can coherently align the molecular polarities in crystalline croconic acid, as indicated by an increase of optical second harmonic generation, and produce a well-defined polarization hysteresis at room temperature. To make this simple pentagonal molecule ferroelectric, we switched the pi-bond topology using synchronized proton transfer instead of rigid-body rotation. Of the organic ferroelectrics, this molecular crystal exhibits the highest spontaneous polarization ( approximately 20 muC cm(-2)) in spite of its small molecular size, which is in accord with first-principles electronic-structure calculations. Such high polarization, which persists up to 400 K, may find application in active capacitor and nonlinear optics elements in future organic electronics. PMID:20148035

  7. Acoustic Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in BaTiO3 Single Crystals Using Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huarong; Shimamura, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Chinna Venkadasamy; Villora, Encarnacion G.; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji; Yin, Qingrui

    2007-01-01

    An “alternating-force-modulated” atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the acoustic mode, generated by launching acoustic waves on the piezoelectric transducer that is attached to the cantilever, was used to visualize the ferroelectric domains in barium titanate (BaTiO3) single crystals by detecting acoustic vibrations generated by the tip and transmitted through the sample placed beneath it to the transducer. The acoustic signal was found to reflect locally elastic microstructures at low frequencies, while high-frequency acoustic images revealed strip like domain configurations of internal substructures in BaTiO3 single crystals. The underlying acoustic imaging mechanism using the AFM was discussed in terms of the interaction between the excited acoustic wave and ferroelectric domains.

  8. Growth, Optical, Dielectric and Ferroelectric Properties of Non-Linear Optical Single Crystal: Glycine-Phthalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Sagadevan

    2016-07-01

    Single crystals of glycine-phthalic acid (GPA) were grown by slow evaporation process using aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine its cell structure and it was found that the GPA crystal corresponded to the orthorhombic system. To identify absorption range and cut-off wavelength for the GPA crystal, UV-visible spectrum was recorded. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to study the optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient, electrical susceptibility, and optical conductivity. As a function of different frequencies and temperatures, the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss were examined. The electrical properties like plasma energy, Penn gap, Fermi energy, and polarizability were determined for the analysis of the second harmonic generation (SHG). Using the Kurtz powder technique, the SHG of the GPA crystal was studied. Investigations relating to hysteresis were carried out to ascertain the ferroelectric nature of the material.

  9. Studies on conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method grown ferroelectric glycine phosphite (GPI) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent single crystals of glycine phosphite were grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the sizes of 100 mm in length, 30 mm diameter and 10×11×8 mm 3. The conventional slow evaporation and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method grown glycine phosphite single crystals were characterized using laser damage threshold, chemical etching, Vickers microhardness, UV-vis-NIR and dielectric analysis. The laser damage threshold value was higher in SR method grown GPI crystal as against conventional method grown crystal. The SR method grown GPI has higher hardness and also higher transmittance compared to conventional method grown crystal. The chemical etching and dielectric loss measurements indicate that the crystal grown by SR method has low density of defects and low value of dielectric loss compared to conventional method grown GPI crystal.

  10. Bulk crystal growth, optical, mechanical and ferroelectric properties of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric Lithium nitrate monohydrate oxalate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-01

    New semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals of Lithium nitrate oxalate monohydrate (LNO) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicated that LNO crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. Various functional groups present in the material were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-vis study showed the high transparency of crystals with a wide band gap 5.01 eV. Various Optical constants i.e. Urbach energy (Eu), extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity, electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. A sharp emission peak was found at 438 nm in photoluminescence measurement, which revealed suitability of crystal for fabricating violet lasers. In dielectric studies, a peak has been observed at 33 °C which is due to ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Piezoelectric charge coefficients (d33 = 9.2 pC/N and g33) have been calculated, which make it a suitable for piezoelectric devices applications. In ferroelectric studies, a saturated loop was found in which the values of coercive field and remnant polarization were found to be 2.18 kV/cm and 0.39 μC/cm2, respectively. Thermal behavior was studied by TGA and DSC studies. The relative SHG efficiency of LNO was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP crystal. In microhardness study, Meyer's index value was found to be 1.78 which revealed its soft nature. These optical, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, mechanical and non-linear optical properties of grown crystal establish the usefulness of this material for optoelectronics, non-volatile memory and piezoelectric devices applications.

  11. Effects of composition and temperature on the large field behavior of [011]{sub C} relaxor ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, John A.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Tian, Jian

    2014-08-04

    The large field behavior of [011]{sub C} cut relaxor ferroelectric lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate, xPb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-yPbTiO{sub 3}, single crystals was experimentally characterized in the piezoelectric d{sub 322}-mode configuration under combined mechanical, electrical, and thermal loading. Increasing the concentration of lead indium niobate and decreasing the concentration of lead titanate in compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary resulted in a decrease of mechanical compliance, dielectric permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficients as well as a shift from a continuous to a discontinuous transformation.

  12. Nucleation kinetics of urea succinic acid –ferroelectric single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhivya, R.; Vizhi, R. Ezhil E-mail: revizhi@gmail.com; Babu, D. Rajan

    2015-06-24

    Single crystals of Urea Succinic Acid (USA) were grown by slow cooling technique. The crystalline system was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The metastable zonewidth were carried out for various temperatures i.e., 35°, 40°, 45° and 50°C. The induction period is experimentally determined and various nucleation parameters have been estimated.

  13. Domain Motion of Ferroelectricity of Bi2SrTa2O9 Single Crystals under an AC-Voltage Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Akio; Nagasawa, Naomi; Ami, Takaaki; Suzuki, Masayuki

    1999-02-01

    A novel phenomenon, which increases the remanent polarization of Bi2SrTa2O9 single crystals, a promising candidate for ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM), has been identified. The single crystals, grown in vapor phases using the self-flux method, have a composition characterized asBixSryTa2O9 (x=2.08±0.09, y=1.04±0.06). Incontrast to BixSryTa2O9 (x=1.91±0.05, y=1.27±0.08) single crystals grown by the self-flux method, the coercive field of the present single crystals is smaller. Observing optical anisotropy in the c-plane, we found that this material has a paraelectric phase, which might originate from the partial distortion of the crystal. After voltage was applied, the paraelectric phase disappeared and the crystal became a ferroelectric domain structure. Measuring the electrical properties in the c-plane, the remanent polarization of the Bi2SrTa2O9 single crystal was increased by applying ac-voltage. One-hour annealing over the Curie temperature also produced a paraelectric phase in the crystal but it was confirmed that this paraelectric phase can also be decreased by applying ac-voltage. Using this ac-voltage application, we can clearly observe the domain structure of BiSTa single crystal for the first time.

  14. Energy harvesting based on FE-FE transition in ferroelectric single crystals.

    PubMed

    Guyomar, Daniel; Pruvost, Sebastien; Sebald, Gael

    2008-02-01

    The pyroelectric properties of Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0955)Ti(0.045)O(3) single crystals versus an electric field have been studied for energy harvesting in this paper. Two thermodynamic cycles (Stirling and Ericsson) were used for this purpose. By applying an electric field, a FE-FE transition was induced, abruptly increasing the polarization. This transition minimized the supplied energy and improved the harvested energy. By discharging the single crystal at a higher temperature, a gain of 1100% was obtained with the Stirling cycle at 1 kV/mm (gain is defined as harvested energy divided by supplied energy). The study revealed that Stirling cycles are more interesting for low electric fields. Based on experimental results, simulations were carried out to estimate energy harvesting in high electric fields to evaluate the performances of thin samples (single crystals or oriented thin films). At high electric fields, both cycles gave almost the same energy harvesting, but Ericsson cycles were more appropriate to control the voltage on the sample. The simulation led to a harvested energy of 500 mJ/g for an applied electric field equal to 50 kV/mm. The efficiency with respect to Carnot was raised 20%. PMID:18334334

  15. Ferroelectric domain structures in <001>-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} lead-free single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yan; Wong, Chi-Man; Yau, Hei-Man; Dai, Jiyan; Deng, Hao; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Danyang; Yan, Zhibo; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, ferroelectric domain structures of <001 >-oriented K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} single crystal are characterized. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed high-density of laminate domain structures in the crystal and the lattices of the neighboring domains are found to be twisted in a small angle. Superlattice diffraction spots of 1/2 (eeo) and 1/2 (ooe) in electron diffraction patterns are observed in the crystal, revealing the a{sup +}a{sup +}c{sup −} tilting of oxygen octahedral in the perovskite structure. The piezoresponse of domains and in-situ poling responses of K{sub 0.15}Na{sub 0.85}NbO{sub 3} crystal are observed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and the results assure its good ferroelectric properties.

  16. Switching ferroelectric domain configurations using both electric and magnetic fields in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–Pb(Fe,Ta)O3 single-crystal lamellae

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. M.; Schilling, A.; Kumar, Ashok; Sanchez, D.; Ortega, N.; Katiyar, R. S.; Scott, J. F.; Gregg, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Thin single-crystal lamellae cut from Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–Pb(Fe,Ta)O3 ceramic samples have been integrated into simple coplanar capacitor devices. The influence of applied electric and magnetic fields on ferroelectric domain configurations has been mapped, using piezoresponse force microscopy. The extent to which magnetic fields alter the ferroelectric domains was found to be strongly history dependent: after switching had been induced by applying electric fields, the susceptibility of the domains to change under a magnetic field (the effective magnetoelectric coupling parameter) was large. Such large, magnetic field-induced changes resulted in a remanent domain state very similar to the remanent state induced by an electric field. Subsequent magnetic field reversal induced more modest ferroelectric switching. PMID:24421376

  17. Determination of 60° polarization nanodomains in a relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Payne, David A.

    2015-10-19

    Here, we report a determination of monoclinic nanodomains in PMN-xPT with x = 31%PT by using scanning convergent beam electron diffraction (SCBED). We show the presence of 60 ± α degree nanodomains with Cm-like symmetry as well as significant variations (α) in local polarization directions across lengths of ∼10 nm. The principle of our technique is general and can be applied for the determination of polarization domains in other ferroelectric materials of different symmetry.

  18. Fabrication of graphene field-effect transistor on top of ferroelectric single-crystal substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Yourack; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kim, Joong-Gyu; Yun, Yoojoo; Park, Jeongmin; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Jung Ho; Jin, Youngjo; Shin, Yong Seon; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2015-03-01

    In the analysis of Graphene field-effect transistor, the substrate material which has the direct contact with Graphene layer plays an important in the device performance. In this presentation, we have tested PMN-PT(i.e.(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) substrate as a gate dielectric of Graphene field-effect transistor. Unlike the case of previously used substrates such as silicon oxide or hexagonal Boron-Nitride(h-BN), the PMN-PT substrate can induce giant amount of surface charge that is directly injected to the attached Graphene layer due to its ferroelectric property. And the hysteresis of polarization versus electric field of PMN-PT can cause the device to show the ferroelectric nonvolatile memory operation. We had successfully fabricated Graphene field-effect transistor using the mechanically exfoliated Graphene layer transferred on the PMN-PT(001) substrate. Unlike the case of mechanical exfoliation on the surface of silicon-oxide or the Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), the weak adhesion properties between graphene and PMNPT required the pretreatment on PMMA before the exfoliation process. The device performance is analyzed in terms of the effect of ferro- and piezo-electric effect of PMNPT substrate.

  19. Dielectric dispersion of ferroelectric ceramics and single crystals by sound generation in piezoelectric domains

    SciTech Connect

    Arlt, G.; Boettger, U.; Witte, S.

    1995-04-01

    Periodic domain configurations with alternating 180{degree} and 90{degree} domains are not completely mechanically clamped up to microwave frequencies. Above the acoustic resonance of the ferroelectric sample, therefore, the dielectric constant comprises contributions which can be attributed to the free dielectric constant. Up to microwave frequencies the domains are piezoelectrically active; they emit longitudinal and shear thickness waves into the surroundings which cause dielectric loss in the sample. The dielectric step from the free condition to the clamped condition at the relaxation frequency is on the order of {Delta}{var_epsilon} {approx} 10--100. This step is much smaller than the step caused by the emission of shear waves from 90{degree} domain walls.

  20. High-Performance Ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 Single Crystals Grown by Top-Seeded Solution Growth Method under High-Pressure Oxygen Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru

    2010-09-01

    The top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method under high oxygen pressure (PO2 ) atmosphere has been developed to obtain large high-performance single crystals of ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12. Crystals grown at 960 °C at a PO2 of 0.9 MPa exhibited well-saturated hysteresis with a remanent polarization of 48 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 29 kV/cm. The results of piezoresponse force microscopy indicate that polarization switching is accomplished throughout the crystals. Electric-field-induced strain measurements along the a axis yield a piezoelectric constant d11* of 37 pm/V for Bi4Ti3O12.

  1. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics.

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  2. Direct laser-writing of ferroelectric single-crystal waveguide architectures in glass for 3D integrated optics

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Adam; Jain, Himanshu; Dierolf, Volkmar; Sakakura, Masaaki; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Miura, Kiyotaka; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Lapointe, Jerome; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Direct three-dimensional laser writing of amorphous waveguides inside glass has been studied intensely as an attractive route for fabricating photonic integrated circuits. However, achieving essential nonlinear-optic functionality in such devices will also require the ability to create high-quality single-crystal waveguides. Femtosecond laser irradiation is capable of crystallizing glass in 3D, but producing optical-quality single-crystal structures suitable for waveguiding poses unique challenges that are unprecedented in the field of crystal growth. In this work, we use a high angular-resolution electron diffraction method to obtain the first conclusive confirmation that uniform single crystals can be grown inside glass by femtosecond laser writing under optimized conditions. We confirm waveguiding capability and present the first quantitative measurement of power transmission through a laser-written crystal-in-glass waveguide, yielding loss of 2.64 dB/cm at 1530 nm. We demonstrate uniformity of the crystal cross-section down the length of the waveguide and quantify its birefringence. Finally, as a proof-of-concept for patterning more complex device geometries, we demonstrate the use of dynamic phase modulation to grow symmetric crystal junctions with single-pass writing. PMID:25988599

  3. Phase transitions and thermal-stress-induced structural changes in a ferroelectric Pb (Zr0.80Ti0. 20)O3 single crystal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Xie, Y; Ye, Z. -G.; Parish, Chad M.; Glazer, A. M.

    2014-12-22

    Zirconium-rich lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) Pb(Zr0.80Ti0.20)O3 single crystal is studied by polarized-Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature. We show that the crystal possesses complex domain boundaries which show no sign of instability even 200 K above the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition. The boundary stabilized the domains which had the same orientation after cyclic heating and cooling up to 773 K. The domains transformed normally to the cubic paraelectric phase, but returned to their original state after cooling. Physical mechanism behind the reversible behavior is related to the strain between the boundary region and domain, which forces the domain to grow similarlymore » after each heating and cooling cycle. Electron backscattering diffraction measurements show that macroscopic domains, lengths scale in hundreds of microns, are divided into regions whose Pb-displacements are not correlated. The results are notably interesting for non-volatile memory development as it implies that the original ferroelectric state can be restored after the material has been transformed to a paraelectric phase. Incoherent Pbdisplacements play a role for polarization switching.« less

  4. An I-integral method for crack-tip intensity factor variation due to domain switching in ferroelectric single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongjun; Wang, Jie; Shimada, Takahiro; Wu, Huaping; Wu, Linzhi; Kuna, Meinhard; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, an I-integral method is established for solving the crack-tip intensity factors of ferroelectric single-crystals. The I-integral combined with the phase field model is successfully used to investigate crack-tip intensity factor variations due to domain switching in ferroelectricity subjected to electromechanical loadings, which exhibits several advantages over previous methods based on small-scale switching. First, the shape of the switching zone around a crack tip is predicted by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which does not require preset energy-based switching criterion. Second, the I-integral can directly solve the crack-tip intensity factors and decouple the crack-tip intensity factors of different modes based on superimposing an auxiliary state onto an actual state. Third, the I-integral is area-independent, namely, the I-integral is not affected by the integral area size, the polarization distributions, or domain walls. This makes the I-integral applicable to large-scale domain switching. To this end, the electro-elastic field intensity factors of an impermeable crack in PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals are evaluated under electrical, mechanical, and combined loading. The intensity factors obtained by the I-integral agree well with those obtained by the extrapolation technique. From numerical results, the following conclusions can be drawn with respect to fracture behavior of ferroelectrics under large-scale switching. Under displacement controlled mechanical loading, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) decrease monotonically due to the domain switching process, which means a crack tip shielding or effective switching-induced toughening occurs. If an external electric field is applied, the electric displacement intensity factor (EDIF) increases in all cases, i.e., the formed domain patterns enhance the electric crack tip loading. The energy release rate, expressed by the crack-tip J-integral, is reduced by the domain

  5. Nb:BST: Crystal growth and ferroelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajan, R.; Madeswaran, S.; Jayavel, R.

    2001-05-01

    Nb substituted barium strontium titanate single crystals were grown by the high-temperature solution growth technique with different Nb concentrations. The growth conditions were optimized to grow good quality large sized single crystals. Nb doping reduced the twin formation considerably and yielded bulk single crystals. A surface morphology observation indicates layer and hopper growth mechanisms. Powder X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in c/a ratio with Nb content, and ferroelectric studies revealed a decrease in curie temperature and a sharp increase in dielectric constant and spontaneous polarization.

  6. Precursor polar clusters in the paraelectric phase of ferroelectric Ba₀.₈₀Ca₀.₂₀TiO₃ single crystals studied by Brillouin light scattering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Kojima, Seiji; Park, Kibog; Kim, Sung Baek; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2010-06-01

    A strong relaxation mode was observed in the gigahertz frequency window in the paraelectric phase of Ba₀.₈₀Ca₀.₂₀TiO₃ single crystals by using Brillouin light scattering. The appearance and growth of this relaxation mode were accompanied by substantial softening of the longitudinal acoustic mode as well as a remarkable increase in the hypersonic damping. Similar to BaTiO₃, the temperature dependence of the relaxation time of Ba₀.₈₀Ca₀.₂₀TiO₃ displayed a slowing-down behavior near the Curie temperature, indicating the order-disorder nature of the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition in this substance. The dynamics of precursor polar clusters observed in this work was discussed in relation with recent theoretical studies and found to be consistent with their predictions. PMID:21393751

  7. Anomalous variations in elastic properties of lead zirconate niobate-lead titanate single crystals in the vicinity of its ferroelectric phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, G.; Kojima, S.

    2014-03-01

    The acoustic phonon mode anomalies in the paraelectric phase of tetragonal and rhombohedral (1 - x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 single crystals were systematically investigated by Brillouin light scattering measurements. The inverse relaxation time in the paraelectric phase of both crystals showed a stretched-type slowing-down temperature dependence approaching the structural phase transition temperature (T_{\\text{C}}) instead of a normal critical slowing-down. The observed anomalous part of the elastic constant (c_{11}) in the paraelectric phase of the tetragonal crystal in the vicinity of T_{\\text{C}} , exhibited a log(T-T_{0}/T_{0}) -type dependence in the temperature range from T_{\\text{C}} to \\sim T_{\\text{C}}+80\\ ^\\circ \\text{C} . On the other hand, the elastic constant of the rhombohedral ferroelectric crystal exhibited a deviation from such a temperature dependence. This was attributed to the interaction of acoustic phonon modes with strong polarization fluctuations and elastic deformation arising from the complex dynamics of polar nanoregions.

  8. Phase-field modeling of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase boundary structures in single-crystal barium titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldman, Alexandra Y.; Landis, Chad M.

    2016-03-01

    Ferroelectric perovskite materials have been shown to exhibit a large electrocaloric effect near phase transitions. We develop a computational model based on a phase-field approach to characterize the structure of ferroelectric to paraelectric phase boundaries for planar configurations under generalized plane strain with temperatures near the Curie temperature. A nonlinear finite element method is used to solve for the phase boundary structure of a representative unit cell with a 180° ferroelectric laminate for a range of domain widths. The temperature at which the phase boundary can be found increases with domain width, approaching the Curie temperature asymptotically. The excess free energy density per unit area of the boundary increases with domain width. As expected, closure domains form between the ferroelectric and paraelectric phase, and the shape of the closure domains evolves from triangular to needle-shaped as the domain width increases. The entropy jump across the phase boundary is quantified and is shown to increase with domain width as well. A planar configuration with a 90° ferroelectric laminate is investigated, but shown to be physically unlikely due to the high stress levels required to achieve strain compatibility between the phases. Possible three-dimensional structures of the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase boundary are also discussed.

  9. Ferroelectric, Thermal, and Magnetic Characteristics of Praseodymium Malonate Hexahydrate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nazir; Ahmad, M. M.; Kotru, P. N.

    2016-04-01

    Gel-grown single crystals of [Pr2(C3H2O4)3(H2O)6] exhibit remarkably flat habit faces, the most predominant being {110}. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystals are free from structural grain boundaries, which is the key requirement for single crystals for use in the microelectronics industry to serve as low-dielectric-constant ferroelectric material. The dielectric behavior recorded on {110} planes of single crystals shows that the crystal is ferroelectric with transition temperature T c = 135°C, which differs from the Curie-Weiss temperature T 0 by 2°C (T 0 < T c). Material in pellet form is shown to exhibit slightly different dielectric behavior. Polarization versus electric field confirms the ferroelectric behavior of the material. The dielectric behavior is also supported by the results of thermal studies, viz. thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The magnetic susceptibility and magnetic moment are calculated to be 30.045 × 10-6 emu and 3.092 BM, respectively.

  10. 180 deg. domain structure and its evolution in Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} ferroelectric single crystals of tungsten bronzes structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, C.J.; Nie, C.J.; Duan, X.F.; Li, J.Q.; Zhang, H.J.; Wang, J.Y.

    2006-05-15

    Ferroelectric domain structure and its evolution in uniaxial relaxor Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystals were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that there exists a high density of 180 deg. domain walls in the crystals. The domains appear predominantly spike shaped along the polar axis and have a typical diameter of 50-500 nm. Domain wall motion was occasionally induced by electron beam irradiation. Macrodomains-to-microdomains switching has been observed corresponding to the normal-to-relaxor ferroelectrics transition during an in situ heating experiments. At temperature just below ferroelectric phase transition temperature T{sub C}, zero-field-cooled needlelike nanodomains were also observed.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of Nd3+-doped Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chongjun; Zhang, Yungang; Sun, Liang; Wang, Jiming; Wu, Tong; Xu, Feng; Du, Chaoling; Zhu, Kongjun; Liu, Youwen

    2013-06-01

    Sodium bismuth titanate Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) single crystal doped with Nd3+ was grown by a top-seeded solution growth method. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a pure perovskite structure with the rhombohedral phase. We found that the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were enhanced by the Nd3+ dopant. After poling along the [1 1 1] direction, transmittance was enhanced dramatically. The Sellmeier dispersion equation and energy band gaps were obtained. The absorption band around 808 nm has high full-width at half-maximum and large absorption cross-section, which is suitable for AlGaAs diode-laser pumping. A strong emission transition band of Nd3+ at around 1066 nm was observed; a long radiation lifetime 324 µs shows a low quenching effect. These results indicate that Nd3+-doped NBT crystal could be applied in photonic or integrated optoelectronic devices as a multi-functional crystal.

  12. Modeling of elastic nonlinearities in ferroelectric materials including nonlinear losses: application to nonlinear resonance mode of relaxors single crystals.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Gaël; Lebrun, Laurent; Guyomar, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) and (1-x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals are considered to behave like soft Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics because of their small mechanical quality factor Qm and poor stability under external disturbances (Qm > 500-1000 for hard PZT ceramic, and Qm < 100 for soft PZT and PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals). At weak signal excitation of the first resonance mode, the displacement at the end of a lateral bar is proportional to the Q31d31 figure of merit that is very close to that found for hard PZT. Indeed the very large piezoelectric coefficient compensates the low Qm. But increasing alternating current (AC) field results in the appearance of strong non-linearities through a shift of the resonance frequency and jumps phenomenon observed on increasing and decreasing frequency sweep. It is shown in this paper that these nonlinearities are due to the nonlinear elastic compliance that can be modeled by a third order development of the constitutive piezoelectric equations. Experiments on PMN-PT and PZN-PT single crystals are used for comparison with the model to show the viability of the approach. Both the frequency shift and jumps phenomenon are simulated with a very good agreement with experimental results. The importance is also shown of losses associated with the third order term responsible for the large decrease of the mechanical quality factor for high strain levels. Thus, the nonlinear losses are related to the hysteresis of domain wall motion when subjected to large displacements. PMID:16060508

  13. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Pierangeli, D.; Ferraro, M.; Di Mei, F.; Di Domenico, G.; de Oliveira, C. E. M.; Agranat, A. J.; DelRe, E.

    2016-01-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium–lithium–tantalate–niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 104 times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies. PMID:26907725

  14. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Pierangeli, D; Ferraro, M; Di Mei, F; Di Domenico, G; de Oliveira, C E M; Agranat, A J; DelRe, E

    2016-01-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 10(4) times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies. PMID:26907725

  15. Super-crystals in composite ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierangeli, D.; Ferraro, M.; di Mei, F.; di Domenico, G.; de Oliveira, C. E. M.; Agranat, A. J.; Delre, E.

    2016-02-01

    As atoms and molecules condense to form solids, a crystalline state can emerge with its highly ordered geometry and subnanometric lattice constant. In some physical systems, such as ferroelectric perovskites, a perfect crystalline structure forms even when the condensing substances are non-stoichiometric. The resulting solids have compositional disorder and complex macroscopic properties, such as giant susceptibilities and non-ergodicity. Here, we observe the spontaneous formation of a cubic structure in composite ferroelectric potassium-lithium-tantalate-niobate with micrometric lattice constant, 104 times larger than that of the underlying perovskite lattice. The 3D effect is observed in specifically designed samples in which the substitutional mixture varies periodically along one specific crystal axis. Laser propagation indicates a coherent polarization super-crystal that produces an optical X-ray diffractometry, an ordered mesoscopic state of matter with important implications for critical phenomena and applications in miniaturized 3D optical technologies.

  16. Spontaneous Ferroelectric Order in a Bent-Core Smectic Liquid Crystal of Fluid Orthorhombic Layers

    SciTech Connect

    R Reddy; C Zhu; R Shao; E Korblova; T Gong; Y Shen; M Glaser; J Maclennan; D Walba; N Clark

    2011-12-31

    Macroscopic polarization density, characteristic of ferroelectric phases, is stabilized by dipolar intermolecular interactions. These are weakened as materials become more fluid and of higher symmetry, limiting ferroelectricity to crystals and to smectic liquid crystal stackings of fluid layers. We report the SmAP{sub F}, the smectic of fluid polar orthorhombic layers that order into a three-dimensional ferroelectric state, the highest-symmetry layered ferroelectric possible and the highest-symmetry ferroelectric material found to date. Its bent-core molecular design employs a single flexible tail that stabilizes layers with untilted molecules and in-plane polar ordering, evident in monolayer-thick freely suspended films. Electro-optic response reveals the three-dimensional orthorhombic ferroelectric structure, stabilized by silane molecular terminations that promote parallel alignment of the molecular dipoles in adjacent layers.

  17. Piezoelectric activity in Perovskite ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Wang, Linghang; Jin, Li; Lin, Dabin; Li, Jinglei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite ferroelectrics (PFs) have been the dominant piezoelectric materials for various electromechanical applications, such as ultrasonic transducers, sensors, and actuators, to name a few. In this review article, the development of PF crystals is introduced, focusing on the crystal growth and piezoelectric activity. The critical factors responsible for the high piezoelectric activity of PFs (i.e., phase transition, monoclinic phase, domain size, relaxor component, dopants, and piezoelectric anisotropy) are surveyed and discussed. A general picture of the present understanding on the high piezoelectricity of PFs is described. At the end of this review, potential approaches to further improve the piezoelectricity of PFs are proposed. PMID:25585387

  18. Effect of doping with Nd{sup 3+} ions on the structural and ferroelectric properties of Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, W.L.; Zhang, H.J.; Xia, S.Q.; Huang, B.B.; Liu, D.; Wang, J.Y.; Jiang, M.H.; Zheng, L.M.; Wang, J.F.; Lu, C.J.

    2010-09-15

    The crystal structure of Ca{sub 0.28}Ba{sub 0.72}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (CBN-28) crystal with Nd-doping has been determined from X-ray single crystal diffraction data, in the tetragonal system with space group P4bm and the following parameters: a = b = 12.458 A, c = 3.954 A, V = 613.688 A{sup 3}, and Z = 5. X-ray diffraction results on a Nd-doped CBN-28 single crystal also have demonstrated that Nd{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} occupy the same site in the crystal structure. Dielectric and ferroelectric measurements have been performed. Transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric at around 223 {sup o}C has been observed. The Nd-doped crystal has a lower Curie temperature (T{sub m}) than that of undoped CBN-28 crystal. The spontaneous polarization (P{sub s}) and coercive electric field (E{sub c}) also decrease compared with their values in the undoped CBN-28 crystal.

  19. Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals In Aerodynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Holmes, Harlan K.

    1994-01-01

    The process of simultaneous optical visualization and quantitative measurement of aerodynamic boundary layer parameters requires new concepts, materials and utilization methods. Measurement of shear stress in terms of the transmitted or the reflected light intensity from an aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) thin (approx. 1 micron) film deposited on a glass substrate has been the first step in this direction. In this paper, recent progress in utilization of FLC thin films for skin friction measurement and for studying the state of the boundary layer in a wind tunnel environment is reviewed. The switching characteristics of FLCs have been used to measure pressure from the newly devised system of partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals (PEPDFLCs). In this configuration, a PEPDFLC thin film (approx. 10-25 microns) is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a rigid surface and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvinylidene fluoride or mylar. The switching characteristics of the film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and a predetermined bias voltage across the two electrodes. The results, considering the dielectrics of composite media, are discussed.

  20. 2-2 composites based on [011]-poled relaxor-ferroelectric single crystals: from the piezoelectric anisotropy to the hydrostatic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, C. R.; Topolov, V. Y.; Betts, D. N.; Kim, H. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper effect of the orientation of the main crystallographic axes on the piezoelectric anisotropy and hydrostatic parameters of 2-2 parallel-connected single crystal (SC) / auxetic polymer composites is analysed. SCs are chosen among the perovskite-type relaxor-ferroelectric solid solutions of (1 - x)Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 and xPb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-yPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(1 - x - y)PbTiO3. The SC layers in a composite sample are poled along the perovskite unit-cell [011] direction and characterised by mm2 symmetry. The orientation of the main crystallographic axes in the SC layer is observed to strongly influence the effective piezoelectric coefficients d*3j, g*3j, squared figured of merit d*3j g*3j, electromechanical coupling factors k*3j (j = 1, 2 and 3), and hydrostatic analogs of these parameters of the 2-2 composite. A comparison of values of d*3j g*3j was first carried out at d*31 ≠ d*32 in a wide range of orientations and volume-fraction. Large values of the effective parameters and inequalities | d*33 / d*3f | > 5 and | k*33 / k*3f | > 5 (f = 1 and 2) are achieved at specific orientations of the main crystallographic axes due to the anisotropy of elastic and piezoelectric properties of the SC component. The use of an auxetic polyethylene with a negative Poisson's ratio leads to a significant increase in the hydrostatic parameters of the 2-2 composite. Particular advantages of the studied composites over the conventional ceramic / polymer composites are taken into account for transducer, hydroacoustic and energyharvesting applications.

  1. Topology and temperature dependence of the diffuse X-ray scattering in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectric single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Gorfman, Semën; Keeble, Dean S.; Bombardi, Alessandro; Thomas, Pam A.

    2015-01-01

    The results of high-resolution measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering produced by a perovskite-based Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 ferroelectric single crystal between 40 and 620 K are reported. The study was designed as an attempt to resolve numerous controversies regarding the average structure of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3, such as the mechanism of the phase transitions between the tetragonal, P4bm, and rhombohedral | monoclinic, R3c | Cc, space groups and the correlation between structural changes and macroscopic physical properties. The starting point was to search for any transformations of structural disorder in the temperature range of thermal depoling (420–480 K), where the average structure is known to remain unchanged. The intensity distribution around the {032} pseudocubic reflection was collected using a PILATUS 100K detector at the I16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source (UK). The data revealed previously unknown features of the diffuse scattering, including a system of dual asymmetric L-shaped diffuse scattering streaks. The topology, temperature dependence, and relationship between Bragg and diffuse intensities suggest the presence of complex microstructure in the low-temperature R3c | Cc phase. This microstructure may be formed by the persistence of the higher-temperature P4bm phase, built into a lower-temperature R3c | Cc matrix, accompanied by the related long-range strain fields. Finally, it is shown that a correlation between the temperature dependence of the X-ray scattering features and the temperature regime of thermal depoling is present. PMID:26877721

  2. Effects of electron irradiation on the ferroelectric 180 deg. in-plane nanostripe domain structure in a thin film prepared from a bulk single crystal of BaTiO{sub 3} by focused ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takao; Okamoto, Masakuni

    2011-01-01

    Effects of electron irradiation on the ferroelectric 180 deg. in-plane nanostripe domain structure in a thin film prepared from a bulk single crystal of BaTiO{sub 3} by focused ion beam were studied. The domain structure transformed into a characteristic 90 deg. in-plane nanostripe domain structure under intense electron irradiation. In particular, an unconventional triangular 90 deg. in-plane nanostripe domain structure was observed. Polarization analysis suggests the existence of an incomplete or half tetradomain vortex at the boundary of the triangular domain structure. Together with the help of phase-field simulations using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, it is suggested that such a domain structure is created by an anisotropic in-plane electric field, which is plausibly induced by an anisotropic interaction of the incident electron beam with the ferroelectric material.

  3. Novel Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals with Very Large Spontaneous Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Jun; Uematsu, Mioko; Sakashita, Keiichi; Kageyama, Yoshitaka; Hayashi, Seiji; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Kenji

    1989-07-01

    Several ferroelectric liquid crystals derived from a new optically active (2S, 5R)-2-hydroxy-5-hexyl-δ-valerolactone have been synthesized, and their mesomorphic and ferroelectric properties have been investigated. Very large spontaneous polarization (Ps) has been observed in these compounds, one of which shows an extremly large Ps value: as high as 320 nC/cm2.

  4. Structure and properties of Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3- Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 ferroelectric single crystals grown by a top-seeded solution growth technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bixia; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3 (BZT)-modified Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 (PZT) single crystals have been grown using a top-seeded solution growth technique and characterized by various methods. The crystal structure is found to be rhombohedral by means of X-ray powder diffraction. The composition and homogeneity of the as-grown single crystals are studied by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The domain structure of a (001)(cub) platelet is investigated by polarized light microscopy (PLM), which confirms the rhombohedral symmetry. The paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(C) is found to be 313°C with the absence of rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition. The ferroelectric properties of the ternary crystals are enhanced by the BZT substitution with a remanent polarization of 28 μC/cm(2) and a coercive field E(C) of 22.1 kV/cm. PMID:26067036

  5. Fork gratings based on ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Wei, B Y; Shi, L Y; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H-S; Hu, W; Lu, Y Q

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we disclose a fork grating (FG) based on the photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). The Digital Micro-mirror Device based system is used as a dynamic photomask to generated different holograms. Because of controlled anchoring energy, the photo alignment process offers optimal conditions for the multi-domain FLC alignment. Two different electro-optical modes namely DIFF/TRANS and DIFF/OFF switchable modes have been proposed where the diffraction can be switched either to no diffraction or to a completely black state, respectively. The FLC FG shows high diffraction efficiency and fast response time of 50µs that is relatively faster than existing technologies. Thus, the FLC FG may pave a good foundation toward optical vertices generation and manipulation that could find applications in a variety of devices. PMID:27136779

  6. Chiralization and ferroelectric state induction in nanostructured liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katranchev, B.; Petrov, M.; Rafailov, P. M.; Todorov, N.

    2016-02-01

    The liquid crystals (LC), due to their naturally high bulk ordering, strong birefringence and easy electrooptical driving, serve as matrix in the nanocomposites doped with non-mesogenic or mesogenic nanoparticles. The nanocomposite's structural units exhibit very complex molecular form indicating the strength and the intermolecular interaction between the matrix and dopant's molecules. Hydrogen bonds are of particular significance for the formation of the nanocomposite structural units, since the symmetry of the LC nanocomposite could be controlled and controllably decreased due to the acceptor-donor interaction between the dimeric matrix and the dopants. As a result, the LC nanocomposite can reach the lowest symmetry, known as triclinic - C1. Using the LC p,n-alkyloxybensoic acids (nOBA) in form of hydrogen-bonded dimers as matrix and non-mesogenics - single walls carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 4-hydrooxypiridin (HOPY) or mesogen - cholesteryl benzoate (ChB) as dopants and choosing optimal concentrations (where the typical LC state was preserved), we obtained nanocomopsites 7OBA/SWCNT, 7OBA/PFOA, 9OBA/HOPY and 8OBA/ChB. We indicate two forms of ferroelectricity in the studied nanocomposites: developable ferroelectricity, characteristic for the 9OBA/HOPY, 7OBA/PFOA compounds and developed ferroelectricity characteristic for 8OBA/SWCNT, 8OBA/ChB.

  7. Novel ferroelectric single crystals of Bi(Zn{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-PbZrO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} ternary solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bixia; Xie, Yujuan; Zhuang, Jian; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2014-02-28

    Ferroelectric single crystals of a new lead-reduced Bi(Zn{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-PbZrO{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (BZT-PZ-PT) ternary solid solution system have been grown for the first time by three different methods, namely high temperature solution growth (HTSG, or flux method), top-cooled solution growth (TCSG), and top-seeded solution growth (TSSG). The chemical and thermodynamic parameters, including the flux concentration, the soaking temperature and the cooling rate, have been optimized, leading to the growth of good quality BZT-PZ-PT crystals of pseudo-cubic morphology. A large size crystal of the dimensions of 2 × 2 × 0.5 cm{sup 3} has been obtained by the TSSG technique. The crystal structure is analyzed by means of X-ray powder diffraction. The highest ferroelectric Curie temperature T{sub C} of the grown crystals is found to be 320 °C by means of dielectric measurements. A remnant polarization of 32 μC/cm{sup 2} is displayed with a coercive field of 15.4 kV/cm. The high T{sub C} and large coercive field of the BZT-PZ-PT single crystal make this material a promising candidate for applications in high power electromechanical transducers that can operate in a wider temperature range and at high fields.

  8. Optical interband transitions in relaxor-based ferroelectric 0.93Pb(Zn1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.07PbTiO3 single crystal

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Enwei; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhu; Xu, Dapeng; Li, Liang; Cao, Wenwu

    2010-01-01

    The optical transmission spectrum of [111]c poled relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystal 0.93Pb(Zn1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.07PbTiO3 (PZN–0.07PT) was measured in the range of ultraviolet to near infrared. The optical absorption edge has been determined and the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient was calculated. The direct energy gap Egd=3.144 eV, indirect energy gap Egi=2.915 eV, and phonon energy Ep=0.097 eV (or 782 cm−1) were determined based on the theory of band to band transitions. It was also confirmed by Raman spectra that the indirect transition for the [111]c poled PZN–0.07PT single crystal is mainly due to the contribution of 780 cm−1 phonon corresponding to the Nb–O–Zn bond stretching mode. PMID:20634967

  9. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  10. A transverse electric current in triglycine sulphate ferroelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugiel, Bogusław; Kikuta, Toshio

    2016-05-01

    The application of a prolonged transverse electric field at a temperature TA < TC leads to unexpected qualitative changes in dielectric and thermal properties of the uniaxial ferroelectric triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystal, where TC is the critical temperature of the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. The new properties can be still observed even after the transverse field has ceased to be applied as long as the temperature of the sample does not exceed TA. However, annealing the sample above TC leads to the restoration of the original state of the crystal. An electric current flowing along the direction perpendicular to the polar axis of the uniaxial TGS ferroelectric crystal was measured below the temperature TA at which the prolonged transverse electric field had been formerly applied to the crystal for a few hours. The experimental data resemble the classic pyroelectric current flowing along the polar axis.

  11. Phase transitions and thermal-stress-induced structural changes in a ferroelectric Pb (Zr0.80Ti0. 20)O3 single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Xie, Y; Ye, Z. -G.; Parish, Chad M.; Glazer, A. M.

    2014-12-22

    Zirconium-rich lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) Pb(Zr0.80Ti0.20)O3 single crystal is studied by polarized-Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature. We show that the crystal possesses complex domain boundaries which show no sign of instability even 200 K above the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transition. The boundary stabilized the domains which had the same orientation after cyclic heating and cooling up to 773 K. The domains transformed normally to the cubic paraelectric phase, but returned to their original state after cooling. Physical mechanism behind the reversible behavior is related to the strain between the boundary region and domain, which forces the domain to grow similarly after each heating and cooling cycle. Electron backscattering diffraction measurements show that macroscopic domains, lengths scale in hundreds of microns, are divided into regions whose Pb-displacements are not correlated. The results are notably interesting for non-volatile memory development as it implies that the original ferroelectric state can be restored after the material has been transformed to a paraelectric phase. Incoherent Pbdisplacements play a role for polarization switching.

  12. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P.; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Shimamura, K.; Maglione, M.

    2014-04-01

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba0.850Ca0.150)(Ti0.900Zr0.100)O3 ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO2-ZrO2 solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba0.857Ca0.143)(Ti0.928Zr0.072)O3 to (Ba0.953Ca0.047)(Ti0.427Zr0.573)O3. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.854Zr0.146)O3 composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d31 and k31 of 93 pC.N-1 and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K).

  13. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  14. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  15. Design of a polarimeter with two ferroelectric liquid crystal panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, Alba; Lizana, Angel; Campos, Juan

    2013-09-01

    We present a Stokes polarimeter based on two ferroelectric liquid crystal monopixel panels. This architecture presents advantages associated to dynamic polarimeters and also, allows very fast polarization measurements. A ferroelectric liquid crystal panel can be modeled as a waveplate with a constant retardance and, with two possible orientations for its fast axis when a bipolar electrical sign is addressed. We have calibrated the optical features of our ferroelectric liquid crystal panels: retardance and rotation of the optical axis. In addition, we have carried out an optimization of the orientation of these panels in the setup in order to obtain a minimum condition number of our polarimeter and so, minimize the propagation of noise. Afterwards, we have conducted a tolerance analysis of the elements involved in the setup, focusing for a 2% of accuracy in the Stokes vectors measurements. Then, an experimental calibration is carried out and several measurements are taken in order to analyze its performance.

  16. Iminodiacetic acid doped ferroelectric triglycine sulphate crystal: Crystal growth and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Narayana Moolya, B.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Single crystals of iminodiacetic acid (HN(CH 2COOH) 2) doped triglycine sulphate (IDATGS) crystals have been grown from aqueous solution containing 1-10 mol% of iminodiacetic acid at constant temperature by slow evaporation technique. The effects of different amounts of doping entities on the growth habit have been investigated. X-ray powder diffraction pattern for pure and doped TGS was collected to determine the lattice parameters. The grown crystals were subjected to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies to find the presence of various functional groups qualitatively. The dielectric permittivity has been studied as a function of temperature. An increase in the transition temperature (49.2-49.7 °C) of IDATGS crystals is observed. The dielectric constant ( ε‧ max) of IDATGS crystals vary in the range 922-2410 compared to pure TGS ( Tc=49.12 °C and ε‧ max=3050). Curie Weiss constants Cp and Cf in the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases were determined. The transition temperature ( Tc) is found to decrease with increase in dopant concentration. P- E hysteresis studies show the presence of internal bias field in the crystal. Piezoelectric measurements were also carried out at room temperature. Domain patterns on b-cut plates were observed using scanning electron microscope. The micro hardness studies reveal that the doped crystals are harder than the pure TGS crystals. The low dielectric constant, higher transition temperature, internal bias field and hardness suggest that IDATGS crystals could be a potential material for IR detectors.

  17. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Wang, Yu

    2014-09-21

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}MnO₃ (x=0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.35Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 1/2})O₃-0.34PbTiO₃ (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R){sub strain}] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ film and 150 K for the La₀.₆Ba₀.₄MnO₃ film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  18. Electric-field-controlled interface strain coupling and non-volatile resistance switching of La1-xBaxMnO3 thin films epitaxially grown on relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming; Zhu, Qiu-Xiang; Li, Xue-Yan; Yang, Ming-Min; Wang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Min; Shi, Xun; Luo, Hao-Su; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2014-09-01

    We have fabricated magnetoelectric heterostructures by growing ferromagnetic La1-xBaxMnO3 (x = 0.2, 0.4) thin films on (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented 0.31Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb1/2)O3-0.34PbTiO3 (PINT) ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001], [110], or [111] crystal direction, the electric-field-induced non-180° domain switching gives rise to a decrease in the resistance and an enhancement of the metal-to-insulator transition temperature TC of the films. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric domain switching, we identify that such changes in the resistance and TC are caused by domain switching-induced strain but not domain switching-induced accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Further, we found that the domain switching-induced strain effects can be efficiently controlled by a magnetic field, mediated by the electronic phase separation. Moreover, we determined the evolution of the strength of the electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field by recording the strain-tunability of the resistance [(ΔR/R)strain] under magnetic fields. Additionally, opposing effects of domain switching-induced strain on ferromagnetism above and below 197 K for the La0.8Ba0.2MnO3 film and 150 K for the La0.6Ba0.4MnO3 film, respectively, were observed and explained by the magnetoelastic effect through adjusting the magnetic anisotropy. Finally, using the reversible ferroelastic domain switching of the PINT, we realized non-volatile resistance switching of the films at room temperature, implying potential applications of the magnetoelectric heterostructure in non-volatile memory devices.

  19. Note: Laser beam scanning using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Abhijit; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2014-04-15

    In this work we describe laser beam scanning using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator. Commercially available ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators are capable of displaying 85 colored images in 1 s using a time dithering technique. Each colored image, in fact, comprises 24 single bit (black and white) images displayed sequentially. We have used each single bit image to write a binary phase hologram. For a collimated laser beam incident on the hologram, one of the diffracted beams can be made to travel along a user defined direction. We have constructed a beam scanner employing the above arrangement and demonstrated its use to scan a single laser beam in a laser scanning optical sectioning microscope setup.

  20. Visualization of ferroelectric domains in a hydrogen-bonded molecular crystal using emission of terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sotome, M.; Kida, N. Okamoto, H.; Horiuchi, S.

    2014-07-28

    Using a terahertz-radiation imaging, visualizations of ferroelectric domains were made in a room-temperature organic ferroelectric, croconic acid. In as-grown crystals, observed are ferroelectric domains with sizes larger than 50-μm square, which are separated by both 180° and tail-to-tail domain walls (DWs). By applying an electric field along c axis (the polarization direction), a pair of 180° DWs is generated and an each 180° DW oppositely propagates along a axis, resulting in a single domain. By cyclic applications of electric fields, a pair of 180° DWs repeatedly emerges, while no tail-to-tail DWs appear. We discuss the usefulness of the terahertz-radiation imaging as well as the observed unique DW dynamics.

  1. Dynamic response of polar nanoregions under an electric field in a paraelectric KTa0.61Nb0.39O3 single crystal near the para-ferroelectric phase boundary

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hao; Yao, Bo; Wang, Lei; Tan, Peng; Meng, Xiangda; Shi, Guang; Zhou, Zhongxiang

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic response of polar nanoregions under an AC electric field was investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of the quadratic electro-optic (QEO) effect in a paraelectric KTa0.61Nb0.39O3 single crystal near the para-ferroelectric phase boundary (0 °C < T-Tc < 13 °C). The QEO coefficient R11 − R12 reached values as large as 5.96 × 10−15 m2/V2 at low frequency (500 Hz) and gradually decreased to a nearly stable value as the frequency increased to 300 kHz. Furthermore, a distortion of the QEO effect was observed at low frequency and gradually disappeared as R11 − R12 tended towards stability. The giant QEO effect in the KTa0.61Nb0.39O3 crystal was attributed to the dynamic rearrangement of polar nanoregions and its anomalous distortion can be explained by considering the asymmetric distribution of polar nanoregions. PMID:26334181

  2. Dielectric studies of iron nanoparticles-ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khushboo, Sharma, Puneet; Jayoti, Divya; Malik, Praveen; Raina, K. K.

    2016-05-01

    Iron nanoparticles doped ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures have been prepared and studied in thin planar cell. The effect of temperature and frequency on permittivity behavior in SmC* phase has been studied. Permittivity increases with increasing the temperature in SmC* phase and show a reduction near the SmC*-SmA transition temperature. A Goldstone mode is clearly observed at ~100 Hz.

  3. Characteristic Pressure Dependence of Spontaneous Polarization in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hiroyuki

    2008-09-01

    The spontaneous polarization and rotational viscosity of the c-director of the ferroelectric liquid crystal 4'-octyloxy-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid 4-(1-methyl-heptyloxy)-phenyl ester at various pressures were investigated. Spontaneous polarization as a function of T-TCA( p) decreased markedly when pressure was changed from 0.1 to 20 MPa and was independent of pressure as pressure was further increased. Rotational viscosity decreased when pressure was applied. These results suggest that the conformation of liquid crystal molecules changes at pressures below 20 MPa.

  4. Photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystals in microchannels.

    PubMed

    Budaszewski, Daniel; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Tam, Alwin M W; Wolinski, Tomasz R; Chigrinov, Vladimir G; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter we disclose a method to realize a good alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) in microchannels, based on photo-alignment. The sulfonic azo dye used in our research offers variable anchoring energy depending on the irradiation energy and thus provides good control on the FLC alignment in microchannels. The good FLC alignment has been observed only when anchoring energy normalized to the capillary diameter is less than the elastic energy of the FLC helix. The same approach can also be used for the different microstructures viz. photonic crystal fibers, microwaveguides, etc. which gives an opportunity for designing a photonic devices based on FLC. PMID:25121847

  5. Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B. K.; Gupta, M. K.; Kumar, Binay

    2012-06-01

    Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (Tc) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications.

  6. Growth and ferroelectric properties of L-, D-, and DL-methionine-doped triglycine sulfate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuta, Toshio; Yamazaki, Toshinari; Nakatani, Noriyuki

    2010-12-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulfate (TGS) doped with L-, D-, and DL-methionine have been prepared. Doping effects on the crystal morphology, the ferroelectric domain structure, and the generation of internal bias field Eb were investigated. These effects were compared with each other and also compared with those of alanine-doped crystals. Though L-methionine-doped crystals show the asymmetric morphology analogous to L-alanine-doped crystals, these two crystals are distinct from each other in their domain structure and the generation of Eb. It was ascertained that the asymmetry caused by L- and D-methionine are mutually reversed in the b-axis. For the doping of racemic mixture DL-methionine, we could recognize the overlap of doping effects caused by the both enantiomers of methionine.

  7. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  8. Novel ferroelectric liquid crystals consisting glassy liquid crystal as chiral dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huang-Ming Philip; Tsai, Yun-Yen; Lin, Chi-Wen; Shieh, Han-Ping David

    2006-08-01

    A series of ferroelectric liquid crystals consisting new glassy liquid crystals (GLCs) as chiral dopants were prepared and evaluated for their potentials in fast switching ability less than 1 ms. The properties of pure ferroelectric glassy liquid crystals (FGLCs) and mixtures were reported in this paper. In particular, the novel FGLC possessing wide chiral smectic C mesophase over 100 °C is able to suppress smectic A phase of host. The mixture containing 2.0 % GLC-1 performs greater alignment ability and higher contrast ratio than R2301 (Clariant, Japan) in a 2 μm pre-made cell (EHC, Japan). These results indicate that novel FLC mixtures consisting glassy liquid crystals present a promising liquid crystal materials for fast switching field sequential color displays.

  9. Crystal growth and dielectric, mechanical, electrical and ferroelectric characterization of n-bromo succinimide doped triglycine sulphate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Chitharanjan; Byrappa, K.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    Single crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) doped with n-bromo succinimide (NBS) were grown at ambient temperature by the slow evaporation technique. An aqueous solution containing 1-20 mol% of n-bromo succinimide as dopant was used for the growth of NBSTGS crystals. The incorporation of NBS in TGS crystals has been qualitatively confirmed by FTIR spectral data. The effect of the dopant on morphology and crystal properties was investigated. The cell parameters of the doped crystal were determined by the powder X-ray diffraction technique. The dielectric constant of NBS doped TGS crystal was calculated along the ferroelectric direction over the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The dielectric constant of NBSTGS crystals decrease with the increase in NBS concentration and considerable shift in the phase transition temperature ( TC) towards the higher temperature observed. Pyroelectric studies on doped TGS were carried out to determine the pyroelectric coefficient. The emergence of internal bias field due to doping was studied by collecting P- E hysteresis data. Temperature dependence of DC conductivity of the doped crystals was studied and gradual increase in the conductivity with the increase of dopant concentration was observed. The activation energy (Δ E) calculated was found to be lower in both the ferroelectric and the paraelectric phases for doped crystals compared to that of pure TGS. The micro-hardness studies were carried out at room temperature on thin plates cut perpendicular to the b-axis. Less doped TGS crystals show higher hardness values compared to pure TGS. Piezoelectric measurements were also carried out on 010 plates of doped TGS crystals at room temperature.

  10. Recent Developments on High Curie Temperature PIN-PMN-PT Ferroelectric Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Sherlock, Nevin P.; Luo, Jun; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Xia, Ru; Meyer, Richard J.; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Pb(In0.5Nb0.5)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric crystals attracted extensive attentions in last couple years, due to their higher usage temperatures range (> 30°C) and coercive fields (~5kV/cm), meanwhile maintaining similar electromechanical couplings (k33> 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d33~1500pC/N), when compared to their binary counterpart Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3. In this article, we reviewed recent developments on the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, including the Bridgman crystal growth, dielectric, electromechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric behaviors as function of temperature and dc bias. Mechanical quality factor Q was studied as function of orientation and phase. Of particular interest is the dynamic strain, which related to the Q and d33, was found to be improved when compared to binary system, exhibiting the potential usage of PIN-PMN-PT in high power application. Furthermore, PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit improved thickness dependent properties, due to their small domain size, being on the order of 1μm. Finally, the manganese acceptor dopant in the ternary crystals was investigated and discussed briefly in this paper. PMID:21516190

  11. Ferroelectric thin films with liquid crystal for gradient index applications.

    PubMed

    Willekens, Oliver; George, John Puthenparampil; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first ever combination of a thin film of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) with a liquid crystal (LC) layer. Many liquid crystal applications use a transparent conductive oxide to switch the liquid crystal. Our proposed processing does not, instead relying on the extremely high dielectric constant of the ferroelectric layer to extend the electric field from widely spaced electrodes over the liquid crystal. It eliminates almost entirely the fringe field problems that arise in nearly all the liquid crystal devices that use multiple addressing electrodes. We show, both via rigorous simulations as well as experiments, that the addition of a PZT layer over the addressing electrodes leads to a markedly improved LC switching performance at distances of up to 30 μm from the addressing electrodes with the current PZT-layer thickness of 0.84 μm. This improvement in switching is used to tune the focal length of the microlens with electrodes spaced at 30 μm. PMID:27137248

  12. Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan; Wade, Scott; Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2013-09-30

    We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

  13. Low-temperature specific heat in ferroelectric (Pb,Ba)5Ge3O11 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gmelin, E.; Burns, Gerald

    1988-07-01

    We report specific-heat measurements in ferroelectric (Pb1-xBax)5Ge3O11 single crystals for x=0 and 0.02, from 2-80 K. We consider the data in terms of a classical Debye model, and allow for the possibility of an extra low-temperature term CLT and an extra high-temperature Einstein term CE (to account for extra oscillators). The data are accounted for with just the Debye model; CLT and CE terms are not needed, and the implications of these results are discussed.

  14. A theory of triple hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, George J.

    2009-10-01

    In the vicinity of the transition temperature between two ferroelectric states, a ferroelectric crystal could exhibit a triple hysteresis under an ac field. For a BaTiO3 with the "c-plate" configuration slightly below this temperature, the middle loop is caused by the 0°→180° domain switch in the orthorhombic phase, whereas the upper and lower loops are the result of orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition, and vice versa. In this article we first develop a micromechanics-based thermodynamic model to determine the thermodynamic driving force for phase transition and for domain switch as a function of electric field and temperature, and in the latter case, further supplement it with a kinetic equation and a homogenization scheme. The dependence of dielectric constant of the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases on temperature and electric field are also established. The developed theory is then applied to calculate the triple hysteresis loops of BaTiO3 at several levels of temperature. The calculated results for the triple loops, and for the variation of dielectric constant, are found to be in full accord with the test data of Huibregtse and Young [Phys. Rev. 103, 1705 (1956)].

  15. Effect of anharmonicity of the crystal potential on ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchuk, V. M.; Spiridonov, N. A.

    2012-05-01

    The ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transitions in lead zirconate-titanate-based solid solutions have been considered with allowance made for anharmonicity of the crystal potential. In the phase diagram of lead zirconate-titanate, the boundary separating the regions of the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric states are shifted toward higher titanium concentrations. The calculated and experimental phase diagrams are presented for such cases.

  16. Enhancement in ferroelectric, pyroelectric and photoluminescence properties in dye doped TGS crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Nidhi; Goel, Neeti; Singh, B.K.; Gupta, M.K.; Kumar, Binay

    2012-06-15

    Pure and dye doped (0.1 and 0.2 mol%) Triglycine Sulfate (TGS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. A pyramidal coloring pattern, along with XRD and FT-IR studies confirmed the dye doping. Decrease in dielectric constant and increase in Curie temperature (T{sub c}) were observed with increasing doping concentration. Low absorption cut off (231 nm) and high optical transparency (>90%) resulting in large band gap was observed in UV-VIS studies. In addition, strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed in which the relative intensity were found to be reversed as a result of doping. In P-E hysteresis loop studies, a higher curie temperature and an improved and more uniform figure of merit over a large region of the ferroelectric phase were observed. The improved dielectric, optical and ferroelectric/pyroelectric properties make the dye doped TGS crystals better candidate for various opto- and piezo-electronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Dye doping in TGS crystal resulted in hourglass morphology, increased hyper-luminescence intensity, improved T{sub c} and figure of merit. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amaranth dye doping in TGS crystals resulted in hourglass morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping resulted in enhancement of Curie temperature from 49 to 53 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cut off (230 nm) and wider transmittance window observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong hyper-luminescent emission bands at 350 and 375 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High and uniform figure of merit in ferroelectric phase was obtained.

  17. Single Crystal Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Morrison, A.

    1974-01-01

    Single crystal a- and c-axis tubes and ribbons of sodium beta-alumina and sodium magnesium beta-alumina were grown from sodium oxide rich melts. Additional experiments grew ribbon crystals containing sodium magnesium beta, beta double prime, beta triple prime, and beta quadruple prime. A high pressure crystal growth chamber, sodium oxide rich melts, and iridium for all surfaces in contact with the melt were combined with the edge-defined, film-fed growth technique to grow the single crystal beta-alumina tubes and ribbons. The crystals were characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques, and wet chemical analysis was used to determine the sodium, magnesium, and aluminum content of the grown crystals.

  18. Anisotropic behavior of water in ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Choudhary, A; Prakash, G Vijaya; Biradar, A M

    2010-05-01

    The outcome of water addition in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) has been investigated in uniform and defect-free homogeneous and homeotropically aligned monodomain sample cells from electro-optical and dielectric spectroscopic measurements. The lagging in optical response between nonconducting (spatially variable switching) and conducting (conventional switching) portions of water added FLC sample cell has been observed by frequency-dependent electro-optical studies. The bias-dependent water related new relaxation peak near the conventional Goldstone mode relaxation process has been observed only in the homogeneous alignment and not in the homeotropic one. Further, the significant increment in dielectric anisotropy as well as faster diffusion of water along long molecular axis than short molecular axis has also been monitored. These studies strongly suggest that the distribution of water is anisotropic in FLC medium and could be the reason for new relaxation peak in the water added FLC sample. PMID:20866247

  19. Analysis of polarization switching in ferroelectric crystals in the injection mode

    SciTech Connect

    Maslovskaya, A. G. Kopylova, I. B.

    2009-07-15

    We report on the results of experiments on polarization switching in a ferroelectric TGS crystal during injection of electron beams from a scanning electron microscope under a surface layer. A series of models reflecting the polarization switching dynamics of a ferroelectric crystal under the action of an injected charge is constructed. The implementation of these models is based on the principles of evolution of domain structures taking into account analysis of possible polarization switching mechanisms for ferroelectric samples. A mathematical model developed using these principles demonstrates qualitative similarity of model current pulses and those obtained experimentally in the injection mode.

  20. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-Pb(In(1/2)Nb(1/2))O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm(3). This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density. PMID:27036838

  1. Note: High-power piezoelectric transformer fabricated with ternary relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Ma, Chuanguo; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Bao; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Tao; Shi, Wangzhou

    2016-03-01

    A plate-shaped piezoelectric transformer was designed and fabricated using ternary relaxor ferroelectric single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3. Both the input and output sections utilized the transverse-extensional vibration mode. The frequency and load dependences of the electrical properties for the proposed transformer were systematically studied. Results indicated that under a matching load resistance of 14.9 kΩ, a maximum output power of 2.56 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 °C. The corresponding power density reached up to 50 W/cm3. This ternary single-crystal transformer had potential applications in compact-size converters requiring high power density.

  2. Single crystal functional oxides on silicon

    PubMed Central

    Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Serrao, Claudy Rayan; Lee, Michelle; Yeung, Chun Wing; Sarker, Asis; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Dedon, Liv; You, Long; Khan, Asif Islam; Clarkson, James David; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystalline thin films of complex oxides show a rich variety of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, ferro and antiferromagnetism and so on that have the potential for completely new electronic applications. Direct synthesis of such oxides on silicon remains challenging because of the fundamental crystal chemistry and mechanical incompatibility of dissimilar interfaces. Here we report integration of thin (down to one unit cell) single crystalline, complex oxide films onto silicon substrates, by epitaxial transfer at room temperature. In a field-effect transistor using a transferred lead zirconate titanate layer as the gate insulator, we demonstrate direct reversible control of the semiconductor channel charge with polarization state. These results represent the realization of long pursued but yet to be demonstrated single-crystal functional oxides on-demand on silicon. PMID:26853112

  3. Analog switching in the nanocolloids of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kishore, Avinash; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) dispersion in liquid crystals (LCs) results in significant changes in the physical properties of the existing LC mixtures. Two ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs), 5 F6T and 6 F6T , have been studied for analog switching. The 5 F6T sample is doped with titanium dioxide (T i O2) NPs of two different concentrations of the same average particle size and another FLC 6 F6T is systematically doped with barium titanate (B a T i O3) NPs of two different average particle sizes at the same concentration. The frequency and temperature dependence of the coercive voltage of FLC nanocolloids has been studied. The V-shaped switching was observed in the case of nano-doped FLCs. The value of inversion frequency for the 5 F6T +1.0 wt.% TiO2 doped sample is 30 Hz while it is 24 Hz for the 6 F6T +0.5 wt.% BaTiO3 (particle size 5-10 nm) doped sample. The conductivity measurements show that the conductivity of doped samples is higher than the conductivity of their parental FLCs and can be considered the main reason for the V-shaped switching in the FLC nanocolloids, which was initially absent in their parental FLCs.

  4. Cathodoluminescence investigation of relaxor-based ferroelectrics Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-0.3PbTiO 3 (PMN-0.3PT) single-crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wanyin; Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate Pb(Mg 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) possesses ultrahigh electromechanical coefficients near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this paper, the electro-stimulated emission characteristics of a [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-0.3PTsingle-crystal were studied using high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at room temperature. Four luminescence bands were observed in the range of 200-900 nm and they were assigned to polaron, nanometre cluster emission, interband emission and structure-related emission. Besides, it was found that the residual stress field ahead of a crack tip of a Vickers indentation had a considerable influence on these luminescence bands. The relationship between the intensities of CL bands and the residual stress field has been investigated and discussed in this paper.

  5. Pyroelectric Response and Conduction Mechanism in Highly Crystallized Ferroelectric Sr3(VO4)2 Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Biswajit; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, Piyush R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study on the ferroelectric phase transition, pyroelectric properties, and conduction mechanism of highly crystallized strontium orthovanadate (Sr3V2O8) ceramic, prepared by a solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction studies show the formation of a single-phase compound in trigonal crystal system. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters ( ɛ r and tan δ) of the compound as a function of temperature and frequency reveal their independence over a wide range of temperature and frequency. An anomaly in ɛ r suggests the possible existence of a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of diffuse type in the material, which is confirmed by electric polarization and pyroelectric studies. The low dielectric loss and moderate relative permittivity make this material (with suitable modifications) a potential candidate for use in microwave applications. The low leakage current and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the sample have been verified from J- E plots. The nature of the variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity with temperature confirms the Arrhenius and NTCR behavior of the material.

  6. High intensity electron emission from ferroelectric cathode induced by a pyroelectric crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockley, M.; Huang, Z.

    2012-11-01

    A high voltage pulse generated by changing the temperature of a pyroelectric crystal was used to trigger a strong ferroelectric electron emission from a ferroelectric cathode. Different configurations such as a positive or negative pulse being applied to the front or back of the ferroelectric cathode were investigated. Negative pulse applied to the front of the cathode was found to generate the largest emission current and total charges. These differences in emission properties are interpreted using the mechanism of surface plasma assisted electron emission.

  7. Growth, structural phase transition and ferroelectric properties of Pb[(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3) 0.91 Ti 0.09]O 3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubesh Babu, J.; Madeswaran, G.; Prakash, Chandra; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2006-07-01

    Growth of PZNT (91/9) single crystals at morphotropic phase boundary has been carried out by flux and flux Bridgman methods. Effects of multinucleation on morphology and effect of PbO evaporation on crystal growth are discussed. The grown crystals were cut along (0 0 1) direction and crystals were poled at the rate of 1 kV/mm. The slow scan X-ray diffraction results of the oriented crystals show a structural phase transition on poling. The phase transition has been studied with slow scan X-ray diffraction pattern for powdered Pb(Zn 1/3Nb 2/3)O 3-PbTiO 3 (PZN-PT) crystal and (0 0 1) oriented single crystal which shows the existence of stressed phases and trapped phases in both cases. Further the grown PZN-PT single crystals have been subjected to compositional studies. Electrical characterizations such as hysteresis measurement, strain measurement and piezoelectric measurement were carried out and the results are discussed in detail.

  8. Ferroelectric order in liquid crystal phases of polar disk-shaped ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2014-05-01

    The demonstration of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in liquid phases in the absence of any long range positional order is considered an outstanding problem of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we reported that a system of polar achiral disklike ellipsoids can spontaneously exhibit a long searched ferroelectric nematic phase and a ferroelectric columnar phase with strong axial polarization. The major role is played by the dipolar interactions. The model system of interest consists of attractive-repulsive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids embedded with two parallel point dipoles positioned symmetrically on the equatorial plane of the ellipsoids. In the present work, we investigate in detail the profound effects of changing the separation between the two symmetrically placed dipoles and the strength of the dipoles upon the existence of different ferroelectric discotic liquid crystal phases via extensive off-lattice N-P-T Monte Carlo simulations. Ferroelectric biaxial phases are exhibited in addition to the uniaxial ferroelectric fluids where the phase biaxiality results from the dipolar interactions. The structures of all the ferroelectric configurations of interest are presented in detail. Simple phase diagrams are determined which include different polar and apolar discotic fluids generated by the system.

  9. Ferroelectric order in liquid crystal phases of polar disk-shaped ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2014-05-01

    The demonstration of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in liquid phases in the absence of any long range positional order is considered an outstanding problem of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we reported that a system of polar achiral disklike ellipsoids can spontaneously exhibit a long searched ferroelectric nematic phase and a ferroelectric columnar phase with strong axial polarization. The major role is played by the dipolar interactions. The model system of interest consists of attractive-repulsive Gay-Berne oblate ellipsoids embedded with two parallel point dipoles positioned symmetrically on the equatorial plane of the ellipsoids. In the present work, we investigate in detail the profound effects of changing the separation between the two symmetrically placed dipoles and the strength of the dipoles upon the existence of different ferroelectric discotic liquid crystal phases via extensive off-lattice N-P-T Monte Carlo simulations. Ferroelectric biaxial phases are exhibited in addition to the uniaxial ferroelectric fluids where the phase biaxiality results from the dipolar interactions. The structures of all the ferroelectric configurations of interest are presented in detail. Simple phase diagrams are determined which include different polar and apolar discotic fluids generated by the system. PMID:25353817

  10. Advantages and Challenges of Relaxor-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals for Electroacoustic Transducers- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Jinwook; Luo, Jun; Geng, Xuecang

    2014-01-01

    Relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) based ferroelectric crystals with the perovskite structure have been investigated over the last few decades due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients (d33 > 1500 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 90%), far outperforming state-of-the-art ferroelectric polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics, and are at the forefront of advanced electroacoustic applications. In this review, the performance merits of relaxor-PT crystals in various electroacoustic devices are presented from a piezoelectric material viewpoint. Opportunities come from not only the ultrahigh properties, specifically coupling and piezoelectric coefficients, but through novel vibration modes and crystallographic/domain engineering. Figure of merits (FOMs) of crystals with various compositions and phases were established for various applications, including medical ultrasonic transducers, underwater transducers, acoustic sensors and tweezers. For each device application, recent developments in relaxor-PT ferroelectric crystals were surveyed and compared with state-of-the-art polycrystalline piezoelectrics, with an emphasis on their strong anisotropic features and crystallographic uniqueness, including engineered domain - property relationships. This review starts with an introduction on electroacoustic transducers and the history of piezoelectric materials. The development of the high performance relaxor-PT single crystals, with a focus on their uniqueness in transducer applications, is then discussed. In the third part, various FOMs of piezoelectric materials for a wide range of ultrasound applications, including diagnostic ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, underwater acoustic and passive sensors, tactile sensors and acoustic tweezers, are evaluated to provide a thorough understanding of the materials’ behavior under operational conditions. Structure-property-performance relationships are then established. Finally, the impacts and challenges of relaxor

  11. Single crystal complex oxide on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakaul, Saidur; Serrao, Claudy; Lee, Oukjae; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Flexible ferroelectrics are needed for various applications such as biocompatible energy harvesting and flexible memory. In this sector, most of the current research is focused on organic piezoelectric materials which have advantage of flexibility but suffers severely from poor energy conversion and generation efficiency. On the contrary, owing to very high electromechanical coupling factor (representing energy conversion efficiency) complex oxides are the best choices as energy harvesting and transduction elements, especially for transforming mechanical energies into electronic energy. Still their usage in energy harvesting is very limited mainly due to the stringent growth conditions of single crystals, high temperature needed for crystallization and lack of flexibility and stretchability. We have shown that single crystal Pb0.8Zr0.2TiO3 can be epitaxially transferred on flexible plastic substrate. The transferred PZT shows 70 uC/cm2 remnant polarization and dielectric constant over 100 even when it is bent. These results suggest the possibility of single crystal complex oxide devices on flexible platform.

  12. Guided Wave Propagation in a Gold Electrode Film on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33%PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Single Crystal Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Nai-Xing; LÜ, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yu-Ling; Cao, Wen-Wu

    2014-10-01

    Dispersion relations of Love mode acoustic guided waves propagation in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33%PbTiO3 (PMN-0.33 PT) single crystal with a gold electrode film are calculated. There is no cross coupling among Love wave modes, which is conducive to eliminating the cross interference between modes. The general formula is derived to precisely measure the thickness of the electrode. More acoustic energy would be concentrated inside the electrode with the increase of film thickness for a given frequency. Compared with the PZT-5 ceramic, [001]c poled PMN-33%PT single crystal has a slower attenuation of the amplitude of the acoustic guided wave. Therefore, single crystal is extremely suitable for making low loss acoustic wave devices with a high operating frequency.

  13. In situ high-temperature high-pressure Raman spectroscopy on single-crystal relaxor ferroelectrics PbSc1/2Ta1/2O3 and PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeselmann, N.; Mihailova, B.; Gospodinov, M.; Bismayer, U.

    2013-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the pressure-induced structural changes in perovskite-type (ABO3) relaxor ferroelectrics is studied by in situ high-temperature high-pressure Raman spectroscopy on single crystals of PbSc1/2Ta1/2O3 (PST) and PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (PSN), which allowed us to elucidate the interplay between the polar and antiferrodistortive order coexisting on the mesoscopic scale at ambient conditions. High-pressure experiments were carried out at elevated temperatures below and above the characteristic intermediate temperature T*. The results were compared with those obtained at room temperature, which for PST is just above the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition TC, whereas for PSN is below TC. It is shown that the first critical pressure pc1, at which a transition from a relaxor to a non-polar rhombohedral state with antiphase octahedral tilt ordering occurs, decreases at elevated temperatures due to the weakening of the polar coupling, which in turn facilitates the evolution of the preexisting medium-range antiferrodistortive order into a long-range order. The critical pressure pc2 of the second phase transition, involving a change in the type of the antiferrodistortive order, is not affected by temperature, i.e. it is independent of the state of polar coupling and is mainly related to the initial correlation length of antiferrodistortive order. The strong influence of temperature on pc1, which occurs only when the mesoscopic polar order is suppressed, emphasizes the importance of coexisting ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive coupling for the occurrence of the relaxor states.

  14. Selective Deposition of Silver Oxide on Single-Domain Ferroelectric Nanoplates and Their Efficient Visible-Light Photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Ren, Zhaohui; Gong, Siyu; Li, Xiang; Shen, Ge; Han, Gaorong

    2016-08-16

    In this work, single-crystal and single-domain PbTiO3 nanoplates are employed as substrates to prepare Ag2 O/PbTiO3 composite materials through a photodeposition method. It is revealed that silver oxide nanocrystals with an average size of 63 nm are selectively deposited on the positive polar surface of the ferroelectric substrate. The possible mechanism leading to the formation of silver oxide is that silver ions are first reduced to silver and then oxidized by oxygen generation. The composite shows an efficient photodegradation performance towards rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation. Such highly efficient photoactivity can be attributed to the ferroelectric polarization effect of the substrate, which promotes the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes at the interface. PMID:27430192

  15. Machining induced defects in Relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Cheng

    The superior piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the relaxor based piezoelectric single crystals (PMN-PT) render them as prime candidates for Navy sonar detectors as well as in broad band medical ultrasonic imaging devices. Production of phased array probes utilizing these types of high performance ceramics requires dicing these crystals to arrays with pitches of less than the desired wavelength, ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. However, the relaxor based single crystals are very brittle with fracture toughness of about a third to a half that of typical PZT ceramics (0.4-0.8 MPa m ). Excessive chipping and cracking, either during the cutting or poling process, have been reported as major hurdles in processing, leading to spurious resonance and degradation of the distance resolution. In addition, residual stress from the cutting process could be major reliability degradation if it is not well quantified and minimized. In this work, we experimentally analyzed the machining induced damage in a group of Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate solid solution single crystal {(1-x)[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]-x[PbTiO3] (PMN-PT)} under simulated process parameters for cutting speeds and down feeds. The machined surfaces are examined by non-contact optical profilometer for planarity and roughness, scanning electron microscopy for subsurface damage, and by micro-raman spectroscopic analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to uncover machining induced phase transformations. The analysis reveals the preferred process parameters for minimal machining induced damages.

  16. High-optical-quality ferroelectric film wet-processed from a ferroelectric columnar liquid crystal as observed by non-linear-optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Araoka, Fumito; Masuko, Shiori; Kogure, Akinori; Miyajima, Daigo; Aida, Takuzo; Takezoe, Hideo

    2013-08-01

    The self-organization of ferroelectric columnar liquid crystals (FCLCs) is demonstrated. Columnar order is spontaneously formed in thin films made by the wet-process due to its liquid crystallinity. Electric-field application results in high optical quality and uniform spontaneous polarization. Such good processability and controllability of the wet-processed FCLC films provide us with potential organic ferroelectric materials for device applications. PMID:23740767

  17. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  18. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4–n bromine substituents (QBr4–nIn, n=0–4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF–QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral–ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral–ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF–QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl–TTF–QBr4. By contrast, TTF–QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  19. Quantum ferroelectricity in charge-transfer complex crystals.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Sachio; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kumai, Reiji; Minami, Nao; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Quantum phase transition achieved by fine tuning the continuous phase transition down to zero kelvin is a challenge for solid state science. Critical phenomena distinct from the effects of thermal fluctuations can materialize when the electronic, structural or magnetic long-range order is perturbed by quantum fluctuations between degenerate ground states. Here we have developed chemically pure tetrahalo-p-benzoquinones of n iodine and 4-n bromine substituents (QBr4-nIn, n=0-4) to search for ferroelectric charge-transfer complexes with tetrathiafulvalene (TTF). Among them, TTF-QBr2I2 exhibits a ferroelectric neutral-ionic phase transition, which is continuously controlled over a wide temperature range from near-zero kelvin to room temperature under hydrostatic pressure. Quantum critical behaviour is accompanied by a much larger permittivity than those of other neutral-ionic transition compounds, such as well-known ferroelectric complex of TTF-QCl4 and quantum antiferroelectric of dimethyl-TTF-QBr4. By contrast, TTF-QBr3I complex, another member of this compound family, shows complete suppression of the ferroelectric spin-Peierls-type phase transition. PMID:26076656

  20. Single crystal cylinder transducers for sonar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Harold; Stevens, Gerald; Buffman, Martin; Powers, James

    2005-04-01

    A segmented cylinder transducer constructed of single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) has been under development at NUWC and EDO Corporation for several years. The purpose of this development was to provide an extremely compact, high power broadband source. By virtue of their extraordinary material properties, ferroelectric single crystals are the ideal transduction material for developing such compact broadband systems. This presentation shall review the evolution of the transducer design as well as present the results of a successful in-water test conducted at NUWC in October of 2003. It shall be shown that design changes intended to eliminate spurious modes limiting the transducer bandwidth first observed in 2002 were successful, resulting in a transducer with a clean frequency response and an effective coupling factor of 0.85. The measured transducer admittance was in nearly exact agreement with theoretical predictions. The NUWC in-water tests demonstrated that the single crystal cylinder achieved an admittance bandwidth (based on the Stansfield criterion) of over 100%, while the tuned power factor was 0.8 or more over 2.5 octaves of frequency. Additionally, the transducer produced 12 dB higher source levels than a similarly sized PZT transducer. [Work sponsored by DARPA.

  1. Bioengineering single crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Hsuan; Park, Alexander; Joester, Derk

    2011-02-16

    Biomineralization is a "bottom-up" synthesis process that results in the formation of inorganic/organic nanocomposites with unrivaled control over structure, superior mechanical properties, adaptive response, and the capability of self-repair. While de novo design of such highly optimized materials may still be out of reach, engineering of the biosynthetic machinery may offer an alternative route to design advanced materials. Herein, we present an approach using micro-contact-printed lectins for patterning sea urchin embryo primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in vitro. We demonstrate not only that PMCs cultured on these substrates show attachment to wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A patterns but, more importantly, that the deposition and elongation of calcite spicules occurs cooperatively by multiple cells and in alignment with the printed pattern. This allows us to control the placement and orientation of smooth, cylindrical calcite single crystals where the crystallographic c-direction is parallel to the cylinder axis and the underlying line pattern. PMID:21265521

  2. Longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonskii, S. V. Bondarchuk, V. V.; Soto-Bustamante, E. A.; Romero-Hasler, P. N.; Ozaki, M.; Yoshino, K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study, we compare the results of experimental investigations of longitudinal and transverse pyroelectric effects in a chiral ferroelectric crystal. In a transverse geometry, we studied freely suspended liquid-crystal films. In both geometries, samples exhibited bistability, demonstrating stable pyroelectric signals of different polarities at zero voltage. It is shown that a bistable cell based on a freely suspended film requires 40 times less energy expenditures as compared to the conventional sandwich-type cell.

  3. Confinement-Induced Orientational Order in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Containing Dispersed Aerosils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordoyiannis, George; Nounesis, George; Bobnar, Vid; Kralj, Samo; Kutnjak, Zdravko

    2005-01-01

    The study of the smectic-A to chiral smectic-C* phase transition of the liquid crystal S-(+)-[4-(2'-methyl butyl) phenyl 4'-n-octylbiphenyl-4-carboxylate] (CE8) containing dispersed hydrophilic aerosils reveals novel properties, important to understanding quenched disorder and confinement in ferroelectric liquid crystals. Smectic layer compression leads to a distribution of transition temperatures inducing smearing of the macroscopic data across the transition. A pronounced confinement-induced pretransitional tilted order is observed.

  4. Effects of graphene on electro-optic switching and spontaneous polarization of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rajratan

    2014-09-15

    A small quantity of graphene flakes was doped in a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC), and the field-induced ferroelectric electro-optic switching was found to be significantly faster in the FLC + graphene hybrid than that of the pure FLC. Further studies revealed that the suspended graphene flakes enhanced the FLC's spontaneous polarization by improving smectic-C ordering resulting from the π–π electron stacking, and reduced rotation viscosity by trapping some of the free ions of the FLC media. These effects coherently impacted the FLC-switching phenomenon, enabling the FLC molecules to switch faster on reversing an external electric field.

  5. Morphotropic domain structures and dielectric relaxation in piezo-/ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Chen, Chang; Ye, Mao; Qiu, Ximei; Lin, Peng; Xiong, Xinbo; Zeng, Xierong; Huang, Haitao; Ke, Shanming

    2016-05-01

    The domain structures, phase transitions and dielectric relaxation of relaxor-based piezo-/ferroelectric (1-x)Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.33Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x=0.30, 0.34, 0.37, and 0.42) single crystals, abbreviated as PIN-PZN-PT, grown by flux method, have been analyzed by polarized light microscope and dielectric spectroscopy. The dielectric relaxation was described by the Curie-Weiss law and Lorentz-type quadratic equation. The substitution of Ti4+ ions for the B-site complex (Zn1/3Nb2/3)4+ and (In1/2Nb1/2)4+ ions results in a long-range symmetry breaking, as revealed by the formation of birefringent domains. Single crystal of PIN-PZN-PT with morphotropic compositions exhibit complex domain structures, which are composed of both rhombohedral and tetragonal phases intimately mixed together. The domain structures, the sequence and temperature of phase transitions have been interpreted in relation to the morphotropic phase boundary behavior of the PIN-PZN-PT system. The analysis of morphotropic domain structures and phase transitions provides a better understanding of the microscopic mechanisms of the enhanced piezoelectric properties recently disclosed in the PIN-PZN-PT and other PZN-based piezocrystals.

  6. Effect of rare earth ions on the properties of glycine phosphite single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Kumar, Binay; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2013-01-01

    Optically transparent glycine phosphite (GPI) single crystals doped with rare earth metal ions (Ce, Nd and La) were grown from aqueous solution by employing the solvent evaporation and slow cooling methods. Co-ordination of dopants with GPI was confirmed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to determine the lattice parameters and to analyze the structural morphology of GPI with dopants, which indicates that cell parameters of doped crystals were significantly varied with pure GPI. Crystalline perfection of doped GPI crystals was determined by high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis by means of full width at half maximum values. Influence of the dopants on the optical properties of the material was determined. Paraelectric to ferroelectric transition temperature (Tc) of doped GPI crystals were identified using differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Piezoelectric charge coefficient d33 was measured for pure and doped GPI crystals. Hysteresis (P-E) loop was traced for ferroelectric b-axis and (100) plane of pure and doped GPI crystals with different biasing field and ferroelectric parameters were calculated. Mechanical stability of crystals was determined by Vickers microhardness measurements; elastic stiffness constant 'C11' and yield strength 'σy' were calculated from hardness values. Mechanical and ferroelectric properties of doped crystals were improved with doping of rare earth metals.

  7. Mechanical and thermal transitions in morphotropic PZN-pT and PMN-PT single crystals and their implication for sound projectors.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed; McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Robinson, Harold; Ewart, Lynn

    2007-06-01

    Isothermal compression experiments on multidomain [001] oriented and poled ferroelectric rhombohedral PZN-0.07PT and PMN-0.30PT single crystals revealed elastic instabilities corresponding to zero field ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition under mechanical compression. The application of an appropriate dc bias field doubled the stability range of the ferroelectric rhombohedral state under uniaxial compression for both crystals and maintained a linear elastic response. Young's modulus as derived from the quasistatic, zero field stress-strain linear response agreed well with that derived from small signal resonance for the ferroelectric rhombohedral FR state of both PZN-PT and PMN-PT. Elastic compliances s(E)33 as determined from high temperature resonance revealed a monotonically decreasing Young's modulus as a function of temperature in the ferroelectric rhombohedral state with a sudden stiffening near the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric tetragonal (FT) transition. The reversible ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition of morphotropic PZN-PT and PMN-PT single crystals as accessed by mechanical compression is discussed in terms of strain calculations from Devonshire's theory, domain unfolding, and morphotropic phase boundary shift with mechanical stress. The mechanically-induced and thermally-induced ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition trajectories are discussed in terms of the Devonshire theory. Implications of these observations for sound projectors are discussed. A single crystal tonpilz projector fabricated into a 16-element array and a segmented cylinder transducer demonstrated the outstanding capabilities of single crystals to achieve compact, broadband, and high-source level projectors when compared to conventional lead zirconate-titanate PZT8 projectors. PMID:17571807

  8. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N; Zalyapin, N V

    2014-12-31

    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  9. Influence of isopropanol on ferroelectric properties of triglycine sulfate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovidova, S. D.; Rogazinskaya, O. V.; Sidorkin, A. S.; Nguen, Kh. T.; Bykova, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The dielectric and switching properties of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals grown from aqua solution with isopropanol have been studied. It has been shown that their behavior has common features with the behavior of the TGS crystals irradiated by X-rays, and also with the TGS crystals doped with L, α-alanine.

  10. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  11. Pyroelectric photodetector based on ferroelectric crystal-semiconductor thin film heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Aghamalyan, N. R.; Guo, R.; Hovsepyan, R. K.; Vardanyan, E. S.

    2010-08-01

    Very important advantage of ZnO thin films is an opportunity of use in the composite heterostructures opening opportunities for development of ZnO-based optoelectronics devices. In this work we report the preparation of ferroelectric crystal - ZnO thin film heterostructures by vacuum deposition method and creation of new type of pyroelectric photodetector. The ferroelectric field effect transistor has been prepared using ZnO:Li films as transistor channel and LiNbO3 and TGS crystals as pyroelectric sensitive element. The photoelectric properties (currents ratio, charge carriers mobility, ampere-watt sensitivity in IR diapason, NEP sensitivity, and photocurrent kinetics) of prepared heterostructures were investigated and first samples of novel pyroelectric photodetector with high sensitivity and detectability were prepared.

  12. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of orthorhombic crystal structure contained in nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, S.; Jana, A.; Kundu, T. K.

    2007-09-01

    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 phase of a Pnma orthorhombic crystal structure is synthesized from a chemical method using a polymer complex of Ba2+ and Ti4+ with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). After burning out the polymer at temperature as high as 550 °C in air for 2 h results in an average 15 nm crystallite BaTiO3 size, with lattice parameters a =0.6435 nm, b =0.5306 nm, c =0.8854 nm, and density 5.124 g/cm3. The relationship between dielectric constant ɛr and temperature showed a single Curie transition temperature TC=131 °C, with as large a ɛr value as 263 at TC. A low value of dissipation factor tan δ, as small as 0.033 at room temperature (frequency f =1 kHz), with good insulating properties made the sample promising for use in uncooled infrared detectors and thermal imaging applications. The ɛr value is nearly independent of f value up to 100 kHz. A spectrum of sharp EPR signals of g values 2.21 to 1.88 characterizes three major kinds of VBa-, VTi3-, and Ti3+-Vo2+ paramagnetic species present in the imperfections.

  13. Ferroelectric-like response from the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jyotsna, Shubhra; Arora, Ashima; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Sheet, Goutam

    2014-09-14

    Since SrTiO₃ has a high dielectric constant, it is used as a substrate for a large number of complex physical systems for electrical characterization. Since SrTiO₃ crystals are known to be non-ferroelectric/non-piezoelectric at room temperature and above, SrTiO₃ has been believed to be a good choice as a substrate/base material for PFM (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy) on novel systems at room temperature. In this paper, from PFM-like measurement using an atomic force microscope on bare crystals of (110) SrTiO₃ we show that ferroelectric and piezoelectric-like response may originate from bare SrTiO₃ at remarkably high temperatures up to 420 K. Electrical domain writing and erasing are also possible using a scanning probe tip on the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals. This observation indicates that the role of the electrical response of SrTiO₃ needs to be revisited in the systems where signature of ferroelectricity/piezoelectricity has been previously observed with SrTiO₃ as a substrate/base material.

  14. Electric field effects on phase transitions in the 8CB liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Daoudi, A.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Dubois, F.; Legrand, C.; Douali, R.

    2016-06-01

    The influence of a low ac electric field on phase transitions is discussed in the case of a nematic liquid crystal 4 -n -octyl-4 '-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) doped with Sn2P2S6 ferroelectric nanoparticles. The phase-transition temperatures obtained from temperature-dependent dielectric measurements were higher than those determined by the calorimetric method. This difference is explained by the presence of the measuring electric field which induces two effects. The first one is the amplification of the interactions between the nanoparticle polarization and the liquid-crystal order parameter. The second one is the field-induced disaggregation or aggregation process at high nanoparticle concentrations.

  15. Boundary layer elasto-optic switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The first experimental observation of a change in the director azimuthal angle due to applied shear stress is reported in a sample configuration involving a liquid-crystal-coated top surface exposed directly to gas flow. The electrooptic response caused by the shear stress is large, fast, and reversible. These findings are relevant to the use of liquid crystals in boundary layer investigations on wind tunnel models.

  16. Electromechanical properties of high coupling single crystals under large electric drive and uniaxial compression.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed

    2005-10-01

    This work investigates the 33-mode electromechanical response of relaxor-ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystals when driven with large fields approximately 0.4 MV/m under a combined direct current (DC) field and mechanical bias similar to those used in the design of sound projectors. It demonstrates that the remarkable small signal length extensional coupling (k33 > 0.90) and other electromechanical properties of morphotropic PMN-PT single crystals prevail under large drive. The observed k33 roll-off at 42 MPa compressive stress is analyzed in terms of the recent structural data and the high-order Devonshire theory of possible ferroelectric-ferroelectric transition trajectories. PMID:16382615

  17. The effect of in-situ high-temperature high-pressure on the structural changes of single-crystal relaxor ferroelectrics PbSc1/2Ta1/2O3 (PST) and PbSc1/2Nb1/2O3 (PSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeselmann, Naemi; Mihailova, Boriana; Gospodinov, Marin; Bismayer, Ullrich

    2013-06-01

    Relaxor ferroelectrics (relaxor) of the perovskite structure (ABO3) have remarkably high dielectric permittivity dependent on temperature and frequency as well as remarkable piezoelectric and electro-optic coefficients. These structurally heterogeneous materials undergo a sequence of structural changes on the mesoscopic scale associated with characteristic temperatures resulting from the development of polar order on temperature decrease. Pressure increase on the other hand favors antiferrodistortive order at room temperature. To explore the importance of the antiferrodistortive coupling on the development of polar order simultaneous high-temperature high-pressure Raman studies were undertaken on single crystals of PST and PSN from 400-600 K over pressures extending to 9 GPa. We find that the first pressure-induced transition pc1 decreases with temperature while the second transition pc2 is relatively temperature independent. The behavior of pc1 is interpreted as a weakening of the polar coupling, which in turn facilitates the evolution of the preexisting medium-range antiferodistortive order into a long-range order. The near constant value of pc2 suggests that it is independent of the state of polar coupling and is mainly related to the initial correlation length of antiferrodistortive order. Thus the coexistence of both polar order and antiferrodistortive order is required for the occurrence of the relaxor state. Now at: University of Washington.

  18. Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

  19. Optical correlator using very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard M.; Jared, David A.; Sharp, Gary D.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1993-01-01

    The use of 2-kHz 64 x 64 very-large-scale integrated circuit/ferroelectric-liquid-crystal electrically addressed spatial light modulators as the input and filter planes of a VanderLugt-type optical correlator is discussed. Liquid-crystal layer thickness variations that are present in the devices are analyzed, and the effects on correlator performance are investigated through computer simulations. Experimental results from the very-large-scale-integrated / ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical-correlator system are presented and are consistent with the level of performance predicted by the simulations.

  20. Development of single crystal membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stormont, R. W.; Cocks, F. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design and construction of a high pressure crystal growth chamber was accomplished which would allow the growth of crystals under inert gas pressures of 2 MN/sq m (300 psi). A novel crystal growth technique called EFG was used to grow tubes and rods of the hollandite compounds, BaMgTi7O16, K2MgTi7O16, and tubes of sodium beta-alumina, sodium magnesium-alumina, and potassium beta-alumina. Rods and tubes grown are characterized using metallographic and X-ray diffraction techniques. The hollandite compounds are found to be two or three-phase, composed of coarse grained orientated crystallites. Single crystal c-axis tubes of sodium beta-alumina were grown from melts containing excess sodium oxide. Additional experiments demonstrated that crystals of magnesia doped beta-alumina and potassium beta-alumina also can be achieved by this EFG technique.

  1. Programmable ZnO nanowire transistors using switchable polarization of ferroelectric liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woong-Ki; Inn Sohn, Jung; Cha, SeungNam; Min Kim, Jong; Park, Jong-Bae; Seok Choi, Su; Coles, Harry J.; Welland, Mark E.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate modulations of electrical conductance and hysteresis behavior in ZnO nanowire transistors via electrically polarized switching of ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). After coating a nanowire channel in the transistors with FLCs, we observed large increases in channel conductance and hysteresis width, and a strong dependence of hysteresis loops on the polarization states associated with the orientation of electric dipole moments along the direction of the gate electric field. Furthermore, the reversible switching and retention characteristics provide the feasibility of creating a hybrid system with switch and memory functions.

  2. Mechanism of homeotropic alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystals doped with ferro-fluid and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Tilak; Singh, Shri; Choudhary, Amit; Pant, R. P.; Biradar, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    We report homeotropic (HT) alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) doped with various concentrations of ferro-fluid (FF) without using any type of alignment layer. The FF induced HT alignment of FLC was found to be dependent on the doping concentration as revealed by optical micrographs, contact angle, and dielectric spectroscopy studies. Higher water contact angle of FF doped FLC films with respect to pure FLC film suggests higher surface energy of FF doped FLC than the surface energy of substrate. The physico-chemical mechanism together with steric model successfully explains the HT alignment of the studied FLC on the ITO substrate.

  3. Influence of gold nanorods size on electro-optical and dielectric properties of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Podgornov, Fedor V.; Ryzhkova, Anna V.; Haase, Wolfgang

    2010-11-22

    The influence of the gold nanorods (GNRs) diameter on the electro-optic and dielectric properties of the ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) was investigated. It was shown that dispersing of GNRs in FLCs could lead to an increase of the internal electric field inside the liquid crystalline layer. This effect results in a significant decrease of the switching time and the rotational viscosity of the FLC/GNRs nanodispersions independently on the GNRs diameter. Oppositely, the relaxation frequency and the dielectric strength of the Goldstone mode strongly depend on the GNRs diameter, which can be explained by the charge transfer between the GNRs and FLC molecules.

  4. Electric-field-induced weakly chaotic transients in ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Śliwa, I; Jeżewski, W; Kuczyński, W

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics induced in surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals by strong alternating external electric fields is studied both theoretically and experimentally. As has already been shown, molecular reorientations induced by sufficiently strong fields of high-enough frequencies can reveal a long transient behavior that has a weakly chaotic character. The resulting complex dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals can be considered not only as a consequence of irregular motions of particular molecules but also as a repercussion of a surface-enforced partial decorrelation of nonlinear molecular motions within smectic layers. To achieve more insight into the nature of this phenomenon and to show that the underlying complex field-induced behavior of smectic liquid crystals is not exceptional, ranges of system parameters for which the chaotic behavior occurs are determined. It is proved that there exists a large enough set of initial phase trajectory points, for which weakly chaotic long-time transitory phenomena occur, and, thereby, it is demonstrated that such a chaotic behavior can be regarded as being typical for strongly field-driven thin liquid crystal systems. Additionally, the influence of low-amplitude random noise on the duration of the transient processes is numerically studied. The strongly nonlinear contribution to the electro-optic response, experimentally determined for liquid crystal samples at frequencies lower than the actual field frequency, is also analyzed for long-time signal sequences. Using a statistical approach to distinguish numerically response signals of samples from noise generated by measuring devices, it is shown that the distribution of sample signals distinctly differs from the device noise. This evidently corroborates the occurrence of the nonlinear low-frequency effect, found earlier for different surface stabilized liquid crystal samples. PMID:26871130

  5. Supramolecular ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayi, Alok S.; Kaeser, Adrien; Matsumoto, Michio; Aida, Takuzo; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2015-04-01

    Supramolecular chemistry uses non-covalent interactions to coax molecules into forming ordered assemblies. The construction of ordered materials with these reversible bonds has led to dramatic innovations in organic electronics, polymer science and biomaterials. Here, we review how supramolecular strategies can advance the burgeoning field of organic ferroelectricity. Ferroelectrics -- materials with a spontaneous and electrically reversible polarization -- are touted for use in non-volatile computer memories, sensors and optics. Historically, this physical phenomenon has been studied in inorganic materials, although some organic examples are known and strong interest exists to extend the search for ferroelectric molecular systems. Other undiscovered applications outside this regime could also emerge. We describe the key features necessary for molecular and supramolecular dipoles in organic ferroelectrics and their incorporation into ordered systems, such as porous frameworks and liquid crystals. The goal of this Review is to motivate the development of innovative supramolecular ferroelectrics that exceed the performance and usefulness of known systems.

  6. Pressure dependence of the electro-optic response function in partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals in a new configuration, termed partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (PEPDFLC), respond to external pressures and demonstrate pressure-induced electro-optic switching response. When the PEPDFLC thin film is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a glass plate and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvenylidene fluoride, the switching characteristics of the thin film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and the bias voltage across the electrodes. Response time measurements reveal a linear dependence of the change in electric field with external pressure.

  7. Stacking fault energy in some single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2012-06-01

    The stacking fault energy of single crystals has been reported using the peak shift method. Presently studied all single crystals are grown by using a direct vapor transport (DVT) technique in the laboratory. The structural characterizations of these crystals are made by XRD. Considerable variations are shown in deformation (α) and growth (β) probabilities in single crystals due to off-stoichiometry, which possesses the stacking fault in the single crystal.

  8. Critical Property in Relaxor-PbTiO3 Single Crystals --- Shear Piezoelectric Response

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    The shear piezoelectric behavior in relaxor-PbTiO3 (PT) single crystals is investigated in regard to crystal phase. High levels of shear piezoelectric activity, d15 or d24 >2000 pC N−1, has been observed for single domain rhombohedral (R), orthorhombic (O) and tetragonal (T) relaxor-PT crystals. The high piezoelectric response is attributed to a flattening of the Gibbs free energy at compositions proximate to the morphotropic phase boundaries, where the polarization rotation is easy with applying perpendicular electric field. The shear piezoelectric behavior of pervoskite ferroelectric crystals was discussed with respect to ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions and dc bias field using phenomenological approach. The relationship between single domain shear piezoelectric response and piezoelectric activities in domain engineered configurations were given in this paper. From an application viewpoint, the temperature and ac field drive stability for shear piezoelectric responses are investigated. A temperature independent shear piezoelectric response (d24, in the range of −50°C to O-T phase transition temperature) is thermodynamically expected and experimentally confirmed in orthorhombic relaxor-PT crystals; relatively high ac field drive stability (5 kV cm−1) is obtained in manganese modified relaxor-PT crystals. For all thickness shear vibration modes, the mechanical quality factor Qs are less than 50, corresponding to the facilitated polarization rotation. PMID:21960942

  9. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, Svetlana P.; Samagin, Sergey A.; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P.; Kiselev, Alexei D.

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50 μ m , the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible.

  10. Light modulation in planar aligned short-pitch deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kotova, Svetlana P; Samagin, Sergey A; Pozhidaev, Evgeny P; Kiselev, Alexei D

    2015-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically modulation of light in a planar aligned deformed-helix ferroelectric liquid crystal (DHFLC) cell with subwavelength helix pitch, which is also known as a short-pitch DHFLC. In our experiments, the azimuthal angle of the in-plane optical axis and electrically controlled parts of the principal in-plane refractive indices are measured as a function of voltage applied across the cell. Theoretical results giving the effective optical tensor of a short-pitch DHFLC expressed in terms of the smectic tilt angle and the refractive indices of the ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) are used to fit the experimental data. The optical anisotropy of the FLC material is found to be weakly biaxial. For both the transmissive and reflective modes, the results of fitting are applied to model the phase and amplitude modulation of light in the DHFLC cell. We demonstrate that if the thickness of the DHFLC layer is about 50μm, the detrimental effect of field-induced rotation of the in-plane optical axes on the characteristics of an axicon designed using the DHFLC spatial light modulator in the reflective mode is negligible. PMID:26764706

  11. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  12. Relaxor-PT Single crystals: Observations and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Relaxor-PT based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PZNT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PMNT) attracted lot of attentions in last decade due to their ultra high electromechanical coupling factors and piezoelectric coefficients. However, owing to a strongly curved morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the usage temperature of these perovskite single crystals is limited by TRT - the rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition temperature, which occurs at significantly lower temperatures than the Curie temperature TC. Furthermore, the low mechanical quality factors and coercive fields of these crystals, usually being on the order of ~70 and 2–3kV/cm, respectively, restrict their usage in high power applications. Thus, it is desirable to have high performance crystals with high temperature usage range and high power characteristics. In this survey, different binary and ternary crystal systems were explored, with respect to their temperature usage range, general trends of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of relaxor-PT crystal systems were discussed related to their TC/TRT. In addition, two approaches were proposed to improve mechanical Q values, including acceptor dopant strategy, analogous to “hard” polycrystalline ceramics, and anisotropic domain engineering configurations. PMID:20889397

  13. Microscopic interpretation of sign reversal in the electrocaloric effect in a ferroelectric PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-30PbTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, A.-K.; Le Goupil, F.; Dunne, L. J.; Manos, G.; Valant, M.; Alford, N. McN.

    2013-03-01

    With increasing temperature, PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-30PbTiO3 (PMN-30PT) crystals change from pseudo-rhombohedral to tetragonal to cubic phases. In addition to the usual positive electrocaloric effect (ECE), a negative ECE, whose origin is uncertain, is observed. Here, these two types of the ECE contributions in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-30PbTiO3 crystals are modelled theoretically using a one dimensional statistical mechanical lattice model, which is solved by an exact matrix method. The quasi one-dimensional model reproduces the trends in the experimental behaviour and attributes the electrocaloric sign reversal to free energy changes induced by the electric field.

  14. A novel boundary layer sensor utilizing domain switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the principles of operation of a novel sensor for the optical detection of a shear stress field induced by air or gas flow on a rigid surface. The detection relies on the effects of shear-induced optical switching in ferroelectric liquid crystals. It is shown that the method overcomes many of the limitations of similar measuring techniques including those using cholesteric liquid crystals. The present method offers a preferred alternative for flow visualization and skin friction measurements in wind-tunnel experiments on laminar boundary layer transition investigations. A theoretical model for the optical response to shear stress is presented together with a schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

  15. Visualization of VLSI integrated circuits by means of ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picart, B.; Dugoujon, L.; Petit, O.; Destrade, C.; Leon, C.; Nguyen, H. T.; Marcerou, J. P.

    1989-07-01

    The increasing density and complexity of integrated circuits illustrates the quick evolution of their technology. As a consequence, new methods of internal testing are now necessary for failure analysis that allow for the visualization of the internal functioning of these circuits. In this way such methods as electronic microscopy working in the voltage contrast process have been developed a longtime ago. An alternate promising method uses liquid crystals for the visualization of electric fields present on the surface of the chip. In this article we investigate the various potentialities of the nematic and smectic mesophases for such a visualization. We will especially underline the use of new ferroelectric liquid crystals which could allow for the dynamical analysis of integrated circuits.

  16. Growth, morphology, structure and characterization of L-histidinium dihydrogen arsenate orthoarsenic acid single crystal.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Nidhi; Sinha, Nidhi; Yadav, Harsh; Kumar, Binay

    2016-08-01

    L-Histidinium dihydrogen arsenate orthoarsenic acid (LHAS) crystals were grown by the slow evaporation method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirms monoclinic structure. The growth rates of various planes of LHAS crystals were estimated by morphological study. Hirshfeld surface and fingerprint plots were analyzed to investigate the intermolecular interactions at 0.002 a.u. present in the crystal structure. The functional groups and phase behavior of the compound are studied by FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition at 307 K was observed in dielectric studies. The piezoelectric charge coefficients of the grown crystal were found to be 2 pC/N. The values of coercive field (Ec), remnant polarization (Pr) and spontaneous polarization (Ps) in the hysteresis loop are found to be 5.236 kV cm(-1), 0.654 µC cm(-2) and 2.841 µC cm(-2), respectively. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity are reported for the first time in LHAS crystals. The mechanical strength was confirmed from microhardness study and void volume. Due to the low value of the dielectric constant, and good piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties, LHAS crystals can be used in microelectronics, sensors and advanced electronic devices. PMID:27484380

  17. Ferroelectric properties of vinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene copolymer thin films consisting of needle-like crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yuuta; Hashizume, Yoichiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2016-05-01

    Unique ferroelectric vinylidene fluoride (VDF)/tetrafluoroethylene (TeFE) copolymer thin films consisting of needle-like crystals were formed using Au-sputtered substrates. The VDF/TeFE films with a mixing ratio of 80:20 mol % were melted at 170 °C for 30 min and then recrystallized at 116 °C for 300 min. The molecules in the resultant needle-like crystals had a β-phase form and showed 200/110 orientation, while the direction of each needle-like crystal was random in-plane. The remanent polarization of the 450-nm-thick VDF/TeFE films consisting of the needle-like crystals were estimated to be 62 mC/m2 from the electric displacement vs electric field (D–E) hysteresis measurement at the applied field of 156 MV/m and the frequency of 10 Hz. The remanent polarization of 62 mC/m2 was approximately 50% larger than that of conventional VDF/TeFE films consisting of plate-like crystals.

  18. Testing a new generation 512 x 512, >200 Hz capable, liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) with ferro-electric liquid crystal, IR scene projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Jack R.; Bauchert, Kipp

    2006-05-01

    A Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) Spatial Light Modulator device was fabricated into an IR Scene Projector Concept Demonstrator for MWIR Hardware-in-the-loop Testing. Presently on-going in-house efforts are establishing performance benchmarks that rival many of the capabilities of the alternative, and presently the high end performance standard device, the suspended-bridge resistor array. New adaptations, like incorporating Ferro-electric Liquid Crystal (FELC) can achieve improved IR performance values breaking through the "slow" settling time limit exhibited by earlier Liquid Crystal based systems. In fact, specific parameters may even exceed some of the resistor array parameter's performance values (such as apparent thermal rise time allowing an overall faster frame rate). In addition, the relatively simple CMOS fabrication for the basic chip and ease of system "customization" allows system fabrication cost to be more on the order of the economical low end performance Digital Mirror Devices for the Infrared waveband; but still keeps the analog controlled thermal gradient in a single switch time to accommodate fast integrating sensors of modern seeker systems. Our research is using a 512x512 array originally intended for visible applications, but tailored for the MWIR operational regime. A new CMOS fabrication run to incorporate additional features and achieve further performance benefits is planned, but the existing product capability is adequate for most HIL simulation requirements. The measured performance of our in-house prototype device using FELC will be discussed.

  19. Effect of metallic dopants on potassium acid phthalate (KAP) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithambaram, V.; Jerome Das, S.; Arivudai Nambi, R.; Srinivasan, K.; Krishnan, S.

    2010-06-01

    Optically transparent single crystals of Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ doped potassium acid phthalate (KAP) were grown in aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the changes in the lattice parameters of the doped crystals. The presence of functional groups in the crystal lattice has been determined qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Optical absorption studies revealed that the doped crystals possess very low absorption in the entire visible region. The dielectric constant has been studied as a function of frequency for the doped crystals at temperatures viz., 328, 348, 368 K. Further the influence of metal dopants on the dielectric behaviour has been studied which clearly exhibited the ferroelectric properties of the crystal.

  20. Formulation of a room temperature ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture with sub-millisecond switching time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, A.; Sinha, D.; Mandal, P. K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2015-06-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) based display devices show faster response compared to nematic LC based devices. Since pure FLC compounds are high temperature LCs and do not possess optimum parameters necessary for display devices, a room temperature FLC mixture has been formulated, first time by any Indian group. The mixture is prepared by doping an appropriate chiral compound in a four-component LC based achiral host mixture. Resulting mixture was characterized using optical polarizing microscopy, frequency domain dielectric spectroscopy and electro-optic methods. It shows very wide range ferroelectric SmC* phase followed by paraelectric SmA* phase (Cr< 19°CSmC*89°C SmA* 108°C I) which would facilitate attaining book shelf geometry alignment in display devices. Dielectric spectroscopy study reveals Goldstone (in kHz region) and soft mode (in hundred kHz region) relaxations in SmC* and SmA* phases respectively. The mixture possesses moderate tilt angle (34.5° - 13°), low viscosity (0.9 - 0.05 N.s.m-2) and moderately high spontaneous polarization (112 - 36 nC.cm-2) which decrease with temperature. These result in very fast switching, slowest response time being 475 µs at ambient temperature.

  1. Piezoelectric single crystal langatate and ferromagnetic composites: Studies on low-frequency and resonance magnetoelectric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Srinivasan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical strain mediated magnetoelectric (ME) effects are studied in bilayers and trilayers of piezoelectric single-crystal lanthanum gallium tantalate (LGT) and magnetostrictive permendur (P). The ME voltage coefficient ranges from 2.3 V/cm Oe at 20 Hz to 720 V/cm Oe at bending resonance and is higher by an order of magnitude than in composites with ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate or lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. The low-frequency magnetic noise for P-LGT-P is a factor of 2-10 smaller than for ferroelectrics based composites. Langatate is free of ferroelectric hysteresis, pyroelectric effects, and phase transitions up to 1450 °C and is of interest for ultrasensitive, high temperature magnetic sensors.

  2. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.

    2013-08-28

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

  3. Fast switchable ferroelectric liquid crystal gratings with two electro-optical modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqian; Srivastava, A. K.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Kwok, H.-S.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we reveal a theoretical and experimental illustration of the Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) grating fabricated by mean of patterned alignment based on photo-alignment. The complexity related to the mismatching of the predefined alignment domains on the top and bottom substrate has been avoided by incorporating only one side photo aligned substrate while the other substrate does not have any alignment layer. Depending on the easy axis in the said alignment domains and the azimuth plane of the impinging polarized light, the diffracting element can be tuned in two modes i.e. DIFF/OFF switchable and DIFF/TRANS switchable modes, which can be applied to different applications. The diffraction profile has been illustrated theoretically that fits well with the experimental finding and thus the proposed diffraction elements with fast response time and high diffraction efficiency could find application in many modern devices.

  4. Smectic-A*-smectic-C* transition in a ferroelectric liquid crystal without smectic layer shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Giesselmann, F; Zugenmaier, P; Dierking, I; Lagerwall, S T; Stebler, B; Kaspar, M; Hamplová, V; Glogarová, M

    1999-07-01

    The smectic layer spacing of a nonfluorinated ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) compound with almost no shrinkage and only minor tendency to form zigzag defects was characterized by small angle x-ray diffraction. The material lacks a nematic phase. The smectic-A*-smectic-C* phase transition was studied by measuring the thermal and electric field response of the optical tilt and the electric polarization. These properties are described very well by a Landau expansion even without introduction of a higher-order Theta(6) term. This result suggests a pure second-order phase transition far from tricriticality and differs considerably from the typical behavior of the A*-C* transition in most FLC materials. PMID:11969798

  5. Micro-patterned photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal Fresnel zone lens.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Wang, X; Gong, S Q; Shen, D; Lu, Y Q; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H S

    2015-04-15

    In this Letter, we disclose a fast switchable Fresnel zone lens (FZL) by confining the ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) in multiple microscopically defined photo-aligned alignment domains. The photo-alignment (PA) offers good control on the anchoring energy (W) by mean of irradiation doses (ID) and thus excellent alignment for FLCs. Two operational modes of the FLCFZL, i.e., FOCUS/OFF and FOCUS/DEFOCUS, were demonstrated. The proposed diffracting element provides fast response time, high diffraction efficiency (η), with saturated electro-optical (EO) operations up to high frequency (≈2  kHz). Thus, the proposed FLCFZLs with simple fabrication open several opportunities to improve the quality of existing devices and to find new applications. PMID:25872037

  6. Effect of cadmium selenide quantum dots on the dielectric and physical parameters of ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Manohar, R.; Varia, M. C.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.

    2014-07-21

    The effect of cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) on the dielectric relaxation and material constants of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) has been investigated. Along with the characteristic Goldstone mode, a new relaxation mode has been induced in the FLC material due to the presence of CdSe QDs. This new relaxation mode is strongly dependent on the concentration of CdSe QDs but is found to be independent of the external bias voltage and temperature. The material constants have also been modified remarkably due to the presence of CdSe QDs. The appearance of this new relaxation phenomenon has been attributed to the concentration dependent interaction between CdSe QDs and FLC molecules.

  7. Sign reversal of dielectric anisotropy of ferroelectric liquid crystals doped with cadmium telluride quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Silotia, P.; Biradar, A. M.

    2011-08-01

    A small amount of cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) has been doped into various ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) to observe the modifications in the alignment and dielectric anisotropy (Δɛ) of the composites. The CdTe QDs have induced a uniform homeotropic (HMT) alignment in most of the FLC mixtures. We observed an unexpected switching (from HMT to homogeneous configuration) of CdTe QDs doped FLC CS1026 (having positive Δɛ) by the application of high dc bias. This reverse switching has been attributed to the interaction between FLC molecules and CdTe QDs which caused the sign reversal of Δɛ of FLC CS1026.

  8. Beam Steering Experiment with Two Cascaded Ferroelectric Liquid-Crystal Spatial Light Modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, David; Hård, Sverker; Rudquist, Per; D'Havé, Koen; Matuszczyk, Tomasz; Skeren, Marek; Löfving, Björn

    2004-03-01

    The design, construction, and evaluation of a laser beam steerer that uses two binary ferroelectric liquid-crystal (FLC) spatial light modulators (SLMs) operated in conjunction are presented. The system is characterized by having few components and is in principle lossless. Experimentally, a throughput of ~20% was achieved. The simple system design was achieved because of the high tilt angle FLC material used in the SLMs, which were specifically designed and manufactured for this study. By coherently imaging the first SLM onto the second SLM, pixel by pixel, we obtained an effective four-level phase structure with a phase step of 90°. An appropriate alignment procedure is presented. The beam steering performance of the system is reported and analyzed.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Time and Spatially Multiplexed Diffractive Optical Elements in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Antonio; Moreno, Ignacio; Sánchez-López, María M.

    2008-03-01

    We present a very simple method of generating time-multiplexed optical diffractive elements. We use a commercially available ferroelectric liquid crystal device originally designed to visualize colour images by sequentially displaying the three red, green, and blue (RGB) colour channels. We substitute the original light emitting diode (LED) light source by monochromatic illumination. Then we generate a three time-multiplexed diffractive element simply by addressing a colour RGB image where each colour component corresponds to a different diffractive screen. We carry out computer simulations in order to compare this simple time multiplexing technique with various spatial multiplexing techniques proposed in the literature. We numerically evaluate the different methods in terms of light efficiency, noise level and the quality of the hologram reconstruction. We provide experimental results that verify the simulations and show the advantage of using the time multiplexing technique.

  10. Performance of ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulators for polarization and color diffractive elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ignacio; García-Martínez, P.; Sánchez-López, M. M.; Martínez-García, A.; Martínez, J. L.

    2009-08-01

    In this work we applied a ferroelectric liquid crystal on silicon (FLCoS) display for implementing monochrome and color diffractive optical elements (DOE). We first apply a reverse engineering process specifically adapted to characterize the optical parameters of a commercial FLCoS display, specifically the phase shift and the tilt angle. We then analyze the performance of the device for implementing a binary polarization diffraction grating (PDG), and how it adopts the form of either a binary amplitude grating or a binary phase grating as particular cases when the polarization states emerging from the display are projected to an analyzer. As a final experiment, we have applied the FLCoS display to generate RGB improved dynamic color binary-phase Fourier computer-generated holograms (CGHs). We have electronically synchronized the properly scaled image addressed to the display with a color filter wheel with RGB filters. Experimental results show an excellent chromatic compensation of the color image reconstruction.

  11. Influence of polymer network in polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals and its direct observation using a confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovšek, R.; Pirš, J.; Kralj, S.; Čopič, M.; Šuput, D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the three-dimensional polymer network distribution inside the polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal layer based on the laser scanning fluorescence confocal microscopy and a fluorescent dye tagging of the polymer. The studies of polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal structures described in this paper are focused on the comparison of the influence of polymer network in case that the polymerization is initiated in the chevron as well as in the quasibookshelf liquid-crystal molecular orientation. In the case of the chevron structure the regular distribution of the polymer network within the layer leads to the monostability of the chevron state. On the other hand the specific distribution of the polymer in the polymer-stabilized quasibookshelf stripe textures leads to the perfect bistability, improved multiplex driving, and analog gray scale capability.

  12. Physics of Heavily Implanted Single Crystal Complex Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofan, Avishai

    Ion implantation is known to result in a significant amount of damage in solid single crystals. In this work a battery of material probes is used to study the effect of a very high-dose He implantation in ferroelectric lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and the implantation-induced formation of defects. In addition, the evolution of these defects with post-implantation annealing is examined. After irradiation, a high concentration of defects is found to collect and create a network of thick prismatic planar defects having typical dimensions of ˜1.5 microm and 200 nm parallel and perpendicular to the Z axis, respectively. Optical microscopy shows that there is strong temperature dependence for forming the network; the density of these defects reaches a maximum value for an annealing temperature of 250 °C. However, annealing to temperatures above 380 °C fully eliminates the defects. High-resolution TEM studies indicate that the defects are likely localized twinning and dislocation pileups due to plastic deformation of the lattice to relieve He-implantation-induced stress. During this deformation He accumulates at the twin boundaries. A second type of implantation induced defects is studied using room temperature, high- resolution electron microscopy; this study shows that implanted He in LiNbO3 nucleates and accumulates as bubbles. These He inclusions are at ˜20 GPa pressure and most probably in the solid phase. In addition, the energetically favored shape of the inclusions in their as-implanted form is spherical and not oblate; this spherical shape is due to the fact their diameter is below a critical radius for balancing the surface and elastics energies as predicted by elastic theory. When annealed, the characteristic length scale of the He inclusions increases, forming faceted bubbles. Annealing also causes the He inclusions to migrate and accumulate into strings due to the preferred {1014}-pyramidal-twinning planes. The ion implantation-induced defects are found to be

  13. Interest of using piezoelectric single crystals with high electromechanical coupling factor in Coriolis Vibrating Gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, A.; Masson, S.; Le Traon, O.

    2005-09-01

    In piezoelectric Coriolis Vibrating Gyros piezoelectricity is both used to excite the in plane reference vibration and to detect the out of plane vibration induced by an input angular rate. Quartz crystal is used because of its good mechanical properties (e.g. high quality factor... ). In this paper, the opportunity of using new piezoelectric crystals with high electromechanical coupling factor is studied. An analytical model of a piezoelectric beam CVG has been established in the case of high piezoelectric coupling. This model predicts an improvement by a factor 50 of the gyro resolution by using the ferroelectric single crystal PMN-0.34PT instead of quartz.

  14. Titania single crystals with a curved surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang; Yang, Bing Xing; Wu, Long; Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Porun; Zhao, Huijun; Yu, Yan Yan; Gong, Xue Qing; Yang, Hua Gui

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its scientific and technological importance, crystallization as a ubiquitous phenomenon has been widely studied over centuries. Well-developed single crystals are generally enclosed by regular flat facets spontaneously to form polyhedral morphologies because of the well-known self-confinement principle for crystal growth. However, in nature, complex single crystalline calcitic skeleton of biological organisms generally has a curved external surface formed by specific interactions between organic moieties and biocompatible minerals. Here we show a new class of crystal surface of TiO₂, which is enclosed by quasi continuous high-index microfacets and thus has a unique truncated biconic morphology. Such single crystals may open a new direction for crystal growth study since, in principle, crystal growth rates of all facets between two normal {101} and {011} crystal surfaces are almost identical. In other words, the facet with continuous Miller index can exist because of the continuous curvature on the crystal surface. PMID:25373513

  15. Titania single crystals with a curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuang; Yang, Bing Xing; Wu, Long; Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Porun; Zhao, Huijun; Yu, Yan Yan; Gong, Xue Qing; Yang, Hua Gui

    2014-11-01

    Owing to its scientific and technological importance, crystallization as a ubiquitous phenomenon has been widely studied over centuries. Well-developed single crystals are generally enclosed by regular flat facets spontaneously to form polyhedral morphologies because of the well-known self-confinement principle for crystal growth. However, in nature, complex single crystalline calcitic skeleton of biological organisms generally has a curved external surface formed by specific interactions between organic moieties and biocompatible minerals. Here we show a new class of crystal surface of TiO2, which is enclosed by quasi continuous high-index microfacets and thus has a unique truncated biconic morphology. Such single crystals may open a new direction for crystal growth study since, in principle, crystal growth rates of all facets between two normal {101} and {011} crystal surfaces are almost identical. In other words, the facet with continuous Miller index can exist because of the continuous curvature on the crystal surface.

  16. Linear and non-linear dielectric properties of a short-pitch ferroelectric liquid crystal stabilized by a polymer network.

    PubMed

    Cherfi, Y; Hemine, J; Douali, R; Beldjoudi, N; Ismaili, M; Leblond, J M; Legrand, C; Daoudi, A

    2010-12-01

    Linear and non-linear dielectric measurements were carried out on a ferroelectric liquid crystal stabilized by an anisotropic polymer network. The polymerization process was achieved at room temperature. It was performed from an achiral monomer in the ferroelectric chiral smectic C phase, exhibiting a very short helical pitch and a large polarization. The linear and non-linear dielectric spectroscopy were also completed by textural morphology as well as structural and ferroelectric characterizations. All these measurements were carried out on a pure ferroelectric liquid crystal material and on composite films containing two polymer concentrations. The increase of the polymer network density leads to a decrease of the dielectric strength determined in the linear and non-linear dielectric spectroscopy. The complementarity between the linear and non-linear dielectric measurements and their confrontation with a theoretical model allowed the simultaneous determination of some physical parameters such as macroscopic polarization, rotational viscosity and twist elastic energy. We also discuss the effect of the polymer network density on the obtained physical parameters. PMID:21107879

  17. Nonlinear pyroelectric energy harvesting from relaxor single crystals.

    PubMed

    Khodayari, Akram; Pruvost, Sebastien; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel; Mohammadi, Saber

    2009-04-01

    Energy harvesting from temperature variations in a Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))(0.955)Ti(0.045)O(3) single crystal was studied and evaluated using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle. The efficiency of this cycle related to Carnot cycle is 100 times higher than direct pyroelectric energy harvesting, and it can be as high as 5.5% for a 10 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field. The amount of harvested energy for a 60 degrees C temperature variation and 2 kV/mm electric field is 242.7 mJ x cm(-3). The influence of ferroelectric phase transitions on the energy harvesting performance is discussed and illustrated with experimental results. PMID:19406698

  18. Peculiarities of electro-optic properties of the ferroelectric particles-liquid crystal colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, T. D.; Imamaliyev, A. R.; Bayramov, G. M.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of ferroelectric barium titanate particles on electro-optic properties of the liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) with positive dielectric anisotropy and the LC mixture (H37) consisting of 4-methoxybezylidene-4'-butylaniline and 4-ethoxybezylidene-4'-butylaniline with negative dielectric anisotropy was investigated. It was shown that a presence of particles (1 wt%) in 5CB and H37 decreased the clearing temperature from 35.2 °C to 32.4°C and from 61.2°C to 60.1°C, respectively. The threshold voltage of the Freedericksz effect became 0.3 V for the BaTiO3-5CB colloid while the beginning of this effect for the pure 5CB was observed at 2.1 V. The threshold voltage of the Freedericksz effect increased from 2.8 V to up 3.1 V at additive of particles in H37. A rise time of the BaTiO3-5CB colloid improved while a decay time worsened in comparison with the pure 5CB at all applied voltages. The inverse trends were observed for the H37 matrix, namely, a rise time worsened and a decay time improved. Among other things, the pecularities of Williams' domain formation (WDF) were also investigated in the colloid based on the H37 matrix. It was established that the WDF voltage decreased, a rise time increased and a decay time decreased in comparison with the pure H37. Experimental results are explained by appearance of local electric fields near the polarized ferroelectric particles at application of external electric field and an existence of the additional obstacles (particles) for movement of ions.

  19. Structural examination of lithium niobate ferroelectric crystals by combining scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, P. V.; Ped'ko, B. B.; Kuznecova, Yu. V.

    2016-02-01

    The structure of lithium niobate single crystals is studied by a complex technique that combines scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. By implementing the piezoresponse force method on an atomic force microscope, the domain structure of lithium niobate crystals, which was not revealed without electron beam irradiation, is visualized

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of ferroelectric crystal growth and molecular electronic structure of atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suewattana, Malliga

    In this thesis, we explore two stochastic techniques to study properties of materials in realistic systems. Specifically, the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method is utilized to study the crystal growth process of ferroelectric materials and the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) approach is used to investigate the ground state properties of atoms and molecules. In the growth simulations, we study the growth rates and chemical ordering of ferroelectric alloys using an electrostatic model with long-range Coulomb interactions. Crystal growth is characterized by thermodynamic processes involving adsorption and evaporation, with solid-on-solid restrictions and excluding diffusion. A KMC algorithm is formulated to simulate this model efficiently in the presence of long-range interactions. The growth process is simulated as a function of temperature, chemical composition, and substrate orientation. We carried out the simulations on two heterovalent binaries, those of the NaCl and the Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3))O3(BMN) structures. Compared to the simple rocksalt ordered structures, ordered BMN grows only at very low temperatures and only under finely tuned conditions. For materials with tetravalent compositions, such as (1-x)Ba(Mg 1/3Nb2/3))O3 + x BaZrO3 (BMN-BZ), the model does not incorporate tetravalent ions at low-temperature, exhibiting a phase-separated ground state instead. At higher temperatures, tetravalent ions can be incorporated, but the resulting crystals show no chemical ordering in the absence of diffusive mechanisms. In the second part of the thesis, we present results from an auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) study of ground state properties, in particular dissociation and ionization energy, of second-row atoms and molecules. The method projects the many-body ground state from a trial wavefunction by random walks in the space of Slater determinants. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation is employed to decouple the Coulomb interaction between electrons. A trial wave

  1. Ferroelectric performances and crystal structures of (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti, Nb)O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, Naoto; Mizoguchi, Takuma; Itoh, Takanori; Idemoto, Yasushi

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we focused on Nb and La substituted Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3}: i.e., (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti, Nb)O{sub 3}. As for the samples, dependences of ferroelectric properties on La and Nb compositions were examined. In addition, the crystal structures were analyzed by the Rietveld method, and then a relationship between the metal compositions and the crystal structures were discussed. From P–E hysteresis loop measurements, it was found that the remanant polarization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} was increased by both the La and Nb substitutions although the heavy substitution of La had an undesirable effect. It was also indicated that the Curie temperature decreased with increasing La content. The Rietveld analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated that the structure distortion was relaxed by the La and Nb substitutions. Such a change in the crystals was well consistent with the harmful effects on the Curie temperature and the remanent polarization by the heavy La substitution. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement pattern of 2 mol% PbSiO{sub 3}-added Pb{sub 0.95}La{sub 0.05}Zr{sub 0.50}Ti{sub 0.45}Nb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (synchrotron X-ray diffraction). Display Omitted - Highlights: • (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti,Nb)O{sub 3} were successfully synthesized. • Remanant polarization of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} was improved by substitutions of La and Nb. • Crystal structures of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti,Nb)O{sub 3} were refined and the distortions were estimated.

  2. Improved Equivalent Circuit Model for V-Shaped, Thresholdless Switching Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng-yao; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zhang, Wei-li; Zou, Xi-hua

    2008-05-01

    For V-shaped, thresholdless switching ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs), the impedance divider induced by the multilayer structure of FLC cells and the drive circuit play an important role in switching characteristics. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model that can be applied to conventional circuit simulators is proposed for the optical response prediction and drive circuit optimization of V-shaped FLCs. The model is improved from the original model of Moore and Travis; however, the impedance divider is taken into account, and both polar and nonpolar surface anchoring energies are considered to make the model more preferable. The model is then utilized to investigate thresholdless switching characteristics. Simulation results show that the hysteresis inversion frequency fi increases more than one thousand fold with the drive circuit and then decreases with REXT following the relation log fi = -alog REXT + b, and a (b) increases from 0.43 to 0.46 (2.46 to 2.66) as the amplitude of triangular voltage increases from 4 to 10 V, agreeing with experimental results. Also, the same optical transmissions are plotted as different coordinates, as a function of voltage dropping on liquid crystal layer and of drive voltage, and the results show that genuine V-shaped switching is only observed when the transmission is plotted as a function of drive voltage, coinciding with the model suggested by Blinov et al.

  3. Dielectric and electro-optical studies of a nickel-ferrite-nanoparticle- doped ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khushboo; Sharma, Puneet; Malik, Praveen; Raina, K. K.

    2016-02-01

    Effect of magnetic nanoparticles (nickel ferrite) doping on the dielectric and electro-optical properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture has been studied. In a doped ferroelectric liquid crystal mixture, dispersion of a small amount (0.25 wt.%) of nickel ferrite nanoparticles decreases the polarization and improves the response time compared to an undoped mixture. The significant changes in the polarization and response time are explained on the basis of dipole-dipole interaction and anchoring phenomena. Dielectric permittivity also increases with increasing the temperature of the SmC* phase and shows a reduction in dielectric loss in a doped sample. A Goldstone mode is clearly observed at ∼200 and ∼500 Hz in an undoped and a doped sample, respectively.

  4. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernández, Jose F

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO₃ single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO₃ at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light. PMID:25779918

  5. Ferroelectric domain wall motion induced by polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Marcos, Fernando; Del Campo, Adolfo; Marchet, Pascal; Fernández, Jose F.

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous and stable polarization, which can usually be reoriented by an applied external electric field. The electrically switchable nature of this polarization is at the core of various ferroelectric devices. The motion of the associated domain walls provides the basis for ferroelectric memory, in which the storage of data bits is achieved by driving domain walls that separate regions with different polarization directions. Here we show the surprising ability to move ferroelectric domain walls of a BaTiO3 single crystal by varying the polarization angle of a coherent light source. This unexpected coupling between polarized light and ferroelectric polarization modifies the stress induced in the BaTiO3 at the domain wall, which is observed using in situ confocal Raman spectroscopy. This effect potentially leads to the non-contact remote control of ferroelectric domain walls by light. PMID:25779918

  6. Single crystals for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Boatner, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Most welds last for many years, but a few fail after a relatively short time. Knowing the reasons why welds fail is important because cracks in welds can threaten the safety of people in buildings, airplanes, ships, automobiles, and power plants. Bad welds can lead to costly, extended shutdowns of industrial facilities such as petroleum refineries. Thus, research on this very important fabrication technology is critical to the multibillion-dollar welding industry. Research at ORNL and elsewhere strives to determine the structural features that make some welds strong and others weak. The goals are to find cost-effective ways to characterize the structure and strength of a new weld, correctly predict whether it will last a long time, and determine the welding conditions most likely to produce high-quality welds. There is more to welding than meets the eye. The cracks that make welds fail result from the complexities of microstructures formed during welding. Thus weld microstructure is linked to weld properties such as mechanical strength. As the hot weld material cools from a liquid into a solid, the crystalline grains grow at different speeds and in different directions, forming a new microstructure. By using single crystals rather than polycrystalline alloys to study different weld microstructures, scientists at ORNL have developed a way to predict more accurately the microstructures of various welds. The results could guide welders in providing the right conditions (correct welding speed, heat input, and weld thickness) for producing safer, higher-quality, and longer-lasting welds.

  7. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    ScienceCinema

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2014-06-04

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  8. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  9. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  10. Single gate p-n junctions in graphene-ferroelectric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnefeld, J. Henry; Xu, Ruijuan; Rogers, Steven; Pandya, Shishir; Shim, Moonsub; Martin, Lane W.; Mason, Nadya

    2016-05-01

    Graphene's linear dispersion relation and the attendant implications for bipolar electronics applications have motivated a range of experimental efforts aimed at producing p-n junctions in graphene. Here we report electrical transport measurements of graphene p-n junctions formed via simple modifications to a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 substrate, combined with a self-assembled layer of ambient environmental dopants. We show that the substrate configuration controls the local doping region, and that the p-n junction behavior can be controlled with a single gate. Finally, we show that the ferroelectric substrate induces a hysteresis in the environmental doping which can be utilized to activate and deactivate the doping, yielding an "on-demand" p-n junction in graphene controlled by a single, universal backgate.

  11. Adhesion of single crystals on modified surfaces in crystallization fouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Moriz; Augustin, Wolfgang; Scholl, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    In crystallization fouling it has been observed that during a certain initial phase the fouling is formed by a non-uniform layer consisting of a population of single crystals. These single crystals are frequently formed by inverse soluble salts such as CaCO3. During heterogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous growth an interfacial area between the crystal and the heat transfer surface occurs. The development of this interfacial area is the reason for the adhesion of each single crystal and of all individual crystals, once a uniform layer has been built up. The emerging interfacial area is intrinsic to the heterogeneous nucleation of crystals and can be explained by the thermodynamic principle of the minimum of the Gibbs free energy. In this study CaCO3 crystals were grown heterogeneously on untreated and on modified surfaces inside a flow channel. An untreated stainless steel (AISI 304) surface was used as a reference. Following surface modifications were investigated: enameled and electropolished stainless steel as well as diamond-like-carbon based coatings on stainless steel substrate. The adhesion was measured through a novel measurement technique using a micromanipulator to shear off single crystals from the substrate which was fixed to a spring table inside a SEM.

  12. Synthesis, properties, and structure of potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals doped with chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, E. I.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Novikova, N. E.; Sorokina, N. I.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Chromium-doped potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals have been synthesized and their physical properties have been studied. Doping with chromium barely affects the temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition but significantly reduces conductivity (by almost two orders of magnitude). A precise Xray diffraction study of K1.00Cr0.02Ti0.98OPO4 and K0.996Cr0.005Ti0.995OPO4 crystals has shown that chromium atoms are located near sites of titanium atoms.

  13. Temperature dependence dielectric behavior of Ge-doped lead scandium tantalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Chandra Kumar; Srivastava, Anil Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The doping of Pb2SeTaO6 with Ge ferroelectrics was produced by a high-temperature solution method. We measure dielectric constant, dielectric loss and conductivity in the temperature range -30°C to 200°C and frequency range 1 to 100 KHz. The value of dielectric constant of the Pb2SeTaO6 (PST) crystal remained the same after thermal annealing whereas they decreased after Ge doping in the phase transition temperature range of the PST single crystal. All samples were investigated for conductivity with increasing temperature.

  14. Correlation between piezoresponse nonlinearity and hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals at nanoscale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Yang, Yaodong; Li, Linglong; Liu, Zhengchun; Vasudevan, Rama K.

    2016-04-27

    Here, the nonlinear response of a ferroic to external fields has been studied for decades, garnering interest for both understanding fundamental physics, as well as technological applications such as memory devices. Yet, the behavior of ferroelectrics at mesoscopic regimes remains poorly understood, and the scale limits of theories developed for macroscopic regimes are not well tested experimentally. Here, we test the link between piezo-nonlinearity and local piezoelectric strain hysteresis, via AC-field dependent measurements in conjunction with first order reversal curve (FORC) measurements on (K,Na)NbO3 crystals with band-excitation piezoelectric force microscopy. The correlation coefficient between nonlinearity amplitude and the FORC ofmore » the polarization switching shows a clear decrease in correlation with increasing AC bias, suggesting the impact of domain wall clamping on the DC measurement case. Further, correlation of polynomial fitting terms from the nonlinear measurements with the hysteresis loop area reveals that the largest correlations are reserved for the quadratic terms, which is expected for irreversible domain wall motion contributions that impact both piezoelectric behavior as well as minor loop formation. These confirm the link between local piezoelectric nonlinearity, domain wall motion and minor loop formation, and suggest that existing theories (such as Preisach) are applicable at these length scales, with associated implications for future nanoscale devices.« less

  15. Fast bistable intensive light scattering in helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Alexander; Andreeva, Tatiana; Kompanets, Igor; Zalyapin, Nikolay; Xu, Huan; Pivnenko, Mike; Chu, Daping

    2016-05-01

    A new type of ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) is considered, where the reorientation of the director (main optical axes) at the interaction of an electric field with the FLC's spontaneous polarization is due to the movement of spatially localized waves with a stationary profile: solitons arise at the transition due to the Maxwellian mechanism of energy dissipation. Under certain conditions, the appearance of such waves leads to the formation of a structure of transient domains, and as a consequence, to the scattering of light. The Maxwellian mechanism of energy dissipation allows one to reduce the electric field strength at which the maximum efficiency of light scattering is achieved down to 2-3 V/μm and to increase the frequency of light modulation up to 3-5 kHz. Intensive bistable light scattering in an electro-optical cell filled with a specially designed helix-free FLC was studied, and a stable scattering state can be switched on and off for a few tens of microseconds and memorized for a few tens of seconds. PMID:27140360

  16. Correlation between piezoresponse nonlinearity and hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linglong; Yang, Yaodong; Liu, Zhengchun; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Vasudevan, Rama K.

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear response of a ferroic to external fields has been studied for decades, garnering interest for both understanding fundamental physics, as well as technological applications such as memory devices. Yet, the behavior of ferroelectrics at mesoscopic regimes remains poorly understood, and the scale limits of theories developed for macroscopic regimes are not well tested experimentally. Here, we test the link between piezo-nonlinearity and local piezoelectric strain hysteresis, via AC-field dependent measurements in conjunction with hysteresis measurements with varying voltage windows on (K,Na)NbO3 crystals with band-excitation piezoelectric force microscopy. The correlation coefficient between nonlinearity amplitude and the amplitude during hysteresis loop acquisition shows a clear decrease with increasing AC bias. Further, correlation of polynomial fitting terms from the nonlinear measurements with the hysteresis loop area reveals that the largest correlations are reserved for the quadratic terms, which is expected for irreversible domain wall motion contributions that impact both piezoelectric behavior as well as minor loop formation. This study suggests applicability at local length scales of fundamental principles of Rayleigh behavior, with associated implications for future nanoscale ferroic devices.

  17. Polarimeter with two ferroelectric liquid-crystal modulators attached to the Yunnan solar tower.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenglin; Qu, Zhongquan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jin, Chunlan; Yan, Xiaoli

    2006-11-20

    A polarimeter to be mounted on the Yunnan solar tower is described. It features the ability to simultaneously measure the magnetic fields of the solar photosphere and chromosphere by analyzing the Stokes spectra of those magnetosensitive lines forming in the two regions with very high efficiency of polarization measurement. The polarimeter consists of two ferroelectric liquid crystals and one lambda/4 wave plate before a polarizing beam splitter. The achromatism of the design is emphasized to get the maximum combination efficiency over a spectral range from 5000 to 6000 A. For the used solar absorption lines MgI517.27, FeI525.06, FeI630.15, and FeI630.25 nm, the design gives theoretical efficiencies of polarization measurements, which are 0.999, 1.0, 0.943, and 0.943, respectively. A comparison with other reference polarimeters, such as the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigation of the Sun, the Tenerife infrared polarimeter, and the La Palma Stokes Polarimeter, is carried out. PMID:17086251

  18. Advanced piezoelectric single crystal based actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.; Smith, Edward; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, Dwight; Moore, Jim, Jr.; Patrick, Brian

    2005-05-01

    TRS is developing new actuators based on single crystal piezoelectric materials such as Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)1-xTixO3 (PZN-PT) and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)x-1TixO3 (PMN-PT) which exhibit very high piezoelectric coefficients (d33 = 1800-2200 pC/N) and electromechanical coupling factors (k33 > 0.9), respectively, for a variety of applications, including active vibration damping, active flow control, high precision positioning, ultrasonic motors, deformable mirrors, and adaptive optics. The d32 cut crystal plate actuators showed d32 ~ -1600 pC/N, inter-digital electroded (IDE) plate actuators showed effective d33 ~ 1100 pC/N. Single crystal stack actuators with stroke of 10 μm-100 μm were developed and tested at both room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. Flextensional single crystal piezoelectric actuators with either stack driver or plate driver were developed with stroke 70 μm - > 250 μm. For large stroke cryogenic actuation (> 1mm), a single crystal piezomotor was developed and tested at temperature of 77 K-300K and stroke of > 10mm and step resolution of 20 nm were achieved. In order to demonstrate the significance of developed single crystal actuators, modeling on single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors and helicopter flap control using single crystal actuators were conducted and the modeling results show that more than 20 wavelength wavefront error could be corrected by using the single crystal deformable mirrors and +/- 5.8 ° flap deflection will be obtained for a 36" flap using single crystal stack actuators.

  19. A nonvolatile memory device made of a ferroelectric polymer gate nanodot and a single-walled carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong Yeog; Ryu, Sangwoo; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Lim, Yun-Tak; Shin, Yun-Sok; Shin, Young-Han; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2010-12-28

    We demonstrate a field-effect nonvolatile memory device made of a ferroelectric copolymer gate nanodot and a single-walled carbon nanotube (SW-CNT). A position-controlled dip-pen nanolithography was performed to deposit a poly(vinylidene fluoride-ran-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) nanodot onto the SW-CNT channel with both a source and drain for field-effect transistor (FET) function. PVDF-TrFE was chosen as a gate dielectric nanodot in order to efficiently exploit its bipolar chemical nature. A piezoelectric force microscopy study confirmed the canonical ferroelectric responses of the PVDF-TrFE nanodot fabricated at the center of the SW-CNT channel. The two distinct ferroelectric polarization states with the stable current retention and fatigue-resistant characteristics make the present PVDF-TrFE-based FET suitable for nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:21050014

  20. Ferroelectric domain formation in discotic liquid crystals: Monte Carlo study on the influence of boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Bose, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Jayashree

    2015-10-01

    The realization of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in fluids of anisotropic mesogens is a topic of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently we demonstrated that a system of dipolar achiral disklike ellipsoids can exhibit long-searched ferroelectric liquid crystalline phases of dipolar origin. In the present work, extensive off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of the system under the influences of the electrostatic boundary conditions that restrict any global polarization. We find that the system develops strongly ferroelectric slablike domains periodically arranged in an antiferroelectric fashion. Exploring the phase behavior at different dipole strengths, we find existence of the ferroelectric nematic and ferroelectric columnar order inside the domains. For higher dipole strengths, a biaxial phase is also obtained with a similar periodic array of ferroelectric slabs of antiparallel polarizations. We have studied the depolarizing effects by using both the Ewald summation and the spherical cutoff techniques. We present and compare the results of the two different approaches of considering the depolarizing effects in this anisotropic system. It is explicitly shown that the domain size increases with the system size as a result of considering a longer range of dipolar interactions. The system exhibits pronounced system size effects for stronger dipolar interactions. The results provide strong evidence to the novel understanding that the dipolar interactions are indeed sufficient to produce long-range ferroelectric order in anisotropic fluids. PMID:26565261

  1. Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Fiber Sensor Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anbo Wang; Russell May; Gary R. Pickrell

    2000-10-28

    The goal of this 30 month program is to develop reliable accurate temperature sensors based on single crystal sapphire materials that can withstand the temperatures and corrosive agents present within the gasifier environment. The research for this reporting period has been segregated into two parallel paths--corrosion resistance measurements for single crystal sapphire fibers and investigation of single crystal sapphire sensor configurations. The ultimate goal of this phase one segment is to design, develop and demonstrate on a laboratory scale a suitable temperature measurement device that can be field tested in phase two of the program.

  2. Phase polymorphism and electro-optical properties of a ferroelectric liquid crystal containing the biphenyl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalewski, Sławomir; Ossowska-Chruściel, Mirosława D.

    2016-04-01

    In this article we present results concerning phase transitions and physical properties of the ferroelectric phase of the compound (S)-4-(1-methylheptyloxy)biphenyl-4'-(heptyloxy phenyl)-4-carboxylate (MHOBOPO7). The compound has the following phases: smectic ferroelectric C (SmC*), chiral nematic N*, and two defected phases, TGBC and blue phase. The mesomorphic properties were investigated by means of three complementary methods: differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing light optical microscopy, and transmitted light intensity. The electro-optical measurements were carried out on an ordered sample in a middle electric field during very slow cooling from the nematic phase to the ferroelectric phase.

  3. Combined X-Ray and fully leaky guided mode studies of the smectic layer and optic tensor configuration in a ferroelectric liquid-crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Hodder, B; Sambles, J R; Jenkins, S; Richardson, R M

    2000-10-01

    X-ray scattering together with optical characterization using fully leaky guided modes have been used for the first time to study the same ferroelectric liquid-crystal cell. This enables direct calculation of an accurate cone and chevron description of the liquid-crystal director profile since the layer structure and optic tensor configuration are both well known. PMID:11019296

  4. Photocurrent multiplication in organic single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramoto, Masahiro; Miki, Ayako; Yoshida, Manabu; Yokoyama, Masaaki

    2002-08-01

    A photocurrent multiplication of up to 200 times has been observed in single crystals of naphthalene tetracarboxylic anhydride sandwiched between metal electrodes. Photocurrent multiplication arises from photoinduced electron injection occurring at the crystal/metal interface. The high-speed response of the multiplied photocurrent reached 500 ms.

  5. Effect of swift heavy ion beam irradiation on the dielectric and ferroelectric properties of pure and cobalt doped TGS crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, P. K.; Shah, Deepak; Kumar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Effect of swift heavy ion (100 MeV O 7+ ion) beam irradiation on the temperature and frequency dependence of real ( ɛ') and imaginary ( ɛ″) parts of dielectric permittivity in pure and Co 2+ doped TGS crystals are analyzed. Irradiation with swift heavy ion beam changes the dielectric response considerably. Observed dielectric peak in irradiated crystals shifts towards lower temperature and broadens up; the reduction in peak value, shift in temperature and broadening changes systematically with fluence. The most interesting results of SHI irradiation are (i) the dielectric loss peak value ( emax″) in all crystals is invariably less in comparison to the value in unirradiated crystals (ii) the minimum value of dielectric loss peak ( emax″) occurs at different fluence in different crystals, and (iii) a second loss peak is observed below Tc in CTGS10 especially at higher fluence. It seems that irradiation creates/strengthens internal field in the crystals by orienting the domains through some mechanism that is not clear at present. The observed results could be explained if one presumes that irradiation annihilate the defects already present in the crystals by creating local charges and thermal gradient resulting into internal bias field. Ferroelectric hysteresis loops demonstrate the internal bias field developing in the SHI irradiated crystals. It is argued that SHI irradiation is a better alternate in comparison to cobalt doping in inhibiting dipolar switching in TGS crystal.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Ferroelectricity in low-symmetry biaxial nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Mikhail A.; Gorkunov, Maxim V.

    2010-09-01

    Order parameters and phenomenological theory for both high- and low-symmetry biaxial nematic phases are presented and it is predicted that the chiral low-symmetry biaxial phase must be ferroelectric. This conclusion is based on general symmetry arguments and on the results of the Landau-de Gennes theory. The microscopic mechanism of the ferroelectric ordering in this chiral biaxial phase is illustrated using a simple molecular model based on dispersion interactions between biaxial molecules of low symmetry. Similar to the chiral smectic C* phase, the ferroelectricity in the chiral biaxial nematic phase is improper, i.e., polarization is not a primary order parameter and is not determined by dipolar interactions. Ferroelectric ordering in biaxial nematics may be found, in principle, in materials composed of chiral analogues of the tetrapod molecules which are known to exhibit biaxial phases.

  7. Tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals via doping and thermoelectrical treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Laihui; Dietze, Matthias; Solterbeck, Claus-Henning; Luo, Haosu; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2013-12-01

    Single crystals based on solid solutions of lead-magnesium-niobate (PMN) and lead titanate (PT) have emerged as highly promising multifunctional systems combining piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and electro-optic properties that surpass by far those of the best known lead-zirkonium-titanate ceramics. In this paper we present new findings on how the phase transition temperature and the dielectric and ferroelectric properties can be tuned depending on crystal composition, orientation, and thermoelectrical treatment. Mn-doped and pure 0.72PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.28PbTiO3 (0.72PMN-0.28PT) single crystals with ⟨111⟩ and ⟨001⟩ orientations were investigated. A special attention was devoted to field cooling (FC), i.e., cooling under electric field from different temperatures. The results illustrate different findings that were not reported before: the Curie temperature, i.e., ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature, is enhanced after field cooling of the Mn-doped, ⟨001⟩-oriented crystal while such a shift is not observed in the ⟨111⟩-oriented and the non-doped crystals. In addition, substantial polarization suppression occurs in the Mn-doped crystals upon FC from high temperature regardless of orientation. Based on piezoforce microscopy of the domain structure that shows suppression of domain growth following field cooling from 200 °C, we propose a mechanism for polarization suppression based on domain pinning by charged defects. The practical importance of our results lies in showing the opportunity offered by a proper choice of crystal composition and poling conditions for tuning the functional properties of PMN-PT single crystals for a specific application. This should contribute to the understanding of their properties towards advanced sensor and transducers devices.

  8. A Neutron Study of the Structure and Lattice Dynamics of Single Crystal PZT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The outstanding piezoelectric properties of PbZr 1-x Ti x O3 (PZT) perovskite ceramics have long been exploited in numerous device applications, making PZT arguably the most technologically important ferroelectric material in use today. Efforts to understand the piezoelectric mechanism have inspired a plethora of structural studies spanning decades, but solving the PZT phase diagram has proven to be famously problematic because single crystals have not been available save for Zr- and Ti-rich compositions that lie very near the end members PbZr O3 and PbTi O3 , where the piezoelectricity is weakest. Thus, whereas PZT has been the subject of thousands of powder and ceramic investigations, no consensus regarding the crystal structures of PZT exists. We report the first neutron diffraction study of single-crystal PZT with compositions x = 0.325 and 0.460. Our data refute the thesis that the ferroelectric phases of PZT within this composition range, all of which are highly piezoelectric, are purely monoclinic (Cc or Cm). The broadening of certain Bragg peaks can be interpreted in terms of coexisting rhombohedral and monoclinic domains, whereby monoclinic order is enhanced by Ti-doping. This is consistent with the theoretical proposal that the tendency to form macroscopic monoclinic phases facilitates the mechanism of polarization rotation by reducing the energy required to reorient the electric polarization. Dispersions of the lowest energy TO and TA phonon modes were measured on a single crystal of PZT with x = 0.325 in the paraelectric phase at 650 K. The TO mode energy drops at small wave-vectors suggesting that it is a soft mode associated with the ferroelectric phase transition at 590 K. Evidence of a second soft-mode, corresponding to a phase transition at 370 K at the R-point, is provided based on the redistribution of spectral weight as a function of temperature.

  9. Magnetodielectric Effects and Transport Study in LuFe2O4 Single Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Tae Hwan; Park, Sang Youn; Lee, Hai Joon; Kang, Sun Hee; Koo, Tae Yeong; Kim, Sung Baek; Kim, Ill Won; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Cheong, Sang Wook

    2008-03-01

    Magnetic, dielectric, and magnetodielectric properties of geometrically frustrated mixed valance LuFe2O4 single crystal are discussed to clarify the charge order based ferroelectricity and its coupling with magnetism. From the magnetization and dielectric constant measurement, a new anomalous temperature point TN'(˜160 K) in both magnetization and dielectric constant versus temperature curve below the ferrimagnetic transition temperature TN(˜225 K) has been observed. The sign of magnetodielectric effect (MDE) also changes from positive T > TN' into negative T < TN'. No field hysteresis in positive MDE temperature region was found. However a large hysteretic behavior in negative MDE below TN' with the same magnetic coercive field measured in M (H) curve was observed. This indicates a strong coupling between magnetism and ferroelectricity in the charge and spin frustrated ferrimagnetic LuFe2O4 system.

  10. Growth of shaped single crystals of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Abel; Rondón, Deyanira; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.

    1996-09-01

    We present a procedure for obtaining protein single crystals that fill the capillary tubes in which they grow. The implementation was typical of the gel acupuncture method and the four different proteins are used as examples: lysozyme (HEW), thaumatin I, ferritin and insulin. Rod- and prismatic-shaped protein single crystals of these four proteins were grown inside capillary tubes of 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 mm in diameter and, for the case of lysozyme, up to 1.2 mm in diameter. The maximum length measured along the long axes of the rod crystals was 1.6 mm again for lysozyme crystals. It was observed that, once the capillary tube was filled, the crystal continues to grow by diffusion of the precipitating agent throughout the porous network formed by the protein crystal structure. We also discuss the possibility of growing these cylinders of crystalline proteins by the addition of protein solution to the mother liquor through the upper end of the glass capillary while the precipitating agent diffuses through the protein crystal itself. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the single crystal character of the protein rods.

  11. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by overview on the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. Latest development in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also noted. PMID:24018952

  12. Single Crystals Grown Under Unconstrained Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunagawa, Ichiro

    Based on detailed investigations on morphology (evolution and variation in external forms), surface microtopography of crystal faces (spirals and etch figures), internal morphology (growth sectors, growth banding and associated impurity partitioning) and perfection (dislocations and other lattice defects) in single crystals, we can deduce how and by what mechanism the crystal grew and experienced fluctuation in growth parameters through its growth and post-growth history under unconstrained condition. The information is useful not only in finding appropriate way to growing highly perfect and homogeneous single crystals, but also in deciphering letters sent from the depth of the Earth and the Space. It is also useful in discriminating synthetic from natural gemstones. In this chapter, available methods to obtain molecular information are briefly summarized, and actual examples to demonstrate the importance of this type of investigations are selected from both natural minerals (diamond, quartz, hematite, corundum, beryl, phlogopite) and synthetic crystals (SiC, diamond, corundum, beryl).

  13. Large second-order optical nonlinearity in a ferroelectric molecular crystal of croconic acid with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, R.; Uemura, H.; Sotome, M.; Yada, H.; Kida, N.; Iwano, K.; Shimoi, Y.; Horiuchi, S.; Okamoto, H.

    2013-04-01

    Linear and nonlinear optical responses in a molecular crystal, croconic acid, showing electronic-type ferroelectricity were studied by reflection and second harmonic generation spectroscopy. The second-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) was very large, exceeding 10-6 esu in the near-infrared region. The enhancement of χ(2) was attributed to the large dipole moment of the lowest π-π* transition and the large difference between the molecular dipole moments for the ground state and the photoexcited state. We deduced the molecular orbitals (MOs) and dipole moments responsible for the large χ(2) by comparing the experimental optical parameters and MO calculation results based upon density functional theory.

  14. Investigaction of Switching Behavior in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Aligned on Obliquely Deposited SiO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Inoue, Tetsuya; Orihara, Hiroshi; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of oblique evaporation of SiO on the chevron structure and the switching behavior in a ferroelectric liquid crystal have been investigated by means of the X-ray diffraction and the stroboscopic micrographs. It is found experimentally that the chevron direction and the domain structure appearing during the switching are determined by the direction of incidence of evaporated SiO. On the basis of the experimental results, it is clarified that the bow and the stern of the boat-shaped domain correspond to {+}2π and {-}2π internal disclinations, respectively. The structure of the zig-zag defect is determined.

  15. Fatigue hardening in niobium single crystals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doner, M.; Diprimio, J. C.; Salkovitz, E. I.

    1973-01-01

    Nb single crystals of various orientations were cyclically deformed in tension-compression under strain control. At low strain amplitudes all crystals oriented for single slip and some oriented for multiple slip showed a two stage hardening. When present, the first stage was characterized with almost no cyclic work hardening. The rate of hardening in the second stage increased with strain amplitude and the amount of secondary slip. In crystals oriented for single slip kink bands developed on their side faces during rapid hardening stage which resulted in considerable amount of asterism in Laue spots. A cyclic stress-strain curve independent of prior history was found to exist which was also independent of crystal orientation. Furthermore, this curve differed only slightly from that of polycrystalline Nb obtained from data in literature.

  16. Stability of tetragonal <0 0 1> oriented PZN-12PT single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhtouh, S.; Hajjaji, A.; Boughaleb, Y.; Benkhouja, K.; Arbaoui, A.; Rguiti, M.; Guyomar, D.

    2012-08-01

    The present paper reports on the synthesis and electromechanical characterization of tetragonal (1 - x)Pb(Zn1/3-Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 12) single crystals as a function of various external disturbances. Tetragonal PZN-12PT single crystals were grown using the flux method. The set of piezoelectric coefficients in the lateral mode was measured. Samples with size of 10 × 2 × 1 mm3 were polled in the <0 0 1> and <1 1 0> crystallographic directions and were found to possess a high Curie temperature (>170 °C). Moreover, no ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition was observed for the positive temperatures, which expanded the usage range significantly. Tetragonal crystals were also found to have high coercive field, mechanical quality factors, and good optical properties, attracting much effort on the characterization of tetragonal PZN-12PT crystals. However, the most interesting properties in the lateral mode were obtained for <0 0 1>. Finally, the thermal stability and stress dependence were studied in order to determine the working conditions.

  17. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Marty

    2010-03-01

    , the need to fully understand how size and morphology affect domain behaviour in small scale ferroelectrics is obvious. In this talk, observations from a programme of study examining domains in meso and nano-scale BaTiO3 shapes, that have been cut directly from bulk single crystal using focused ion beam milling, will be presented. In general, the equilibrium static domain configurations that occur appear to be the result of a simultaneous desire to minimize both the macroscopic strain and depolarizing fields developed on cooling through the Curie Temperature. While such governing factors might be obvious, the specific patterns that result as a function of morphology are often non-intuitive, and a series of images of domains in nanodots, rods and wires will be presented and rationalised. In addition, the nature in which morphological factors influence domain dynamics during switching will be discussed, with particular focus on axial switching in nanowires, and the manner in which local surface perturbations (such as notches and antinotches) affect domain wall propagation. In collaboration with Alina Schilling, Li-Wu Chang, Mark McMillen, Raymond McQuaid, and Leo McGilly, Queen's University Belfast; Gustau Catalan, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona; and James Scott, University of Cambridge.

  18. Characterization of zinc selenide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, Rosario A.

    1996-01-01

    ZnSe single crystals of high quality and low impurity levels are desired for use as substrates in optoelectronic devices. This is especially true when the device requires the formation of homoepitaxial layers. While ZnSe is commercially available, it is at present extremely expensive due to the difficulty of growing single crystal boules with low impurity content and the resultant low yields. Many researchers have found it necessary to heat treat the crystals in liquid Zn in order to remove the impurities, lower the resistivity and activate the photoluminescence at room temperature. The physical vapor transport method (PVT) has been successfully used at MSFC to grow many single crystals of II-VI semiconducting materials including ZnSe. The main goal at NASA has been to try to establish the effect of gravity on the growth parameters. To this effect, crystals have been grown vertically upwards or horizontally. Both (111) and (110) oriented ZnSe crystals have been obtained via unseeded PVT growth. Preliminary characterization of the horizontally grown crystals has revealed that Cu is a major impurity and that the low temperature photoluminescence spectra is dominated by the copper peak. The ratio of the copper peak to the free exciton peak is being used to determine variations in composition throughout the crystal. It was the intent of this project to map the copper composition of various crystals via photoluminescence first, then measure their electrical resistivity and capacitance as a function of frequency before proceeding with a heat treatment designed to remove the copper impurities. However, equipment difficulties with the photoluminescence set up, having to establish a procedure for measuring the electrical properties of the as-grown crystals and time limitations made us re-evaluate the project goals. Vertically grown samples designated as ZnSe-25 were chosen to be measured electrically since they were not expected to show as much variation in their

  19. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  20. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Newby, Jason; Hamel, Sebastien; Carman, Leslie; Faust, Michelle; Lordi, Vincenzo; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Payne, Stephen A.

    2009-08-01

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10- diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  1. Oxygen Incorporation in Rubrene Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D. T.; Mayer, Jeff; Wan, Alan S.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.; Podzorov, Vitaly; Feldman, Leonard C.; Garfunkel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal rubrene is a model organic electronic material showing high carrier mobility and long exciton lifetime. These properties are detrimentally affected when rubrene is exposed to intense light under ambient conditions for prolonged periods of time, possibly due to oxygen up-take. Using photoelectron, scanning probe and ion-based methods, combined with an isotopic oxygen exposure, we present direct evidence of the light-induced reaction of molecular oxygen with single crystal rubrene. Without a significant exposure to light, there is no reaction of oxygen with rubrene for periods of greater than a year; the crystal's surface (and bulk) morphology and chemical composition remain essentially oxygen-free. Grand canonical Monte Carlo computations show no sorbtion of gases into the bulk of rubrene crystal. A mechanism for photo-induced oxygen inclusion is proposed. PMID:24786311

  2. Remarkable structural diversity and single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations in sulfone functionalized lanthanide MOFs

    SciTech Connect

    Neofotistou, Eleftheria; Malliakas, Christos D.; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.

    2010-04-13

    We report the formation of novel open framework lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr and Dy) MOFs using the ligand 4,4{prime}-bibenzoic acid-2,2{prime}-sulfone. In the case of Ce and Pr, an unprecedented single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation at room temperature was discovered.

  3. Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformations in One Dimensional Ag-Eu Helical System

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yue-Peng; Zhout, Xiu-Xia; Zhout, Zheng-Yuan; Zhu, Shi-Zheng; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jun

    2009-07-06

    Single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation of 1-D 4d-4f coordination polymers have been investigated for the first time. It displays high selectivity for Mg2+ and can be used as magnesium ion-selective luminescent probe. More importantly, we observed the transformation of meso-helical chain to rac-helical chain as a function of temperature.

  4. Dielectric, electro-optical, and photoluminescence characteristics of ferroelectric liquid crystals on a graphene-coated indium tin oxide substrate.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Pratap; Gupta, Swadesh Kumar; Vimal, Tripti; Manohar, Rajiv

    2014-08-01

    Multilayer graphene was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) -coated glass plates and characterized by suitable techniques. A liquid crystal sample cell was designed using graphene deposited ITO glass plates without any additional treatment for alignment. Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) material was filled in the sample cell. The effect of multilayer graphene on the characteristics of FLC material was investigated. The extremely high relative permittivity of pristine graphene and charge transfer between graphene and FLC material were consequences of the enormous increase in relative permittivity for the graphene-FLC (GFLC) system as compared to pure FLC. The presence of multilayer graphene suppresses the ionic impurities, comprised in the FLC material at lower frequencies. The ionic charge annihilation mechanism might be responsible for the reduction of ionic impurities. The presence of graphene reduces the net ferroelectricity and results in a change in the spontaneous polarization of pure FLC. Rotational viscosity of the GFLC system also decreases due to the strong π-π interaction between the FLC molecule and multilayer graphene. The photoluminescence of the GFLC system is blueshifted as compared to pure FLC, which is due to the coupling of energy released in the process of charge annihilation and photon emission. PMID:25215743

  5. Single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. F.; Austin, A. E.; Richard, N.; Griesenauer, N. M.; Moak, D. P.; Mehrabian, M. R.; Gelles, S. H.

    1974-01-01

    The following definitions were sought in the research on single crystals of metal solid solutions: (1) the influence of convection and/or gravity present during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; (2) the influence of a magnetic field applied during crystallization on the substructure of a metal solid solution; and (3) requirements for a space flight experiment to verify the results. Growth conditions for the selected silver-zinc alloy system are described, along with pertinent technical and experimental details of the project.

  6. Strong influence of non-ideality of electrodes on stability of single domain state in ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanyuk, A. P.; Misirlioglu, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    We study the phase stabilities with respect to small perturbations in ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices and show that nature of the electrodes characterized by a deviation from the ideal behavior strongly influences the possibility to obtain single-domain state in ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices. To demonstrate this, we analyze the limit of stability of the paraelectric and the single domain state in ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices in contact with top and bottom electrodes with finite screening lengths. The combined analytical and numerical analyses of one bilayer and two bilayer systems are carried out using the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire formalism and equations of electrostatics. The BaTiO3/SrTiO3 system was considered as an example. Unlike the case of ideal electrodes where the stability limits are independent of the system size, the stability analysis in a multilayer with real electrodes should take into account explicitly the number of the repeating units that makes the algebra very cumbersome, forcing us to consider systems with one and two bilayer stacks only. Extrapolating the difference between the two systems to the cases of many repeating units gives us the possibility to make qualitative but feasible predictions related to those with many repeating units. We observe that in systems with nearly equal thicknesses of the ferroelectric and paraelectric layers, the electrodes with realistic screening lengths lead to dramatic widening of the parametric region where the single-domain state is absolutely unstable expelling the single-domain state to unphysical layer thicknesses and temperatures. This region grows when one goes from a single bilayer to two bilayer system, implying that obtaining a single domain state becomes even less feasible in systems with many bilayers. When electrode properties approach that of ideal in addition to increasing the volume fraction of the ferroelectric component, the effect of growth of the region of

  7. New application of terahertz time-domain spectrometry (THz-TDS) to the phonon-polariton observation on ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Seizi; Tsumura, Naoki; Kitahara, Hideaki; Wada Takeda, Mitsuo; Kojima, Seiji

    2002-11-01

    A new instrument for terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) has been developed. It consists of a composite THz-TDS system and a high throughput (Martin-Puplett) interferometer. The instrument is for use in the qualitative study of optoelectronic constants of materials. The spectral transmission intensity and phase shift related to phonon-polariton dispersion have been measured between 100 cm(-1) and 3 cm(-1) on ferroelectric crystals of industrial interest. These include bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (a key material for FeRAM), lithium niobate LiNbO3 (a typical nonlinear crystal for parametric oscillator applications) and lithium heptagermanate Li2Ge7O15 for surface elastic wave filter applications. The complex dielectric constants are well reproduced by the phonon-polariton dispersion relation based on the Kurosawa formula. The instrument details and phonon-polariton dispersion results are described. PMID:12452567

  8. Effect of boundary surfaces on the effective dielectric susceptibility of the helical structure of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznacheev, A. V.; Pozhidaev, E. P.

    2015-08-15

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the effect of boundary surfaces of a liquidcrystal cell on the effective dielectric susceptibility of the helical structure of a ferroelectric smectic C* liquid crystal (FLC). We consider for this purpose the deformation and untwisting of the helix by solid surfaces bounding the FLC layer. An analytic expression is obtained for critical thickness d{sub c} of the liquid-crystal layer, for which untwisting of the helix by surfaces takes place. In calculating the effective dielectric susceptibility, it is shown that the deformation of the FLC helix by the boundaries leads to the occurrence of anisotropy in the effective dielectric susceptibility in the plane perpendicular to the helix axis.

  9. Effects of nanoparticle doping on the phase transitional behaviour of ferroelectric liquid crystal Langmuir-Blodgett composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Raina, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) doped with a low concentration of functionalized Al: ZnO (AZO) nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Pressure-area isotherms show that the nanoparticles as well as FLC composite systems have the capability to form stable monolayers at the air-water interface. The molecular interaction between nanoparticles and FLC molecules increased during barrier compression, which resulted in increased surface pressure. We observed various phases in isotherms with increasing concentration of nanoparticles in the FLC matrix. An X-ray diffraction profile at a low angle confirmed that FLCs retain their layer structure at a low concentration doping of AZO nanoparticles in the FLC matrix. Atomic force microscopy images indicate that low wt% composites are uniformly deposited without disturbing the translation behaviour of SmC* liquid crystals.

  10. Graphene single crystals: size and morphology engineering.

    PubMed

    Geng, Dechao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Gui

    2015-05-13

    Recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is considered as an effective way to large-area and high-quality graphene preparation due to its ultra-low cost, high controllability, and high scalability. However, CVD-grown graphene film is polycrystalline, and composed of numerous grains separated by grain boundaries, which are detrimental to graphene-based electronics. Intensive investigations have been inspired on the controlled growth of graphene single crystals with the absence of intrinsic defects. As the two most concerned parameters, the size and morphology serve critical roles in affecting properties and understanding the growth mechanism of graphene crystals. Therefore, a precise tuning of the size and morphology will be of great significance in scale-up graphene production and wide applications. Here, recent advances in the synthesis of graphene single crystals on both metals and dielectric substrates by the CVD method are discussed. The review mainly covers the size and morphology engineering of graphene single crystals. Furthermore, recent progress in the growth mechanism and device applications of graphene single crystals are presented. Finally, the opportunities and challenges are discussed. PMID:25809643

  11. Experimental demonstration of hybrid improper ferroelectricity and the presence of abundant charged walls in (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7 crystals.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoon Seok; Luo, Xuan; Huang, Fei-Ting; Wang, Yazhong; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of successful first-principles predictions of new functional ferroelectric materials, a number of new ferroelectrics have been experimentally discovered. Using trilinear coupling of two types of octahedron rotation, hybrid improper ferroelectricity has been theoretically predicted in ordered perovskites and the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (Ca3Ti2O7, Ca3Mn2O7 and (Ca/Sr/Ba)3(Sn/Zr/Ge)2O7). However, the ferroelectricity of these compounds has never been experimentally confirmed and even their polar nature has been under debate. Here we provide the first experimental demonstration of room-temperature switchable polarization in bulk crystals of Ca3Ti2O7, as well as Sr-doped Ca3Ti2O7. Furthermore, (Ca, Sr)3Ti2O7 is found to exhibit an intriguing ferroelectric domain structure resulting from orthorhombic twins and (switchable) planar polarization. The planar domain structure accompanies abundant charged domain walls with conducting head-to-head and insulating tail-to-tail configurations, which exhibit a conduction difference of two orders of magnitude. These discoveries provide new research opportunities, not only for new stable ferroelectrics of Ruddlesden-Popper compounds, but also for meandering conducting domain walls formed by planar polarization. PMID:25581628

  12. Single-Crystal Springs For Accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal noise reduced, enabling use of smaller proof masses. Spring-and-mass accelerometers in which springs made of single-crystal material being developed. In spring-and-mass accelerometer, proof mass attached to one end of spring, and acceleration of object at other end of spring measured in terms of deflection of spring, provided frequency spectrum of acceleration lies well below resonant frequency of spring-and-proof-mass system. Use of single-crystal spring materials instead of such polycrystalline spring materials as ordinary metals makes possible to construct highly sensitive accelerometers (including seismometers) with small proof masses.

  13. Polarization Domain Switching of Improper Hybrid Ferroelectric (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7 Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Seong Joon; Gao, Bin; Kim, Jaewook; Huang, Fei-Ting; Cheong, Sang-Wook; RCEM Team

    The observation of switchable polarization loops at room temperature in (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7, induced by improper hybrid ferroelectricity, has drawn much attention. Since the ferroelectric polarization directly couples with structural distortions (oxygen octahedral tilting and rotation) in hybrid improper ferroelectrics, the energy barrier for polarization switching is predicted to be large, and the observation of ferroelectric polarization loops was a surprise. Furthermore, the observed complexity of the domain wall configuration in (Ca,Sr)3Ti2O7 may complicate the domain wall motion or the domain nucleation for polarization switching. Thus, it is imperative to understand the mechanism and dynamics of polarization domain switching. Particularly, it has to be clarified if polarization switching occurs through 90° or 180° switching. Comparing piezoresponse force microscope and polarized optical microscope images before and after applying electric fields consecutively, we explored the mechanism and dynamics of polarization domain switching. This work is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative through Grant GBMF4413 to the Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials.

  14. Laser-induced nondestructive patterning of a thin ferroelectric polymer film with controlled crystals using Ge8Sb2Te11 alloy layer for nonvolatile memory.

    PubMed

    Bae, Insung; Kim, Richard Hahnkee; Hwang, Sun Kak; Kang, Seok Ju; Park, Cheolmin

    2014-09-10

    We present a simple but robust nondestructive process for fabricating micropatterns of thin ferroelectric polymer films with controlled crystals. Our method is based on utilization of localized heat arising from thin Ge(8)Sb(2)Te(11) (GST) alloy layer upon exposure of 650 nm laser. The heat was generated on GST layer within a few hundred of nanosecond exposure and subsequently transferred to a thin poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) film deposited on GST layer. By controlling exposure time and power of the scanned laser, ferroelectric patterns of one or two microns in size are fabricated with various shape. In the micropatterned regions, ferroelectric polymer crystals were efficiently controlled in both degree of the crystallinity and the molecular orientations. Nonvolatile memory devices with laser scanned ferroelectric polymer layers exhibited excellent device performance of large remnant polarization, ON/OFF current ratio and data retention. The results are comparable with devices containing ferroelectric films thermally annealed at least for 2 h, making our process extremely efficient for saving time. Furthermore, our approach can be conveniently combined with a number of other functional organic materials for the future electronic applications. PMID:25127181

  15. Microhardness studies of sulfamic acid single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh Kumar, A.; Joseph, Cyriac; Paulose, Reshmi; R, Rajesh; Joseph, Georgekutty; Louis, Godfrey

    2015-02-01

    Vicker's microhardness study of (100), (010) and (001) faces of a non-linear optical crystal sulfamic acid have been reported. Single crystals of sulfamic acid have been grown by slow evaporation method. The load dependence of the Vickers microhardness of sulfamic acid crystal were investigated and analyzed from the stand point of various theoretical models. Crystal samples in a, b and c-axes exhibit reverse indentation effect which is best described by Meyer's law, Hays-Kendall's approach and proportional specimen resistance (PSR) models. The negative values of load dependent quantities in Hays-Kendall's approach and PSR model suggest that the origin of indentation size effect is associated with the process of relaxation of indentation stresses.

  16. The origin of ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric YMnO3.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Bas B; Palstra, Thomas T M; Filippetti, Alessio; Spaldin, Nicola A

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the ferroelectrocity in magnetic ferroelectric oxides is of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, we identify the nature of the ferroelectric phase transition in the hexagonal manganite, YMnO(3), using a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thorough structure analysis and first-principles density-functional calculations. The ferroelectric phase is characterized by a buckling of the layered MnO(5) polyhedra, accompanied by displacements of the Y ions, which lead to a net electric polarization. Our calculations show that the mechanism is driven entirely by electrostatic and size effects, rather than the usual changes in chemical bonding associated with ferroelectric phase transitions in perovskite oxides. As a result, the usual indicators of structural instability, such as anomalies in Born effective charges on the active ions, do not hold. In contrast to the chemically stabilized ferroelectrics, this mechanism for ferroelectricity permits the coexistence of magnetism and ferroelectricity, and so suggests an avenue for designing novel magnetic ferroelectrics. PMID:14991018

  17. Nonlinear spectroscopy of C60 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Roberto; Muccini, Michele; Danieli, R.; Taliani, Carlo; Mohn, H.; Muller, W.; ter Meer, Hans-Ulrich

    1994-11-01

    Two-photon excitation measurements of C60 single crystal at 4 K have been performed. The TPE spectrum shows a sharp band at 1.846 eV which is assigned to the C60 lowest forbidden Frenkel singlet exciton of T1g symmetry. This assignment is supported by the analysis of Herzberg-Teller induced photoluminescence.

  18. Tunable dielectric properties of KTaO3 single crystals in the terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoromets, V.; Kadlec, C.; Němec, H.; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.; Kužel, P.

    2016-02-01

    Electric-field tunability of the dielectric properties of potassium tantalate single crystal was studied by terahertz spectroscopy in a broad temperature range (40-250 K). Complex-valued terahertz transmission spectra of samples were measured with an external electric field perpendicular to the sample surface and parallel to the terahertz wave-vector. We found that the ferroelectric soft mode hardening is fully responsible for the observed electric-field-induced changes in the spectra and no signature of a central mode was detected. We determined the anharmonic properties of the soft-mode potential in the mean field approximation. The observed behavior was compared with that previously reported for SrTiO3 single crystals.

  19. Infrared investigations of 4-hydroxycyanobenzene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Fraboni, B; Tessarolo, M; Lupi, Stefano; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2013-08-01

    4-Hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) single crystals (SCs) and polycrystals (PCs) have been analyzed by means of both unpolarized and linearly polarized (LP) infrared (IR) beams. Most of the signals found at room temperature (298 K) were assigned to well-defined vibrational modes. Using an LP-IR beam and keeping the beam polarization aligned with either the a or the b crystal axis, anisotropic spectra of SCs were also attributed. The differences between the LP and unpolarized spectra of SCs are discussed in view of spatially anisotropic vibronic couplings between the benzenic π electrons and the molecular functional groups (FGs), with reference to the overall lattice arrangement and the polarizability of the FGs. In addition, signals suggesting the low-concentration presence of tautomers within the crystal were detected. LP-IR measurements of SCs in the temperature range between 298 and 120 K are also reported and discussed, with particular reference to the hydrogen-bonding-related functional groups of 4HCB, allowing the assignment of OH bending signals that were otherwise not clearly attributable and the inference of an anisotropic shrinking of the crystals. Overall, the presented results show that LP-IR spectroscopy is a valuable tool for noncontact, nondestructive characterization of organic semiconducting single crystals. PMID:23829587

  20. Dynamic mechanism of the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition in chiral smectic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Song, Jang-Kun; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, J K

    2008-08-29

    The temperature-induced phase transition between the chiral smectic phases, antiferroelectric (smectic-C(A)*) and ferroelectric (smectic-C*), is found to occur through solitary wave propagation. We measure the free energy, which shows a double well shape in the entire SmC(A)* temperature range and the global minimum is found to shift from the antiferroelectric order to the ferroelectric order at the transition temperature. However, any significant supercooling is not observed and the transition cannot be described by the first order Landau-de Gennes theory, where the double well potential exists only in a narrow range of temperatures. This implies that the SmC(A)*-SmC* transition can occur only nonhomogeneously through the solitary wave propagation which overcomes the high energy barrier between the two minima. PMID:18851661

  1. A pair of dinuclear Re(I) enantiomers: synthesis, crystal structures, chiroptical and ferroelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Li; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xue-Li; Kang, Jia-Long; Wang, Ai-Ling; Zhou, Liming; Fang, Shaoming

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of enantiomeric bis-bidentate bridging ligands (+)/(-)-2,5-bis(4,5-pinene-2-pyridyl)pyrazine (L(S)/L(R)) with [Re(CO)5Cl] yielded a pair of dinuclear Re(I) enantiomers formulated as [Re2(L(S)/L(R))(CO)6Cl2]·4CH2Cl2 (R-1 and S-1, the isomers containing the respective L(R) and L(S) ligands). They were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and X-ray crystallography. Circular dichroism spectra verified their chiroptical activities and enantiomeric nature. The measurements of second harmonic generation (SHG) and ferroelectric properties showed that R-1 displays a nonlinear optical (NLO) activity and ferroelectricity with a remnant polarization (P(r)) of 1.6 μC cm(-2) under an applied field of 7.3 kV cm(-1) at room temperature. R-1 and S-1 represent the first example of polynuclear Re(i) complexes with ferroelectric properties. Notably, the P(r) value is much larger than that of the reported mononuclear chiral Re(I) analogue. In particular, unlike mononuclear Re(i) complexes of the type [Re(CO)3(N^N)(X)] (N^N = diimine and X = halide), which usually exhibit an intense emission in the visible range, R-1 and S-1 do not show any detectable emission at any temperature range and the reason for the nonluminescence of R-1 and S-1 was further elucidated in this work. Moreover, our research results also elucidated that Re nuclearity has a great influence on not only the emitting properties but also on ferroelectric behavior. PMID:25623284

  2. Single-crystal disk drive miniactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanardi, Marco; McKenney, Kevin B.; Rule, John A.; Yoshikawa, Shoko

    2001-08-01

    As hard disk drive areal densities increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 60%, disk drives must position the head over increasingly small areas while moving more rapidly to reach the desired position. This results in an increase in vibration disturbance. To meet this demand, many hard disk drive manufactures have created prototype dual-stage actuators employing piezoelectric ceramics for the second stage. These are an attractive means of obtaining higher-bandwidth control due to the low inertia and size of the actuator element. As the technology improves, the next limiting factor will be the amount of displacement obtainable with traditional piezoceramic elements. Under the AXIS (Advanced Crystal Integrated System) Consortium program funded by DARPA, the application of PZN-PT single crystal piezoceramic as a second stage disk drive actuator was studied, based on the fact that the single crystal material provides larger stroke than its traditional PZT counterparts. The transverse (d31) strain of PZN-PT single crystal was measured to be about two times larger than that of PZT-5H ceramic. Both materials were integrated into a disk drive system and compared as second stage actuators. The methodologies used and the servo control techniques applied are also discussed in the paper.

  3. Crystal structure and ferroelectric properties of rare-earth substituted BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Risako; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Koda, Seiichiro

    2006-07-01

    The influence of ion modification using rare-earth cations on crystal structures, along with the insulating and ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films was investigated. Rare-earth-substituted BFO films with chemical compositions of (Bi1.00-xREx)Fe1.00O3 (x =0-0.15, RE =La and Nd) were fabricated on (111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100)Si substrates using a chemical solution deposition technique. A crystalline phase of rhombohedral BFO was obtained by heat treatment in a N2 atmosphere at 500°C for 5min. The crystal anisotropy and the Curie temperature of BFO were degraded continuously with increasing contents of La3+ or Nd3+ cations. Ion modification using La3+ and Nd3+ cations up to x =0.05 lowered the leakage current density of the BFO film at room temperature from approximately 10-3 down to 10-6A/cm2. A polarization (P)-electrical field (E) hysteresis loop measured at 10K revealed that the intrinsic remanent polarization of La3+- and Nd3+-substituted BFO films with x =0.05 (44 and 51μC/cm2, respectively) was smaller than that of a nonsubstituted BFO film (79μC/cm2), which is ascribed to the degradation of crystal anisotropy and the Curie temperature of the BFO crystal.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Orthoenstatite Single Crystal Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fraysse, G.; Girard, J.; Holyoke, C. W.; Raterron, P.

    2013-12-01

    The plasticity of enstatite, upper mantle second most abundant mineral, is still poorly constrained, mostly because of its high-temperature (T) transformation into proto- and clino-enstatite at low pressure (P). Mackwell (1991, GRL, 18, 2027) reports a pioneer study of protoenstatite (Pbcn) single-crystal rheology, but the results do not directly apply to the orthorhombic (Pbca) mantle phase. Ohuchi et al. (2011, Contri. Mineral. Petrol , 161, 961) carried out deformation experiments at P=1.3 GPa on oriented orthoenstatite crystals, investigating the activity of [001](100) and [001](010) dislocation slip systems; they report the first rheological laws for orthoenstatite crystals. However, strain and stress were indirectly constrained in their experiments, which questioned whether steady state conditions of deformation were achieved. Also, data reported for [001](100) slip system were obtained after specimens had transformed by twinning into clinoenstatite. We report here new data from deformation experiments carried out at high T and P ranging from 3.5 to 6.2 GPa on natural Fe-bearing enstatite single crystals, using the Deformation-DIA apparatus (D-DIA) that equipped the X17B2 beamline of the NSLS (NY, USA). The applied stress and specimen strain rates were measured in situ by X-ray diffraction and imaging techniques (e.g., Raterron & Merkel, 2009, J. Sync. Rad., 16, 748; Raterron et al., 2013, Rev. Sci. Instr., 84, 043906). Three specimen orientations were tested: i) with the compression direction along [101]c crystallographic direction, which forms a 45° angle with both [100] and [001] axes, to investigate [001](100) slip-system activity; ii) along [011]c direction to investigate [001](010) system activity; iii) and along enstatite [125] axis, to activate both slip systems together. Crystals were deformed two by two, to compare slip system activities, or against enstatite aggregates or orientated olivine crystals of known rheology for comparison. Run products

  5. X-ray diffraction study of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures exhibiting de Vries SmA∗-SmC∗ transitions.

    PubMed

    Manna, U; Richardson, R M; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, J K

    2010-05-01

    In this Rapid Communication, results on smectic layer thickness, using synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction, for different mixtures of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystals are given. We find that with an increased ferroelectric component in the mixtures, the layer shrinkage at the de Vries SmA∗-SmC∗ transition increases. This observation can be used to explain our previously observed behaviors [U. Manna, J.-K. Song, Yu. P. Panarin, A. Fukuda, and J. K. Vij, Phys. Rev. E 77, 041707 (2008)] that the soft-mode dielectric strength decreases, the Landau coefficient increases, and the Curie-Weiss temperature range decreases with increased ferroelectric component in the mixture exhibiting de Vries SmA∗-SmC∗ transition. PMID:20866175

  6. Exfoliation of graphene oxide and its application in improving the electro-optical response of ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Veeresh; Kumar, Ajay; Bhandari, Shruti; Biradar, A. M.; Pasricha, Renu E-mail: renu1505@gmail.com; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-21

    Near complete exfoliation and reduction of lyophilized graphene oxide (GO) has been carried out at temperature as low as 400 °C. The structural characterizations of the reduced GO have been performed using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The morphological studies were carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized GO finds an application in improving the switching performance of a liquid crystal (LC) mixture by remarkably modifying the physical properties, such as spontaneous polarization and rotational viscosity of the ferroelectric LC (FLC) material which in turn resulted into faster response of the FLC. The present study explores the possibility of low temperature thermal reduction of GO along with its application in improving the properties of LC based display systems.

  7. Molecular motions in a novel ferroelectric crystal (CH 3NH 3) 5Bi 2Br 11 studied by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekara-Sady, L.; Jakubas, R.; Piślewski, N.

    1989-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the 1H relaxation times T1, T1 ρ and T1 D were studied in the ferroelectric (CH 3NH 3) 5Bi 2Br 11. Three kinds of motions of the methylammonium cation, i.e. (1) rotations of the CH 3 and NH 3 groups about C 3 axis, (2) reorientation of the whole cation about C 3 axis forming an angle α = 13° with the C 3 axis of NH 3 and CH 3 groups, (3) 180° flip motion of the methylammonium cation, have been observed separately. The small activation energies of these motions imply that the cations experience a weak crystal field.

  8. Lightweight optical mirrors formed in single crystal substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for manufacturing a lightweight mirror from a single crystal material, such as single crystal silicon. As a near perfect single crystal material, single crystal silicon has much lower internal stress than a conventional material. This means much less distortion of the optical surface during the light weighting process. After being ground and polished, a single crystal silicon mirror is light weighted by removing material from the back side using ultrasonic machining. After the light weighting process, the single crystal silicon mirror may be used as-is or further figured by conventional polishing or ion milling, depending on the application and the operating wavelength.

  9. Shock Hugoniot of Single Crystal Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Stolken, J; Asoka-Kumar, P; Kumar, M; Holmes, N C

    2009-08-28

    The shock Hugoniot of single crystal copper is reported for stresses below 66 GPa. Symmetric impact experiments were used to measure the Hugoniots of three different crystal orientations of copper, [100], [110], [111]. The photonic doppler velocimetry (PDV) diagnostic was adapted into a very high precision time of arrival detector for these experiments. The measured Hugoniots along all three crystal directions were nearly identical to the experimental Hugoniot for polycrystalline Cu. The predicted orientation dependence of the Hugoniot from MD calculations was not observed. At the lowest stresses, the sound speed in Cu was extracted from the PDV data. The measured sound speeds are in agreement with values calculated from the elastic constants for Cu.

  10. The Creep of Single Crystals of Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R D; Shober, F R; Schwope, A D

    1953-01-01

    The creep of single crystals of high-purity aluminum was investigated in the range of temperatures from room temperature to 400 F and at resolved-shear-stress levels of 200, 300, and 400 psi. The tests were designed in an attempt to produce data regarding the relation between the rate of strain and the mechanism of deformation. The creep data are analyzed in terms of shear strain rate and the results are discussed with regard to existing creep theories. Stress-strain curves were determined for the crystals in tinsel and constant-load-rate tests in the same temperature range to supplement the study of plastic deformation by creep with information regarding the part played by crystal orientation, differences in strain markings, and other variables in plastic deformation.

  11. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, Frank R.; Gillies, Donald C.; Watring, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the effects of processing semiconducting, solid solution, single crystals in a microgravity environment on the metallurgical, compositional, electrical, and optical characteristics of the crystals. The alloy system being investigated is the solid solution semiconductor Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, with x-values appropriate for infrared detector applications in the 8 to 14 mm wavelength region. Both melt and Te-solvent growth are being performed. The study consists of an extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research effort followed by flight experimentation where appropriate. The ground-based portion of the investigation also includes the evaluation of the relative effectiveness of stabilizing techniques, such as applied magnetic fields, for suppressing convective flow during the melt growth of the crystals.

  12. Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberger, Joshua; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Lee, Sangkwon; Yan, Haoquan; Choi, Heon-Jin; Yang, Peidong

    2003-04-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an `epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

  13. Biomineralization of nanoscale single crystal hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Omokanwaye, Tiffany; Wilson, Otto C; Gugssa, Ayelle; Anderson, Winston

    2015-11-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite particles which formed during the subcutaneous implantation of crab shell in Sprague-Dawley rats were studied using selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The initial SAED characterization evidence indicated the presence of an amorphous calcium phosphate phase. The electron dense nanophase particles which formed in the wound healing zone displayed broad diffuse rings which usually indicate a low crystalline order or amorphous phase. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that these mineralized regions contained discrete single crystal particles less than 5nm in size. Micrographs taken at successively higher magnifications revealed very small nanoparticles with a hexagonal arrangement of ion channels with characteristic spacing of 0.54nm and 0.23nm. This study revealed that single crystal hydroxyapatite nanoparticles consisting of only a few unit cells formed via a biomineralization directed process. PMID:26249568

  14. Macrodeformation Twins in Single-Crystal Aluminum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, F; Wang, L; Fan, D; Bie, B X; Zhou, X M; Suo, T; Li, Y L; Chen, M W; Liu, C L; Qi, M L; Zhu, M H; Luo, S N

    2016-02-19

    Deformation twinning in pure aluminum has been considered to be a unique property of nanostructured aluminum. A lingering mystery is whether deformation twinning occurs in coarse-grained or single-crystal aluminum at scales beyond nanotwins. Here, we present the first experimental demonstration of macrodeformation twins in single-crystal aluminum formed under an ultrahigh strain rate (∼10^{6}  s^{-1}) and large shear strain (200%) via dynamic equal channel angular pressing. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the frustration of subsonic dislocation motion leads to transonic deformation twinning. Deformation twinning is rooted in the rate dependences of dislocation motion and twinning, which are coupled, complementary processes during severe plastic deformation under ultrahigh strain rates. PMID:26943543

  15. Loop polymer brushes from polymer single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tian; Li, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Loop polymer brushes represent a category of polymer brushes with both chain ends being tethered to a surface or interface with sufficiently high density. Due to this morphological difference, loop brushes exhibit distinct properties compared with traditional polymer brushes with single chain end being tethered. In our study, α, ω-functionalized polycaprolactone (PCL) single crystals were prepared as templates for polymer brush synthesis. By carefully controlling crystallization condition and immobilization, looped polymer brushes were successfully prepared. Comprehensive studies on the morphology and physical properties of these polymer brushes were carried out using Atomic Force Microscopy and FTIR. Advantages of using this method include exclusive loop morphology, high grafting density, controlled tethering sites and tunable loop size.

  16. Crack growth in single-crystal silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Crack growth in single-crystal silicon at room temperature in air was evaluated by double torsion (DT) load-relaxation method and monitored by acoustic emission (AE) technique. Both DT and AE methods indicated lack of subcritical crack growth in silicon. At the critical stress intensity factor, the crack front was found to be jumping several times in a 'mirror' region and then followed by fast crack growth in a 'hackle' region. Hackle marks were found to be associated with plastic deformation at the tip of the fast moving crack. No dislocation etch pits were found in the 'mirror' region, in which crack growth may result from interatomic bonds broken at the crack tip under stress without any plastic deformation. Acoustic emission appears to be spontaneously generated from both interatomic bonds broken and dislocation generation at the moving crack tip during the crack growth in single-crystal silicon.

  17. Optimizing Scale Adhesion on Single Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    To improve scale adhesion, single crystal superalloys have been desulfurized to levels below 1 ppmw by hydrogen annealing. A transition to fully adherent behavior has been shown to occur at a sulfur level of about 0.2 ppmw, as demonstrated for PWA 1480, PWA 1484, and Rene N5 single crystal superalloys in 1100-1150 C cyclic oxidation tests up to 2000 h. Small additions of yttrium (15 ppmw) also have been effective in producing adhesion for sulfur contents of about 5 ppmw. Thus the critical Y/S ratio required for adhesion was on the order of 3-to-1 by weight (1-to-1 atomic), in agreement with values estimated from solubility products for yttrium sulfides. While hydrogen annealing greatly improved an undoped alloy, yielding <= 0.01 ppmw S, it also produced benefits for Y-doped alloys without measurably reducing the sulfur content.

  18. Crack Growth in Single-Crystal Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Leipold, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes experiments on crack growth in single-crystal silicon at room temperature in air. Crack growth in (111) cleavage plane of wafers, 50 by 100 by 0.76 mm in dimension, cut from Czochralski singlecrystal silicon studied by double-torsion load-relaxation method and by acoustic-emission measurements. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray topography also employed. Results aid in design and fabrication of silicon photovoltaic and microelectronic devices.

  19. Ionic diffusion in single crystals of vermiculite

    SciTech Connect

    Maraqah, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Novel guest-host compounds, based on single crystal vermiculite, were synthesized by diffusive techniques through a new hydrogen vermiculite. Single crystals were chosen because of the ease of characterization. An investigation of the ion transport properties of these single crystals was done to determine the mechanism of conductivity including the predominant charge carrier. Measurements of the ionic conductivity using impedance spectroscopy and X-ray lattice parameters of the ion-exchanged samples strongly suggest that the native cations and not protons are the major current carriers. Single crystals of hydrogen vermiculite were synthesized at room temperature by ion exchange from sodium-vermiculite using 1 molar acetic acid for a one week. Subsequent ion exchange with other cations was found to be much enhanced. Thus transition metals were exchanged in about a week in contrast to the need of several months using previous methods. The ionic conductivity of hydrogen vermiculite was measured and shown to be much lower than that of many other monovalent cations in the same host lattice. Its enthalpy of motion is also much lower. These marked differences suggest that protonic species do not play a significant role in charge transport in these layered materials. These materials were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and acid-base titration. Hydrogen-vermiculite was found to react with organic bases, like methylamine, ethylamine, n-butylamine, n-hexylamine, n-octylamine, n-decylamine, aniline, acrylamide, methacrylaminde, urea, 1,10phenanthroline, and 1,1phenanthroline ferrous sulfate complex, to undergo ion exchange with metal cations like sodium, zinc, copper(II) ions and polymerization reactions could be performed in the galleries of the structure like pyrrole and aniline. Its behavior was compared with that of powdered montmorillonite.

  20. The interface between ferroelectric and 2D material for a Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nahee; Kang, Haeyong; Lee, Sang-Goo; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    We have studied electrical property of ferroelectric field-effect transistor which consists of graphene on hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) gated by a ferroelectric, PMN-PT (i.e. (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3-xPbTiO3) single-crystal substrate. The PMN-PT was expected to have an effect on polarization field into the graphene channel and to induce a giant amount of surface charge. The hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) flake was directly exfoliated on the PMN-PT substrate for preventing graphene from directly contacting on the PMN-PT substrate. It can make us to observe the effect of the interface between ferroelectric and 2D material on the device operation. Monolayer graphene as 2D channel material, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, was transferred on top of the hexagonal Boron-Nitride (h-BN) by using the conventional dry-transfer method. Here, we can demonstrate that the structure of graphene/hexagonal-BN/ferroelectric field-effect transistor makes us to clearly understand the device operation as well as the interface between ferroelectric and 2D materials by inserting h-BN between them. The phenomena such as anti-hysteresis, current saturation behavior, and hump-like increase of channel current, will be discussed by in terms of ferroelectric switching, polarization-assisted charge trapping.

  1. Single crystal diffraction by synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kvick, A.

    1988-01-01

    The tunability and access to short wavelengths in combination with high intensity and the low divergence of the x-ray radiation produced by synchrotron storage rings opens up new and challenging fields for single crystal diffraction. These areas include microcrystal diffraction, studies of time-dependent phenomena, element selective diffraction, studies of materials under extreme conditions, solution of the crystallographic phase problem either by the use of the wavelength dependency of the anomalous scattering or by direct experimental determination of the phases. Single crystal diffraction from proteins and macromolecules using photographic film as a detection medium has already reached considerable maturity, but high-precision data collections using diffractometers at storage rings are still not routine because of the severe requirements for beam stability over extended periods of time. Development work at institutions such as the National Synchrotron Light Source, The Photon Factory, SSRL, CHESS, Hasylab and Daresbury, however, suggest that synchrotron single-crystal diffraction will become an essential part of the research at the synchrotron storage rings in the near future. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Anisotropy of sapphire single crystal sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Minnebaev, K. F.; Tolpin, K. A.; Yurasova, V. E.

    2015-08-15

    We have studied the spatial distribution of particles sputtered from the base (0001) plane of a sapphire single crystal with trigonal crystalline lattice (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that can be considered a superposition of two hexagonal close packed (hcp) structures–the ideal sublattice of oxygen and a somewhat deformed sublattice of aluminum. It is established that the particles sputtered from the base plane of sapphire are predominantly deposited along the sides of an irregular hexagon with spots at its vertices. The patterns of spots have been also studied for sputtering of particles from the (0001) face of a zinc single crystal with the hcp lattice. The spots of sputtered Zn atoms are arranged at the vertices of concentric equilateral hexagons. In both cases, the observed anisotropy of sputtering is related to focused collisions (direct and assisted focusing) and the channeling process. The chemical composition of spots has been determined in various regions of sputtered sapphire deposition. The results are discussed in comparison to analogous earlier data for secondary ion emission from an α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal.

  3. An improved single crystal adsorption calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuck, A.; Wartnaby, C. E.; Yeo, Y. Y.; Stuckless, J. T.; Al-Sarraf, N.; King, D. A.

    1996-04-01

    Significant improvements to the single crystal adsorption calorimeter (SCAC) of Borroni-Bird and King are described. The calorimeter comprises a pulsed molecular beam source, an ultrathin single crystal and an infrared detector. It is calibrated using a chopped laser beam, and the amount of gas adsorbed or reacted per pulse is measured using the King and Wells reflection detector technique. Refinements in the molecular beam system, the optical calibration system, flux calibration system and sticking probability measurement technique have been made. The calorimeter response is accurately linear over a useful energy range; the detection limit is estimated as 10 kJ mol -1; and the accuracy in heats of adsorption for heats above ˜ 80 kJ mol -1 is estimated as ˜ 6%. Comparisons of calorimetric heats with isosteric heats and with desorption energies obtained for reversible systems, such as CO on Ni and Pt single crystal surfaces, generally yield good agreement and give support to the estimate for the absolute accuracy of the instrument.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  5. Charge transport in single crystal organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei

    Organic electronics have engendered substantial interest in printable, flexible and large-area applications thanks to their low fabrication cost per unit area, chemical versatility and solution processability. Nevertheless, fundamental understanding of device physics and charge transport in organic semiconductors lag somewhat behind, partially due to ubiquitous defects and impurities in technologically useful organic thin films, formed either by vacuum deposition or solution process. In this context, single-crystalline organic semiconductors, or organic single crystals, have therefore provided the ideal system for transport studies. Organic single crystals are characterized by their high chemical purity and outstanding structural perfection, leading to significantly improved electrical properties compared with their thin-film counterparts. Importantly, the surfaces of the crystals are molecularly flat, an ideal condition for building field-effect transistors (FETs). Progress in organic single crystal FETs (SC-FETs) is tremendous during the past decade. Large mobilities ~ 1 - 10 cm2V-1s-1 have been achieved in several crystals, allowing a wide range of electrical, optical, mechanical, structural, and theoretical studies. Several challenges still remain, however, which are the motivation of this thesis. The first challenge is to delineate the crystal structure/electrical property relationship for development of high-performance organic semiconductors. This thesis demonstrates a full spectrum of studies spanning from chemical synthesis, single crystal structure determination, quantum-chemical calculation, SC-OFET fabrication, electrical measurement, photoelectron spectroscopy characterization and extensive device optimization in a series of new rubrene derivatives, motivated by the fact that rubrene is a benchmark semiconductor with record hole mobility ~ 20 cm2V-1s-1. With successful preservation of beneficial pi-stacking structures, these rubrene derivatives form

  6. Polarity tuning of single-walled carbon nanotube by dipole field of ferroelectric polymer for thermoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horike, Shohei; Misaki, Masahiro; Koshiba, Yasuko; Morimoto, Masahiro; Saito, Takeshi; Ishida, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    The tuning of the Seebeck coefficient of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film was achieved by using the dipole field of a ferroelectric polymer. The Seebeck coefficient was positive under an up-poling dipole field, but negative under a down-poling dipole field, whereas the control remained positive. This tunable behavior can be explained by selective carrier injection and accumulation, which was confirmed by the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity. Connecting p- and n-type SWCNT films tuned by dipole fields to create a π module resulted in a significant improvement in output voltage owing to the temperature difference between the two.

  7. Novel HDD-type SNDM ferroelectric data storage system aimed at high-speed data transfer with single probe operation.

    PubMed

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kenkou; Cho, Yasuo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, several read/write tests were conducted using a novel ferroelectric data storage test system equipped with a spindle motor, targeted at high-speed data transfer using a single probe head. A periodically inverted signal can be read out correctly with a bit rate of 100 kbps using this test system, and 10 Mbps data transfer is also possible during writing operations. The effect of a dc-offset voltage applied to the writing waveform with high-speed probe scanning is discussed. In addition, a novel noncontact probe height control technique was adopted to solve the problem of tip abrasion. PMID:18276549

  8. A nanoporous two-dimensional polymer by single-crystal-to-single-crystal photopolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, Patrick; Murray, Daniel J.; Wulftange, William J.; Catalano, Vincent J.; King, Benjamin T.

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the wide number and variety of available synthetic routes to conventional linear polymers, the synthesis of two-dimensional polymers and unambiguous proof of their structure remains a challenge. Two-dimensional polymers—single-layered polymers that form a tiling network in exactly two dimensions—have potential for use in nanoporous membranes and other applications. Here, we report the preparation of a fluorinated hydrocarbon two-dimensional polymer that can be exfoliated into single sheets, and its characterization by high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The procedure involves three steps: preorganization in a lamellar crystal of a rigid monomer bearing three photoreactive arms, photopolymerization of the crystalline monomers by [4 + 4] cycloaddition, and isolation of individual two-dimensional polymer sheets. This polymer is a molecularly thin (~1 nm) material that combines precisely defined monodisperse pores of ~9 Å with a high pore density of 3.3 × 1013 pores cm-2. Atomic-resolution single-crystal X-ray structures of the monomer, an intermediate dimer and the final crystalline two-dimensional polymer were obtained and prove the single-crystal-to-single-crystal nature and molecular precision of the two-dimensional photopolymerization.

  9. Electric field effect of relaxor ferroelectric (1 ‑ x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 crystals near morphotropic phase boundary composition probed by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftabuzzaman, Md; Kojima, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    The relaxor ferroelectric (1 ‑ x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (x = 0.30, PMN–30PT) single crystal was studied under the zero field and the externally applied dc electric field by using micro-Brillouin scattering and dielectric spectroscopies over a wide temperature range of 303–773 K. The noticeable thermal hysteresis of longitudinal acoustic (LA) shift (νB) was observed between zero field heating and zero field cooling processes. Under the electric field of 0.5 kV/cm along the [001] axis, the LA mode splitting was observed in νB due to the coexistence of ferroelectric macrodomain and nanodomain states caused by the random field, and in dielectric measurements the monoclinic (M) and tetragonal phases were appeared between rhombohedral and cubic phases. The LA mode splitting and M phase disappeared under the field of 1.0 kV/cm. The electric field dependence of LA velocity was studied at 304 K. The critical end point of the PMN–30PT single crystal was investigated.

  10. Single crystal x-ray diffraction: optical and micro hardness studies on chalcone derivative single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasta, Vincent; Ravindrachary, V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Naveen, S.; Shridar, M. A.; Shashidhara Prasad, J.

    2005-08-01

    1-(4-methylphenyl)-3-(4- N, N dimethyl amino phenyl)-2-propen-1-one, a chalcone derivative nonlinear optical material has been synthesized by standard method. FT-IR and NMR spectral studies have been performed to confirm the molecular structure of the synthesized compound. The single crystals up to a dimension of 13 x 9 x 3 mm3 were grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were transparent in the entire visible region and absorbs in the UV-region. The refractive index has been measured using a He-Ne laser. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction studies to determine the crystal structure and hence the cell parameters of the crystal. From this study it is found that this compound crystallizes in orthorhombic system with a space group P212121 and corresponding lattice parameters are, a = 7.3610(13) Å, b = 11.651(2) Å, c = 17.6490(17) Å. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test shows that the compound is a potential candidate for Photonic application. The micro hardness test on these crystals were carried out and the load dependence hardness was observed

  11. Stabilization of metastable ferroelectric Ba1−xCaxTi2O5 by breaking Ca-site selectivity via crystallization from glass

    PubMed Central

    Masuno, Atsunobu; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Okajima, Toshihiro; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Arai, Yasutomo; Yu, Jianding; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The thermal stability and dielectric and structural properties of ferroelectric Ba1−xCaxTi2O5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) prepared by crystallization from glass are investigated. The Ba1−xCaxTi2O5 compounds with x < 0.10 are thermally stable phases, while those with x ≥ 0.10 are metastable phases. The ferroelectric transition temperature drastically decreases from 470 to 220°C with increasing x. Crystal structure analyses reveal that one of two possible Ba sites is occupied by Ca in the stable phase region, while Ca-site selectivity is broken in the metastable phase region. The Ca-site selectivity introduces local distortion and makes the crystal lattice unstable. However, the local distortion is suppressed by the occupancy of Ca into both Ba sites. Accordingly, the metastable ferroelectric phase can be obtained beyond the substitution limit of Ca by crystallization from the glassy state. The stabilization mechanism provides possible wide control of the functionality of materials by expanding the composition range. PMID:24145958

  12. Shock Compression of Ammonium Perchlorate Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Y. M.; Yuan, Gang; Feng, Ruqiang

    1997-07-01

    The shock response of ammonium perchlorate (AP) single crystals has been examined for uniaxial strain compression along the [210] and [001] directions. Quartz gauge and VISAR measurements have provided the wave profiles at the impact surface and after propagation through thin samples (1-3 mm thickness) for peak stresses ranging between 10 and 65 kbar. A two wave structure due to elastic-plastic deformation was observed for both orientations. The measured HEL values for the [210] and [001] orientations were about 4.3 and 3.5 kbar, respectively. Data for the two orientations reveal small stress relaxation effects and small differences due to crystal orientation effects. We have chosen to fit both sets of results with a simple elastic-perfectly plastic model used for isotropic materials. Reasonable agreement between the calculations and experimental results was obtained. Over the stress range examined to date, no evidence of chemical decomposition was observed for the time durations in our experiments.

  13. Low Frequency Magnetoelectric Interactions in Single Crystal YIG/PMN-PT Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devreugd, C. P.; Srinivasan, G.; Mantese, J. V.

    2004-03-01

    This work is concerned with magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in novel layered ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites. The heterostructures are capable of electric-to-magnetic field conversion that is mediated by mechanical stress [1]. We recently developed a theoretical model for low frequency effects that predicts an order of magnitude enhancement in ME coupling in single crystals compared to polycrystalline samples [2]. Use of single crystals is critical for probing the influence of piezomagnetism, ac magnetostriction, and ferroelasticity of the magnetic component and similar parameters for the ferroelectric component. The studies are also important for the creation of an optimal interface to accomplish strong ME interactions. Bilayers were prepared by bonding epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) films of YIG and (001) single crystals of PMN-PT. Low frequency ME voltage coefficients were measured for transverse (dc magnetic field H and ac field in-plane) and longitudinal (magnetic fields out-of-plane) fields. Important results are as follows. (i) The ME voltage coupling is the largest for H along <111> of YIG and is the weakest for H along <100>. (ii) The voltage coefficient increases with increasing volume of YIG. (iii) The transverse coefficient is an order of magnitude higher than the longitudinal coefficient. (iv) Studies on bilayers with (111) YIG films reveal a significant influence of in-plane anisotropy on ME coupling. 1. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, and R. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B. 67, 014418 (2003). 2. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 68, 054402 (2003). This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0322254)

  14. Oxygen binding by single crystals of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rivetti, C; Mozzarelli, A; Rossi, G L; Henry, E R; Eaton, W A

    1993-03-23

    Reversible oxygen binding curves for single crystals of hemoglobin in the T quaternary structure have been measured using microspectrophotometry. Saturations were determined from complete visible spectra measured with light linearly polarized parallel to the a and c crystal axes. Striking differences were observed between the binding properties of hemoglobin in the crystal and those of hemoglobin in solution. Oxygen binding to the crystal is effectively noncooperative, the Bohr effect is absent, and there is no effect of chloride ion. Also, the oxygen affinity is lower than that of the T quaternary structure in solution. The absence of the Bohr effect supports Perutz's hypothesis on the key role of the salt bridges, which are known from X-ray crystallography to remain intact upon oxygenation. The low affinity and absence of the Bohr effect can be explained by a generalization of the MWC-PSK model (Monod, Wyman, & Changeux, 1965; Perutz, 1970; Szabo & Karplus, 1972) in which both high- and low-affinity tertiary conformations, with broken and unbroken salt bridges, respectively, are populated in the T quaternary structure. Because the alpha and beta hemes make different projections onto the two crystal axes, separate binding curves for the alpha and beta subunits could be calculated from the two measured binding curves. The approximately 5-fold difference between the oxygen affinities of the alpha and beta subunits is much smaller than that predicted from the crystallographic study of Dodson, Liddington, and co-workers, which suggested that oxygen binds only to the alpha hemes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8457555

  15. Direct Shear of Olivine Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielke, Jacob; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of the strength of individual dislocation slip systems in olivine is fundamental to understanding the flow behavior and the development of lattice-preferred orientation in olivine-rich rocks. The most direct measurements of the strengths of individual slip systems are from triaxial compression experiments on olivine single crystals. However, such experiments only allow for determination of flow laws for two of the four dominate slip systems in olivine. In order to measure the strengths of the (001)[100] and (100)[001] slip systems independently, we performed deformation experiments on single crystals of San Carlos olivine in a direct shear geometry. Experiments were carried out at temperatures of 1000° to 1300°C, a confining pressure of 300 MPa, shear stresses of 60 to 334 MPa, and resultant shear strain rates of 7.4 x 10‑6 to 6.7 x 10‑4 s‑1. At high-temperature (≥1200°C) and low-stress (≤200 MPa) conditions, the strain rate of crystals oriented for direct shear on either the (001)[100] or the (100)[001] slip system follows a power law relationship with stress, whereas at lower temperatures and higher stresses, strain rate depends exponentially on stress. The flow laws derived from the mechanical data in this study are consistent with a transition from the operation of a climb-controlled dislocation mechanism during power-law creep to the operation of a glide-controlled dislocation mechanism during exponential creep. In the climb-controlled regime, crystals oriented for shear on the (001)[100] slip system are weaker than crystals orientated for shear on the (100)[001] slip system. In contrast, in the glide-controlled regime the opposite is observed. Extrapolation of flow laws determined for crystals sheared in orientations favorable for slip on these two slip systems to upper mantle conditions reveals that the (001)[100] slip system is weaker at temperatures and stresses that are typical of the asthenospheric mantle, whereas the (100

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of graphene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Tour, James M

    2014-04-15

    As a two-dimensional (2D) sp(2)-bonded carbon allotrope, graphene has attracted enormous interest over the past decade due to its unique properties, such as ultrahigh electron mobility, uniform broadband optical absorption and high tensile strength. In the initial research, graphene was isolated from natural graphite, and limited to small sizes and low yields. Recently developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have emerged as an important method for the scalable production of large-size and high-quality graphene for various applications. However, CVD-derived graphene is polycrystalline and demonstrates degraded properties induced by grain boundaries. Thus, the next critical step of graphene growth relies on the synthesis of large graphene single crystals. In this Account, we first discuss graphene grain boundaries and their influence on graphene's properties. Mechanical and electrical behaviors of CVD-derived polycrystalline graphene are greatly reduced when compared to that of exfoliated graphene. We then review four representative pathways of pretreating Cu substrates to make millimeter-sized monolayer graphene grains: electrochemical polishing and high-pressure annealing of Cu substrate, adding of additional Cu enclosures, melting and resolidfying Cu substrates, and oxygen-rich Cu substrates. Due to these pretreatments, the nucleation site density on Cu substrates is greatly reduced, resulting in hexagonal-shaped graphene grains that show increased grain domain size and comparable electrical properties as to exfoliated graphene. Also, the properties of graphene can be engineered by its shape, thickness and spatial structure. Thus, we further discuss recently developed methods of making graphene grains with special spatial structures, including snowflakes, six-lobed flowers, pyramids and hexagonal graphene onion rings. The fundamental growth mechanism and practical applications of these well-shaped graphene structures should be interesting topics and

  17. Growth rate study of canavalin single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence on supersaturation of the growth rate of single crystals of the protein canavalin is studied. In the supersaturation ranges studied, the rate-limiting step for growth is best described by a screw dislocation mechanism associated with interface attachment kinetics. Using a ln-ln plot, the growth-rate data is found to fit a predictive relationship of the form G = 0.012 x the supersaturation to the 6.66, which, together with the solubility curves, allows the growth rate to be estimated under a variety of conditions.

  18. Conduction mechanism of single-crystal alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, Fritz G.; Delorenzi, Horst G.; Janora, Kevin H.

    1992-01-01

    The fully guarded three-terminal technique was used to perform conductivity measurements on single-crystal alumina at temperatures of 400-1300 C. The conductivity was also determined as a function of time at various temperatures and applied fields. Further, the fractions of the current carried by Al and O ions (ionic transference numbers) were determined from long-term transference experiments in the temperature range 1100-1300 C. A mathematical model of the conduction mechanism is proposed, and model predictions are compared with experimental results.

  19. Thermodynamic forces in single crystals with dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Goethem, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    A simple model for the evolution of macroscopic dislocation regions in a single crystal is presented. This model relies on maximal dissipation principle within Kröner's geometric description of the dislocated crystal. Mathematical methods and tools from shape optimization theory provide equilibrium relations at the dislocation front, similarly to previous work achieved on damage modelling (J Comput Phys 33(16):5010-5044, 2011). The deformation state variable is the incompatible strain as related to the dislocation density tensor by a relation involving the Ricci curvature of the crystal underlying elastic metric. The time evolution of the model variables follows from a novel interpretation of the Einstein-Hilbert flow in terms of dislocation microstructure energy. This flow is interpreted as the dissipation of non-conservative dislocations, due to the climb mechanism, modelled by an average effect of mesoscopic dislocations moving normal to their glide planes by adding or removing points defects. The model equations are a fourth-order tensor parabolic equation involving the operator "incompatibility," here appearing as a tensorial counterpart of the scalar Laplacian. This work encompasses and generalizes results previously announced (C R Acad Sci Paris Ser I 349:923-927, 2011), with in addition a series of physical interpretations to give a meaning to the newly introduced concepts.

  20. Fabrication of crystals from single metal atoms

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Nicolas P. E.; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Sanchez, Ana M.; Dove, Andrew P.; Procter, Richard J.; Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Kirby, Nigel; Hands-Portman, Ian; Smith, Corinne J.; O’Reilly, Rachel K.; Beanland, Richard; Sadler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanocrystals offer new concepts for the design of nanodevices with a range of potential applications. Currently the formation of metal nanocrystals cannot be controlled at the level of individual atoms. Here we describe a new general method for the fabrication of multi-heteroatom-doped graphitic matrices decorated with very small, ångström-sized, three-dimensional (3D)-metal crystals of defined size. We irradiate boron-rich precious-metal-encapsulated self-spreading polymer micelles with electrons and produce, in real time, a doped graphitic support on which individual osmium atoms hop and migrate to form 3D-nanocrystals, as small as 15 Å in diameter, within 1 h. Crystal growth can be observed, quantified and controlled in real time. We also synthesize the first examples of mixed ruthenium–osmium 3D-nanocrystals. This technology not only allows the production of ångström-sized homo- and hetero-crystals, but also provides new experimental insight into the dynamics of nanocrystals and pathways for their assembly from single atoms. PMID:24861089

  1. Cutting fluid study for single crystal silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Chargin, D.

    1998-05-05

    An empirical study was conducted to evaluate cutting fluids for Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) of single crystal silicon. The pH of distilled waster was adjusted with various additives the examine the effect of pH on cutting operations. Fluids which seemed to promote ductile cutting appeared to increase tool wear as well, an undesirable tradeoff. High Ph sodium hydroxide solutions showed promise for further research, as they yielded the best combination of reduced tool wear and good surface finish in the ductile regime. Negative rake tools were verified to improve the surface finish, but the negative rake tools used in the experiments also showed much higher wear than conventional 0{degree} rake tools. Effects of crystallographic orientation on SPDT, such as star patterns of fracture damage forming near the center of the samples, were observed to decrease with lower feedrates. Silicon chips were observed and photographed, indicative of a ductile materials removal process.

  2. Growth and surface topography of WSe2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vijay; Vyas, Chirag; Pataniya, Pratik; Jani, Mihir; Pathak, Vishal; Patel, Abhishek; Pathak, V. M.; Patel, K. D.; Solanki, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten Di-Selenide belongs to the family of TMDCs showing their potential applications in the fields of Optoelectronics and PEC solar cells. Here in the present investigation single crystals of WSe2 were grown by Direct Vapour Transport Technique in a dual zone furnace having temperature difference of 50 K between the two zones. These single crystals were characterized by EDAX which confirms the stiochiometry of the grown crystals. Surface topography of the crystal was studied by optical micrograph showing the left handed spirals on the surface of WSe2 crystals. Single crystalline nature of the crystals was confirmed by SAED.

  3. Oscillatory reactions on single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbihl, R.

    1993-12-01

    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions exhibit under certain conditions kinetic oscillations which have been investigated both with polycrystalline materials and with single crystal surfaces as catalysts. The present paper reviews single-crystal experiments conducted under isothermal, low pressure conditions ( p < 10 -3 mbar). Two different reaction systems have been investigated: catalytic CO oxidation on various Pt and Pd orientations and catalytic NO reduction on Pt(100) using CO, H 2, or NH 3 as the reducing agent. The different reaction systems exhibit a wide variety of interesting phenomena which are well-known in nonlinear dynamics, for example, such as spatiotemporal pattern formation, the existence of Turing structures and the appearance of deterministic chaos, and chemical turbulence. The mechanistic steps leading to the observed phenomena have been investigated and appropriate mathematical models have been formulated and analyzed using bifurcation theory. The driving force for the rate oscillations has been shown to result from structural changes of the substrate in the case of catalytic CO oxidation on Pt surfaces, subsurface oxygen formation in the case of catalytic CO oxidation on Pd surfaces, and in the chemical reaction network described by a vacancy model in the case of the NO reduction reactions.

  4. Constitutive modeling for single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, D. C.; Jayaraman, N.; Sheh, M.; Alden, D.

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic response of single crystal gamma/gamma prime superalloys is quite different from the behavior of polycrystalline nickel base superalloys. Upto a critical temperature the yield stress of single crystal alloys is a function of the material orientation relative to the direction of the applied stress and the material exhibits significant tension/compression asymmetry. This behavior is primarily due to slip on the octahedral slip system. Above the critical temperature there is a sharp drop in the yield stress, cube slip becomes more predominant and the tension/compression asymmetry is reduced. Similar orientation and tension/compression asymmetry is observed in creep and secondary creep above the critical temperature is inferred to occur by octahedral slip. There are two exceptions to this behavior. First, loading near the (111) orientation exhibits cube slip at all temperatures, and; second, loading near the (001) orientation produces only octahedral slip at all temperatures. The constitutive model is based on separating the total global strain into elastic and inelastic components. This model is developed and briefly discussed.

  5. Single event effect in a ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor under heavy-ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shao-An; Tang, Ming-Hua; Zhao, Wen; Guo, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Wan-Li; Xu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xu-Dong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Jian-Wei; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Yi-Chun

    2014-04-01

    The single event effect in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor (FeFET) under heavy ion irradiation is investigated in this paper. The simulation results show that the transient responses are much lower in a FeFET than in a conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) when the ion strikes the channel. The main reason is that the polarization-induced charges (the polarization direction here is away from the silicon surface) bring a negative surface potential which will affect the distribution of carriers and charge collection in different electrodes significantly. The simulation results are expected to explain that the FeFET has a relatively good immunity to single event effect.

  6. Quantum criticality in a uniaxial organic ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, S. E.; Hadjimichael, M.; Ali, M. N.; Durmaz, Y. C.; Lashley, J. C.; Cava, R. J.; Scott, J. F.

    2015-10-01

    Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride (TSCC) is a highly uniaxial ferroelectric with a Curie temperature of approximately 130 K. By suppressing ferroelectricity with bromine substitution on the chlorine sites, pure single crystals were tuned through a ferroelectric quantum phase transition. The resulting quantum critical regime was investigated in detail and was found to persist up to temperatures of at least 30-40 K. The nature of long-range dipole interactions in uniaxial materials, which lead to non-analytical terms in the free-energy expansion in the polarization, predict a dielectric susceptibility varying as 1/T 3close to the quantum critical point. Rather than this, we find that the dielectric susceptibility varies as 1/T 2 as expected and observed in better known multi-axial systems. We explain this result by identifying the ultra-weak nature of the dipole moments in the TSCC family of crystals. Interestingly, we observe a shallow minimum in the inverse dielectric function at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point in paraelectric samples that may be attributed to the coupling of quantum polarization and strain fields. Finally, we present results of the heat capacity and electro-caloric effect and explain how the time dependence of the polarization in ferroelectrics and paraelectrics should be considered when making quantitative estimates of temperature changes induced by applied electric fields.

  7. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  8. Synthesis, properties, and structure of potassium titanyl phosphate single crystals doped with hafnium

    SciTech Connect

    Orlova, E. I.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Novikova, N. E. Verin, I. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2010-05-15

    Single crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate doped with hafnium are grown by spontaneous flux crystallization. Their physical properties are studied, and the structure of three KTi{sub 1-x}Hf{sub x}OPO{sub 4} crystals (x = 0.01, 0.03, and 0.12) is determined. In the crystals studied, hafnium mostly occupies the second titanium position. The doping of KTP crystals with hafnium results in an elongation of K-O bonds in the potassium polyhedra and, as a consequence, in a considerable (by approximately 180 deg. C) decrease in the temperature of ferroelectric phase transition. The magnitude of anomalous permittivity substantially decreases. The electrical conduction in the specimens studied decreases by approximately half an order of magnitude in the low-temperature region but remains almost unchanged in the high-temperature region. Even at minor concentrations, the presence of a hafnium additive in the specimens considerably (by 35%) enhances the intensity of the second harmonic generation of laser radiation.

  9. Growing single crystals in silica gel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two types of chemical reactions for crystal growing are discussed. The first is a metathetical reaction to produce calcium tartrate tetrahydrate crystals, the second is a decomplexation reaction to produce cuprous chloride crystals.

  10. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state-of-art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single-element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  11. Accelerated domain switching speed in single-crystal LiNbO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Jiang, A. Q.; Meng, X. J.; Geng, D. Q.

    2015-03-14

    By using ionic implantation and wafer bonding technologies, we peeled off a single-crystal LiNbO{sub 3} thin film in the atomic-layer smoothness from the surface of a bulk Z-cut LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. X-ray diffraction patterns showed only (00l) orientation of the film. From positive-up-negative–down pulse characterization, we measured domain switching current transients under various short-pulse voltages, where we observed domain switching currents to occur separately at time after initial capacitor charging currents. This is similar to early observations in bulk ferroelectric single crystals, where apparent positive/negative coercive fields of domain switching determined from polarization-electric field hysteresis loops always equal maximum/minimum applied fields. However, after pulse stressing of the film for more than 1000 cycles, the domain switching speed is accelerated, where domain switching current overlaps with the initial capacitor charging current with a well-defined coercive field independent of the applied-field strength. Finally, we simulated the whole domain switching current transients with the assumption of the resistance degradation across interfacial passive layers between the film and electrodes.

  12. Experimental dynamic metamorphism of mineral single crystals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of some of the rich and varied interactions between non-hydrostatic stress and phase transformations or mineral reactions, drawn mainly from results of experiments done on mineral single crystals in our laboratory or our co-authors. The state of stress and inelastic deformation can enter explicitly into the equilibrium phase relations and kinetics of mineral reactions. Alternatively, phase transformations can have prominent effects on theology and on the nature of inelastic deformation. Our examples represent five types of structural phase changes, each of which is distinguished by particular mechanical effects. In increasing structural complexity, these include: (1) displacive phase transformations involving no bond-breaking, which may produce anomalous brittle behavior. A primary example is the a-?? quartz transition which shows anomalously low fracture strength and tertiary creep behavior near the transition temperature; (2) martensitic-like transformations involving transformation strains dominated by shear deformation. Examples include the orthoenstatite ??? clinoenstatite and w u ??rtzite ??? sphalerite transformations; (3) coherent exsolution or precipitation of a mineral solute from a supersaturated solid-solution, with anisotropy of precipitation and creep rates produced under nonhydrostatic stress. Examples include exsolution of corundum from MgO ?? nAl2O3 spinels and Ca-clinopyroxene from orthopyroxene; (4) order-disorder transformations that are believed to cause anomalous plastic yield strengthening, such as MgO - nAl2O3 spinels; and (5) near-surface devolatilization of hydrous silicate single-crystals that produces a fundamental brittleness thought to be connected with dehydration at microcracks at temperatures well below nominal macroscopic dehydration temperatures. As none of these interactions between single-crystal phase transformations and non-hydrostatic stress is understood in detail, this paper serves as a challenge to

  13. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOEpatents

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  14. Reverse bistable effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with ultra-fast switching at low driving voltage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qi; Zhao, Xiaojin; Zhao, Huijie; Chigrinov, V G

    2015-05-15

    In this Letter, reverse bistable effect with deep-sub-millisecond switching time is first reported in ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) devices using a homogeneous photo-alignment technique. It is indicated by our experimental results that both the anchoring energy and the dielectric property of the FLC's alignment layer is critical for the existence of the reverse bistable effect. In addition, with the derived criteria of the reverse bistable effect, we quantitatively analyze the switching dynamics of the reverse bistable FLC and the transition condition between the traditional bistability and our presented reverse bistability. Moreover, the fabricated FLC device exhibits an ultra-fast switching of ∼160  μs and a high contrast ratio of 1000:1, both of which were measured at a low driving voltage of 11 V. The featured deep-sub-millisecond switching time is really advantageous for our presented reverse bistable FLC devices, which enables a significant quality improvement of the existing optical devices, as well as a wide range of new applications in photonics and display areas. PMID:26393753

  15. Low-cobalt single crystal Rene 150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of cobalt content on a single crystal version of the advanced, high gamma prime content turbine airfoil alloy Rene 150 were investigated. Cobalt contents under investigation include 12 wt.% (composition level of Rene 150), 6 wt.%, and 0 wt.%. Preliminary test results are presented and compared with the properties of standard DS Rene 150. DTA results indicate that the liquidus goes through a maximum of about 1435 C near 6 wt.% Co. The solidus remains essentially constant at 1390 C with decreasing Co content. The gamma prime solvus appears to go through a minimum of about 1235 C near 6 wt.% Co content. Preliminary as-cast tensile and stress rupture results are presented along with heat treat schedules and future test plans.

  16. Hydrogen Annealing Of Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, John C.; Murphy, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Annealing at temperature equal to or greater than 2,200 degrees F in atmosphere of hydrogen found to increase ability of single-crystal superalloys to resist oxidation when subsequently exposed to oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures almost as high. Supperalloys in question are principal constituents of hot-stage airfoils (blades) in aircraft and ground-based turbine engines; also used in other high-temperature applications like chemical-processing plants, coal-gasification plants, petrochemical refineries, and boilers. Hydrogen anneal provides resistance to oxidation without decreasing fatigue strength and without need for coating or reactive sulfur-gettering constituents. In comparison with coating, hydrogen annealing costs less. Benefits extend to stainless steels, nickel/chromium, and nickel-base alloys, subject to same scale-adhesion and oxidation-resistance considerations, except that scale is chromia instead of alumina.

  17. Single-crystal superalloy drives turbine advances

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, K.

    1995-04-01

    In searching for ways to improve power-to-weight ratios and fuel efficiency, gas turbine engine manufacturers invest heavily in the development and testing of new alloys. Their goal is to find turbine airfoil materials that can handle the higher operating temperatures, increased component stresses, and faster rotational speeds that are needed to increase turbine performance. Major turbine engine manufacturers find they can achieve these objectives through ultra-high performance, single-crystal superalloys -- a group of nickel-base materials that exhibit outstanding strength and surface stability at temperatures up to 85{percent} of their melting points. One such superalloy is CMSX-4, co-engineered by ingot maker Cannon-Muskegon and turbine engine manufacturers Rolls-Royce and Allison Engine Company. It is currently being used in such applications as Allison`s advanced airfoil programs.

  18. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers is the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.

  19. Single-crystal AlN nanonecklaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huatao; Xie, Zhipeng; Wang, Yiguang; Yang, Weiyou; Zeng, Qingfeng; Xing, Feng; An, Linan

    2009-01-14

    Distinct single-crystal aluminum nitride nanonecklaces with uniform [1011] faceted beads are synthesized via catalyst-assisted nitriding of Al. The detailed morphology and structure of the nanonecklaces have been characterized. The growth process has been investigated by comparing the products obtained at different synthesis times. The results reveal that the formation of the nanonecklaces is via a process consisting of facet formation and bead unification. The formation of the [1011] facets is due to the presence of a liquid phase that lowers the surface tension of otherwise high-energy [1011] planes. The bead unification is driven by minimizing the energy contributed by surface energy and electrostatic energy. The unique morphology of the nanonecklaces could be useful for studying fundamental physical phenomena and fabricating nanodevices. PMID:19417280

  20. Electrical switching in cadmium boracite single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Cadmium boracite single crystals at high temperatures ( 300 C) were found to exhibit a reversible electric field-induced transition between a highly insulative and a conductive state. The switching threshold is smaller than a few volts for an electrode spacing of a few tenth of a millimeter corresponding to an electric field of 100 to 1000 V/cm. This is much smaller than the dielectric break-down field for an insulator such as boracite. The insulative state reappears after voltage removal. A pulse technique revealed two different types of switching. Unstable switching occurs when the pulse voltage slightly exceeds the switching threshold and is characterized by a pre-switching delay and also a residual current after voltage pulse removal. A stable type of switching occurs when the voltage becomes sufficiently high. Possible device applications of this switching phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Lattice effects in YVO 3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquina, C.; Sikora, M.; Ibarra, M. R.; Nugroho, A. A.; Palstra, T. T. M.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we report on the lattice effects in the Mott insulator yttrium orthovanadate (YVO3). Linear thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments have been performed on a single crystal, in the temperature range from 5 K to room temperature. The YVO3 orders antiferromagnetically at TN=116 K and orbital ordering was reported to appear below TOO=196 K. A first-order structural phase transition takes place at TS=77 K, accompanied by changes in the antiferromagnetic type of ordering as well as in the orbital-ordering type. Our results reveal that the thermal expansion measurement technique is a very powerful tool in order to clearly detect the existence of the above-mentioned transitions. The magnetostriction results point to the stability of the low-temperature-magnetic ground state under such high applied magnetic field.

  2. Submicron diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hill, Cary; Homa, Daniel; Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2014-10-02

    In this work, a submicron-diameter single crystal sapphire optical fiber was demonstrated via wet acid etching at elevated temperatures. Etch rates on the order 2.3 µm/hr were achievable with a 3:1 molar ratio sulfuric-phosphoric acid solution maintained at a temperature of 343°C. A sapphire fiber with an approximate diameter of 800 nm was successfully fabricated from a commercially available fiber with an original diameter of 50 µm. The simple and controllable etching technique provides a feasible approach to the fabrication of unique waveguide structures via traditional silica masking techniques. The ability to tailor the geometry of sapphire optical fibers ismore » the first step in achieving optical and sensing performance on par with its fused silica counterpart.« less

  3. Method of Making Lightweight, Single Crystal Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of making a mirror from a single crystal blank may include fine grinding top and bottom surfaces of the blank to be parallel. The blank may then be heat treated to near its melting temperature. An optical surface may be created on an optical side of the blank. A protector may be bonded to the optical surface. With the protector in place, the blank may be light weighted by grinding a non-optical surface of the blank using computer controlled grinding. The light weighting may include creating a structure having a substantially minimum mass necessary to maintain distortion of the mirror within a preset limit. A damaged layer of the non-optical surface caused by light weighting may be removed with an isotropic etch and/or repaired by heat treatment. If an oxide layer is present, the entire blank may then be etched using, for example, hydrofluoric acid. A reflecting coating may be deposited on the optical surface.

  4. Crystal growth of large size Dy3Al5O12 garnet single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Sakamoto, Masaru; Numazawa, Takenori; Sato, Mitsunori; Maeda, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    Crystal growth conditions using the Czochralski technique were examined in order to be able to grow large-size disprosium-aluminum-garnet single crystals; these are useful as a working material in a practical magnetic refrigeration system. Using the best conditions, large-size bubble-free Dy3Al5O12 single crystals 50 mm in diameter were grown from a stoichiometric melt composition using a seed of Y3Al5O12 single crystal.

  5. Effects of composition and temperature on the large-field behavior of [001]C relaxor single crystals.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, John; Lynch, Christopher; Tian, Jian

    2014-12-01

    The compositional dependence of the large-field behavior of [001]C-cut relaxor ferroelectric xPb(In1/2Nb1/2) O3-(1-x-y)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-yPbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals that are on the rhombohedral side of the morphotropic phase boundary was characterized under electrical, mechanical, and thermal loading. The effects of varying the concentrations of PIN and PT are discussed. Composition was found to impact the material constants and the field-induced phase transformation threshold in the piezoelectric d333-mode configuration. PMID:25474790

  6. Electromechanical properties of tetragonal Pb(In1∕2Nb1∕2)O3−Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−PbTiO3 ferroelectric crystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The ferroelectric, dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of tetragonal Pb(In1∕2Nb1∕2)O3−Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3−PbTiO3 (PIN–PMN–PT) crystals were investigated. The single domain piezoelectric coefficients d33, d15, and d31 were found to be 530, 2350, and −200 pC∕N, respectively, with electromechanical coupling factors k33, k15, and k31 being on the order of 0.84, 0.85, and 0.58. The mechanical quality factor Q for longitudinal mode was found to be >700, with high coercive field (Ec) being on the order of 10 kV∕cm. The temperature and dc bias electric-field characteristics of single domain tetragonal PIN–PMN–PT crystals were also investigated. In contrast to [001] oriented domain engineered rhombohedral crystals, tetragonal PIN–PMN–PT crystals exhibited broader temperature usage range and higher thermal∕electric field stability, with improved coercive field and mechanical quality factor. PMID:20368987

  7. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinding, Mads S.; Kessler, Tommy O.; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction.

  8. Piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lam, Kwok Ho; Zheng, Hairong; Qiu, Weibao; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric single crystals, which have excellent piezoelectric properties, have extensively been employed for various sensors and actuators applications. In this paper, the state–of–art in piezoelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is reviewed. Firstly, the basic principles and design considerations of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers will be addressed. Then, the popular piezoelectric single crystals used for ultrasonic transducer applications, including LiNbO3 (LN), PMN–PT and PIN–PMN–PT, will be introduced. After describing the preparation and performance of the single crystals, the recent development of both the single–element and array transducers fabricated using the single crystals will be presented. Finally, various biomedical applications including eye imaging, intravascular imaging, blood flow measurement, photoacoustic imaging, and microbeam applications of the single crystal transducers will be discussed. PMID:25386032

  9. Coexistence of multiple positive and negative electrocaloric responses in (Pb, La)(Zr, Sn, Ti)O3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Fangping; Li, Qiang; Gao, Jinghan; Wang, Yujie; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Xi, Xiaoqing; Chu, Xiangcheng; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-02-01

    The electrocaloric effect has been investigated in antiferroelectric (Pb, La)(Zr, Sn, Ti)O3 (PLZST) single crystals grown by the flux method. The measurements of polarization versus electric field loops on unpoled crystals revealed that at room temperature, a critical electric field of 1.8 kV/mm is needed to induce a ferroelectric phase from an antiferroelectric phase. The dielectric properties demonstrated that the induced ferroelectric phase recovers to antiferroelectric phase when temperature is above the depolarization temperature (70 °C-100 °C). Coexistence of the negative and positive electrocaloric effect has been achieved in ⟨001⟩-oriented PLZST single crystals. Multiple electrocaloric response values of -0.054 °C at room temperature, 0.17 °C near the depolarization temperature, -0.14 °C at 125 °C, and 0.75 °C around Curie temperature have been observed under an electric field of 3 kV/mm. The coexistence of multiple negative and positive electrocaloric effects in one material provides a possibility to design solid-state refrigerator technologies to enhance the electrocaloric efficiency.

  10. Relaxor-based single-crystal materials for ultrasonic transducer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seung Eek E.; Lopath, Patrick D.; Shung, K. Kirk; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1997-04-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZN), Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and their solid solutions with normal ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PT) were investigated for ultrasonic transducer applications. Crystals offer adjustable properties not only by compositional tailoring but also by domain state engineering associated with different crystallographic orientation, which is not achievable in polycrystalline materials. Longitudinal coupling coefficients (k33) as high as 94% and dielectric constants (K3T) in the range of 3500 - 6000 were achieved with low dielectric loss (less than 1%) using <001> oriented rhombohedral crystals of (1-x)PZN-xPT and (1-y)PMN-yPT, where x less than 0.09 and y less than 0.35. Dicing direction as well as poling direction were critical for high coupling under laterally clamped condition. Dicing parallel to the (001) yields 90% of laterally clamped coupling (kbar) out of 94% longitudinal coupling (k33) for PZN-8%PT. On the other hand, samples diced parallel to (110) exhibited no dominant mode present. Thickness coupling (kT) as high as 64% and low dielectric constant (K3T) less than 600 with low loss (less than 1%) could be achieved using tetragonal crystals of (1-x)PZN-xPT and (1-y)PMN-yPT, where x greater than 0.1 and y greater than 0.4. The performance gains associated with these ultra-high coupling coefficients and range of dielectric constants are evident in relation to broader bandwidth and electrical impedance matching. Specifically, rhombohedral crystals offer the possibility of extremely broad bandwidth devices for transducer arrays and tetragonal crystals for single element transducers. Transducer simulation was performed using the KLM model. The pulse/echo response simulated a 124% bandwidth subdiced array element with a center frequency of 10 MHz. An optimized array design of the same geometry constructed of PZT 5H displays an 87% bandwidth.

  11. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Yan, Chih-shiue

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  12. Stress dependence of thermally driven pyroelectric charge release during FER-FEO phase transformations in [011] cut relaxor ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wen D.; Finkel, Peter; Amin, Ahmed; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2012-06-01

    The stress dependence of thermally driven polarization change is reported for a ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric orthorhombic phase transformation in [011] cut and poled Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT). A jump in polarization and strain is associated with a phase transformation of the ferroelectric material. The phase transformation temperature can be tuned, over a broad temperature range, through the application of bias stress. This phenomenon has applications in the field of energy harvesting and thermal sensing.

  13. Investigation about relationships between the symmetries of ferroelectric crystal Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 and second-harmonic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianxiang; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang

    2015-08-01

    The broadband quasi-phase matching (QPM) process in a uniaxial ferroelectric crystal Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 (CBN-28) was demonstrated with the second-harmonic wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm, and the relationship between the symmetries of CBN-28 and the second-harmonic patterns was experimentally and theoretically investigated based on the random anti-parallel domains in the crystal and QPM conditions. The dependences of frequency-doubled patterns on the wavelength and anisotropy of the nonlinear crystal were also studied, and the frequency-doubled photons were found to be trapped on circles. By analyzing the light-matter interacting Hamiltonians, the trapping force for second-harmonic photons was found to be centripetal and tunable by the fundamental lasers, and the variation tendencies of the rotational velocity of second-harmonic generation photons could also be predicated. The results indicate that the CBN-28 ferroelectric crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material for the generation of broadband frequency-doubled waves, and the analysis on centripetal force based on the interaction Hamiltonians may provide a novel recognition for the investigation of QPM process to be further studied.

  14. Study of temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and electrical properties in [001]-oriented 0.35Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3-Mn single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Fang, Bijun; Deng, Ji; Yan, Hong; Deng, Hao; Yue, Qingwen; Ding, Jianning; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the temperature-dependent Raman spectra and electrical properties of the [001]-oriented 0.5 mol. % Mn-doped 0.35Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-0.35Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3-Mn (PIMNT-Mn) single crystals were investigated. All the unpoled and poled PIMNT-Mn single crystals experience a ferroelectric tetragonal phase to paraelectric cubic phase transition (FET-PC) around 183 °C (TC), which exhibits a second-order transition behavior. Whereas, the poled PIMNT-Mn single crystals exhibit another two dielectric anomalies around 130 °C (TRM) and 148 °C (TMT), in which the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase to ferroelectric monoclinic phase (FER-FEM) and the ferroelectric monoclinic phase to ferroelectric tetragonal phase (FEM-FET) transitions take place, respectively. Both the two ferroelectric phase transitions exhibit a first-order transition behavior. The discontinuous change of the phase degree (θ) and frequencies (fr and fa) around TRM suggest the occurrence of the FER-FEM phase transition in the poled PIMNT-Mn single crystals. The narrowing of the 510 cm-1 and 582 cm-1 Raman modes around the TRM, TMT, and TC temperatures shown in the temperature-dependent Raman spectra suggests their increased ordering of the local structure. The intensity ratio of I272 cm-1/I801 cm-1 increases obviously around the phase transition temperatures (TRM, TMT, and TC), indicating the reduction of the long-range order. The anomalous broadening of the 272 cm-1 Raman mode around the TRM, TMT, and TC temperatures indicates the occurrence of the successive ferroelectric phase transitions (FER-FEM, FEM-FET, and FET-PC) with increasing temperature in the poled PIMNT-Mn single crystals.

  15. Multifunctional Charge-Transfer Single Crystals through Supramolecular Assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Luo, Zhipu; Wilson, Andrew J; Chen, Ke; Gao, Wenxiu; Yuan, Guoliang; Chopra, Harsh Deep; Chen, Xing; Willets, Katherine A; Dauter, Zbigniew; Ren, Shenqiang

    2016-07-01

    Centimeter-sized segregated stacking TTF-C60 single crystals are crystallized by a mass-transport approach combined with solvent-vapor evaporation for the first time. The intermolecular charge-transfer interaction in the long-range ordered superstructure enables the crystals to demonstrate external stimuli-controlled multifunctionalities and angle/electrical-potential-dependent luminescence. PMID:27146726

  16. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker; Miller, Dean J.; Shi, Donglu; Sengupta, Suvankar

    1998-01-01

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x are heated in the presence of a Nd.sub.1+x Ba.sub.2-x Cu.sub.3 O.sub.y seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material.

  17. Relaxation kinetics in virtual ferroelectrics: (K, Li)TaO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turik, A. V.; Khasabov, A. G.

    2001-02-01

    A method for the treatment of dielectric spectra that allows calculation of electric dipole moments µ and off-centre displacements δ of Li ions in (K, Li)TaO3 crystals is suggested and realized. These parameters determine characters of relaxation kinetics. The obtained estimations for µ and δ are confirmed by calculation with the Arrhenius law for the mean relaxation time and are compared with the published data.

  18. Relaxor-PT single crystals for broad bandwidth, high power sonar projectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, Nevin P.

    2010-06-01

    The high piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric relaxor (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMNT) in single crystal form has generated significant interest in producing broad bandwidth SONAR systems. Both the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) are superior to those of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Within the context of a high power acoustic projector, its high losses and low temperature stability have limited its development. Second generation single crystals with compositions modified from the base PMNT have been recently developed to decrease the electromechanical losses and mitigate the thermal property dependence. In this work, the electromechanical properties were measured using single crystals which have been modified in various ways. The modified crystals exhibit electromechanically "hard" behavior with lower losses (tan delta = 0.1--0.2% and QM = 230--950) than unmodified PMNT (tan delta = 0.26% and QM = 190). The measured d33 values of modified single crystals (d33 = 760--1490 pm/V) are also lower than unmodified PMNT (d33 = 1540 pm/V), but the lower piezoelectric response is compensated by the greater stability of the modified single crystals. These modified single crystal properties were also compared to conventional high power piezoelectric ceramics ( d33 = 240 pm/V and QM = 1050) to show similar losses but significantly greater response in the modified PMNT single crystals. Although most piezoelectric materials are measured under small signal conditions (small signal defined by a completely linear relationship between the input and output signals), the high power nature of SONAR projectors demands that these modified single crystals also be evaluated under high power conditions. A test procedure was developed to measure the electromechanical properties of each material as a function of applied electric field over a frequency range which includes the resonance frequency. Modified single crystals

  19. Coupling of magnetic field and lattice strain and its impact on electronic phase separation in La0.335Pr0.335Ca0.33MnO3/ferroelectric crystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, M.; Li, X. Y.; Yang, M. M.; Zhu, Q. X.; Wang, Y.; Li, X. M.; Shi, X.; Chan, H. L. W.; Li, X. G.; Luo, H. S.; Zheng, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Phase-separated La0.335Pr0.335Ca0.33MnO3 films were epitaxially grown on (001)- and (111)-oriented ferroelectric single-crystal substrates. Upon poling along the [001] or [111] direction, dramatic decrease in resistance, up to 99.98%, and complete melting of the charge-ordered phase were observed, caused by poling-induced strain rather than accumulation of electrostatic charge at interface. Such poling-induced strain effects can be effectively tuned by a magnetic field and mediated by electronic phase separation. In particular, our findings show that the evolution of the strength of electronic phase separation against temperature and magnetic field can be determined by measuring the strain-tunability of resistance [(ΔR/R)strain] under magnetic fields.

  20. Microstructure and superconductivity of MgB2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kijoon H.P.; Jung, C.U.; Kang, B.W.; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Sung-Ik; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W.A.; Patel, J.R.

    2004-07-19

    The hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals were synthesized under the high-pressure conditions. The crystal symmetry, lattice constants as well as the Laue pattern of these single crystals were obtained from X-ray micro-diffraction. A crystallographic mapping showed that the edge and the c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [1 0 1 bar 0] and [0 0 0 1] directions of the MgB2 phase. This clearly confirmed that above well-shaped single crystals could be excellent samples to study the unsolved direction dependencies of the physical properties.

  1. Advanced single crystal for SSME turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzemeier, L. G.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this program was to evaluate the influence of high thermal gradient casting, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and alternate heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a single crystal nickel base superalloy. The alloy chosen for the study was PWA 1480, a well characterized, commercial alloy which had previously been chosen as a candidate for the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure turbopump turbine blades. Microstructural characterization evaluated the influence of casting thermal gradient on dendrite arm spacing, casting porosity distribution and alloy homogeneity. Hot isostatic pressing was evaluated as a means of eliminating porosity as a preferred fatigue crack initiation site. The alternate heat treatment was chosen to improve hydrogen environment embrittlement resistance and for potential fatigue life improvement. Mechanical property evaluation was aimed primarily at determining improvements in low cycle and high cycle fatigue life due to the advanced processing methods. Statistically significant numbers of tests were conducted to quantitatively demonstrate life differences. High thermal gradient casting improves as-cast homogeneity, which facilitates solution heat treatment of PWA 1480 and provides a decrease in internal pore size, leading to increases in low cycle and high cycle fatigue lives.

  2. Double bragg reflections in single crystals and textured polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrytnyy, V. I.; Yaltsev, V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the detection of the double Bragg reflections (DBR) in single crystals and polycrystals is carried out. Technique of the detection of the double Bragg reflection in single crystals and textured polycrystalline samples using X-ray synchrotron radiation is proposed.

  3. A Quick Method for Determining the Density of Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Pascual; Gutierrez-Zorrilla, Juan M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows how the Archimedes method is used to determine the density of a single crystal of ammonium oxalate monohydrate. Also shows how to calculate the density of other chemicals when they are available as single crystals. Experimental procedures and materials needed are included. (JN)

  4. Crucibleless crystal growth and Radioluminescence study of calcium tungstate single crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. S.; Jesus, L. M.; Barbosa, L. B.; Ardila, D. R.; Andreeta, J. P.; Silva, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this article, single phase and high optical quality scheelite calcium tungstate single crystal fibers were grown by using the crucibleless laser heated pedestal growth technique. The as-synthesized calcium tungstate powders used for shaping seed and feed rods were investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. As-grown crystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy and Radioluminescence measurements. The results indicate that in both two cases, calcined powder and single crystal fiber, only the expected scheelite CaWO4 phase was observed. It was verified large homogeneity in the crystal composition, without the presence of secondary phases. The Radioluminescence spectra of the as-grown single crystal fibers are in agreement with that present in Literature for bulk single crystals, presented a single emission band centered at 420 nm when irradiated with β-rays.

  5. Thermally induced single crystal to single crystal transformation leading to polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Rajat; Biswas, Susobhan; Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; Sen, Arijit; Roy, Madhusudan; Steele, Ian M.; Dey, Kamalendu; Ghosh, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-09-01

    The robust complex [La(1,10-phen)2(NO3)3] (1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibits thermally induced single crystal to single crystal transformation from one polymorphic phase to another. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group with C2 molecular symmetry at 293 K while at 100 K it shows P21/c space group with C1 molecular symmetry. Supramolecular investigation shows that at 100 K the complex forms 2D achiral sheets whereas at 293 K forms two different homochiral 2D sheets. Low temperature DSC analysis indicates that this structural transformation occurs at 246 K and also this transformation is reversible in nature. We have shown that thermally induced coherent movement of ligands changes the molecular symmetry of the complex and leads to polymorphism. Photoluminescence property of complex has been studied in both solid state and in methanolic solution at room temperature. The effect of the presence low-lying LUMO orbital of π-character in the complex is elucidated by theoretical calculation using DFT method.

  6. Study of LiTa0 3 crystals grown with a modulated structure I. Second harmonic generation in LiTa0 3 crystals with periodic laminar ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenshan, Wang; Qun, Zou; Zhaohua, Geng; Duan, Feng

    1986-12-01

    A radio-frequency heated Czochralski technique was first used to obtain LiTa0 3 crystals with a modulated structure (periodic laminar ferroelectric domains). The alternation of ferroelectric domains whose half-period almost corresponds to the coherence length has been observed in doped LiTa0 3 crystals. The technological parameters of LiTaO 3 crystals grown with a modulated structure by the RF-CZ technique have been studied in detail. Quasi-phase-matching for the nonlinear coefficient d33 has been realized using a 1.06 μ m Nd : YAG laser in LiTa0 3 crystals. The optical damage threshold of LiTa0 3 crystals by laser irradiation was measured using a focused pulse Nd :YAG laser, giving an emission at 1.06 μ m of 10 ns duration. When the estimated peak intensity was 15 GW/cm 2·s, no surface and volume damage were found on the LiTaO 3 crystals.

  7. Reshock and release response of aluminum single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Asay, J. R.

    2007-03-01

    Reshock and release experiments were performed on single crystal aluminum along three orientations and on polycrystalline 1050 aluminum with 50μm grain size at shock stresses of 13 and 21GPa to investigate the mechanisms for previously observed quasielastic recompression behavior. Particle velocity profiles obtained during reshocking both single crystals and polycrystalline aluminum from initial shock stresses of 13-21GPa show similar quasielastic recompression behavior. Quasielastic release response is also observed in all single crystals, but the magnitude of the effect is crystal orientation dependent, with [111] and [110] exhibiting more ideal elastic-plastic release for unloading from the shocked state than for the [100] orientation and polycrystalline aluminum. The quasielastic response of 1050 aluminum is intermediate to that of the [100] and [111] orientations. Comparison of the wave profiles obtained for both unloading and reloading of single crystals and polycrystalline 1050 aluminum from shocked states suggests that the observed quasielastic response of polycrystalline aluminum results from the averaging response of single crystals for shock propagation along different orientations, and that the response of 1050 aluminum with large grain boundaries is not significantly different from the results obtained on single crystal aluminum. The yield strength of the single crystals and 1050 aluminum is found to increase with shock stress, which is consistent with previous results [H. Huang and I. R. Asay, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 033524 (2005)].

  8. Study of single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Reising, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of relatively high melting point metals such as silver, copper, gold, and their alloys was investigated. The purpose was to develop background information necessary to support a space flight experiment and to generate ground based data for comparison. The ground based data, when compared to the data from space grown crystals, are intended to identify any effects which zero-gravity might have on the basic process of single crystal growth of these metals. The ultimate purposes of the complete investigation are to: (1) determine specific metals and alloys to be investigated; (2) grow single metal crystals in a terrestrial laboratory; (3) determine crystal characteristics, properties, and growth parameters that will be effected by zero-gravity; (4) evaluate terrestrially grown crystals; (5) grow single metal crystals in a space laboratory such as Skylab; (6) evaluate the space grown crystals; (7) compare for zero-gravity effects of crystal characteristics, properties, and parameters; and (8) make a recommendation as to production of these crystals as a routine space manufacturing proceses.

  9. Domain, dielectric and optical studies in antiferroelectric (Pb, La) (Zr, Sn, Ti)O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Zi; Gao, Jinghan; Chu, Xiangcheng

    2012-09-01

    Antiferroelectric (Pb, La) (Zr, Sn, Ti)O3 (PLZST) single crystals have been successfully grown by flux method using PbO-PbF2-B2O3 as the flux. The obtained crystals are pale yellow in color and translucent. Domain structures, dielectric constants and optical transmission measurements have been performed on the <001>-oriented PLZST single crystals. Two types of domains, namely, 90° and 180° domains, are observed. The extinction of 90° domains at P/A: 0° reveals a tetragonal structure in the crystal. The sequence of phase transitions from antiferroelectric to ferroelectric and then paraelectric has been established with increasing temperature. According to the modified Curie-Weiss relationship, the PLZST crystal is in an intermediate state between normal and relaxor antiferroelectrics. The broad optical transparent region (from 0.4 to 7.0 μm) and high optical transmittance (up to 65%) indicate that PLZST crystals are promising for optical uses.

  10. Physical properties of superconducting single crystal iron sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Borg, Christopher K. H.; Zhou, Xiuquan; Paglione, Johnpierre; University of Maryland Collaboration

    Recently, the simple binary tetragonal iron sulfide, FeS, was found to be a superconductor with a Tc = 5 K. We have prepared single crystals of tetragonal iron sulfide through hydrothermal de-intercalation of KxFe2-yS2. The KxFe2-yS2 single crystal precursors were grown by slow cooling of stoichiometric melts of K, Fe and S. The silver, plate-like FeS single crystals were highly crystalline with a superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of 4 K. The high quality of the FeS crystals revealed highly anisotropic nature of the magnetic and electronic properties intrinsic to FeS. The physical properties and thermal stability of single crystal FeS will be discussed in detail.

  11. Compact, high power, energy efficient transmit systems for UUVs using single crystal transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Harold

    2001-05-01

    UUVs are currently being designed to perform a multiplitude of tasks in ocean exploration and Naval warfighting. Many of these tasks require the use of active acoustic projectors, and many may require the UUV to operate independently for hours, days, or even weeks. In order for a UUV to be as versatile as possible, its active transmit system must be versatile as well, implying that broad acoustic bandwidths are a must. However, due to size and battery life limitations, this broadband system must also be compact and energy efficient. By virtue of their extraordinary material properties, ferroelectric single crystals are the ideal transduction material for developing such broadband systems. The effect of their high coupling factor on transmit systems shall be illustrated by showing the dramatic impact on amplifier size, power factor, and acoustic response that is possible using these materials. In particular, a transducer built with these materials can be well matched to the power amplifier, i.e., 80% or more of the amplifier power reaches the transducer, over decades of frequency. Measured results from several prototype single crystal transducers shall be presented to demonstrate that the theoretical gains are actually realizable in practical devices. [Work sponsored by DARPA.

  12. Multibit ferroelectric field-effect transistor with epitaxial-like Pb(Zr,Ti)O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Kiaee, Zohreh; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-03-01

    Being able to control grain boundaries during the phase transformation when processing a ferroelectric thin-film is crucial for the successful development of practical multibit ferroelectric memory. A novel development of ferroelectric thin-film crystallization processing for realizing epitaxial-like single crystals via artificial nucleation by Pt-seeding is reported here. Dividing the nucleation and growth mechanism by Pt-seeding, it is possible to obtain large and uniform rectangular-shaped ferroelectric grains, large enough to fabricate a field-effect transistor (FET) in the inside of the crystal grain. The fabricated ferroelectric FET, Pt/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/ZrTiO4/Si, showed a large memory window (˜2.2 V), a low operation voltage (˜6 V), and an ultra-fast program/erase speed (˜10-6 s). Moreover, there was no degradation after 1015 cycles of bipolar fatigue testing and the sample even showed a long retention time after 1 yr. All of these characteristics correspond to the best performance among all types of ferroelectric field-effect transistors reported thus far.

  13. Method for harvesting single crystals from a peritectic melt

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals unmelted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  14. Method for harvesting single crystals from a peritectic melt

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-08-27

    A method of preparing single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals unmelted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  15. Hg-1212 and Hg-1223 single crystals: Synthesis and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatt, R.; Olsson, E.; Morawski, A.; Lada, T.; Paszewin, A.; Bryntse, I.; Grishin, A. M.; Eeltsev, Yu.; Berastegui, P.; Johansson, L.-G.

    1997-02-01

    Single crystals of HgBa 2CaCu 2O 6+δ (Hg-1212) and HgBa 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8+δ (Hg-1223) were grown from the melt at an argon pressure of 10 kbar. Electron microscopy, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that the crystals are well ordered. The EDS analysis indicates the presence of a minor amount of other cations replacing Hg, Ba and Ca in the structure. Refined fractional coordinates and thermal parameters are given for a crystal of Hg-1223 type. Magnetic and resistive measurements show a Tc of 133 K for the Hg-1223 phase.

  16. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, Volker R.; Sengupta, Suvankar; Shi, Donglu

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid.

  17. Cloning polymer single crystals through self-seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianjun; Ma, Yu; Hu, Wenbing; Rehahn, Matthias; Reiter, Günter

    2009-04-01

    In general, when a crystal is molten, all molecules forget about their mutual correlations and long-range order is lost. Thus, a regrown crystal does not inherit any features from an initially present crystal. Such is true for materials exhibiting a well-defined melting point. However, polymer crystallites have a wide range of melting temperatures, enabling paradoxical phenomena such as the coexistence of melting and crystallization. Here, we report a self-seeding technique that enables the generation of arrays of orientation-correlated polymer crystals of uniform size and shape (`clones') with their orientation inherited from an initial single crystal. Moreover, the number density and locations of these cloned crystals can to some extent be predetermined through the thermal history of the starting crystal. We attribute this unique behaviour of polymers to the coexistence of variable fold lengths in metastable crystalline lamellae, typical for ordering of complex chain-like molecules.

  18. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Vujisic, L.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years, especially under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 micrometers, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5 mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 micrometers. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  19. Stability of Detached Grown Germanium Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Detachment of the melt meniscus from the crucible during semiconductor Bridgman growth experiments has been observed in recent years especially, under microgravity experiments. Under earth conditions, the hydrostatic pressure counteracts the mechanism, whereby it is more difficult to achieve detached Bridgman growth. Attempts to get stable detached growth under terrestrial conditions have been discussed in the literature and have been the subject of recent experiments in our own group. The advantage of crystals grown without wall contact is obvious: In general, they possess a higher crystal quality than conventional Bridgman grown crystals with wall contact. However, due to the interaction of different parameters such as the wetting behavior of the melt with the crucible, and the dependence of the growth angle with the shape of the melt meniscus, the mechanism leading to detachment is very complicated and not completely understood. We have grown several doped and undoped Germanium crystals with the detached Bridgman and the normal Bridgman growth technique. Pyrolytic boron nitride containers were used for all growth experiments. In the detached grown crystals the typical gap thickness between the pBN crucible and the crystal is in the range of 10 to 100 microns, which was determined by performing profilometer measurements. Etch pit density measurements were also performed and a comparison between detached and attached grown crystals will be given. An interesting feature was detected on the surface of a detached grown crystal. Strong surface striations with an average axial distance of 0.5mm were observed around the whole circumference. The maximum fluctuation of the gap thickness is in the range of 5-10 microns. These variations of the detached gap along the crystal axis can be explained by a kind of stiction of the melt/crucible interface and thus by a variation of the meniscus shape. This phenomenon leading to the fluctuation of the gap thickness will be

  20. Optical electric-field sensor based on angular optical bias using single β-BaB2O4 crystal.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Shen, Xiaoli; Zeng, Rong

    2013-11-01

    A novel optical electric-field sensor is proposed and demonstrated in experiment by use of a single beta barium borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO) crystal. The optical sensing unit is only composed of one BBO crystal and two polarizers. An optical phase bias of 0.5π is provided by using natural birefringence in the BBO crystal itself. A small angle (e.g., 0.6°) between the sensing light beam and principal axis of the crystal is required in order to produce the above optical bias. Thus the BBO crystal is used as the electric-field-sensing element and quarter waveplate. The ac electric field in the range of (1.4-703.2) kV/m has been measured with measurement sensitivity of 1.39 mV/(kV/m) and nonlinear error of 0.6%. Compared with lithium niobate crystal used as an electric-field sensor, main advantages of the BBO crystal include higher measurement sensitivity, compact configuration, and no ferroelectric ringing effect. PMID:24216661

  1. Modified triglycine sulphate (TGS) single crystals for pyroelectric infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, M.; Lal, R. B.; Batra, Ashok

    1992-01-01

    Effects of caesium and cerium, L-alanine, and caesium plus L-alanine impurities on ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of TGS crystals are investigated. Dielectric constant and loss, pyroelectric coefficient, spontaneous polarization, and coercive field measurements of these modified crystals, as a function of temperature, are reported. Caesium and cerium did not affect the electrical properties of TGS crystals significantly, whereas L-alanine- and, especially, Cs + L-alanine-doped TGS crystals exhibited promising improvements in pyroelectric properties, up to 48 C, as compared to pure TGS crystals.

  2. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Abdelhady, Ahmed L; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F; Bakr, Osman M

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3(+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization. PMID:26145157

  3. The Growth of Large Single Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Carl D.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an experiment which demonstrates principles of experimental design, solubility, and crystal growth and structure. Materials, procedures and results are discussed. Suggestions for adapting this activity to the high school laboratory are provided. (CW)

  4. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Kneisel, P.

    2007-08-09

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was build. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 {mu}m of Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120 deg. C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  5. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

    2007-09-01

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  6. Single-drop optimization of protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Arne; Dierks, Karsten; Hilterhaus, Dierk; Klupsch, Thomas; Mühlig, Peter; Kleesiek, Jens; Schöpflin, Robert; Einspahr, Howard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Betzel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A completely new crystal-growth device has been developed that permits charting a course across the phase diagram to produce crystalline samples optimized for diffraction experiments. The utility of the device is demonstrated for the production of crystals for the traditional X-ray diffraction data-collection experiment, of microcrystals optimal for data-collection experiments at a modern microbeam insertion-device synchrotron beamline and of nanocrystals required for data collection on an X-ray laser beamline. PMID:22869140

  7. Single-drop optimization of protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Arne; Dierks, Karsten; Hilterhaus, Dierk; Klupsch, Thomas; Mühlig, Peter; Kleesiek, Jens; Schöpflin, Robert; Einspahr, Howard; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Betzel, Christian

    2012-08-01

    A completely new crystal-growth device has been developed that permits charting a course across the phase diagram to produce crystalline samples optimized for diffraction experiments. The utility of the device is demonstrated for the production of crystals for the traditional X-ray diffraction data-collection experiment, of microcrystals optimal for data-collection experiments at a modern microbeam insertion-device synchrotron beamline and of nanocrystals required for data collection on an X-ray laser beamline. PMID:22869140

  8. UCN Production With a Single Crystal of Ortho-Deuterium

    PubMed Central

    Utsuro, M.; Tanaka, M.; Mishima, K.; Nagai, Y.; Shima, T.; Fukuda, Y.; Kohmoto, T.; Momose, T.; Moriai, A.; Okumura, K.; Yoshino, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports on the preliminary experimental results concerning a new concept of ultracold neutron production with a single crystal converter of ortho-deuterium lying in the ground rotational state at the low temperature of about 10 K, which should make it possible to utilize a guided cold neutron beam instead of irradiating the converter material in the inside of high radiation fields. The successful observation of the clear Bragg scattering pattern from the single crystal converter and the reasonable results from the first experimental trial of the ultracold neutron production with the single crystal are shown. PMID:27308135

  9. UCN Production With a Single Crystal of Ortho-Deuterium.

    PubMed

    Utsuro, M; Tanaka, M; Mishima, K; Nagai, Y; Shima, T; Fukuda, Y; Kohmoto, T; Momose, T; Moriai, A; Okumura, K; Yoshino, H

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reports on the preliminary experimental results concerning a new concept of ultracold neutron production with a single crystal converter of ortho-deuterium lying in the ground rotational state at the low temperature of about 10 K, which should make it possible to utilize a guided cold neutron beam instead of irradiating the converter material in the inside of high radiation fields. The successful observation of the clear Bragg scattering pattern from the single crystal converter and the reasonable results from the first experimental trial of the ultracold neutron production with the single crystal are shown. PMID:27308135

  10. Transport in organic single-crystal microbelt for conformal electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Nan; Tong, Yanhong; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun

    2016-03-01

    We showed the advantages of flexible rubrene organic single-crystal microbelts in high-performance devices and circuits towards conformal electronics. The anisotropic transport based on the only one organic microbelt was studied by a "cross-channel" method, and the rubrene microbelt showed the highest mobility up to 26 cm2/V s in the length direction. Based on an individual rubrene microbelt, the organic single-crystal circuit with good adherence on a pearl ball and the gain as high as 18 was realized. These results present great potential for applications of organic single-crystal belts in the next-generation conformal electronics.

  11. A study of crystal growth by solution technique. [triglycine sulfate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and mechanisms of crystal growth from solution are discussed as well as the effects of impurity adsorption on the kinetics of crystal growth. Uncertainities regarding crystal growth in a low gravity environment are examined. Single crystals of triglycine sulfate were grown using a low temperature solution technique. Small components were assembled and fabricated for future space flights. A space processing experiment proposal accepted by NASA for the Spacelab-3 mission is included.

  12. Single crystal Processing and magnetic properties of gadolinium nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Shreve, Andrew John

    2012-01-01

    GdNi is a rare earth intermetallic material that exhibits very interesting magnetic properties. Spontaneous magnetostriction occurs in GdNi at T{sub C}, on the order of 8000ppm strain along the c-axis and only until very recently the mechanism causing this giant magnetostriction was not understood. In order to learn more about the electronic and magnetic structure of GdNi, single crystals are required for anisotropic magnetic property measurements. Single crystal processing is quite challenging for GdNi though since the rare-earth transition-metal composition yields a very reactive intermetallic compound. Many crystal growth methods are pursued in this study including crucible free methods, precipitation growths, and specially developed Bridgman crucibles. A plasma-sprayed Gd2O3 W-backed Bridgman crucible was found to be the best means of GdNi single crystal processing. With a source of high-quality single crystals, many magnetization measurements were collected to reveal the magnetic structure of GdNi. Heat capacity and the magnetocaloric effect are also measured on a single crystal sample. The result is a thorough report on high quality single crystal processing and the magnetic properties of GdNi.

  13. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function

  14. Growth and characterization of ammonium acid phthalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, A.; Ramasamy, P.

    2013-04-01

    Ammonium acid phthalate (AAP) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The unit cell parameters were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it belongs to orthorhombic system with the space group of Pcab. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the crystalline perfection of the grown crystal. The various functional groups of AAP were identified by FT-IR and Raman spectral analyses. Thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by TGA/DTA. The optical properties of the grown crystals were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR and photoluminescence spectral studies. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by Vickers microhardness measurement. The growth features of AAP were analyzed by chemical etching.

  15. Growing intermetallic single crystals using in situ decanting

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, Cedomir; Canfield, Paul; Mellen, Jonathan

    2012-05-16

    High temperature metallic solution growth is one of the most successful and versatile methods for single crystal growth, and is particularly suited for exploratory synthesis. The method commonly utilizes a centrifuge at room temperature and is very successful for the synthesis of single crystal phases that can be decanted from the liquid below the melting point of the silica ampoule. In this paper, we demonstrate the extension of this method that enables single crystal growth and flux decanting inside the furnace at temperatures above 1200°C. This not only extends the number of available metallic solvents that can be used in exploratory crystal growth but also can be particularly well suited for crystals that have a rather narrow exposed solidification surface in the equilibrium alloy phase diagram.

  16. A simple low-cost single-crystal NMR setup.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mads S; Kessler, Tommy O; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    A low-cost single-crystal NMR kit is presented along with a web-based post-processing software. The kit consists of a piezo-crystal motor and a goniometer for the crystal, both embedded in a standard wide-bore NMR probe with a 3D printed scaffold. The NMR pulse program controls the angle setting automatically, and the post-processing software incorporates a range of orientation-angle discrepancies present in the kit and other single-crystal setups. Results with a NaNO3 single-crystal show a high degree of reproducibility and excellent agreement with previous findings for the anisotropic quadrupolar interaction. PMID:27295612

  17. Twisted Single Crystals of Meta-Aromatic Polyamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. P.; Martin, D. C.

    1996-03-01

    The morphology of single crystals of the aromatic polyamide poly(metaphenylene isophthalamide) (MPDI or Nomex) was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The single crystals of MPDI were slowly grown from 0.1 weight percent solution. MPDI forms elongated crystals which aggregate together to form highly regular twisted helical bundles. The repeat periods of the helices typically range from 240 nm to 1000 nm and the bundle diameters vary from 36 nm to 120 nm. The angle between the edge of the crystal and the bundle axis varies from 40 to 65 degrees. The regular twisting evidently arises from a bending moment induced by the triclinic symmetry of the MPDI unit cell and the lamellar geometry of the chain-folded single crystal.

  18. Electromechanical properties and anisotropy of single- and multi-domain 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gang; Jiang, Wenhua; Zhu, Jiaqi; Cao, Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    Complete sets of elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of 0.72Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 single crystal poled along [111]c (single domain) as well as non-polar axes [001]c and [011]c (multidomain) have been measured under natural conditions. These data allowed us to evaluate accurately the extrinsic contributions to the superior piezoelectric properties. Very large extrinsic contributions to the unusual anisotropies in multidomain crystals are confirmed. We found that the instability of domain structures is the origin of the low mechanical quality factor Q for the multidomain relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals. Our results can provide useful guidance in future design of domain engineered materials. PMID:22087049

  19. Effect of gamma ray irradiation on sodium borate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidasan, M.; Asokan, K.; Baskar, K.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the effects of 5 kGy, 10 kGy and 20 kGy doses of gamma ray irradiation on sodium borate, Na2[B4O5(OH)4]·(H2O)8 single crystals have been studied. Initially these crystals were grown by solution growth technique and identified as monoclinic using X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray rocking curves confirm the formation of crystalline defects due to gamma rays in sodium borate single crystals. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra have been recorded to identify the radicals created due to gamma ray irradiation in sodium borate single crystals. The thermoluminescence glow curves due to the defects created by gamma rays in this crystal have been observed and their kinetic parameters were calculated using Chen's peak shape method. The optical absorption increases and photoluminescence spectral intensity decreases for 5 kGy and 20 kGy doses gamma ray irradiated crystals compared to pristine and 10 kGy dose irradiated one. The effect of various doses of gamma rays on vibrational modes of the sodium borate single crystals was studied using FT-Raman and ATR-FTIR spectral analysis. The dielectric permittivity, conductance and dielectric loss versus frequency graphs of these crystals have been analyzed to know the effect of gamma ray irradiation on these parameters.

  20. Growth of large single crystals of the orthorhombic paracetamol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, M. A.

    2004-05-01

    A new procedure for the growth of large (cm-range) single crystals of the metastable orthorhombic (s.g. Pcab) polymorph of paracetamol is described. The crystals were grown by very slow cooling of hot water solutions under the conditions, when the multiple nucleation was prevented. The samples were characterized by DSC and X-ray diffraction.

  1. Study of single crystals of metal solid solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, J. P.; Reising, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The parameters and requirements for growing single crystals of relatively high melting point metals in a zero gravity environment are studied. The crystal growth of metals such as silver, copper, gold, and alloys with a melting point between 900-1100 C is examined.

  2. Tip-induced domain growth on the non-polar cuts of lithium niobate single-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alikin, D. O.; Turygin, A. P.; Lobov, A. I.; Shur, V. Ya.; Ievlev, A. V.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2015-05-04

    Currently, ferroelectric materials with designed domain structures are considered as a perspective material for new generation of photonic, data storage, and data processing devices. Application of external electric field is the most convenient way of the domain structure formation. Lots of papers are devoted to the investigation of domain kinetics on polar surface of crystals while the forward growth remains one of the most mysterious stages due to lack of experimental methods allowing to study it. Here, we performed tip-induced polarization reversal on X- and Y-non-polar cuts in single-crystal of congruent lithium niobate which allows us to study the forward growth with high spatial resolution. The revealed difference in the shape and length of domains induced on X- and Y-cuts is beyond previously developed theoretical approaches used for the theoretical consideration of the domains growth at non-polar ferroelectric surfaces. To explain experimental results, we used kinetic approach with anisotropy of screening efficiency along different crystallographic directions.

  3. Measurement of single crystal surface parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Bell, A. E.; Strayer, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The sticking coefficient and thermal desorption spectra of Cs from the (110) plane of W was investigated. A sticking coefficient of unity for the monolayer region was measured for T 250 K. Several distinct binding states were observed in the thermal desorption spectrum. Work function and electron reflection measurements were made on the (110) and (100) crystal faces of Mo. Both LEED and Auger were used to determine the orientation and cleanliness of the crystal surfaces. The work function values obtained for the (110) and (100) planes of Mo were 4.92 and 4.18 eV respectively.

  4. Growth of single crystals by vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.

    1978-01-01

    The primary objectives of the program were to establish basic vapor transport and crystal growth properties and to determine thermodynamic, kinetic and structural parameters relevant to chemical vapor transport systems for different classes of materials. An important aspect of these studies was the observation of the effects of gravity-caused convection on the mass transport rate and crystal morphology. These objectives were accomplished through extensive vapor transport, thermochemical and structural studies on selected Mn-chalcogenides, II-VI and IV-VI compounds.

  5. High-temperature alloys: Single-crystal performance boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys are lightweight and have attractive properties for high-temperature applications. A new growth method that enables single-crystal production now boosts their mechanical performance.

  6. Large single domain 123 material produced by seeding with single crystal rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.; Miller, D.J.; Shi, D.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-07-07

    A method of fabricating bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} where compressed powder oxides and/or carbonates of Y and Ba and Cu present in mole ratios to form YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} are heated in the presence of a Nd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} seed crystal to a temperature sufficient to form a liquid phase in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} while maintaining the seed crystal solid. The materials are slowly cooled to provide a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} material having a predetermined number of domains between 1 and 5. Crack-free single domain materials can be formed using either plate shaped seed crystals or cube shaped seed crystals with a pedestal of preferential orientation material. 7 figs.

  7. Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of an organic material: 2-Aminopyridinium succinate succinic acid single crystal.

    PubMed

    Magesh, M; Bhagavannarayana, G; Ramasamy, P

    2015-11-01

    The 2-aminopyridinium succinate succinic acid (2APS) single crystal was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. The crystal structure has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal perfection has been evaluated by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The grown crystal is transparent in the visible and near infrared region. The optical absorption edge was found to be 348 nm. The fluorescence study was carried out by spectrofluorophotometer. The thermal stability of grown crystal was analyzed by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis. Vicker's hardness study carried out at room temperature shows increased hardness while increasing the load. Laser damage threshold value was determined by Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. The grown 2APS crystal was characterized by etching studies using water as etchant. PMID:26099828

  8. Inhomogeneities in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorjani, K.; Bohandy, J.; Kim, B. F.; Adrian, F. J.

    1991-01-01

    The next stage in the evolution of experimental research on the high temperature superconductors will require high quality single crystals and epitaxially grown crystalline films. However, inhomogeneities and other defects are not uncommon in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors, so a corollary requirement will be a reliable method for judging the quality of these materials. The application of magnetically modulated resistance methods in this task is briefly described and illustrated.

  9. Anomalous magneto-resistance in single crystals of silver chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Liu, Haiwen; Hua, Wei; Yuan, Zhunjun; Sun, Junliang; Xie, Xincheng; Jia, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Silver chalcogenides have been known as quantum materials for over fifteen years but no single crystal was ever studied before. Very recently, we developed a method for growth of single crystals. Our measurements of magneto-resistance (MR) showed strong Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations associated with a very low quantum limit. When the field is beyond this limit we observed a negative, longitudinal MR, which is believed as a fingerprint of chiral anomaly in Weyl Fermion systems.

  10. 250 W single-crystal fiber Yb:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Délen, Xavier; Piehler, Stefan; Didierjean, Julien; Aubry, Nicolas; Voss, Andreas; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Graf, Thomas; Balembois, Francois; Georges, Patrick

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate an Yb:YAG single-crystal fiber laser with 251 W output power in continuous-wave and an optical efficiency of 44%. This performance can be explained by the high overlap between pump and signal beams brought by the pump guiding and by the good thermal management provided by the single-crystal fiber geometry. The oscillator performance with a reflectivity of the output coupler as low as 20% also shows high potential for power amplification. PMID:22825171

  11. Synthesis and Single-Crystal Growth of Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuji, Satoru; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2001-01-01

    For the study of the quasi-two-dimensional Mott transition system Ca{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}RuO{sub 4}, we have succeeded in synthesizing polycrystalline samples and also growing single crystals by a floating-zone method. Details of the preparations for the entire solution range are described. The structural, transport, and magnetic properties of both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples are fully in agreement.

  12. Single crystal growth and characterization of URu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ōnuki, Yoshichika; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-11-01

    We review recent progress in single crystal growth and study of electronic properties in ?. Czocharalski pulling, using purified uranium metal and subsequent annealing under ultra-high vacuum, is successfully applied to this compound, and it yields the highest residual resistivity ratio. These high-quality single crystals allow us to investigate Fermi surfaces using quantum oscillation and to make detailed transport measurements at low temperature.

  13. Fatigue damage modeling for coated single crystal superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, David M.

    1988-01-01

    A high temperature, low-cycle fatigue life prediction method for coated single crystal nickel-base superalloys is being developed. The method is being developed for use in predicting crack initiation life of coated single crystal turbine airfoils. Although the models are being developed using coated single crystal PWA 1480, they should be readily adaptable to other coated nickel-base single crystal materials. The coatings choosen for this effort were of two generic types: a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY overlay, designated PWA 286, and an aluminide diffusion, designated PWA 273. In order to predict the useful crack initiation life of airfoils, the constitutive and failure behavior of the coating/substrate combination must be taken into account. Coatings alter the airfoil surface microstructure and are a primary source from which cracks originate. The adopted life prediction approach addresses this complexity by separating the coating and single crystal crack initiation regimes. This provides a flexible means for using different life model formulations for the coating and single crystal materials. At the completion of this program, all constitutive and life model formulations will be available in equation form and as software. The software will use the MARC general purpose finite element code to drive the constitutive models and calculate life parameters.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Mo 3Si single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, I.

    2008-08-01

    Mo 3Si single crystals were successfully produced using an optical floating zone furnace. Reoriented specimens were obtained from the original crystal with <1 1 1>, <1 1 0> and <1 0 0> orientations. Cracking behavior of the crystals shows an interesting relation regarding their crystal orientation. Fracture toughness values show small orientation dependence. The hardness test shows that the hard plane is the (1 0 0), and the softest plane was the (1 1 0) and not the (1 1 1) as it was expected.

  15. Direct observation of interlocked domain walls and topological four-state vortex-like domain patterns in multiferroic YMnO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Lei; Wang, Yumei Ge, Binghui; Zhang, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zhihua

    2015-03-16

    Using the advanced spherical aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope imaging techniques, we investigated atomic-scale structural features of domain walls and domain patterns in YMnO{sub 3} single crystal. Three different types of interlocked ferroelectric-antiphase domain walls and two abnormal topological four-state vortex-like domain patterns are identified. Each ferroelectric domain wall is accompanied by a translation vector, i.e., 1/6[210] or −1/6[210], demonstrating its interlocked nature. Different from the four-state vortex domain patterns caused by a partial edge dislocation, two four-state vortex-like domain configurations have been obtained at atomic level. These observed phenomena can further extend our understanding of the fascinating vortex domain patterns in multiferroic hexagonal rare-earth manganites.

  16. Growth and characterization of organic single crystal benzyl carbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Solanki, S. Siva; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana; Suthan, T.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2015-10-01

    Benzyl carbamate single crystal is grown by a solution and vertical Bridgman technique for the first time. The cell parameters and morphologies are assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the crystalline perfection of the grown benzyl carbamate crystal. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy study has been applied to arrive at the different functional groups. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to study its thermal behavior. The microhardness test is carried out and the load dependent hardness is measured.

  17. Optical and photoelectrochemical study of WTe2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, P. F.; Patel, D. D.; Bhavsar, D. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of Tungsten Ditelluride (WTe2) having a layered structure grown by chemical vapor transport method using iodine as the transporting agent are studied here. The optical response of these crystals has been obtained by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy at room temperature. Results of optical spectra have been analyzed on the basis of three dimensional models. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) characterization of WTe 2 single crystals have been carried out. Photo response measurements were obtained at different intensities of light source to illuminate the photoanode. The effect of intensity in the efficiency of PEC solar cell has been studied. The implications of the results have been discussed.

  18. Constitutive Modeling of Superalloy Single Crystals and Directionally Solidified Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A unified viscoplastic constitutive relation based on crystallographic slip theory was developed for the deformation analysis of nickel base face centered cubic superalloy single crystals at elevated temperature. The single crystal theory is embedded in a self consistent method to derive a constitutive relation for a directionally solidified material comprised of a polycrystalline aggregate of columnar cylindrical grains. One of the crystallographic axes of the cylindrical crystals points in the columnar direction while the remaining crystallographic axes are oriented at random in the basal plane perpendicular to the columnar direction. These constitutive formulations are coded in FORTRAN for use in nonlinear finite element and boundary element programs.

  19. Vapor crystal growth studies of single crystals of mercuric iodide (3-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, Lodewijk

    1992-01-01

    A single crystal of mercuric iodide (HgI2) will be grown during the International Microgravity Lab. (IML-1) mission. The crystal growth process takes place by sublimation of HgI2 from an aggregate of purified material, transport of the molecules in the vapor from the source to the crystal, and condensation on the crystal surface. The objectives of the experiment are as follow: to grow a high quality crystal of HgI2 of sufficient size so that its properties can be extensively analyzed; and to study the vapor transport process, specifically the rate of diffusion transport at greatly reduced gravity where convection is minimized.

  20. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Maier, R. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of crystal orientation on the mechanical properties of single crystals of the nickel-based superalloy Mar-M247 are investigated. Tensile tests at temperatures from 23 to 1093 C and stress rupture tests at temperatures from 760 to 1038 C were performed for 52 single crystals at various orientations. During tensile testing between 23 and 760 C, single crystals with high Schmid factors were found to be favorably oriented for slip and to exhibit lower strength and higher ductility than those with low Schmid factors. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for cross slip were observed to have the shortest stress rupture lives at 760 C, while those which required little or no rotation had the longest lives. In addition, stereographic triangles obtained for Mar-M247 and Mar-M200 single crystals reveal that crystals with orientations near the -111 had the highest lives, those near the 001 had high lives, and those near the 011 had low lives.

  1. Fatigue Failure Criteria for Single Crystal Nickel Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.

    1999-01-01

    High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas-turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry and NASA because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Single-crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the pan geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades is complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. A fatigue failure criteria based on the maximum shear stress amplitude [delta t max] on the 30 slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criteria reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data, for four different specimen orientations, for PWA 1484 at 1200 F in air, quite well. A power law curve fit of the failure parameter, delta t max, vs. cycles to failure is presented.

  2. Raman spectra of deuteriated taurine single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M. de; Lima, R. J. C.; Freire, P. T. C.; Sasaki, J. M.; Melo, F. E. A.; Filho, J. Mendes; Jones, Derry W.

    2005-05-01

    The polarized Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine [(ND 3+) 0.65(NH 3+) 0.35(CH 2) 2SO 3-] crystals from x( zz) x and x( zy) x scattering geometries of the A g and B g irreducible representations of the factor group C 2h are reported. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra of partially deuteriated taurine do not reveal any evidence of the structural phase transition undergone by normal taurine at about 250 K, but an anomaly observed in the 180 cm -1 band at ˜120 K implies a different dynamic for this band (which is involved in a pressure-induced phase transition) in the deuteriated crystal.

  3. Electronic transitions and dielectric functions of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In{sub 1∕2}Nb{sub 1∕2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} single crystals: Temperature dependent spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J. J.; Zhang, J. Z.; Chu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Hu, Z. G.

    2014-03-31

    Optical properties and phase transitions of Pb(In{sub 1∕2}Nb{sub 1∕2})O{sub 3}-Pb(Mg{sub 1∕3}Nb{sub 2∕3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals near morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been investigated by temperature dependent transmittance and reflectance spectra. Three critical point energies E{sub g} = 3.17–3.18 eV, E{sub a} = 3.41–3.61 eV, and E{sub b} = 4.74–4.81 eV can be assigned to the transitions from oxygen 2p to titanium d, niobium d, and lead 6p states, respectively. They show narrowing trends with increasing temperature, which can be caused by thermal expansion of the lattice and electron-phonon interaction. Deviation from the linear behaviors can be observed from E{sub a} and E{sub b} versus PT concentration, indicating a complex multiphase structure near MPB region.

  4. Atomic beam scattering from single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Daniel R.

    Application of atom-scattering to a variety of surface problems is expanding rapidly, owing in large part to the extreme surface- sensitivity of this probe. Helium is particularly useful because of its low mass and chemical inertness. Beams with velocity spreads of less than one percent and wavelength of the order of one Angstrom can be formed by nozzle expansion. The scattered flux from a clean, well-ordered crystal surface contains elastic and inelastic, coherent and incoherent, components. The coherent elastic component (i.e., the specular and diffracted beams) contains information about the crystallographic structure of the outer- most atomic layer of the crystal and about the interaction potential between the crystal and the scattered particle. The latter manifests itself in the form of resonances between the incoming free-particle state, and the two-dimensional Bloch states bound in the potential well at the surface. Elastic scattering theory has reached the point where the resonance signatures in the various diffracted beams can be predicted accurately. Crystallographic information resides in the diffracted beam intensities. Theoretical interpretation is less well advanced, though some progress has been made with “hard-wall” models. Experimental studies of reconstructed surfaces and chemisorbed overlayers appear very promising. In inelastic scattering, energy resolution has been achieved by both time-of-flight and diffraction methods. High-resolution studies on alkali halide surfaces have led to experimental determination of Rayleighwave dispersion relations over the full Brillouin zone. Preliminary results have also been obtained on some metals.

  5. Preparation and tensile properties of DD5 single crystal castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiang-feng; Zhao, Yu-tao; Jia, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Chi

    2016-06-01

    The preparation procedure of DD5 single crystal castings was optimized. The microstructure characteristics of DD5 single crystal superalloy were investigated by microstructure observation and segregation behavior examination. The results show that the grain orientation is optimized by constraining the spiral crystallizer in [001] orientation and spatial scale. Also, the γ' phase of inter-dendrites is larger and more irregular than that in dendrite arms. High temperature tensile tests of DD5 single crystal castings exhibit that the peak stress increases with increasing temperature, while the area reduction shows an opposite trend, when the temperature is below 800°C; meanwhile, when the temperature is between 800°C and 1000°C, the fracture stress of the alloy is the same as the peak stress. The fracture mode changes from shear to ductile with increasing temperature from 600°C and 1000°C.

  6. Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal; Patriarche, Gilles; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Akopian, Nika; Zwiller, Val

    2016-02-10

    We report the first comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of single crystal phase quantum dots in InP nanowires. Crystal phase quantum dots are defined by a transition in the crystallographic lattice between zinc blende and wurtzite segments and therefore offer unprecedented potential to be controlled with atomic layer accuracy without random alloying. We show for the first time that crystal phase quantum dots are a source of pure single-photons and cascaded photon-pairs from type II transitions with excellent optical properties in terms of intensity and line width. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising quantum optical properties for single photon application and quantum optics. PMID:26806321

  7. Preparation of bead metal single crystals by electron beam heating

    SciTech Connect

    Voigtlaender, Bert; Linke, Udo; Stollwerk, H.; Brona, J.

    2005-11-15

    For the fabrication of small metal bead crystals a gas flame is used to melt a wire forming a liquid droplet which solidifies upon cooling into a single crystal metal bead. Due to oxidation under ambient conditions bead crystals can be formed only from noble metals using this method. Here we describe a method how to fabricate bead crystals from a wide variety of metals and metal alloys (Cu, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ta, W, Re, Ir, Pt, Au, PtPd, Pd{sub 80}Pt{sub 20}, PtRh, AuAg, and PtIr) by electron beam heating under vacuum conditions. Narrow x-ray diffraction peaks confirm a high crystal quality of the bead crystals.

  8. Spontaneous polarization and dielectric relaxation dynamics of ferroelectric liquid crystals derived from 2(S)-[2(S)-ethylhexyolxy] propionic acid and its (S, R)-diastereomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei-Ching; Fu, Chao-Ming

    2015-09-01

    The spontaneous polarization and molecular dynamics of four ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) with two different kinds of core rings and two types of diastereomeric structures were investigated in this study. The FLCs with a biphenyl ring core structure showed higher spontaneous polarization than the FLCs with a naphthalene ring core structure. The complex dielectric spectra exhibited the Goldstone mode in the ferroelectric (SmC*) phase for all FLCs. The complex dielectric spectra of the four FLCs can be optimally fitted by the Debye model and the Cole-Cole model. Moreover, the Goldstone mode was enhanced under low DC bias fields for the FLCs with the (S, R)- diastereomeric structure, whereas the mode was suppressed for the FLCs with the (S, S)- diastereomeric structure. A microscopic molecular dynamic model is proposed to describe the underlying mechanism of the particular enhancement of the Goldstone mode. The experimental results of dielectric spectra and spontaneous polarization are explained in the discussion of the mesomorphic properties related to the FLC molecular structure.

  9. Single crystal niobium tubes for particle colliders accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred °C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 °C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 °C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was

  10. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Fatigue Failure of Single Crystal Nickel Base Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, N. K.; Swanson, G.

    2002-01-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single crystal nickel turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and jet engines throughout industry because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493, PWA 1484, RENE' N-5 and CMSX-4. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. The failure modes of single crystal turbine blades are complicated to predict due to the material orthotropy and variations in crystal orientations. Fatigue life estimation of single crystal turbine blades represents an important aspect of durability assessment. It is therefore of practical interest to develop effective fatigue failure criteria for single crystal nickel alloys and to investigate the effects of variation of primary and secondary crystal orientation on fatigue life. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude /Delta(sub tau)(sub max))] on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems, is presented for single crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion reduces the scatter in uniaxial LCF test data considerably for PWA 1493 at 1200 F in air. Additionally, single crystal turbine blades used in the alternate advanced high-pressure fuel turbopump (AHPFTP/AT) are modeled using a large-scale three-dimensional finite element model. This finite element model is capable of accounting for material orthotrophy and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Effects of variation in crystal orientation on blade stress response are studied based on 297

  11. Polyimide thin-film dielectrics on ferroelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galiardi, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Conducting layers of multi-layered thin-film ferroelectric device, such as is used in liquid crystal/ferroelectric display, can be electrically isolated using thin-film layer of polyimide. Ease of application and high electrical-breakdown strength allow dependable and economical means of providing dielectric for other thin-film microelectronic devices.

  12. Growth and properties of InP single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dun-fu, Fang; Xiang-xi, Wang; Yong-quan, Xu; Li-tong, Tan

    1984-04-01

    InP single crystals with various dopants including S, Sn, Zn and Fe have been grown successfully by the Czochralski method under high pressure with liquid encapsulation. It is found that by carefully adjusting the thermal symmetry of the heating field and by further improving the quality of the polycrystals and by dehydrating B 2O 3, twin-free InP crystals can be obtained even with a shoulder angle of up to 54°, and defects caused by thermal decomposition appear on the surface of the crystals during pulling. Furthermore, a comparison of the crystal perfection and uniformity between S-doped and Sn-doped InP crystals shows that the quality of the former is better than that of the latter. Dislocation-free Zn-doped p-InP single crystals without precipitates have also been easily obtained when the carrier concentration is greater than 2×10 18 cm -3 and the diameter less than 30 mm. By controlling the iron content, semi-insulating thermally stable single crystals of InP doped with ⩽0.03 wt% of Fe without precipitates and with a homogeneous resistivity can be produced.

  13. Method of making macrocrystalline or single crystal semiconductor material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, P. J. (Inventor); Holliday, R. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A macrocrystalline or single crystal semiconductive material is formed from a primary substrate including a single crystal or several very large crystals of a relatively low melting material. This primary substrate is deposited on a base such as steel or ceramic, and it may be formed from such metals as zinc, cadmium, germanium, aluminum, tin, lead, copper, brass, magnesium silicide, or magnesium stannide. These materials generally have a melting point below about 1000 C and form on the base crystals the size of fingernails or greater. The primary substrate has an epitaxial relationship with a subsequently applied layer of material, and because of this epitaxial relationship, the material deposited on the primary substrate will have essentially the same crystal size as the crystals in the primary substrate. If required, successive layers are formed, each of a material which has an epitaxial relationship with the previously deposited layer, until a layer is formed which has an epitaxial relationship with the semiconductive material. This layer is referred to as the epitaxial substrate, and its crystals serve as sites for the growth of large crystals of semiconductive material. The primary substrate is passivated to remove or otherwise convert it into a stable or nonreactive state prior to deposition of the seconductive material.

  14. Optical and structural properties of chalcone NLO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh Kumar, P. C.; Ravindrachary, V.; Janardhana, K.; Manjunath, H. R.; Karegouda, Prakash; Crasta, Vincent; Sridhar, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    Organic compound (E)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one [MPTCPP] with molecular formula C 16H 11Cl 3O 2 was synthesized using Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction method. 1H NMR spectra was recorded to identify the various functional groups present in the compound and confirm the chemical structure. The single crystals were grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique. The UV-Visible spectrum study reveals that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region and the absorption is observed at 364 nm. The Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test shows that the MPTCPP is NLO active and its SHG efficiency is three times that of urea. Single crystal XRD study shows that the compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with a space group Cc. The corresponding lattice parameters of the crystal are a = 28.215(5) Å, b = 3.9740(4) Å, c = 16.178(3) Å and V = 1503.0(4) Å 3. The micro hardness test was carried out and the work hardening coefficient value ( n) of the crystal was found to be 1.48. This indicates that the crystal is hard and is suitable for device application. The thermal study reveals that the thermal stability of the crystal is good.

  15. Single crystal growth and characterization of holmium tartrate trihydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Want, Basharat; Ahmad, Farooq; Kotru, P. N.

    2007-02-01

    The growth of holmium tartrate trihydrate (HTT) single crystals is achieved in organic (agar-agar) as well as in inorganic (silica) gels by single gel diffusion method. Results of the study on nucleation kinetics of crystals grown in silica gel are described. The crystals exhibit the morphological form of a tetragonal dipyramidal class with {0 0 1} and {1 1 1} as dominant faces. Elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) supplemented by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) support the suggested chemical formula of the grown crystals to be [Ho (C 4H 4O 6) (C 4H 5O 6)·3H 2O]. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that the crystals belong to tetragonal system with the cell parameters a=5.97 Å, c=36.09 Å, bearing the space group P4 1. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic study indicates the presence of tartrate ligands and suggests that one of the tartrate ions is singly ionized. TGA suggests that the material is thermally stable up to 220 °C.

  16. Growth and nonlinear optical characterization of organic single crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ligui

    1997-12-01

    Organic single crystal films are important for various future applications in photonics and integrated optics. The conventional method for inorganic crystal growth is not suitable for organic materials, and the high temperature melting method is not good for most organic materials due to decomposition problems. We developed a new method-modified shear method-to grow large area organic single crystal thin films which have exceptional nonlinear optical properties and high quality surfaces. Several organic materials (NPP, PNP and DAST) were synthesized and purified before the thin film crystal growth. Organic single crystal thin films were grown from saturated organic solutions using modified shear method. The area of single crystal films were about 1.5 cm2 for PNP, 1 cm2 for NPP and 5 mm2 for DAST. The thickness of the thin films which could be controlled by the applied pressure ranged from 1μm to 10 μm. The single crystal thin films of organic materials were characterized by polarized microscopy, x-ray diffraction, polarized UV-Visible and polarized micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Polarized microscopy showed uniform birefringence and complete extinction with the rotation of the single crystal thin films under crossed- polarization, which indicated high quality single crystals with no scattering. The surface orientation of single crystal thin films was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The molecular orientation within the crystal was further studied by the polarized UV-Visible and Polarized micro-FTIR techniques combined with the x-ray and polarized microscopy results. A Nd:YAG laser with 35 picosecond pulses at 1064nm wavelength was employed to perform the nonlinear optical characterization of the organic single crystal thin films. Two measurement techniques were used to study the crystal films: second harmonic generation (SHG) and electro-optic (EO) effect. SHG results showed that the nonlinear optical coefficient of NPP was 18 times that of LiNbO3, a standard

  17. Enhancing the mechanical properties of single-crystal CVD diamond.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Meng, Yufei; Lai, Joseph; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2009-09-01

    Approaches for enhancing the strength and toughness of single-crystal diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at high growth rates are described. CVD processes used to grow single-crystal diamond in high density plasmas were modified to incorporate boron and nitrogen. Semi-quantitative studies of mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers indentation techniques. The introduction of boron in single-crystal CVD diamond can significantly enhance the fracture toughness of this material without sacrificing its high hardness (∼78 GPa). Growth conditions were varied to investigate its effect on boron incorporation and optical properties by means of photoluminescence, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Boron can be readily incorporated into single-crystal diamond by the methods used, but with nitrogen addition, the incorporation of boron was hindered. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that nitrogen and boron coexist in the diamond structure, which helps explain the origin of the enhanced fracture toughness of this material. Further, low pressure/high temperature annealing can enhance the intrinsic hardness of single-crystal CVD diamond by a factor of two without appreciable loss in fracture toughness. This doping and post-growth treatment of diamond may lead to new technological applications that require enhanced mechanical properties of diamond. PMID:21832321

  18. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Dennis, R. E.; Heath, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objectives of Project 3 were to develop the exothermic casting process to produce uncooled single-crystal (SC) HP turbine blades in MAR-M 247 and higher strength derivative alloys and to validate the materials process and components through extensive mechanical property testing, rig testing, and 200 hours of endurance engine testing. These Program objectives were achieved. The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low-cost nonproperietary method for producing single-crystal castings. Single-crystal MAR-M 247 and two derivatives DS alloys developed during this project, NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3, were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC MAR-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) MAR-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. Firtree testing, holography, and strain-gauge rig testing were used to determine the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single-crystal materials. No undesirable characteristics were found. In general, the single-crystal material behaved similarly to DS MAR-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined. These blades were successfully engine-tested.

  19. Limits to Fourier theory in high thermal conductivity single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Cahill, David G.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) experiments that examine the ability of Fourier theory to predict the thermal response in single crystals when heater dimensions are small. We performed TDTR measurements on Al-coated diamond, 6H-SiC, GaP, Ge, MgO, GaAs, and GaSb single crystals with a wide range of laser spot size radii, 0.7 μm < w 0 < 12 μm. When the laser spot-size is large, w 0 ≈ 12 μm, TDTR data for all crystals are in agreement with predictions of Fourier theory with bulk thermal conductivity values. When the laser spot-size is small, w 0 < 2 μm, there are significant differences between the predictions of Fourier theory and TDTR data for all crystals except MgO.

  20. Method for harvesting rare earth barium copper oxide single crystals

    DOEpatents

    Todt, V.R.; Sengupta, S.; Shi, D.

    1996-04-02

    A method of preparing high temperature superconductor single crystals is disclosed. The method of preparation involves preparing precursor materials of a particular composition, heating the precursor material to achieve a peritectic mixture of peritectic liquid and crystals of the high temperature superconductor, cooling the peritectic mixture to quench directly the mixture on a porous, wettable inert substrate to wick off the peritectic liquid, leaving single crystals of the high temperature superconductor on the porous substrate. Alternatively, the peritectic mixture can be cooled to a solid mass and reheated on a porous, inert substrate to melt the matrix of peritectic fluid while leaving the crystals melted, allowing the wicking away of the peritectic liquid. 2 figs.

  1. Single-Crystal Structure of a Covalent Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, YB; Su, J; Furukawa, H; Yun, YF; Gandara, F; Duong, A; Zou, XD; Yaghi, OM

    2013-11-06

    The crystal structure of a new covalent organic framework, termed COF-320, is determined by single-crystal 3D electron diffraction using the rotation electron diffraction (RED) method for data collection. The COF crystals are prepared by an imine condensation of tetra-(4-anilyl)methane and 4,4'-biphenyldialdehyde in 1,4-dioxane at 120 degrees C to produce a highly porous 9-fold interwoven diamond net. COF-320 exhibits permanent porosity with a Langmuir surface area of 2400 m(2)/g and a methane total uptake of 15.0 wt % (176 cm(3)/cm(3)) at 25 degrees C and 80 bar. The successful determination of the structure of COF-320 directly from single-crystal samples is an important advance in the development of COF chemistry.

  2. Isotropic behavior of an anisotropic material: single crystal silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Douglas R.; Paquin, Roger A.

    2013-09-01

    Zero defect single crystal silicon (Single-Crystal Si), with its diamond cubic crystal structure, is completely isotropic in most properties important for advanced aerospace systems. This paper will identify behavior of the three most dominant planes of the Single-Crystal Si cube (110), (100) and (111). For example, thermal and optical properties are completely isotropic for any given plane. The elastic and mechanical properties however are direction dependent. But we show through finite element analysis that in spite of this, near-isotropic behavior can be achieved with component designs that utilize the optimum elastic modulus in directions with the highest loads. Using glass frit bonding to assemble these planes is the only bonding agent that doesn't degrade the performance of Single-Crystal Si. The most significant anisotropic property of Single-Crystal Si is the Young's modulus of elasticity. Literature values vary substantially around a value of 145 GPa. The truth is that while the maximum modulus is 185 GPa, the most useful <110< crystallographic direction has a high 169 GPa, still higher than that of many materials such as aluminum and invar. And since Poisson's ratio in this direction is an extremely low 0.064, distortion in the plane normal to the load is insignificant. While the minimum modulus is 130 GPa, a calculated average value is close to the optimum at approximately 160 GPa. The minimum modulus is therefore almost irrelevant. The (111) plane, referred to as the natural cleave plane survives impact that would overload the (110) and/or (100) plane due to its superior density. While mechanical properties vary from plane to plane each plane is uniform and response is predictable. Understanding the Single-Crystal Si diamond cube provides a design and manufacture path for building lightweight Single-Crystal Si systems with near-isotropic response to loads. It is clear then that near-isotropic elastic behavior is achievable in Single-Crystal Si

  3. Growth and characterization of lithium yttrium borate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A. K.; Singh, S. G.; Tyagi, M.; Desai, D. G.; Sen, Shashwati

    2014-04-24

    Single crystals of 0.1% Ce doped Li{sub 6}Y(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} have been grown using the Czochralski technique. The photoluminescence study of these crystals shows a broad emission at ∼ 420 nm corresponding to Ce{sub 3+} emission from 5d→4f energy levels. The decay profile of this emission shows a fast response of ∼ 28 ns which is highly desirable for detector applications.

  4. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.; Watring, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and serious has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; mercury cadmium telluride with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent respectively. These alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed of residual acceleration effects. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system by a previously processed sample, the sample was not received until May 1998, and the preliminary analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. Early results are indicating that the sample may not accomplish the desired objectives. As with the USMP-2 mission, the results of the ground based experiments were compared with the crystal grown in orbit under microgravity conditions. On the earth, it has been demonstrated that the

  5. Skylab experiments on semiconductors and alkali halides. [single crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The space processing experiments performed during the Skylab missions included one on single crystal growth of germanium selenide and telluride, one on pure and doped germanium crystals, two on pure and doped indium antimonide, one on gallium-indium-antimony systems, and one on a sodium chloride-sodium fluoride eutectic. In each experiment, three ampoules of sample were processed in the multipurpose electric furnace within the Skylab Materials Processing Facility. All were successful in varying degrees and gave important information about crystal growth removed from the effects of earth surface gravity.

  6. Large Silver Halide Single Crystals as Charged Particle Track Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusmiss, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    The trajectory of the particle is made visible under a microscope by the accumulation of metallic silver at regions of the lattice damaged by the particle. This decoration of the particle track is accomplished by exposure of the crystal to light. The decoration of normally present lattice imperfections such as dislocations can be suppressed by the addition to the crystal of less than ten parts per million of a suitable polyvalent metal impurity. An account of some preliminary attempts to grow thin single crystals of AgCl is given also, and suggestions for a more refined technique are offered.

  7. Single-Crystal Elasticity of Earth Materials: An Appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The elastic properties of minerals are of central importance for interpreting seismic data for the Earth's crust, mantle, and core. Mineral elasticity data also have more general applications towards understanding equations of state, phase equilibria, interatomic forces, material strength, and phase transitions. The singe-crystal elastic properties are the most generally useful as they provide complete information on the anisotropy of elastic moduli (e.g. Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), sound velocities, and compressibility. Measurement of the full set of single-crystal elastic properties remains challenging especially for lower symmetry crystals. In this talk, I present an overview of our current understanding of single-crystal elasticity based on a newly constructed database of single-crystal elastic properties. At ambient conditions the full elastic tensor of about 150 minerals have now been measured, along with about another 60 related compounds that are not formally minerals. About two-thirds of the measured minerals are oxides or silicates. A limitation of the existing database is that only about 10% of the measurements are on crystals of monoclinic or triclinic symmetry, while these two systems account for about 40% of known minerals. Additionally, only a smaller subset of minerals have been examined at high pressure or temperature conditions. Several applications of the database will be presented emphasizing trends in elastic anisotropy. The pyroxenes will be used as an illustrative example.

  8. Nanocharacterization of the negative stiffness of ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour Skandani, A.; Ctvrtlik, R.; Al-Haik, M.

    2014-08-01

    Phase changing materials such as ferroelectric materials could exhibit negative stiffness under certain thermomechanical environments. This negative stiffness is embodied by a deflection along the opposite direction of the applied load. So far negative stiffness materials were investigated with the specific morphology of embedded inclusions in stiff matrices then the resulting composite is studied to measure the behavior of each constituent indirectly. In this study, a modified nonisothermal nanoindentation method is developed to measure the negative stiffness of triglycine sulfate single crystal directly. This in-situ method is intended to first demonstrate the feasibility of detecting the negative stiffness via nanoindentation and nanocreep of a ferroelectric material at its Curie point and then to quantify the negative stiffness without the need for embedding the crystal within a stiffer matrix.

  9. Near-field resonance shifts of ferroelectric barium titanate domains upon low-temperature phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Döring, Jonathan; Ribbeck, Hans-Georg von; Kehr, Susanne C.; Eng, Lukas M.; Fehrenbacher, Markus

    2014-08-04

    Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has been established as an excellent tool to probe domains in ferroelectric crystals at room temperature. Here, we apply the s-SNOM possibilities to quantify low-temperature phase transitions in barium titanate single crystals by both temperature-dependent resonance spectroscopy and domain distribution imaging. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition at 263 K manifests in a change of the spatial arrangement of ferroelectric domains as probed with a tunable free-electron laser. More intriguingly, the domain distribution unravels non-favored domain configurations upon sample recovery to room temperature as explainable by increased sample disorder. Ferroelectric domains and topographic influences are clearly deconvolved even at low temperatures, since complementing our s-SNOM nano-spectroscopy with piezoresponse force microscopy and topographic imaging using one and the same atomic force microscope and tip.

  10. Low dimensional magnetic solids and single crystal elpasolites: Need for improved crystal growing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, M. L.; Watkins, S.; Schwartz, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The need for extensive crystal growing experiments to develop techniques for preparing crystals suitable for magnetic anisotropy measurements and detailed X-ray and neutron diffraction studies is rationalized on the basis of the unique magnetic properties of the materials and their hydrogen bonded structures which have many features in common with metalloenzyme and metalloprotein active sites. Single crystals of the single and mixed lanthanide species are prepared by the Bridgeman technique of gradient solidification of molten samples. The effects of crystal imperfections on the optical properties of these materials are an important part of the projected research. A series of a-amido acid complexes of first row transition metals were prepared which crystallize as infinite linear chains and exhibit low dimensional magnetic ordering (one or two) at temperature below 40 K.

  11. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  12. The Load Capability of Piezoelectric Single Crystal Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Tian-Bing; Su, Ji; Jiang, Xiaoning; Rehrig, Paul W.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystal is one of the most promising materials for electromechanical device applications due to its high electrical field induced strain and high electromechanical coupling factor. PMN-PT single crystal-based multilayer stack actuators and multilayer stack-based flextensional actuators have exhibited high stroke and high displacement-voltage ratios. The actuation capabilities of these two actuators were evaluated using a newly developed method based upon a laser vibrometer system under various loading conditions. The measured displacements as a function of mechanical loads at different driving voltages indicate that the displacement response of the actuators is approximately constant under broad ranges of mechanical load. The load capabilities of these PMN-PT single crystal-based actuators and the advantages of the capability for applications will be discussed.

  13. Single Crystal Synthesis and STM Studies of High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Alfonso

    1997-01-01

    This is a final report for the work initiated in September of 1994 under the grant NAG8-1085 - NASA/OMU, on the fabrication of bulk and single crystal synthesis, specific heat measuring and STM studies of high temperature superconductors. Efforts were made to fabricate bulk and single crystals of mercury based superconducting material. A systematic thermal analysis on the precursors for the corresponding oxides and carbonates were carried out to synthesized bulk samples. Bulk material was used as seed in an attempt to grow single crystals by a two-step self flux process. On the other hand bulk samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, We studied the specific heat behavior in the range from 80 to 300 K. Some preliminary attempts were made to study the atomic morphology of our samples. As part of our efforts we built an ac susceptibility apparatus for measuring the transition temperature of our sintered samples.

  14. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Analysis of Single-Crystal, Nickel-Based Turbine Blade Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. R.; Arakere, N. K.

    2000-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue-induced failures in turbine and turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Single-crystal nickel turbine blades are used because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance, and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities. Single-crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant and complicating factor. A fatigue failure criterion based on the maximum shear stress amplitude on the 24 octahedral and 6 cube slip systems is presented for single-crystal nickel superalloys (FCC crystal). This criterion greatly reduces the scatter in uniaxial fatigue data for PWA 1493 at 1,200 F in air. Additionally, single-crystal turbine blades used in the Space Shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump/alternate turbopump are modeled using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model. This model accounts for material orthotrophy and crystal orientation. Fatigue life of the blade tip is computed using FE stress results and the failure criterion that was developed. Stress analysis results in the blade attachment region are also presented. Results demonstrate that control of crystallographic orientation has the potential to significantly increase a component's resistance to fatigue crack growth without adding additional weight or cost.

  15. The demonstration of significant ferroelectricity in epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Takao; Katayama, Kiliha; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Sakata, Osami; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectricity and Curie temperature are demonstrated for epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film grown on (110) yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) single crystal using Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) as bottom electrodes. The XRD measurements for epitaxial film enabled us to investigate its detailed crystal structure including orientations of the film. The ferroelectricity was confirmed by electric displacement filed – electric filed hysteresis measurement, which revealed saturated polarization of 16 μC/cm2. Estimated spontaneous polarization based on the obtained saturation polarization and the crystal structure analysis was 45 μC/cm2. This value is the first experimental estimations of the spontaneous polarization and is in good agreement with the theoretical value from first principle calculation. Curie temperature was also estimated to be about 450 °C. This study strongly suggests that the HfO2-based materials are promising for various ferroelectric applications because of their comparable ferroelectric properties including polarization and Curie temperature to conventional ferroelectric materials together with the reported excellent scalability in thickness and compatibility with practical manufacturing processes. PMID:27608815

  16. The demonstration of significant ferroelectricity in epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takao; Katayama, Kiliha; Kiguchi, Takanori; Akama, Akihiro; Konno, Toyohiko J; Sakata, Osami; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectricity and Curie temperature are demonstrated for epitaxial Y-doped HfO2 film grown on (110) yttrium oxide-stabilized zirconium oxide (YSZ) single crystal using Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) as bottom electrodes. The XRD measurements for epitaxial film enabled us to investigate its detailed crystal structure including orientations of the film. The ferroelectricity was confirmed by electric displacement filed - electric filed hysteresis measurement, which revealed saturated polarization of 16 μC/cm(2). Estimated spontaneous polarization based on the obtained saturation polarization and the crystal structure analysis was 45 μC/cm(2). This value is the first experimental estimations of the spontaneous polarization and is in good agreement with the theoretical value from first principle calculation. Curie temperature was also estimated to be about 450 °C. This study strongly suggests that the HfO2-based materials are promising for various ferroelectric applications because of their comparable ferroelectric properties including polarization and Curie temperature to conventional ferroelectric materials together with the reported excellent scalability in thickness and compatibility with practical manufacturing processes. PMID:27608815

  17. Novel Pb(Ti, Zr)O3(PZT) Crystallization Technique Using Flash Lamp for Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM) Embedded LSIs and One Transistor Type FeRAM Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Imai, Keitaro; Arisumi, Osamu; Arikado, Tsunetoshi; Yoshioka, Masaki; Owada, Tatsushi; Okumura, Katsuya

    2002-04-01

    A novel method of ferroelectric capacitor formation for Ferroelectrie random access memory (FeRAM) embedded LSIs and one-transistor-type FeRAMs has been developed. Amorphous Pb(Ti, Zr)O3(PZT) films were successfully transformed to the perovskite phase by a flash lamp technique with a crystallization time of 1.2 ms at a substrate temperature of 350°C. A flash lamp energy of 27 J/cm2 was sufficient to form a ferroelectric crystal structure due to rapid thermal effects with little heat diffusion in the depth direction. This technique enabled PZT film crystallization in Pt/PZT/Pt structures on multi-Al wiring layers. Granular PZT grains were observed on Pt, Ru and RuO2 electrodes, which indicates that crystal growth begins from the film surfaces. Ferroelectric property was verified by the process at 350°C maximum temperature. PZT films were also crystallized directly on SiO2. This is useful for the fabrication of embedded FeRAM devices and 1Tr-type FeRAMs. The flash lamp process was found to have great potential for application to dielectric film formation, annealing processes and so on.

  18. Single-Crystal Epitaxial Thin Films of the Isotropic Metallic Oxides Sr1-xCaxRuO3 (0 le x le 1).

    PubMed

    Eom, C B; Cava, R J; Fleming, R M; Phillips, J M; Vandover, R B; Marshall, J H; Hsu, J W; Krajewski, J J; Peck, W F

    1992-12-11

    Single-crystal epitaxial thin films of the isotropic metallic oxides Sr1-xCaxRuO(3) (0 ferroelectric, magneto-optic, and electro-optic devices. PMID:17831659

  19. Anisotropy of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. A.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Maier, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the tensile and stress rupture behavior of 52 Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Tensile tests were performed at temperatures between 23 and 1093 C; stress rupture behavior was examined between 760 and 1038 C. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factor contours for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The tensile properties correlated well with the appropriate Schmid factor contours. The stress rupture lives at lower testing temperatures were greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce cross slip. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture life data generated for the Mar-M247 single crystals at 760 and 774 C under a stress of 724 MPa and the data reported for Mar-M200 single crystals tested at 760 C under a stress of 689 MPa. Based on this analysis, the stereographic triangle was divided into several regions which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime.

  20. Structural, spectral and mechanical studies of bimetallic crystal: cadmium manganese thiocyanate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, M.; Vijaya Prasath, G.; Bhagavannarayan, G.; Vijayan, N.; Mahalingam, T.; Ravi, G.

    2012-09-01

    A nonlinear optical bimetallic thiocyanate complex crystal, cadmium manganese thiocyanate (CMTC) has been successfully synthesized. The growth of single crystals of cadmium manganese thiocyanate has been accomplished from aqueous solution using slow evaporation method. The presence of manganese and cadmium in the synthesized material was confirmed through energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. Structural analysis was carried out using powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD) and crystalline perfection of the grown crystals was ascertained by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum was taken to confirm the functional groups. The transmittance spectrum of the crystal in the UV-visible region has been recorded and the cutoff wavelength has been determined. The dielectric measurements for the crystals were performed for various frequencies and temperatures. The mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers microhardness testing, which reveals hardness and stiffness constant of the crystals.

  1. Optical phonon modes and crystal structure of NaLaF4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lage, Márcio Martins; Matinaga, Franklin Massami; Gesland, Jean-Yves; Moreira, Roberto Luiz

    2006-03-01

    Polarized Raman scattering and infrared reflectivity measurements have been used to investigate the crystal structure of Czochralski-grown NaLaF4 single crystals. The phonon symmetries, the simultaneous presence of polar modes in the infrared and Raman spectra, as well as the observation of piezoelectric resonance, helped us to identify the P6 group as the correct one for this crystal. This material belongs to a family of sodium lanthanide tetrafluorides (NaLnF4) crystals, whose photoluminescence efficiency is comparable to LiYF4. Therefore, NaLaF4 crystals may be important in the development of diode pumped up-conversion solid-state lasers. The number and behavior of the observed optical phonon modes were analyzed in terms of group theory predictions for the group symmetry found. A few anomalies in the phonon characteristics are discussed in terms of cationic disorder in the crystal lattice.

  2. Two-photon-induced singlet fission in rubrene single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Galstyan, Gegham; Zhang, Keke; Kloc, Christian; Sun, Handong; Soci, Cesare; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.; Gurzadyan, Gagik G.

    2013-05-01

    The two-photon-induced singlet fission was observed in rubrene single crystal and studied by use of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The location of two-photon excited states was obtained from the nondegenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) spectrum. Time evolution of the two-photon-induced transient absorption spectra reveals the direct singlet fission from the two-photon excited states. The TPA absorption coefficient of rubrene single crystal is 52 cm/GW at 740 nm, as obtained from Z-scan measurements. Quantum chemical calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory support our experimental data.

  3. Preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Du Jimin; Liu Zhimin . E-mail: liuzm@iccas.ac.cn; Wu Weize; Li Zhonghao; Han Buxing . E-mail: hanbx@iccas.ac.cn; Huang Ying

    2005-06-15

    This article, for the first time, reports the preparation of single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods and nanodisks. Using amorphous copper ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by reverse micelle as reaction precursor, single-crystal copper ferrite nanorods were synthesized via hydrothermal method in the presence of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG), however, copper ferrite nanodisks were prepared through the same procedures except the surfactant PEG. The resulting nanomaterials have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected electron area diffraction (SEAD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bulk composition of the samples was determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  4. Apparatus And Method For Producing Single Crystal Metallic Objects

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Shyh-Chin; Gigliotti, Jr., Michael Francis X.; Rutkowski, Stephen Francis; Petterson, Roger John; Svec, Paul Steven

    2006-03-14

    A mold is provided for enabling casting of single crystal metallic articles including a part-defining cavity, a sorter passage positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the part-defining cavity, and a seed cavity positioned vertically beneath and in fluid communication with the sorter passage. The sorter passage includes a shape suitable for encouraging a single crystal structure in solidifying molten metal. Additionally, a portion of the mold between the sorter passage and the part-defining cavity includes a notch for facilitating breakage of a cast article proximate the notch during thermal stress build-up, so as to prevent mold breakage or the inclusion of part defects.

  5. How a silver dendritic mesocrystal converts to a single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.; Ding, B.; Song, X.; Han, Y.

    2008-05-02

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a silver dendrite transforms from mesocrystal into single crystal and the stability for a dendritic silver mesocrystal within a Sn/AgNO3 galvanic replacement reaction. Our findings provide the direct evidence and visible picture of the transformation from mesocrystal to single crystalline structure and further confirm the particle-mediated crystallization mechanism. At the initial stage of the transformation, there is a crystallographic fusion process, dominated by oriented attachment mechanism. Ostwald ripening also plays an important role in forming smooth surface and regular shape of the final nanocrystal.

  6. Structural and optical properties of a new chalcone single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh Kumar, P. C.; Ravindrachary, V.; Janardhana, K.; Poojary, Boja

    2012-09-01

    A new nonlinear optical material 1-(4-methylthiophenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one with molecular formula C17H16O2S was synthesized by using the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction method. The Various functional groups present in the compound were identified using recorded FT-IR spectrum. The crystal growth parameters have been studied using solubility test and acetone is found to be a very good solvent for the crystal growth at an ambient temperature. The transparent high quality single crystals up to a size of 26×2×2 mm3 were grown using the slow evaporation solution growth technique. UV-visible study was carried out and the spectrum reveals that the crystal is transparent in the entire visible region and absorptive in the UV region. The refractive index is determined using Brewster's angle method. The optical energy band gap of the material is measured using Tauc's plot and the direct method. The single crystal XRD of MMPP crystal shows the following cell parameters: a=5.9626(2) Å, b=15.3022(6) Å, c=16.0385(7) Å, α=β=γ=90°, volume=1463.37(10) Å3 with a space group of Pna21. The compound MMPP exhibits optical nonlinearity (NLO) and its second order NLO efficiency is 3.15 times to that of urea. The effect of functional groups OCH3 and SCH3 on the non-linearity as well as the structural property of the compound has been discussed. The crystal is thermally stable. High NLO efficiency, good thermal stability, good transparency and ability to grow as a high quality single crystal make this material very attractive for opto-electronic applications.

  7. Ordered nano-scale domains in lithium niobate single crystals via phase-mask assisted all-optical poling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellington, I. T.; Valdivia, C. E.; Sono, T. J.; Sones, C. L.; Mailis, S.; Eason, R. W.

    2007-02-01

    We report the formation of directionally ordered nano-scale surface domains on the +z face of undoped congruent lithium niobate single crystals by using UV illumination through a phase mask of sub-micron periodicity with an energy fluence between ˜90 mJ/cm 2 and 150 mJ/cm 2 at λ = 266 nm. We clearly show here that the UV-induced surface ferroelectric domains only nucleate at and propagate along maxima of laser intensity. Although the domain line separation varies and is greater than 2 μm for this set of experimental conditions, this enables a degree of control over the all-optical poling process.

  8. Crystal growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    An organic material of a L-histidine monohydrochloride single crystal was grown in a distilled water solution using the slow evaporation method at 40-45°C. The grown crystal was transparent and colourless, with a size of about 20 × 9 × 5 mm3, obtained within a period of 21 days. The solubility of grown crystals have found out at various temperatures. The UV-visible transmittance studies show that the grown crystals have wide optical transparency in the entire visible region It is observed that the crystal has transparency window from 255nm to 700nm and its energy gap (Eg) found to be is 3.1eV. The grown crystal was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming that the orthorhombic crystalline nature of the crystal. To identify the surface morphology, the as grown crystal was subjected to FE-SEM technique. The chemical composition of the grown crystal was estimated by Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The optical behaviour of the grown crystal was analyzed by PL study.

  9. Deformation of ⊥m single quartz crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasner, P.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The rheology of quartz deformed by dislocation creep is essential to understanding the strength of the mid to lower continental crust. Our current understanding of quartz rheology is derived primarily from studies of polycrystalline quartz and little is known about the temperature, strain rate, or water dependence of the individual quartz slip systems. In order to better understand the rheology of quartz slip systems, we have deformed synthetic quartz single crystals with the prism oriented at 45° to the compression direction (⊥m orientation). We converted the gel-type water found in synthetic quartz crystals to free water fluid inclusions, similar to water observed in milky quartz crystals, by annealing the crystals at 900°C/0.1 MPa for 24 hours. The single crystals were deformed at a confining pressure of 1.5 GPa with temperatures of 850 to 1000°C and strain rates of 10-6 to 10-4/s. FTIR measurements of water concentrations in the starting material, annealed synthetic crystals and deformed synthetic quartz crystals indicate that the water concentrations (125-300 H/106Si) are not affected by the annealing process or deformation. However, the spectra in the annealed and deformed samples are similar to those of natural milky quartz rather than those of synthetic quartz. Results of temperature and strain rate stepping experiments indicate that the strength of the crystals decreases with increasing temperature and/or decreasing strain rate. Undulatory extinction is the predominant microstructure observed in deformed samples, which is consistent with deformation by dislocation creep. The strength of the ⊥m oriented quartz crystals deformed in this study with free water is greater than those of the studies of synthetic quartz with gel type water (Linker and Kirby, 1981 and Muto et al., 2011).

  10. Ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    The current status of developments in the field of ferroelectric memory devices has been considered. The rapidly growing market of non-volatile memory devices has been analyzed, and the current state of the art and prospects for the scaling of parameters of non-volatile memory devices of different types have been considered. The basic constructive and technological solutions in the field of the design of ferroelectric memory devices, as well as the "roadmaps" of the development of this technology, have been discussed.

  11. Roflumilast - A reversible single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition at 50 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viertelhaus, Martin; Holst, Hans Christof; Volz, Jürgen; Hummel, Rolf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Roflumilast is a selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor and is marketed under the brand names Daxas®, Daliresp® and Libertec®. A phase transition of the drug substance roflumilast was observed at 50 °C. The low temperature form, the high temperature form and the phase transition were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry, variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and solid state NMR spectroscopy. The phase transition of roflumilast at 50 °C is completely reversible, the high temperature form cannot be stabilised by quench cooling and the phase transition does not influence the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the drug product. It was observed to be a single crystal to single crystal phase transition.

  12. Exploiting polymer single crystals to assemble and functionalize nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing

    Nanomaterials are fundamental building blocks for nanoscience and nanotechnology. They can generally be categorized into three classes: zero-dimensional (0D) (e.g. nanoparticles), one-dimensional (1D) (e.g. carbon nanotubes) and two-dimensional (2D) (e.g. thin films) nanomaterials. Assembly of nanomaterials is the key step to transfer their fascinating mechanical, electronic and optical properties from nano- to micro- or macro-scale. Among all types of assemblies, assembling across different nanomaterial classes is of particular interest. For example, assembling 0D nanoparticles with 1D nanotubes or 2D thin films. These assembled structures have the advantage of possessing properties from both classes of nanomaterials. Functionalization of nanomaterials is important from both scientific and technological points of view. A newly developed field of functionalization is called "patchy particles". Multiple types of functional molecules form different domains on particle surface. Each domain contains only one type of functional molecules. These domains are called patches. These patchy particles are advanced building blocks, which may assemble into useful complex structures. In this thesis, polymer single crystals are exploited to assemble and functionalize nanomaterials. Polymer single crystals have a lamellar structure. Since the thickness of these lamellae is ˜10 nm, polymer single crystals are introduced as a new type of 2D nanomaterials. Different from the traditional 2D nanomaterials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films, self-assembled monolayers and thin films made by Layer-by-Layer technique, these polymer single crystals are free-standing, which means no substrate is needed. Furthermore, the surface of these polymer single crystals can be readily functionalized by crystallizing end-functionalized polymers. Based on the studied polymers, this thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is focused on single crystals of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Thiol

  13. Mesoscale flux-closure domain formation in single-crystal BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    McQuaid, R G P; McGilly, L J; Sharma, P; Gruverman, A; Gregg, J M

    2011-01-01

    Over 60 years ago, Charles Kittel predicted that quadrant domains should spontaneously form in small ferromagnetic platelets. He expected that the direction of magnetization within each quadrant should lie parallel to the platelet surface, minimizing demagnetizing fields,and that magnetic moments should be configured into an overall closed loop, or flux-closure arrangement. Although now a ubiquitous observation in ferromagnets, obvious flux-closure patterns have been somewhat elusive in ferroelectric materials. This is despite the analogous behaviour between these two ferroic subgroups and the recent prediction of dipole closure states by atomistic simulations research. Here we show Piezoresponse Force Microscopy images of mesoscopic dipole closure patterns in free-standing, single-crystal lamellae of BaTiO(3). Formation of these patterns is a dynamical process resulting from system relaxation after the BaTiO(3) has been poled with a uniform electric field. The flux-closure states are composed of shape conserving 90° stripe domains which minimize disclination stresses. PMID:21792183

  14. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization. PMID:26145157

  15. Fretting Stresses in Single Crystal Superalloy Turbine Blade Attachments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Swanson, Gregory

    2000-01-01

    Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are being utilized in rocket engine turbopumps and turbine engines because of their superior creep, stress rupture, melt resistance and thermomechanical fatigue capabilities over polycrystalline alloys. Currently the most widely used single crystal nickel base turbine blade superalloys are PWA 1480/1493 and PWA 1484. These alloys play an important role in commercial, military and space propulsion systems. High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) induced failures in aircraft gas turbine and rocket engine turbopump blades is a pervasive problem. Blade attachment regions are prone to fretting fatigue failures. Single crystal nickel base superalloy turbine blades are especially prone to fretting damage because the subsurface shear stresses induced by fretting action at the attachment regions can result in crystallographic initiation and crack growth along octahedral planes. Furthermore, crystallographic crack growth on octahedral planes under fretting induced mixed mode loading can be an order of magnitude faster than under pure mode I loading. This paper presents contact stress evaluation in the attachment region for single crystal turbine blades used in the NASA alternate Advanced High Pressure Fuel Turbo Pump (HPFTP/AT) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Single crystal materials have highly orthotropic properties making the position of the crystal lattice relative to the part geometry a significant factor in the overall analysis. Blades and the attachment region are modeled using a large-scale 3D finite element (FE) model capable of accounting for contact friction, material orthotrophy, and variation in primary and secondary crystal orientation. Contact stress analysis in the blade attachment regions is presented as a function of coefficient of friction and primary and secondary crystal orientation, Stress results are used to discuss fretting fatigue failure analysis of SSME blades. Attachment stresses are seen to reach

  16. Polymer single crystal membrane from liquid/liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenda; Li, Christopher; Soft Matter Research Group-Drexel University Team

    2013-03-01

    Vesicles, mimicking the structure of cell membrane at the molecular scale, are small membrane-enclosed sacks that can store or transport substances. The weak mechanical properties and the nature of environment-sensitivity of the current available vesicles: liposomes, polymersomes, colloidsomes limit their applications as an excellent candidate for targeting delivery of drugs/genes in biomedical engineering and treatment. Recently, we developed an emulsion-based method to grow curved polymer single crystals. Varying the polymer concentration and/or the emulsification conditions (such as surfactant concentration, water-oil volume ratio), curved crystals with different sizes and different openness could be obtained. This growing process was attributed to polymer crystal growth along the liquid/liquid interface. In addition, the liquid/liquid interfacial crystal growth is promising for synthesis of enclosed hollow sphere.

  17. Growth, properties, and applications of potassium niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, G.; Fay, W.R.; Alekel, T. III; Rytz, D.; Garrett, M.

    1994-12-31

    Production refinements and pragmatic optical properties of the frequency converter crystal KNbO{sub 3} (KN) are highlighted regarding its commercialization. The growth, morphological orientation, and processing of KN crystals into devices are outlined. Passive absorption data are presented that define the effective window range for KN devices. An absorption band at 2.85 {mu}m is attributed to the presence of OH groups in the crystal, and its vibrational strength varies with crystal growth conditions and incident polarized light orientation. Although blue light induced infrared absorption (BLIRA) can reduce second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency at high power, single-pass conversion efficiencies of 1%/W{center_dot}cm may be achieved with incident fundamental powers of 10 W. The ability of KN to non-critically phasematch by temperature tuning provides blue-green wavelengths; together with critical angle-tuned phasematching, the entire visible spectrum may be accessed with efficient SHG conversion.

  18. Applications of single crystals in oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, C. L.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Manente, R. A.; Peterson, C. A.

    1991-02-01

    Both single crystal scintillators and germanium semiconductor detectors are used in oil well-logging tools for gamma-ray detection. Since the scintillator crystals range in size up to 3 inches in diameter and 12 inches long, extremely high crystal quality is necessary to prevent attenuation of the scintillation light over the long light paths. In addition, the elimination of impurities that quench the scintillation light is crucial. NaI(Tl) is the most common scintillator crystal due to its intense emission and good energy resolution. However, recent advances in the crystal growth of Bi 4Ge 3O 12, BaF 2, and CdWO 4 have improved their scintillation properties and made them viable alternatives for certain applications. The only semiconductor crystal in current use is high purity germanium. Other semiconductors such as CdTe and HgI 2 require improvements in crystal growth techniques to improve stoichiometry and remove defects and impurities which inhibit efficient charge collection.

  19. Structure and properties of Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–0.2PbTiO{sub 3} relaxor ferroelectric crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Xiaoming; Lai, Fachun; Huang, Zhigao; Li, Xiuzhi; Wang, Zujian; He, Chao; Lin, Ju; Long, Xifa

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The relaxor state of the crystal was demonstrated by the dielectric behavior. - Highlights: • PLN–0.2PT ferroelectric crystal was obtained by the TSSG technique. • The super-lattice reflections were identified by XRD and TEM results. • The PLN–0.2PT crystal is a typical relaxor ferroelectric. - Abstract: Ferroelectric crystal Pb(Lu{sub 1/2}Nb{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}–0.2PbTiO{sub 3} (PLN–0.2PT) was successfully obtained by a top-seed solution growth technique. At room temperature the symmetry was orthorhomic according to X-ray diffraction (XRD). The super-lattice reflections were identified by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The micro-domain structure was detected by TEM. The temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (ϵ′) shows a typical relaxor behavior. The temperature dependence of coercive electric field and remnant polarizations were investigated, which also shows the relaxor feature.

  20. Characterization of hydrogen embrittlement in nickel base superalloy single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chene, J.; Baker, C. L.; Bernstein, I. M.; Williams, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the role of CMSX2 single crystal microstructure on the combined stress-hydrogen environment effects, hydrogen was introduced by cathodic charging. Concentration measurements were carried out to investigate the dependence of hydrogen solubility and trapping on microstructure. Mechanical properties were measured at room temperature on smooth tensile specimens as a function of heat treatment, crystal orientation and H charging conditions. SEM and TEM allow to study H induced cracks initiation and propagation. A large amount of hydrogen can be dissolved and trapped in CMSX2 single crystals when exposed to a high hydrogen fugacity environment. The strong H trapping evidenced in voids explains the predominant role of these defects as crack initiation sites. The strong detrimental effect of hydrogen on the material tenacity is discussed.

  1. Single crystal plasticity with bend-twist modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkhodary, Khalil I.; Bakr, Mohamed A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work a formulation is proposed and computationally implemented for rate dependent single crystal plasticity, which incorporates plastic bend-twist modes that arise from dislocation density based poly-slip mechanisms. The formulation makes use of higher order continuum theory and may be viewed as a generalized micromechanics model. The formulation is then linked to the burgers and Nye tensors, showing how their material rates are derivable from a newly proposed third-rank tensor Λp, which incorporates a crystallographic description of bend-twist plasticity through selectable slip-system level constitutive laws. A simple three-dimensional explicit finite element implementation is outlined and employed in three simulations: (a) bi-crystal bending; (b) tension on a notched single crystal; and (c) the large compression of a microstructure to induce the plastic buckling of secondary phases. All simulation are transient, for computational expediency. The results shed light on the physics resulting from dynamic inhomogeneous plastic deformation.

  2. New perspectives for ferroelectric LC-polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Brehmer, M.; Gebhard, E.; Wittig, T.

    1996-10-01

    LC-Elastomers prepared from ferroelectric LC-polymers are interesting materials for two reasons. From a materials point of view they are interesting because of their ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyrroelectric properties. From a scientific point of view they are fascinating because they allow us to study the interplay of electric and mechanical forces in a rubbery material The coupling between the director reorientation and the network can be modified by crosslinking at the end of the mesogens or in the range of the polymer chains . In the last case the coupling is minimal. Besides the planar orientation in SSFLC-cells, free standing films offer the possibility of a homeotropic alignment of smectic liquid crystals ferroelectric LC elastomers of a different topology can be obtained by mixing a low molar mass or an oligomeric ferroelectric LC with a bifunctional crosslinkable: liquid crystal and performing photochemically a crosslinking reaction in one switching state of the smectic C* phase. As a result non crosslinkable ferroelectric LC will form micro-droplets surrounded by a densely crosslinked network, which is formed by the crosslinked non-ferroelectric liquid crystals. This gives a two phasic Volume or Network Stabilized Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal.

  3. Growth, mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of pure and doped KHP single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Lakshmipriya.; Babu, D. Rajan; Vizhi, R. Ezhil

    2015-06-01

    L-Arginine doped potassium hydrogen phthalate and L-Histidine doped potassium hydrogen phthalate single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The grown crystal crystallizes in orthorhombic system which is confirmed by single crystal XRD analysis. The grown crystals are subjected to thermal, mechanical and dielectric analysis.

  4. 3D crack tip fields for FCC single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cuitino, A.M.; Ortiz, M.

    1995-12-31

    Cracks in single crystals are of concern in a number of structural and non-structural applications, ranging form single-crystal turbine blades and rotors to metal interconnect lines in microcircuits. In this paper we present 3D numerical simulations of the crack-tip fields of a Cu single crystal, including stress, strain and slip activity patterns. The orientation of the crack tip is along the crystallographic orientation (101), while the crack plane is (010). A material model based on dislocation mechanics is used in these simulations. This model correctly predicts the observed behavior of Cu, including the basic hardening characteristics of single crystals, orientation dependence and stage I-II-III structure of the stress-strain curves, the observed levels of latent hardening and their variation with orientation and deformation in the primary system and slip activities and dislocation densities. We use the FEM within the context of finite deformation plasticity. In the figure below, we show the finite element mesh composed by 12-noded tetrahedrons with 6-noded triangular faces. The model simulates half of a beam, which is subjected to a concentrated load at 1/8 of total length from the support. Detailed results of the stress, deformation and slip activity are presented at different radii from crack tip and at different depths from the surface. In general, the results show a strong difference in the slip activity pattern form the interior to the exterior, while smaller differences are encountered in the stress and strain fields.

  5. Low-cost single-crystal turbine blades, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Heath, B.; Fujii, M.

    1983-01-01

    The exothermic casting process was successfully developed into a low cost nonproprietary method for producing single crystal (SC) castings. Casting yields were lower than expected, on the order of 20 percent, but it is felt that the casting yield could be significantly improved with minor modifications to the process. Single crystal Mar-M 247 and two derivative SC alloys were developed. NASAIR 100 and SC Alloy 3 were fully characterized through mechanical property testing. SC Mar-M 247 shows no significant improvement in strength over directionally solidified (DS) Mar-M 247, but the derivative alloys, NASAIR 100 and Alloy 3, show significant tensile and fatigue improvements. The 1000 hr/238 MPa (20 ksi) stress rupture capability compared to DS Mar-M 247 was improved over 28 C. Firtree testing, holography, and strain gauge rig testing were used to evaluate the effects of the anisotropic characteristics of single crystal materials. In general, the single crystal material behaved similarly to DS Mar-M 247. Two complete engine sets of SC HP turbine blades were cast using the exothermic casting process and fully machined.

  6. Dynamic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Burek, Michael J.; Lončar, Marko; Kara, Vural; Kearns, Ryan

    2015-12-14

    We show the dielectrophoretic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical devices. Gradient radio-frequency electromagnetic forces are used to achieve actuation of both cantilever and doubly clamped beam structures, with operation frequencies ranging from a few MHz to ∼50 MHz. Frequency tuning and parametric actuation are also studied.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuo; Takeya, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of molecular semiconductors. Materials for SC-OFETs are first reviewed with descriptions of the fabrication methods and the field-effect characteristics. In particular, a benchmark carrier mobility of 20-40 cm2 Vs-1, achieved with thin platelets of rubrene single crystals, demonstrates the significance of the SC-OFETs and clarifies material limitations for organic devices. In the latter part of this review, we discuss the physics of microscopic charge transport by using SC-OFETs at metal/semiconductor contacts and along semiconductor/insulator interfaces. Most importantly, Hall effect and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal that interface charge transport in molecular semiconductors is properly described in terms of band transport and localization by charge traps.

  8. Low temperature magnetic transitions of single crystal HoBi

    SciTech Connect

    Fente, A.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Nemes, N. M.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Budko, Sergei L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2013-09-04

    We present resistivity, specific heat and magnetization measurements in high quality single crystals of HoBi, with a residual resistivity ratio of 126. We find, from the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, an antiferromagnetic transition at 5.7 K, which evolves, under magnetic fields, into a series of up to five metamagnetic phases.

  9. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  10. Area detectors in single-crystal neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Garry J.

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of area detectors has brought about a gentle revolution in the routine application of single-crystal neutron diffractometry. Implemented first for macromolecular crystallography, electronic detectors subsequently gradually spread to chemical and physics-oriented crystallography at steady-state sources. The volumetric surveying of reciprocal space implicit in the Laue technique has required area detectors right from the start, whether using film and more recently image plates and CCD-based detectors at reactors, or scintillation detectors at spallation sources. Wide-angle volumetric data collection has extended application of neutron single-crystal diffractometry to chemical structures, sample volumes, and physical phenomena previously deemed impossible. More than 30 of the dedicated single-crystal neutron diffractometers at steady-state reactor and neutron spallation sources worldwide and accessible via peer-review proposal mechanisms are currently equipped with area detectors. Here we review the historical development of the various types of area detectors used for single crystals, discuss experimental aspects peculiar to experiments with such detectors, highlight the scientific fields where the use of area detectors has had a special impact, and forecast future developments in hardware, implementation, and software.

  11. Single-crystal semiconductor films grown on foreign substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vohl, P.

    1966-01-01

    Intermediate alloy formed between foreign substrates and semiconductor material enable the growth of single crystal semiconductor films on the alloy layer. The melted film must not ball up on the surface of the substrate and neither chemically react nor alloy with the intermediate alloy formed on the substrate.

  12. Reliability analysis of single crystal NiAl turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Noebe, Ronald; Wheeler, Donald R.; Holland, Fred; Palko, Joseph; Duffy, Stephen; Wright, P. Kennard

    1995-01-01

    As part of a co-operative agreement with General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA LeRC is modifying and validating the Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures algorithm for use in design of components made of high strength NiAl based intermetallic materials. NiAl single crystal alloys are being actively investigated by GEAE as a replacement for Ni-based single crystal superalloys for use in high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The driving force for this research lies in the numerous property advantages offered by NiAl alloys over their superalloy counterparts. These include a reduction of density by as much as a third without significantly sacrificing strength, higher melting point, greater thermal conductivity, better oxidation resistance, and a better response to thermal barrier coatings. The current drawback to high strength NiAl single crystals is their limited ductility. Consequently, significant efforts including the work agreement with GEAE are underway to develop testing and design methodologies for these materials. The approach to validation and component analysis involves the following steps: determination of the statistical nature and source of fracture in a high strength, NiAl single crystal turbine blade material; measurement of the failure strength envelope of the material; coding of statistically based reliability models; verification of the code and model; and modeling of turbine blades and vanes for rig testing.

  13. Unified constitutive model for single crystal deformation behavior with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Jordan, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal materials are being used in gas turbine airfoils and are candidates for other hot section components because of their increased temperature capabilities and resistance to thermal fatigue. Development of a constitutive model which assesses the inelastic behavior of these materials has been studied in 2 NASA programs: Life Prediction and Constitutive Models for Engine Hot Section Anisotropic Materials and Biaxial Constitutive Equation Development for Single Crystals. The model has been fit to a large body of constitutive data for single crystal PWA 1480 material. The model uses a unified approach for computing total inelastic strains (creep plus plasticity) on crystallographic slip systems reproducing observed directional and strain rate effects as a natural consequence of the summed slip system quantities. The model includes several of the effects that have been reported to influence deformation in single crystal materials, such as shear stress, latent hardening, and cross slip. The model is operational in a commercial Finite Element code and is being installed in a Boundary Element Method code.

  14. Growth of large single crystals of MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.; Urbanik, M.

    1997-06-12

    The progressive identification of new high-technology applications and requirements for MgO single crystals in the commercial realm, as well as in DOE and other government-agency project areas, has resulted in an increased demand and international market for this material. Specifically, the demand for MgO crystals in large sizes and quantities is presently increasing due to existing and developing applications that include: (a) MgO substrates for the formation of electro-optic thin films and devices, (b) epitaxial substrates for high-temperature thin-film superconducting devices MgO optical components - including high-temperature windows, lenses, and prisms, and (d) specialty MgO crucibles and evaporation sources for thin-film production. In the course of CRADA ORNL92-0091, carried out with Commercial Crystal Laboratories of Naples, Florida as the commercial participant, we have made major progress in increasing the size of single crystals of MgO produced by means of the submerged-arc-fusion technique-thereby increasing the commercial utility of this material. Prior to the accomplishments realized in the course of this CRADA, the only commercially available single crystals of MgO were produced in Japan, Israel, and Russia. The results achieved in the course of CRADA ORNL92-0091 have now led to the establishment of a domestic commercial source of MgO single-crystal substrates and components, and the U.S. is no longer totally dependent on foreign sources of this increasingly important material.

  15. Crystal growth, structural and photoluminescence studies of L-tyrosine hydrobromide semi organic single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Vetrivel, S.; Jayavel, R.; Vedhi, C.; Ravi, G.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2012-11-01

    Nearly perfect single crystal of L-tyrosine hydrobromide (LTHB) has been grown at room temperature from the saturated solution prepared from the solvent with optimised normality (2N) using slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal system and lattice parameters have been estimated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Prominent peeks of powder X-ray diffraction pattern have been indexed and diffraction data have been presented. The presence of various functional groups in LTHB has been identified by vibrational and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral study. The crystalline nature and defect during the growth has been studied by obtaining high resolution X-ray diffraction curve (rocking curve) for the title crystal and detailed explanation is given in this paper. Cyclic voltammetric behaviour and photoluminescence properties of LTHB have also been investigated.

  16. Domain wall conductivity in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Connell, J G; Seo, S S A; Gruverman, A

    2016-04-15

    Although enhanced conductivity of ferroelectric domain boundaries has been found in BiFeO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films as well as hexagonal rare-earth manganite single crystals, the mechanism of the domain wall conductivity is still under debate. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe enhanced conductance at the electrically-neutral domain walls in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films where the structure and polarization direction are strongly constrained along the c-axis. This result indicates that domain wall conductivity in ferroelectric rare-earth manganites is not limited to charged domain walls. We show that the observed conductivity in the TbMnO3 films is governed by a single conduction mechanism, namely, the back-to-back Schottky diodes tuned by the segregation of defects. PMID:26933770

  17. Domain wall conductivity in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. J.; Connell, J. G.; Seo, S. S. A.; Gruverman, A.

    2016-04-01

    Although enhanced conductivity of ferroelectric domain boundaries has been found in BiFeO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films as well as hexagonal rare-earth manganite single crystals, the mechanism of the domain wall conductivity is still under debate. Using conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe enhanced conductance at the electrically-neutral domain walls in semiconducting hexagonal ferroelectric TbMnO3 thin films where the structure and polarization direction are strongly constrained along the c-axis. This result indicates that domain wall conductivity in ferroelectric rare-earth manganites is not limited to charged domain walls. We show that the observed conductivity in the TbMnO3 films is governed by a single conduction mechanism, namely, the back-to-back Schottky diodes tuned by the segregation of defects.

  18. Polarization and polarization fatigue in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xiaofeng

    This thesis addresses some fundamental issues in ferroelectricity and its applications through a computational and experimental effort. It focuses on a variety of perovskite-type ferroelectric oxides and investigates the physical basis for spontaneous polarization, domain wall dynamics, and texture development in thin film applications. The dipole-dipole interactions between ionic species in perovskite-type materials have been calculated to determine the local field and the lattice instability. Different ferroelectric and anti-ferroelectric polarization transitions can be realized by taking into account the structure distortion of the parent perovskites. We find the local field is enhanced by short range disorder and its nature varies from disorder to disorder, causing polarization transitions in non-(100) directions. The molecular field theory has also been extended to layered perovskites, which favors in-plane polarization over c-polarization. These theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental observations of various perovskites and layered perovskites in both single crystal and thin film forms. Domain switching in PZT has been studied by probing the frequency dependency of polarization hysteresis. A picture of thermally activated domain wall movement is established from the frequency spectra of coercive field. The field dependence of domain wall bulging and the nature of the binding between pinning obstacles and the walls are inferred from such a study. Consistent with this picture, polarization fatigue can be defined as a process of increasing the resistance from pinning defects to domain wall motion. The chemical species that act as pinning defects have been identified through model experiments that control carrier injection, electrode interfaces, and film compositions. Based on these observations, a methodology is proposed to evaluate and predict the fatigue damage of both PZT and layered perovskite thin films. Processing of layered

  19. Crystal growth, spectral and laser properties of Nd:LSAT single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, P. C.; Yin, J. G.; Zhao, C. C.; Gong, J.; He, X. M.; Zhang, L. H.; Liang, X. Y.; Hang, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Nd:(La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O3 (Nd:LSAT) crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of Nd:LSAT crystal at room temperature were investigated. With a fiber-coupled diode laser as pump source, the continuous-wave (CW) laser action of Nd:LSAT crystal was demonstrated. The result of diode-pumped laser operation of Nd:LSAT crystal single crystal is reported for what is to our knowledge the first time. The maximum output power at 1064 nm was obtained to be 165 mW under the incident pump power of 3 W, with the slope efficiency 10.9%.

  20. Phase transition behaviors of PbZr1-xTixO3 single crystals as revealed by elastic anomalies and central peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun Kim, Tae; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kojima, Seiji; Bokov, Alexei A.; Long, Xifa; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Two PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) single crystals with x ≈ 0.45 and 0.42 near the morphotropic phase boundary were studied by Brillouin light scattering, giving rise to the first single-crystal elastic data which were discussed in terms of the correlation between the acoustic anomalies and the phase transition sequence. The ferroelectric phase transition of PZT with x ≈ 0.45 was second order (or very close to the second order) which accompanied very large polarization fluctuations resulting in the formation of strong central peaks. A revised phase diagram of PZT was suggested including refinement of the tilt phase boundary and a possible existence of tricritical point.

  1. Real-time observation of pulse reshaping using Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 single crystal fiber in a microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuanyong; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2005-03-01

    Ferroelectric single crystal fiber Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 (SBN) is evaluated for optical pulse engineering in terms of wavelength shifting and pulse compression/expansion through nonlinear optical (Pockels) effect at microwave frequencies. The microwave-photonic interaction was investigated experimentally in a TE103 microwave cavity at 10GHz. It is shown that the frequency component of an optical pulse can be controlled effectively using the SBN single crystal in a microwave cavity without the need of contact electrodes or any interruption to the optical system. The technique may be utilized in several aspects of optical communications such as channel definition and security encoding of the signal, and shows potential for a range of optoelectronic applications.

  2. Giant room-temperature barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Jie; Janolin, Pierre-Eymeric; Infante, Ingrid C.; Dkhil, Brahim E-mail: xlou03@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Lou, Xiaojie E-mail: xlou03@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2014-04-21

    Barocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal is studied by a thermodynamic phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that a giant barocaloric effect can be achieved near room temperature with an adiabatic temperature change of more than 3 K and a temperature span about 50 K. As expected, the electrocaloric peak can be shifted towards room temperature by pressure. However, a slight reduction of the electrocaloric peak is found in contrast to relaxor ferroelectrics and LiNbO{sub 3}. We believe that our findings could open a potential route by combining the barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal for cooling devices.

  3. A high performance triboelectric nanogenerator for self-powered non-volatile ferroelectric transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huajing; Li, Qiang; He, Wenhui; Li, Jing; Xue, Qingtang; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Lijing; Ren, Tianling; Dong, Guifang; Chan, H. L. W.; Dai, Jiyan; Yan, Qingfeng

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an integrated module of self-powered ferroelectric transistor memory based on the combination of a ferroelectric FET and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The novel TENG was made of a self-assembled polystyrene nanosphere array and a poly(vinylidene fluoride) porous film. Owing to this unique structure, it exhibits an outstanding performance with an output voltage as high as 220 V per cycle. Meanwhile, the arch-shaped TENG is shown to be able to pole a bulk ferroelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal directly. Based on this effect, a bottom gate ferroelectric FET was fabricated using pentacene as the channel material and a PMN-PT single crystal as the gate insulator. Systematic tests illustrate that the ON/OFF current ratio of this transistor memory element is approximately 103. More importantly, we demonstrate the feasibility to switch the polarization state of this FET gate insulator, namely the stored information, by finger tapping the TENG with a designed circuit. These results may open up a novel application of TENGs in the field of self-powered memory systems.We demonstrate an integrated module of self-powered ferroelectric transistor memory based on the combination of a ferroelectric FET and a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG). The novel TENG was made of a self-assembled polystyrene nanosphere array and a poly(vinylidene fluoride) porous film. Owing to this unique structure, it exhibits an outstanding performance with an output voltage as high as 220 V per cycle. Meanwhile, the arch-shaped TENG is shown to be able to pole a bulk ferroelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystal directly. Based on this effect, a bottom gate ferroelectric FET was fabricated using pentacene as the channel material and a PMN-PT single crystal as the gate insulator. Systematic tests illustrate that the ON/OFF current ratio of this transistor memory element is approximately 103. More importantly, we demonstrate the

  4. Growth, characterization, and crystal structure of a new chalcone derivative single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shettigar, Venkataraya; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2006-09-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical (NLO) chalcone derivative viz.1- ( 4- methoxyphenyl )-3- (3,4 - dimethoxy phenyl ) - 2 - propene-1-one, has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation method. The synthesized compound was purified by repeated recrystallization process. To confirm the identity of the synthesized compound, FTIR spectra was recorded and various functional groups present were identified. NMR spectra were recorded for structural identity and purity confirmation of the synthesized compound. Good quality single crystals were grown by solvent evaporation and slow cooling technique using acetone as solvent. The grown crystals were characterized by UV-Visible , differential thermal analysis and linear refractive index measurement. The hardness of the crystal was determined using Vicker's indentation method. The single crystal structure analysis of the crystal was performed and it is found that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P2 I. The powder second harmonic generation(SHG)frequency conversion efficiency of the crystal was determined using Nd: YAG laser(λ = 1064nm)and it is 15 times that of Urea.

  5. ESR and Microwave Absorption in Boron Doped Diamond Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Superconductivity has been reportedly found in boron-doped diamond. Most research to date has only studied superconductivity in polycrystalline and thin film boron-diamonds, as opposed to a single crystal. In fact, only one other group has examined a macro scale boron-doped diamond crystal. Our group has successfully grown large single crystals by using the High Temperature High Pressure method (HTHP) and observed a transition to metallic and superconducting states for high B concentrations. For the present, we are studying BDD crystal using Electron Spin Resonance. We conducted our ESR analysis over a range of temperatures (2K to 300K) and found several types of signals, proving the existence of charge carriers with spin 1/2 in BDD. Moreover, we have found that with increasing B concentrations, from n ~ 1018 cm-3 to n of over 1020 cm-3, the ESR signal changes from that of localized spins to the Dysonian shape of free carriers. The low magnetic field microwave absorption has also been studied in BDD samples at various B concentrations and the clear transition to superconducting state has been found below Tc that ranges from 2K to 4 K depending on concentration and quality of crystal. Sergey Polyakov, Victor Denisov, Vladimir Blank, Ray Baughman, Anvar Zakhidov.

  6. Microwave Induced Direct Bonding of Single Crystal Silicon Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budraa, N. K.; Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

    1999-01-01

    We have heated polished doped single-crystal silicon wafers in a single mode microwave cavity to temperatures where surface to surface bonding occurred. The absorption of microwaves and heating of the wafers is attributed to the inclusion of n-type or p-type impurities into these substrates. A cylindrical cavity TM (sub 010) standing wave mode was used to irradiate samples of various geometry's at positions of high magnetic field. This process was conducted in vacuum to exclude plasma effects. This initial study suggests that the inclusion of impurities in single crystal silicon significantly improved its microwave absorption (loss factor) to a point where heating silicon wafers directly can be accomplished in minimal time. Bonding of these substrates, however, occurs only at points of intimate surface to surface contact. The inclusion of a thin metallic layer on the surfaces enhances the bonding process.

  7. Spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence imaging of porphyrin single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Dawn M.; Castaneda, Jose; Kaushal, Meesha; Kaouk, Ghallia; Jones, Daniel S.; Walter, Michael G.

    2016-08-01

    We describe the collection of both time-resolved and steady-state micro-photoluminescence data from solution-grown single crystals of 5,15-bis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrin (BCM2PP). Linking molecular orientation and structure with excited-state dynamics is crucial for engineering efficient organic solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and related molecular electronics. Photoluminescence features of single porphyrin crystals were imaged using a laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). We show enhanced exciton lifetimes (τs1 = 2.6 ns) and stronger steady-state emission in crystalline BCM2PP samples relative to semicrystalline thin films (τs1 = 1.8 ns).

  8. Magnetic and Ferroelectric Anisotropy in Multiferroic FeVO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhamid, Ehab; Dixit, Ambesh; Kimura, Kenta; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Jayakumar, Onattu; Naik, Vaman; Naik, Ratna; Lawes, Gavin; Nadgorny, Boris

    FeVO4 has been studied as a model system for understanding the magnetoelectric interaction mechanisms in low symmetry multiferroics. Triclinic FeVO4 is characterized by two antiferromagnetic phase transitions, occurring at TN 1 = 22 K and TN 2 = 15 K, with the latter transition signaling a break in the space inversion symmetry, accompanied by the development of a non-collinear magnetic order which induces ferroelectricity. Earlier measurements on polycrystalline FeVO4 doped with magnetic (Cr and Mn) as well as non magnetic (Zn) dopants indicate the stability of the two antiferromagnetic transition temperatures. In this work, single crystals of both undoped and doped FeVO4 were grown from flux. To track the changes in lattice parameters induced by changing the doping concentration (measured by EDAX), XRD and Raman spectra were obtained. By recording the magnetization along two different crystal orientations, we were able to confirm the easy magnetic axis in this structure. Finally, we obtain the crystal's ferroelectric polarization along two different directions in an attempt to further understand the mechanism responsible for the ferroelectric transition. This work is supported by the NSF under DMR-1306449.

  9. Plastic Deformation of O+ Oriented Quartz Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, E. J.; Holyoke, C. W., III; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The strength of wet quartz deforming by dislocation creep significantly influences the strength of mid to lower crust. Dislocation creep of quartz in Earth's crust is dominated by slip on the basal slip system. However, very little is known about the temperature, strain rate, or water fugacity dependence of this slip system. In order to better understand the rheology of the basal slip system, we deformed single crystals of synthetic quartz, with the basal slip system oriented at 45° to the compression direction (O+ orientation). Each core was annealed at 900°C and 1 atm for 24 hours to convert the gel-type water defects found in synthetic quartz into fluid inclusions, like those observed in milky quartz. FTIR analysis indicate that water contents (200-450 H/106Si) were not affected by the annealing process. The annealed single crystals were then deformed in a Griggs piston-cylinder rock deformation apparatus using a solid salt assembly, at temperatures from 800 to 900°C, strain rates from 10-6 to 10-4/s, and a confining pressure of 1.5 GPa. The strength of the quartz crystals increases with faster strain rates and decreases with increasing temperature. During some of the faster strain rate steps at 800°C, the crystals did not deform plastically before the differential stress reached the confining pressure, whereas they deformed at low stresses at 800°C and 10-6/s. The microstructures visible in the deformed samples are consistent with dislocation creep. The samples exhibit undulatory extinction, and show no deformation lamellae or subgrain formation. The strength of synthetic quartz crystals with low water contents deformed in this study is greater than milky quartz single crystals with high water contents deformed at the same conditions in other studies. These results indicate that the strength of basal slip system in quartz is affected by both water content and water fugacity.

  10. Single crystal growth, crystal structure and characterization of a novel crystal: L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. N.; Wang, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Liu, X. T.; Sun, Z. H.; Sun, G. H.; Wang, L.; Yu, W. T.; Xu, D.

    2011-07-01

    A novel organic crystal, L-arginine 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol dehydrate (LAPP), synthesized and grown from aqueous solution, is presented. X-ray single diffraction shows that LAPP belongs to the monoclinic crystallographic system with space group P2 1. FT-IR and UV/vis/NIR transmission spectra have been employed to characterize the crystal. The computational calculation based on the density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level has been used to compute the first-order hyperpolarizability of LAPP relating to different molecular models. The morphology, nonlinear characteristic and thermal stability of the crystal have also been investigated.

  11. Subsurface Stress Fields In Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik C.; Duke, Greg; Battista, Gilda; Swanson, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is , presented, for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, using a complex potential method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis. Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined.

  12. Growth and electrical properties of mercury indium telluride single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Linghang Dong Yangchun; Jie Wanqi

    2007-11-06

    A novel photoelectronic single crystal, mercury indium telluride (MIT), has been successfully grown by using vertical Bridgman method (VB). The crystallinity, thermal and electrical properties of the MIT crystal were investigated. The results of X-ray rocking curve show that the as-grown MIT crystal has good crystal quality with the FWHM on (3 1 1) face of about 173 in. DSC measurement reveals that the Hg element is easy to solely evaporate from the compound when the temperature is higher than 387.9 deg. C in the open system. Hall measurements at room temperature show that the resistivity, carrier density and mobility of the MIT crystal were 4.79 x 10{sup 2} {omega} cm, 2.83 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} and 4.60 x 10{sup 2} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. The reduction of carrier mobility and the increase of the resistivity are related to the adding of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} into HgTe, which changes the energy band structure of the crystal.

  13. Shaped crystal growth of langasite-type piezoelectric single crystals and their physical properties.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira; Futami, Yoshisuke; Sato, Masato; Tota, Kazushige; Onodera, Ko; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    We have grown shape-controlled langasite-type crystals by the micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Columnar shaped La(3)Ta(0.5)Ga(5.5)O(14) (LTG), Ca(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CNGS), Ca(3)TaGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (CTGS), Sr(3)NbGa(3)Si(2)O(14) (SNGS), and Sr(3)Ta- Ga(3)Si(2)O(14) (STGS) crystals were grown using a Pt-Rh crucible with a 3-mm-diameter columnar die at the bottom. All grown crystals showed high transparency except for the peripheral area and diameter of approximately 3 mm. The chemical phases at the central parts of the grown crystals were identified as a single phase of langasite-type structure and their lattice parameters were almost the same as those of crystals grown by the Czochralski (Cz) method; however, some impurity phases were observed in the peripheral area. In X-ray rocking curve measurements, the grown crystals indicated equivalent crystallinity to the crystal grown by the Cz method. The piezoelectric constant d(11) of the CNGS crystal was 3.98 pC/N; this value is well correlated with those of previous reports. PMID:23007752

  14. Heavy ion passive dosimetry with silver halide single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.; Parnell, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    A method of detecting radiation damage tracks due to heavy particles in large single crystals of the silver halides is described. The tracks, when made visible with a simple electrical apparatus, appear similar to tracks in emulsions. The properties of the crystals, the technique of printing out the tracks, and evidence concerning the threshold energy for registering particles indicates that this method may find application in heavy ion dosimetry. The method has been found to be sensitive to stopping He nuclei and relativistic M group cosmic rays. Some impurities strongly influence the printout of the tracks, and the effects of these impurities are discussed.

  15. Structural examination of iridium-based single-crystal preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axler, K. M.; Roof, R. B.

    A high-temperature crystal growth experiment produced discrete single-crystal products of AlIr and IrSi. The preparation and examination of these phases is described within. This project is part of a materials compatibility study relating to radioisotopic heat sources. These heat sources are comprised of a PuO2 fuel pellet encapsulated in an Ir alloy containment shell. Th is introduced as an additive within the Ir to maintain ductility. Si and P are picked up inadvertently in the fuel processing. The compatibility of the heat sources with Al is of interest because of potential interactions with Al alloy hardware associated with the heat source environment.

  16. Spatial Coherence Preservation By Synthetic Single Diamond Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoszowska, J.; Freund, A. K.; Guigay, J.-P.; Rommeveaux, A.

    2004-05-01

    The degree of spatial coherence after x-ray diffraction by synthetic single diamond crystals was investigated. The coherence preservation was measured by means of the Talbot effect for x-rays at the optics beamline BM5 at the ESRF. The (111)- and (100)- oriented specimens of type Ib and IIa were grown by De Beers. To establish a correlation between the coherence degradation and the surface quality, 3D surface topography was measured with an optical interferometric profiler and an AFM. Likewise, to pinpoint the relationship with crystalline quality, the samples were characterized by means of double crystal x-ray diffractometry with microscopic resolution.

  17. Spatial Coherence Preservation By Synthetic Single Diamond Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoszowska, J.; Freund, A. K.; Guigay, J.-P.; Rommeveaux, A.

    2004-05-12

    The degree of spatial coherence after x-ray diffraction by synthetic single diamond crystals was investigated. The coherence preservation was measured by means of the Talbot effect for x-rays at the optics beamline BM5 at the ESRF. The (111)- and (100)- oriented specimens of type Ib and IIa were grown by De Beers. To establish a correlation between the coherence degradation and the surface quality, 3D surface topography was measured with an optical interferometric profiler and an AFM. Likewise, to pinpoint the relationship with crystalline quality, the samples were characterized by means of double crystal x-ray diffractometry with microscopic resolution.

  18. Annealing of cold-rolled Fe-40Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Baker, I.

    1997-12-31

    Single crystals of Fe-40Al were cold-rolled to plastic strains in the range 5% to 48%. Discs cut from the rolled crystals at different rolling strains were heated at 10 K/min in a differential scanning calorimeter from room temperature to 973 K. Three exothermic peaks were observed in the temperature ranges of 440--550 K, 610--650 K, and 860--930 K, all the peaks shifting to lower temperatures with increasing strain. The origins of these peaks are discussed in terms of the disorder and vacancies introduced during rolling.

  19. Antifreeze glycopeptide adsorption on single crystal ice surfaces using ellipsometry

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P. W.; Beaglehole, D.; DeVries, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Antarctic fishes synthesise antifreeze proteins which can effectively inhibit the growth of ice crystals. The mechanism relies on adsorption of these proteins to the ice surface. Ellipsometry has been used to quantify glycopeptide antifreeze adsorption to the basal and prism faces of single ice crystals. The rate of accumulation was determined as a function of time and at concentrations between 0.0005 and 1.2 mg/ml. Estimates of packing density at saturation coverage have been made for the basal and prism faces. PMID:19431902

  20. Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves

  1. Formation of charged ferroelectric domain walls with controlled periodicity.

    PubMed

    Bednyakov, Petr S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics were shown recently to possess metallic-like conductivity. Unlike conventional heterointerfaces, these walls can be displaced inside a dielectric by an electric field, which is of interest for future electronic circuitry. In addition, theory predicts that charged domain walls may influence the electromechanical response of ferroelectrics, with strong enhancement upon increased charged domain wall density. The existence of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics is disfavoured by their high formation energy and methods of their preparation in predefined patterns are unknown. Here we develop the theoretical background for the formation of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics using energy considerations and outline favourable conditions for their engineering. We experimentally demonstrate, in BaTiO3 single crystals the controlled build-up of high density charged domain wall patterns, down to a spacing of 7 μm with a predominant mixed electronic and ionic screening scenario, hinting to a possible exploitation of charged domain walls in agile electronics and sensing devices. PMID:26516026

  2. Formation of charged ferroelectric domain walls with controlled periodicity

    PubMed Central

    Bednyakov, Petr S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Damjanovic, Dragan; Setter, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics were shown recently to possess metallic-like conductivity. Unlike conventional heterointerfaces, these walls can be displaced inside a dielectric by an electric field, which is of interest for future electronic circuitry. In addition, theory predicts that charged domain walls may influence the electromechanical response of ferroelectrics, with strong enhancement upon increased charged domain wall density. The existence of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics is disfavoured by their high formation energy and methods of their preparation in predefined patterns are unknown. Here we develop the theoretical background for the formation of charged domain walls in proper ferroelectrics using energy considerations and outline favourable conditions for their engineering. We experimentally demonstrate, in BaTiO3 single crystals the controlled build-up of high density charged domain wall patterns, down to a spacing of 7 μm with a predominant mixed electronic and ionic screening scenario, hinting to a possible exploitation of charged domain walls in agile electronics and sensing devices. PMID:26516026

  3. Conducting Ferroelectric Walls, Domain Topology, and Domain Switching Kinetics in a Hybrid Improper Ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rutgers Center For Emergent Materials Team

    Charged polar interfaces such as charged ferroelectric domain walls or heterostructured interfaces of ZnO/(Zn,Mg)O and LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , across which the normal component of electric polarization changes suddenly, can host large two-dimensional conduction. Charged ferroelectric domain walls can be highly conducting but energetically unfavored; however, they were found to be mysteriously abundant in hybrid improper ferroelectric (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 single crystals. From the exploration of antiphase domain boundaries, which are hidden in piezoresponse force microscopy, using dark-field electron microscopy, we have explored the macroscopic topology of polarization domains and antiphase domains. We found that the macroscopic domain topology is directly responsible for the presence of charged domain walls, and is closely related with the polarization domain switching mechanism in (Ca,Sr) 3 Ti 2 O 7 . Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

  4. Microstructure tuning and magnetism switching of ferroelectric barium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wenliang; Deng, Hongmei; Ding, Nuofan; Yu, Lu; Yue, Fangyu; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2015-09-15

    Single-crystal and polycrystal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) materials synthesized by the physical and chemical methods, respectively, have been studied based on microstructural characterizations and magnetic measurements. The results of X-ray diffraction and Raman scatting spectra show that a single crystal tetragonal to polycrystalline pseudo-cubic structure transformation occurs in BTO ferroelectrics, dependent of growth conditions and interface effects. High-resolution transmission electron microscope data indicate that the as-prepared BTO/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and BTO/SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) heterostructures are highly c-axis oriented with atomic sharp interfaces. Lattice defects (i.e., edge-type misfit dislocations and stacking faults) in the heterostructures could be identified clearly and showed tunable with the variations of interface strain. Furthermore, the effects of vacancy defects on magnetic properties of BTO are discussed, which shows a diamagnetism–ferromagnetism switching as intrinsic vacancies increase. This work opens up a possible avenue to prepare magnetic BTO ferroelectrics. - Highlights: • Structure of BTO is tunable, depending on growth conditions and interface strain. • STEM–EDX data indicate the presence of lattice defects in BTO ferroelectrics. • BTO magnetism could be controlled by defects showing dia-ferromagnetism switching. • BTO with more vacancies shows RTFM, as evidence of vacancy magnetism effects.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of ferroelectric thin films in conjunction with superconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, S.; Sengupta, L. C.; Demaree, J. D.; Kosik, W.

    1994-12-01

    The possibility of combining ferroelectrics and superconductors has been of interest for use in memory storage devices. Additionally, superconductors offer crystal structures compatible to the epitaxial growth of the ferroelectric, Ba(0.6)Sr(0.4)TiO3 (BSTO), which is cubic at this stoichiometry. BSTO has a lattice constant of 3.94 A as compared to the superconducting Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4 tetragonal single crystal which also has a lattice constant of a = 3.94 A. (minor variations with Cerium content). In this study, ferroelectric thin films of BSTO were deposited on single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4. The optical constants of the substrates, single crystals of Pr2CuO4 and Pr(2 - x)Ce(x)CuO4, were determined using Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VASE) and the composition and crystal structure were examined using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with ion beam channeling. The substrate/film interfaces and the compositional variation in the films were also studied with RBS and with SEM/EDS. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction was used to verify the epitaxial nature of the films. The effect of the deposition parameters (laser repetition rate, oxygen backfill pressure, and deposition geometry) on the quality of the films was experimented with previously and only the optimized parameters were used.

  6. Composition Dependence of Electrocaloric Effect in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 -xPbTiO3 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiu-Qin; Yuan, Ning-Yi; Ding, Jian-Ning

    2015-07-01

    Composition dependence of electrocaloric effect is investigated in (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 single crystals by using an eighth-order Landau-Devonshire theory. The applied electric field along [001] direction reduces the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperatures, but increases the Curie temperatures. The electrocaloric coefficients of tetragonal phase are much larger than that of rhombohedral and monoclinic phase. A negative electrocaloric effect is observed near the MC-T phase transition in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystal. The application of a strong enough electric field results in a high adiabatic temperature change over a broad range of temperature. Therefore, it would be useful to construct a solid state cooling cycle over a broad temperature range for practical applications. Supported by the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China under Grant No. 51335002, Changzhou Science and Technology Project under Grant No. CJ20130022, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions on Renewable Energy Material Science and Engineering

  7. Membrane protein structures without crystals, by single particle electron cryomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Kutti R

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting period in membrane protein structural biology with a number of medically important protein structures determined at a rapid pace. However, two major hurdles still remain in the structural biology of membrane proteins. One is the inability to obtain large amounts of protein for crystallization and the other is the failure to get well-diffracting crystals. With single particle electron cryomicroscopy, both these problems can be overcome and high-resolution structures of membrane proteins and other labile protein complexes can be obtained with very little protein and without the need for crystals. In this review, I highlight recent advances in electron microscopy, detectors and software, which have allowed determination of medium to high-resolution structures of membrane proteins and complexes that have been difficult to study by other structural biological techniques. PMID:26435463

  8. A statistical model approximation for perovskite solid-solutions: a Raman study of lead-zirconate- titanate single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Frantti, Johannes; Fujioka, Y; Puretzky, Alexander A; Xie, Y; Glazer, A

    2013-01-01

    Lead titanate (PbTiO3) is a classical example of a ferroelectric perovskite oxide illustrating a displacive phase transition accompanied by a softening of a symmetry-breaking mode. The underlying assumption justifying the soft-mode theory is that the crystal is macroscopically sufficiently uniform so that a meaningful free energy function can be formed. In contrast to PbTiO3, experimental studies show that the phase transition behaviour of lead-zirconate-titanate solid solution (PZT) is far more subtle. Most of the studies on the PZT system have been dedicated to ceramic or powder samples, in which case an unambiguous soft-mode study is not possible, as modes with different symmetries appear together. Our Raman scattering study on titanium-rich PZT single crystal shows that the phase transitions in PZT cannot be described by a simple soft-mode theory. In strong contrast to PbTiO3, splitting of transverse E-symmetry modes reveals that there are different locally-ordered regions. The role of crystal defects, random distribution of Ti and Zr at the B- cation site and Pb ions shifted away from their ideal positions, dictates the phase transition mechanism. A statistical model explaining the observed peak splitting and phase transformation to a complex state with spatially varying local order in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is given.

  9. Research on VCSEL of single-mode multilayer photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenchao; Liu, Zhengjun; Sha, Xiaopeng

    2010-10-01

    Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) of single mode have the potential advantage in the domains of optical information network, routing interactions, optical information storage and data transmission for their excellent performance. However, operating on the single-mode model in the whole pumped area is not solved, which impacts the technologies and applications. In this paper, a new research on VCSEL of single mode multilayer photonic crystal is presented. In the structure of photonic crystal, defects in the horizontal direction are provided by the micro-cavity, while the AIR-KTP interface on the top and the KTP-DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflection) interface at the bottom of cavity provide the defects in the vertical direction, which form quantum defects of electron-hole pairs. The PC-VCSEL in the paper has excellent mode-selection characteristics, which can operate continuously at 850nm in single mode. The single-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 45dB is obtained in a wide dynamic range. The PC-VCSEL is expected to become a high-power single-mode light in the future.

  10. New Techniques in Characterization of Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2008-01-01

    Two new techniques have been developed to characterize Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) based ferroelectric single crystals: (i) electro-thermal imaging, and (ii) single crystal x-ray diffraction in the transmission mode. (i) Electro-thermal imaging is a remote sensing technique that can detect the polarization direction and poling state of a whole crystal slice. This imaging technique utilizes an IR camera to determine the field induced temperature change and does not require any special or destructive sample preparation. In the resulting images it is possible to distinguish regions of 180 deg domains. This powerful technique can be used remotely during poling to determine the poling state of the crystal to avoid over-poling that can result in inferior properties and/or cracking of the crystals. Electro-thermal imaging produced the first direct observations of polarization rotation. Under bipolar field, the domains near the corners were the first to switch direction. As the field increased above the coercive field, domains at the center part of the crystals switched direction. (ii) X-ray diffraction in the transmission mode has long been used in structure determination of organic crystals and proteins; however, it is not used much to characterize inorganic systems. 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 single crystals were examined by this XRD technique for the first time, and a never-before-seen super-lattice was revealed with a doubling of the unit cell in all three directions, giving a cell volume eight times that of a traditional perovskite unit cell. The significance of the super-lattice peaks increased with poling, indicating a structural contribution to ordering. Lack of such observations by electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope examinations suggests the presence of a bulk effect.

  11. Stress effects in ferroelectric perovskite thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, Ricardo Johann

    The exciting class of ferroelectric materials presents the engineer with an array of unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications; these applications include infra-red detectors ("night-vision imaging", pyroelectricity), micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, piezoelectricity), and non-volatile memory (NVM, ferroelectricity). Realizing these modern devices often requires perovskite-based ferroelectric films thinner than 100 nm. Two such technologically important material systems are (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST), for tunable dielectric devices employed in wireless communications, and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), for ferroelectric non-volatile memory (FeRAM). In general, the material behavior is strongly influenced by the mechanical boundary conditions imposed by the substrate and surrounding layers and may vary considerably from the known bulk behavior. A better mechanistic understanding of these effects is essential for harnessing the full potential of ferroelectric thin-films and further optimizing existing devices. Both materials share a common crystal structure and similar properties, but face unique challenges due to the design parameters of these different applications. Tunable devices often require very low dielectric loss as well as large dielectric tunability. Present results show that the dielectric response of BST thin-films can either resemble a dipole-relaxor or follow the accepted empirical Universal Relaxation Law (Curie-von Schweidler), depending on temperature. These behaviors in a single ferroelectric thin-film system are often thought to be mutually exclusive. In state-of-the-art high density FeRAM, the ferroelectric polarization is at least as important as the dielectric response. It was found that these properties are significantly affected by moderate biaxial tensile and compressive stresses which reversibly alter the ferroelastic domain populations of PZT at room temperature. The 90-degree domain wall motion observed by high resolution

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen; Wang Yanqin; Lu Guanzhong

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystal pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.

  13. Flux free growth of superconducting FeSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, P. K.; Joshi, L. M.; Gahtori, Bhasker; Srivastava, A. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Patnaik, S. P.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report flux free growth of superconducting FeSe single crystals by an easy and versatile high temperature melt and slow cooling method for first time. The room temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) on the surface of the piece of such obtained crystals showed single [101] plane of β-FeSe tetragonal phase. The bulk powder XRD, being obtained by crushing the part of crystal chunk showed majority (∼87%) β-FeSe tetragonal (space group P4/nmm) and minority (∼13%) δ-FeSe hexagonal (space group P63/mmc) crystalline phases. Detailed high resolution transmission electron microscope images along with selected area electron diffraction showed the abundance of both majority β-FeSe and minority δ-FeSe phases. Both transport (ρ-T) and magnetization exhibited superconductivity at below around 10 K. Interestingly, the magnetization signal of these crystals is dominated by the magnetism of minority δ-FeSe magnetic phase, and hence the isothermal magnetization at 4 K was seen to be ferromagnetic like. Transport (ρ-T) measurements under magnetic field showed superconductivity onset at below 12 K, and ρ = 0 (T c) at 9 K. Superconducting transition temperature (T c) decreases with applied field to around 6 K at 7 T, with dT c/dH of ∼0.4 K T‑1, giving rise to an H c2(0) value of around 50 , 30 and 20 T for normal resistivity ρ n = 90%, 50% and 10% respectively, which are calculated from conventional one band Werthamer–Helfand–Hohenberg equation. FeSe single crystal activation energy is calculated from thermally activated flux flow model which is found to decreases with field from 12.1 meV for 0.2 T to 3.77 meV for 7 T.

  14. Crystal growth and characterization of CuI single crystals by solvent evaporation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Mu; Gao, Pan; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Huang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Bo; Ni, Chen; Xu, Rong-Kun; Ning, Jia-min

    2010-05-15

    Cuprous iodide (CuI) crystals are grown by slow evaporation technique in three different solvents. Large CuI single crystals with dimensions of 7.5 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm are obtained in pure acetonitrile solvent at 40 {sup o}C. The as-grown crystals are analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, current-voltage characteristic and photoluminescence spectrum. The results show that the CuI crystal has the zinc-blende structure with no secondary phase. The elemental Cu/I ratio is 1.09:1. The melting point of the crystal is 875 K and two phase transitions occur from room temperature to its melting point. The electrical conductivity of CuI platelet crystal is in the range of 1.11-2.38 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Under ultraviolet excitation, the CuI crystals exhibit three emission bands with peak positions at 426, 529 and 671 nm. The nature of the luminescence is discussed.

  15. Mutiple Czochralski growth of silicon crystals from a single crucible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, R. L.; Kachare, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals is presented which is capable of producing multiple ingots from a single crucible. The growth chamber features a refillable crucible with a water-cooled, vacuum-tight isolation valve located between the pull chamber and the growth furnace tank which allows the melt crucible to always be at vacuum or low argon pressure when retrieving crystal or introducing recharge polysilicon feed stock. The grower can thus be recharged to obtain 100 kg of silicon crystal ingots from one crucible, and may accommodate crucibles up to 35 cm in diameter. Evaluation of the impurity contents and I-V characteristics of solar cells fabricated from seven ingots grown from two crucibles reveals a small but consistent decrease in cell efficiency from 10.4% to 9.6% from the first to the fourth ingot made in a single run, which is explained by impurity build-up in the residual melt. The crystal grower thus may offer economic benefits through the extension of crucible lifetime and the reduction of furnace downtime.

  16. Plastic strain arrangement in copper single crystals in sliding

    SciTech Connect

    Chumaevskii, Andrey V. Lychagin, Dmitry V.; Tarasov, Sergei Yu.

    2014-11-14

    Deformation of tribologically loaded contact zone is one of the wear mechanisms in spite of the fact that no mass loss may occur during this process. Generation of optimal crystallographic orientations of the grains in a polycrystalline materials (texturing) may cause hardening and reducing the deformation wear. To reveal the orientation dependence of an individual gain and simplify the task we use copper single crystals with the orientations of the compression axis along [111] and [110]. The plastic deformation was investigated by means of optical, scanning electron microscopy and EBSD techniques. It was established that at least four different zones were generated in the course of sliding test, such as non-deformed base metal, plastic deformation layer sliding, crystalline lattice reorientation layer and subsurface grain structure layer. The maximum plastic strain penetration depth was observed on [110]-single crystals. The minimum stability of [111]-crystals with respect to rotation deformation mode as well as activation of shear in the sliding contact plane provide for rotation deformation localization below the worn surface. The high-rate accumulation of misorientations and less strain penetration depth was observed on [111]-crystals as compared to those of [110]-oriented ones.

  17. Growth and optical property of methyl para hydroxybenzoate sodium dihydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunagaran, N.; Ramasamy, P.

    2013-06-01

    Methyl parahydroxybenzoate sodium dihydrate (MHBN), a novel semiorganic single crystal has been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). Single crystal of MHBN with the size of 30 × 30 × 10 mm3 has been grown using methanol as a solvent. The crystal structure of MHBN has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The grown crystals were subjected to powder X-ray diffraction studies. The optical transparency was studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and it was found that the crystal is having good optical transparency. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal is measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Thermal properties of the MHBN crystals were studied.

  18. ac conductance of surface layer in lithium tetraborate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung-Sik; Park, Jong-Ho; Moon, Byung Kee; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Byung-Chun; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Kim, Hyung Kook; Kim, Jung Nam

    2003-12-01

    ac conductance for the electrode effect in Li2B4O7 single crystal was investigated by use of a coplanar electrode applied on the surface of a (001) plate. A coplanar electrode in this material more clearly shows conduction of the electrode effect than a conventional parallel planar electrode. The electrode effect in ac conductance is likely to be controlled by the surface layer, which is a poorly conductive depletion layer possibly filled with vacancies of lithium ions. We found that the surface layer is not locally distributed near the electrodes, but, rather, on the broad area of the surface (001) plane of the material. So we conclude that the electrode effect in ac conduction of Li2B4O7 single crystal is mainly due to the poor conductive surface layer distributed over the whole surface of the (001) plane and is not a secondary phase formed by reaction with the electrode material.

  19. Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birech, Zephania; Schwoerer, Markus; Schmeiler, Teresa; Pflaum, Jens; Schwoerer, Heinrich

    2014-03-01

    Ultrafast exciton dynamics in free standing 200 nm thin tetracene single crystals were studied at room temperature by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. The complex spectrally overlapping transient absorption traces of single crystals were systematically deconvoluted. From this, the ultrafast dynamics of the ground, excited, and transition states were identified including singlet exciton fission into two triplet excitons. Fission is generated through both, direct fission of higher singlet states Sn on a sub-picosecond timescale, and thermally activated fission of the singlet exciton S1 on a 40 ps timescale. The high energy Davydov component of the S1 exciton is proposed to undergo fission on a sub-picoseconds timescale. At high density of triplet excitons their mutual annihilation (triplet-triplet annihilation) occurs on a <10 ps timescale.

  20. Ultrafast dynamics of excitons in tetracene single crystals.

    PubMed

    Birech, Zephania; Schwoerer, Markus; Schmeiler, Teresa; Pflaum, Jens; Schwoerer, Heinrich

    2014-03-21

    Ultrafast exciton dynamics in free standing 200 nm thin tetracene single crystals were studied at room temperature by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. The complex spectrally overlapping transient absorption traces of single crystals were systematically deconvoluted. From this, the ultrafast dynamics of the ground, excited, and transition states were identified including singlet exciton fission into two triplet excitons. Fission is generated through both, direct fission of higher singlet states S(n) on a sub-picosecond timescale, and thermally activated fission of the singlet exciton S1 on a 40 ps timescale. The high energy Davydov component of the S1 exciton is proposed to undergo fission on a sub-picoseconds timescale. At high density of triplet excitons their mutual annihilation (triplet-triplet annihilation) occurs on a <10 ps timescale. PMID:24655187