Nonlinear traveling waves in confined ferrofluids.
Lira, Sérgio A; Miranda, José A
2012-11-01
We study the development of nonlinear traveling waves on the interface separating two viscous fluids flowing in parallel in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell. One of the fluids is a ferrofluid and a uniform magnetic field is applied in the plane of the cell, making an angle with the initially undisturbed interface. We employ a mode-coupling theory that predicts the possibility of controlling the speed of the waves by purely magnetic means. The influence of the tilted magnetic field on the waves shape profile and the establishment of stationary traveling wave structures are investigated. PMID:23214870
Parametrically driven surface waves on viscous ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Hanns Walter
1998-11-01
Standing waves on the surface of a ferrofluid in a normal magnetic field can be excited by a vertical vibration of the container. A stability theory for the onset of these parametrically driven waves is developed, taking viscous dissipation and finite depth effects into account. It will be shown that a careful choice of the filling level permits the normal and anomalous dispersion branches to be measured. Furthermore it will be demonstrated that the parametric driving mechanism may lead to a delay of the Rosensweig instability. A bicritical situation can be achieved when Rosensweig and Faraday waves interact.
Hydrodynamic theory of polydisperse chain-forming ferrofluids.
Mahle, Stefan; Ilg, Patrick; Liu, Mario
2008-01-01
The larger magnetic particles in ferrofluids are known to form chains, causing the fluid to display non-Newtonian behavior. In this paper, a generalization of the familiar ferrofluid dynamics by Shliomis is shown capable of realistically accounting for these fluids. The modification consists of identifying the relaxing magnetization as that of the chain-forming particles, while accounting for the free magnetic particles by dissipative terms in the Maxwell equations. PMID:18351932
Nowak, J; Wiekhorst, F; Trahms, L; Odenbach, S
2014-04-30
Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles have received increasing interest in the biomedical field. While these ferrofluids are already used for magnetic resonance imaging, emerging research on cancer treatment focuses, for example, on employing the particles as drug carriers, or using them in magnetic hyperthermia to destroy diseased cells by heating of the particles. To enable safe and effective applications, an understanding of the flow behaviour of the ferrofluids is essential. Regarding the applications mentioned above, in which flow phenomena play an important role, viscosity under the influence of an external magnetic field is of special interest. In this respect, the magnetoviscous effect (MVE) leading to an increasing viscosity if an external magnetic field of a certain strength is applied, is well-known for singlecore ferrofluids used in the engineering context. In the biomedical context, multicore ferrofluids are preferred in order to avoid remanence magnetization and to enable a deposition of the particles by the organism without complications. This study focuses on a comparison of the MVE for three ferrofluids whose composition is identical except in relation to their hydrodynamic diameter and core composition-one of the fluids contains singlecore particles, while the other two feature multicore particles. This enables confident conclusions about the influence of those parameters on flow behaviour under the influence of a magnetic field. The strong effects found for two of the fluids should be taken into account, both in future investigations and in the potential use of such ferrofluids, as well as in manufacturing, in relation to the optimization of flow behaviour. PMID:24721897
The dispersion of parametrically excited surface waves in viscous ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Hanns Walter
1999-07-01
Surface waves on a ferrofluid, which is exposed to a normal magnetic field, may exhibit a non-monotonous behavior. Stationary standing waves can be excited mechanically by a vertical vibration of the vessel, or magnetically by a modulation of the applied field. A linear stability analysis for the onset of these parametrically excited waves is presented. It will be shown that a careful choice of the filling depth allows for a detection of the anomalous dispersion branch. Furthermore, a theoretical confirmation is provided for the synchronous wave response, recently observed in a magnetic Faraday experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molho, Pierre
A ferrofluid is a suspenson of small magnetic particles in a carrier liquid. We begin by discussing the characteristics of a ferrofluid, in particular the criteria for the stability of such a suspension, as well as methods of preparation. We then go on to describe the properties and the effects of a magnetic field: superparamagnetism, dipolar interactions leading to the formation of chains, birefringence, viscosity.... We also present a certain number of applications which, essentially, bring into play the effects of a magnetic field: confinement in field gradients, variations in permeability of the material through deformation of the fluid, variation of birefringence or of viscosity. We conclude by presenting a spectacular effect specific to ferrofluids which arises from the liquid state of this material: surface instabilities in the presence of a magnetic field.
Detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics
Cissoko, M. )
1992-02-15
This paper is concerned with an algebraic study of the equations of detonation waves in relativistic hydrodynamics taking into account the pressure and the energy of thermal radiation. A new approach to shock and detonation wavefronts is outlined. The fluid under consideration is assumed to be perfect (nonviscous and nonconducting) and to obey the following equation of state: {ital p}=({gamma}{minus}1){rho} where {ital p}, {rho}, and {gamma} are the pressure, the total energy density, and the adiabatic index, respectively. The solutions of the equations of detonation waves are reduced to the problem of finding physically acceptable roots of a quadratic polynomial {Pi}({ital X}) where {ital X} is the ratio {tau}/{tau}{sub 0} of dynamical volumes behind and ahead of the detonation wave. The existence and the locations of zeros of this polynomial allow it to be shown that if the equation of state of the burnt fluid is known then the variables characterizing the unburnt fluid obey well-defined physical relations.
Nonlinear waves in second order conformal hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogaça, D. A.; Marrochio, H.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.
2015-02-01
In this work we study wave propagation in dissipative relativistic fluids described by a simplified set of the 2nd order viscous conformal hydrodynamic equations corresponding to Israel-Stewart theory. Small amplitude waves are studied within the linearization approximation while waves with large amplitude are investigated using the reductive perturbation method, which is generalized to the case of 2nd order relativistic hydrodynamics. Our results indicate the presence of a "soliton-like" wave solution in Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics despite the presence of dissipation and relaxation effects.
Hydrodynamics of chains in ferrofluid-based magnetorheological fluids under rotating magnetic field.
Patel, Rajesh; Chudasama, Bhupendra
2009-07-01
Ferrofluid-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid is prepared by dispersing micron-size magnetic spheres in a ferrofluid. We report here the mechanism of chain formation in ferrofluid based MR fluid, which is quite different from conventional MR fluid. Some of the nanomagnetic particles of ferrofluid filled inside the microcavities are formed due to association of large particles, and some of them are attached at the end of large particles. Under rotating magnetic field, fragmentation of a single chain into three parts is observed. Two of them are chains of micron-size magnetic particles which are suspended in a ferrofluid, and the third one is the chain of nanomagnetic particles of ferrofluid, which may be the connecting bridge between the two chains of larger magnetic particles. The rupture of a single chain provides evidence for the presence of nanomagnetic particles within the magnetic field-induced chainlike structure in this bidispersed MR fluid. PMID:19658750
Raitt, D.; Riecke, H.
1997-05-01
Surface waves on ferrofluids exposed to a dc magnetic field exhibit a nonmonotonic dispersion relation. The effect of a parametric driving on such waves is studied within suitable coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Due to the nonmonotonicity the neutral curve for the excitation of standing waves can have up to three minima. The stability of the waves with respect to long-wave perturbations is determined via a phase-diffusion equation. It shows that the band of stable wave numbers can split up into two or three subbands. The resulting competition between the wave numbers corresponding to the respective subbands leads quite naturally to patterns consisting of multiple domains of standing waves which differ in their wave number. The coarsening dynamics of such domain structures is addressed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics
Johnson, B M
2008-09-03
In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.
Efficiency of magnetic plane wave pumping of a ferrofluid through a planar duct
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felderhof, B. U.
2011-09-01
The efficiency of ferrohydrodynamic pumping of a ferrofluid through a planar duct by means of a running magnetic plane wave is studied to second order in the amplitude of the exciting current density. The rate of dissipation in the fluid is calculated from the first order magnetic field and magnetization. It turns out that the efficiency, defined as the ratio of net flow velocity to power input, is comparable in magnitude to that for Stokes peristaltic pumping. The theory for electrohydrodynamic pumping of a polar liquid by means of a running electric plane wave is shown to be nearly identical.
Wave number of maximal growth in viscous ferrofluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lange, A.; Reimann, B.; Richter, R.
2001-09-01
Within the frame of linear stability theory an analytical method is presented for the normal field instability in magnetic fluids. It allows to calculate the maximal growth rate and the corresponding wave number for arbitrary values of the layer thickness and viscosity. Applying this method to magnetic fluids of finite depth, the results are quantitatively compared to the wave number of the transient pattern observed experimentally after a jumplike increase of the field. The wave number grows linearly with increasing induction where the theoretical and the experimental data agree well. Figs 2, Refs 13.
An operator expansion method for computing nonlinear surface waves on a ferrofluid jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyenne, Philippe; Părău, Emilian I.
2016-09-01
We present a new numerical method to simulate the time evolution of axisymmetric nonlinear waves on the surface of a ferrofluid jet. It is based on the reduction of this problem to a lower-dimensional computation involving surface variables alone. To do so, we describe the associated Dirichlet-Neumann operator in terms of a Taylor series expansion where each term can be efficiently computed by a pseudo-spectral scheme using the fast Fourier transform. We show detailed numerical tests on the convergence of this operator and, to illustrate the performance of our method, we simulate the long-time propagation and pairwise collisions of axisymmetric solitary waves. Both depression and elevation waves are examined by varying the magnetic field. Comparisons with weakly nonlinear predictions are also provided.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
A new Ferrofluidics exclusion seal promises improvement in controlling "fugitive emissions" -vapors that escape into the atmosphere from petroleum refining and chemical processing facilities. These are primarily volatile organic compounds, and their emissions are highly regulated by the EPA. The ferrofluid system consists of a primary mechanical seal working in tandem with a secondary seal. Ferrofluids are magnetic liquids - fluids in which microscopic metal particles have been suspended, allowing the liquid to be controlled by a magnetic force. The concept was developed in the early years of the Space program, but never used. Two Avco scientists, however, saw commercial potential in ferrofluids and formed a company. Among exclusion seal commercial applications are rotary feedthrough seals, hydrodynamic bearings and fluids for home and automotive loudspeakers. Ferrofluidics has subsidiaries throughout the world.
Hydrodynamic Performance of a Wave Energy Converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yingchen
2010-11-01
To harvest energy from ocean waves, a new wave energy converter (WEC) was proposed and tested in a wave tank. The WEC freely floats on the water surface and rides waves. It utilizes its wave-driven angular oscillation to convert the mechanical energy of waves into electricity. To gain the maximum possible angular oscillation of the WEC under specified wave conditions, both floatation of the WEC and wave interaction with the WEC play critical roles in a joint fashion. During the experiments, the submersion condition of the WEC and wave condition were varied. The results were analyzed in terms of the oscillation amplitude, stability, auto-orientation capability, and wave frequency dependency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odenbach, Professor Stefan
2006-09-01
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The issue contains results emerging from the research programme as well as invited papers from researchers not participating in the programme but working in closely related areas. The issue is subdivided into five main sections dealing with synthesis, basic physical description, rheology, and both the medical and technical applications of ferrofluids. As can be expected from work done within an interdisciplinary context many of the papers would fit into more than one of these sections and catagorization is thus sometimes difficult. We have therefore tried to place them into the section reflecting the main field of research to which the respective results belong. The first section is on synthesis and characterization of magnetic suspensions. The first paper in this section is dedicated partly to magnetite ferrofluids but with special aspects concerning the particle size tailoring them for applications especially in the field of magnetic hyperthermia. After this, three different types of `new' ferrofluids are presented. Fluids based on pure metal particles exhibiting much stronger magnetic properties than the common magnetite fluids, fluids with a temperature sensitive surfactant shell allowing a change of the particle’s hydrodynamic diameter by variation of the fluid’s temperature and fluids containing spheres of nonmagnetic material with embedded magnetic particles which are already used in new medical applications. The second section is dedicated to the basic physics of ferrofluids and highlights three different topics. First the question of magnetization dynamics is discussed and different aspects of this fundamental problem, which determines the basic description of ferrofluids, are highlighted. The second topic is the well known surface instability appearing in ferrofluids in a homogeneous magnetic field perpendicular to the fluid surface. This part shows clearly how many undiscovered phenomena can be found, even in an area
Chiral Alfvén Wave in Anomalous Hydrodynamics.
Yamamoto, Naoki
2015-10-01
We study the hydrodynamic regime of chiral plasmas at high temperature. We find a new type of gapless collective excitation induced by chiral effects in an external magnetic field. This is a transverse wave, and it is present even in incompressible fluids, unlike the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical waves. The velocity is proportional to the coefficient of the gravitational anomaly. We briefly discuss the possible relevance of this "chiral Alfvén wave" in physical systems. PMID:26551804
Experiments on the interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamin, Timothee; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric
2014-11-01
Different regimes of interaction between hydrodynamic turbulence and a free surface are investigated in a meter scale basin. A homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is generated by an 8×8 array of jets pointing upwards at the bottom of the tank. The 64 jets are driven individually to reach a random spatiotemporal forcing pattern and produce an intense turbulence. Using fluid velocity measurements, we characterize the turbulence obtained with this setup, then we investigate free-surface deformations induced by hydrodynamic turbulence. In a second stage an electromechanical shaker will generate gravity-capillary waves at the free surface. We aim to study reduction or amplification of surface waves and then measure energy exchange between hydrodynamic turbulence and wave turbulence. This work was supported by the DGA-CNRS Ph.D program and ANR Turbulon 12-BS04-0005.
Electron magneto-hydrodynamic waves bounded by magnetic bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anitha, V. P.; Sharma, D.; Banerjee, S. P.; Mattoo, S. K.
2012-08-01
The propagation of electron magneto-hydrodynamic (EMHD) waves is studied experimentally in a 3-dimensional region of low magnetic field surrounded by stronger magnetic field at its boundaries. We report observations where bounded left hand polarized Helicon like EMHD waves are excited, localized in the region of low magnetic field due to the boundary effects generated by growing strengths of the ambient magnetic field rather than a conducting or dielectric material boundary. An analytical model is developed to include the effects of radially nonuniform magnetic field in the wave propagation. The bounded solutions are compared with the experimentally obtained radial wave magnetic field profiles explaining the observed localized propagation of waves.
Nonlinear Generalized Hydrodynamic Wave Equations in Strongly Coupled Dusty Plasmas
Veeresha, B. M.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.
2008-09-07
A set of nonlinear equations for the study of low frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is derived using the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model and is used to study the modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbations. Dust compressibility contributions arising from strong Coulomb coupling effects are found to introduce significant modifications in the threshold and range of the instability domain.
Hydrodynamic waves and correlation functions in dusty plasmas
Wang, X.; Bhattacharjee, A.
1997-11-01
A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations. It is shown that in the presence of weakly damped, long-wavelength dust-acoustic waves, the dust autocorrelation function is of the Debye{endash}H{umlt u}ckel form and the characteristic shielding distance is the dust Debye length. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
On wave stability in relativistic cosmic-ray hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webb, G. M.
1989-01-01
Wave stability of a two-fluid hydrodynamical model describing the acceleration of cosmic rays by the first-order Fermi mechanism in relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shocks is investigated. For a uniform background state, the short- and long-wavelength wave speeds are shown to interlace, thus assuring wave stability in this case. A JWKB analysis is performed to investigate the stability of short-wavelength thermal gas sound waves in the smooth, decelerating supersonic flow upstream of a relativistic, cosmic-ray-modified shock. The stability of the waves is assessed both in terms of the fluid velocity and density perturbations, as well as in terms of the wave action. The stability and interaction of the short-wavelength cosmic-ray coherent mode with the background flow is also studied.
Visualization of hydrodynamic pilot-wave dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prost, Victor; Quintela, Julio; Harris, Daniel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Bush, John
2015-11-01
We present a low-cost device for examining the dynamics of droplets bouncing on a vibrating fluid bath, suitable for educational purposes. Dual control of vibrational and strobing frequency from a cell phone application allowed us to reduce the total cost to 60 dollars. Illumination with inhomogeneous colored light allows for striking visualization of the droplet dynamics and accompanying wave field via still photography or high-speed videography. Thanks to the NSF.
Hydrodynamic shock wave studies within a kinetic Monte Carlo approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Pickett, Rodney; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance
2014-06-01
We introduce a massively parallelized test-particle based kinetic Monte Carlo code that is capable of modeling the phase space evolution of an arbitrarily sized system that is free to move in and out of the continuum limit. Our code combines advantages of the DSMC and the Point of Closest Approach techniques for solving the collision integral. With that, it achieves high spatial accuracy in simulations of large particle systems while maintaining computational feasibility. Using particle mean free paths which are small with respect to the characteristic length scale of the simulated system, we reproduce hydrodynamic behavior. To demonstrate that our code can retrieve continuum solutions, we perform a test-suite of classic hydrodynamic shock problems consisting of the Sod, the Noh, and the Sedov tests. We find that the results of our simulations which apply millions of test-particles match the analytic solutions well. In addition, we take advantage of the ability of kinetic codes to describe matter out of the continuum regime when applying large particle mean free paths. With that, we study and compare the evolution of shock waves in the hydrodynamic limit and in a regime which is not reachable by hydrodynamic codes.
Hydrodynamic Waves and Correlation Functions in Dusty Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Wang, Xiaogang
1997-11-01
A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations [L. P. Kadanoff and P. C. Martin, Ann. Phys. 24, 419 (1963)]. It is shown that in the presence of the slow dust-acoustic waves, the dust auto-correlation function is of the Debye-Hekel form and the shielding distance is the dust Debye length. In the short-wavelength regime, an integral equation is derived from kinetic theory and solved numerically to yield particle correlation functions that display ``liquid-like'' behavior and have been observed experimentally [R. A.. Quinn, C. Cui, J. Goree, J. B. Pieper, H. Thomas and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 53, R2049 (1996)].
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for water wave propagation in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidvar, Pourya; Norouzi, Hossein; Zarghami, Ahad
2015-01-01
In this paper, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to simulate the propagation of waves in an intermediate depth water channel. The major advantage of using SPH is that no special treatment of the free surface is required, which is advantageous for simulating highly nonlinear flows with possible wave breaking. The SPH method has an option of different formulations with their own advantages and drawbacks to be implemented. Here, we apply the classical and Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) formulation for wave propagation in a water channel. The classical SPH should come with an artificial viscosity which stabilizes the numerical algorithm and increases the accuracy. Here, we will show that the use of classical SPH with an artificial viscosity may cause the waves in the channel to decay. On the other hand, we will show that using the ALE-SPH algorithm with a Riemann solver is more stable, and in addition to producing the pressure fields with much less numerical noise, the waves propagate in the channel without dissipation.
RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS
Bard, S.; Carlsson, M.
2010-10-10
We investigate the formation and evolution of the Ca II H line in a sunspot. The aim of our study is to establish the mechanisms underlying the formation of the frequently observed brightenings of small regions of sunspot umbrae known as 'umbral flashes'. We perform fully consistent NLTE radiation hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of acoustic waves in sunspot umbrae and conclude that umbral flashes result from increased emission of the local solar material during the passage of acoustic waves originating in the photosphere and steepening to shock in the chromosphere. To quantify the significance of possible physical mechanisms that contribute to the formation of umbral flashes, we perform a set of simulations on a grid formed by different wave power spectra, different inbound coronal radiation, and different parameterized chromospheric heating. Our simulations show that the waves with frequencies in the range 4.5-7.0 mHz are critical to the formation of the observed blueshifts of umbral flashes while waves with frequencies below 4.5 mHz do not play a role despite their dominance in the photosphere. The observed emission in the Ca II H core between flashes only occurs in the simulations that include significant inbound coronal radiation and/or extra non-radiative chromospheric heating in addition to shock dissipation.
Hydrodynamic view of wave-packet interference: quantum caves.
Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E
2009-06-26
Wave-packet interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism using a hydrodynamic description. Quantum interference leads to the formation of the topological structure of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. These caves consist of the vortical and stagnation tubes originating from the isosurfaces of the amplitude of the wave function and its first derivative. Complex quantum trajectories display counterclockwise helical wrapping around the stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near the vortical tubes. The string of alternating stagnation and vortical tubes is sufficient to generate divergent trajectories. Moreover, the average wrapping time for trajectories and the rotational rate of the nodal line in the complex plane can be used to define the lifetime for interference features. PMID:19659057
Hydrodynamic growth and decay of planar shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piriz, A. R.; Sun, Y. B.; Tahir, N. A.
2016-03-01
A model for the hydrodynamic attenuation (growth and decay) of planar shocks is presented. The model is based on the approximate integration of the fluid conservation equations, and it does not require the heuristic assumptions used in some previous works. A key issue of the model is that the boundary condition on the piston surface is given by the retarded pressure, which takes into account the transit time of the sound waves between the piston and any position at the bulk of the shocked fluid. The model yields the shock pressure evolution for any given pressure pulse on the piston, as well as the evolution of the trajectories, velocities, and accelerations on the shock and piston surfaces. An asymptotic analytical solution is also found for the decay of the shock wave.
Blast-Wave-Driven Instability Experiments Relevant To Supernova Hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuranz, Carolyn; Drake, R.; Grosskopf, M.; Budde, A.; Remington, B.; Robey, H.; Arnett, D.; Meakin, C.; Plewa, T.
2011-05-01
This presentation discusses experiments scaled to the blast wave driven instabilities at the He/H interface during the explosion phase of SN1987A. This core-collapse supernova was detected about 50 kpc from Earth making it the first supernova observed so closely to earth in modern times. The progenitor star was a blue supergiant with a mass of 18-20 solar masses. A blast wave occurred following the supernova explosion because there was a sudden, finite release of energy. Blast waves consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 µm plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface with a drop in density and a precision-machined interface with multiple modes. The specific modal structure is based on simulation results of the evolution of the progenitor star. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions, using dual orthogonal radiography, and will show some of the resulting data. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29034.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odenbach, Professor Stefan
2006-09-01
This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of ferrofluid research. Ferrofluids—suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles—exhibit as a specific feature the magnetic control of their physical parameters and of flows appearing in such fluids. This magnetic control can be achieved by means of moderate magnetic fields with a strength of the order of 10 mT. This sort of magnetic control also enables the design of a wide variety of technical applications such as the use of the magnetic forces for basic research in fluid dynamics. The overall field of ferrofluid research is already about 40 years old. Starting with the first patent on the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions by S Papell in 1964, a vivid field of research activities has been established. Looking at the long time in which ferrofluids have been the focus of scientific interest, one can ask the question, what kind of recent developments justify a special issue of a scientific journal? New developments in a field, which depends strongly on a certain material class and which opens research possibilities in different scientific fields will nowadays usually require an interdisciplinary approach. This kind of approach starting from the synthesis of magnetic suspensions, including research concerning their basic properties and flow behaviour and focusing on new applications has been the core of a special research programme funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) over the past 6 years. Within this programme—entitled `Colloidal Magnetic Fluids: Basics, Synthesis and Applications of New Ferrofluids'—more than 30 different research groups have been coordinated to achieve new results in various fields related to ferrofluid research. The basic approach of the program has been the assumption that new applications well beyond the typical ferrofluid techniques, for example loud speaker cooling or sealing of rotary shafts, will require tailored magnetic
Dispersion Relation and Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Waves In Mar's Topside Ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, J.-S.; Nielsen, E.
The dispersion relation for hydrodynamic waves in an ionosphere with at most a weak magnetic field shows, hydrodynamic hybrid waves may be excited in the topside iono- sphere of Mars and Venus owing to fluctuations in the solar wind pressure. The hy- brid waves result from coupling between two different hydrodynamic wave modes: the classic acoustic-gravity wave(AGW) and the newly developed background gradi- ent wave(BGW). Numerical simulations show that these waves will cause wave-like structures in the altitude profiles of the ionospheric plasma density. The wavelength and frequency are various but their prevailing values in Martian ionosphere are about 60km and 0.001-0.0001Hz, respectively. The amplitudes of the plasma density vari- ations decrease nearly exponentially with increasing altitude, and are of the same or- der of the magnitude as the uncertainty on all the previous measurements of Mar- tian ionospheric electron densities. Radio occultation observations at Mars and Venus show electron density fluctuations in the high altitude ionosphere. The fluctuations are mainly noise, but they may in part be caused by hydrodynamic wave activity. To verify wave activity more detailed measurements are required, and may be obtained with the low frequency radar planned for the Mars Express mission.
Barium hexaferrite ferrofluids - preparation and physical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Steinmetz, H.; Ayoub, N.; Fujisaki, M.; Schüppel, W.
1999-07-01
Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared for the first time using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® as carrier liquid. The initial susceptibility versus temperature for zero-field cooling of the ferrofluid was obtained by a vibrating sample magnetometer. TEM pictures of the fluid show isolated particles and only small agglomerates and a mean particle diameter of approx. 8 nm. Numerical calculations of the magneto-viscous effect, based on the local-equilibrium magnetic state model, clearly show the benefit for Ba-ferrite ferrofluids resulting from the high uniaxial anisotropy compared to magnetite ferrofluids. Rheological measurements were performed with a rotational-type viscometer with magnetic field perpendicular to the hydrodynamic vortex axis.
Colliding Shock Waves and Hydrodynamics in Small Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesler, Paul M.
2015-12-01
Using numerical holography, we study the collision of a planar sheet of energy with a bounded localized distribution of energy. The collision, which mimics proton-nucleus collisions, produces a localized lump of debris with transverse size R ˜1 /Teff with Teff the effective temperature, and has large gradients and large transverse flow. Nevertheless, the postcollision evolution is well described by viscous hydrodynamics. Our results bolster the notion that debris produced in proton-nucleus collisions may be modeled using hydrodynamics.
Colliding Shock Waves and Hydrodynamics in Small Systems.
Chesler, Paul M
2015-12-11
Using numerical holography, we study the collision of a planar sheet of energy with a bounded localized distribution of energy. The collision, which mimics proton-nucleus collisions, produces a localized lump of debris with transverse size R∼1/T_{eff} with T_{eff} the effective temperature, and has large gradients and large transverse flow. Nevertheless, the postcollision evolution is well described by viscous hydrodynamics. Our results bolster the notion that debris produced in proton-nucleus collisions may be modeled using hydrodynamics. PMID:26705624
Full wave solution for hydrodynamic behaviors of pile breakwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Da-tong
2013-06-01
Rayleigh expansion is used to study the water-wave interaction with a row of pile breakwater in finite water depth. Evanescent waves, the wave energy dissipated on the fluid resistance and the thickness of the breakwater are totally included in the model. The formulae of wave reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained. The accuracy of the present model is verified by a comparison with existing results. It is found that the predicted wave reflection and transmission coefficients for the zero order are all highly consistent with the experimental data (Hagiwara, 1984; Isaacson et al., 1998) and plane wave solutions (Zhu, 2011). The losses of the wave energy for the fluid passing through slits play an important role, which removes the phenomena of enhanced wave transmission.
Hydrodynamic roughness for wave and current flow over irregular beds (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlak, G. R.; Bandet, M. D.; Jaramillo, S.
2010-12-01
The turbulent processes associated with wave and current flow over highly irregular boundaries, characteristic of coral reefs, have important effects on wave dissipation and sediment transport, critical aspects in modeling coastal currents and waves and, subsequently, beach and coastal changes. A fundamental aspect of characterizing these turbulent processes includes parametrization of hydrodynamically relevant roughness scales. AUV-based measurements of the physical roughness scales in the vicinity of the Kilo Nalu Observatory on the south shore of Oahu indicate that the reef roughness is described by a broad-banded spectral distribution. For these multi-scaled, inhomogeneous boundaries, the relationship between hydrodynamic roughness and the measurable roughness scales is not well established. We present field observations of wave and current boundary layer dynamics over a reef at Kilo Nalu that examine this link between physical and hydrodynamic roughness. Observations from a horizontal profiler are used to reconstruct a spatial average of the near-bed flow, augmented by high-resolution vertical profiling. Data resolve the vortical and dissipation structure in the wave boundary layer and show that the flow responds to a range of roughness scales that varies as a function of wave orbital diameter. Effects of roughness on reef scales are assessed using observations of the steady currents, which integrate the spatial roughness distribution and implicitly reflect the wave interactions with the boundary. Mean flow bed stress and hydrodynamic roughness obtained from fixed ADCP current profile data are related to AUV-based measurements of physical roughness. Current structure is also assessed using AUV DVL observations. Bed stress and hydrodynamic roughness are spatially variable, directionally dependent and are modulated in time by variations in the wave-current velocity ratio.
Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng
2015-06-01
As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.
Surface topography measurements for pilot-wave hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damiano, Adam; Harris, Daniel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Bush, John
2015-11-01
We present the results of our attempt to refine the surface Schlieren technique originally developed by Moisy et al. (2009, 2012) to resolve the surface topography associated with capillary wave fields. Our technique is applied to infer the wave field that accompanies millimetric droplets self-propeling on the surface of a vibrating fluid bath. Apart from a shadow region on the order of the drop's cross-sectional area, the waves are resolved to a micron scale, allowing for quantitative comparison with existing theoretical models of the wave field. The technique is used to yield insight into the interaction between walking droplets and submerged barriers. Thanks to the NSF.
A Dynamic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Wave Journal Bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G.
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a three-wave journal bearing using a transient approach. The transient analysis permits the determination of the rotor behavior after the fractional frequency whirl appears. The journal trajectory is determined by solving a set of nonlinear equations of motion using the Runge-Katta method. The fluid film forces are computed by integrating the transient Reynolds equation at each time step location of the shaft with respect to the bearing. Because of the large values of the rotational speeds, turbulent effects were included in the computations. The influence of the temperature on the viscosity was also considered. Numerical results were compared to experimenta1 results obtained at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data were found to be in good agreement. The numerical and experimental results showed that the fluid film of a three-wave journal bearing having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27 mm, and a wave amplitude ratio greater than 0.15 is stable even at rotational speeds of 60,000 RPM. For lower wave amplitude ratios, the threshold speed at which the fluid film becomes unstable depends on the wave amplitude and on the supply pocket pressure. Even if the fluid film is unstable, the wave bearing maintains the whirl orbit inside the bearing clearance.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Longissimus lumborum samples were removed 24 h postmortem from six U.S. Utility carcasses to be utilized in determining the effects of tenderness enhancement methods and aging time on quality attributes of beef. Within each sample, sections were randomly assigned to hydrodynamic shock waves (HSW), b...
Hydrodynamic instabilities in supernova remnants - Self-similar driven waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevalier, Roger A.; Blondin, John M.; Emmering, Robert T.
1992-01-01
An initial study aimed at elucidating the multidimensional aspects of the hydrodynamic instabilities in supernova remnants is presented. Self-similar solutions are found to exist for the interaction of a steep power-law density profile expanding into a relatively flat stationary power-law density profile. Consideration of the pressure and entropy profiles in the shocked 1D flows shows that the flows are subject to convective instability, by a local criterion. The growth rate for the instability becomes very large near the contact discontinuity between the two shocked regions. A linear analysis of the complete self-similar solutions shows that the solutions are unstable above a critical wavenumber and that the growth rate is greatest at the position of the contact discontinuity. The X-ray image of the remnant of SN 1572 (Tycho) shows emission from clumps of supernova ejecta, which is good evidence for instabilities in this remnant.
Application of CHAD hydrodynamics to shock-wave problems
Trease, H.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S.
1997-12-31
CHAD is the latest in a sequence of continually evolving computer codes written to effectively utilize massively parallel computer architectures and the latest grid generators for unstructured meshes. Its applications range from automotive design issues such as in-cylinder and manifold flows of internal combustion engines, vehicle aerodynamics, underhood cooling and passenger compartment heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to shock hydrodynamics and materials modeling. CHAD solves the full unsteady Navier-Stoke equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model in three space dimensions. The code has four major features that distinguish it from the earlier KIVA code, also developed at Los Alamos. First, it is based on a node-centered, finite-volume method in which, like finite element methods, all fluid variables are located at computational nodes. The computational mesh efficiently and accurately handles all element shapes ranging from tetrahedra to hexahedra. Second, it is written in standard Fortran 90 and relies on automatic domain decomposition and a universal communication library written in standard C and MPI for unstructured grids to effectively exploit distributed-memory parallel architectures. Thus the code is fully portable to a variety of computing platforms such as uniprocessor workstations, symmetric multiprocessors, clusters of workstations, and massively parallel platforms. Third, CHAD utilizes a variable explicit/implicit upwind method for convection that improves computational efficiency in flows that have large velocity Courant number variations due to velocity of mesh size variations. Fourth, CHAD is designed to also simulate shock hydrodynamics involving multimaterial anisotropic behavior under high shear. The authors will discuss CHAD capabilities and show several sample calculations showing the strengths and weaknesses of CHAD.
Hydrodynamic responses of a thin floating disk to regular waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiew, L. J.; Bennetts, L. G.; Meylan, M. H.; French, B. J.; Thomas, G. A.
2016-01-01
The surge, heave and pitch motions of two solitary, thin, floating disks, extracted from laboratory wave basin experiments are presented. The motions are forced by regular incident waves, for a range of wave amplitudes and frequencies. One disk has a barrier attached to its edge to stop the incident waves from washing across its upper surface. It is shown that the motions of the disk without the barrier are smaller than those of the disk with the barrier. Moreover, it is shown that the amplitudes of the motions, relative to the incident amplitude, decrease with increasing incident wave amplitude for the disk without a barrier and for short incident wavelengths. Two theoretical models of the disk motions are considered. One is based on slope-sliding theory and the other on combined linear potential-flow and thin-plate theories. The models are shown to have almost the same form in the long-wavelength regime. The potential-flow/thin-plate model is shown to capture the experimentally measured disk motions with reasonable accuracy.
The equations of nearly incompressible fluids. I. Hydrodynamics, turbulence, and waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zank, G. P.; Matthaeus, W. H.
1991-01-01
A unified analysis delineating the conditions under which the equations of classical incompressible and compressible hydrodynamics are related in the absence of large-scale thermal, gravitational, and field gradients is presented. By means of singular expansion techniques, a method is developed to derive modified systems of fluid equations in which the effects of compressibility are admitted only weakly in terms of the incompressible hydrodynamic solutions (hence ``nearly incompressible hydrodynamics''). Besides including molecular viscosity self-consistently, the role of thermal conduction in an ideal fluid is also considered. With the inclusion of heat conduction, it is found that two distinct routes to incompressibility are possible, distinguished according to the relative magnitudes of the temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. This leads to two distinct models for thermally conducting, nearly incompressible hydrodynamics—heat-fluctuation-dominated hydrodynamics (HFDH's) and heat-fluctuation-modified hydrodynamics (HFMD's). For the HFD case, the well-known classical passive scalar equation for temperature is derived as one of the nearly incompressible fluid equations and temperature and density fluctuations are predicted to be anticorrelated. For HFM fluids, a new thermal transport equation, in which compressible acoustic effects are present, is obtained together with a more-complicated ``correlation'' between temperature, density, and pressure fluctuations. Although the equations of nearly incompressible hydrodynamics are envisaged principally as being applicable to homogeneous turbulence and wave propagation in low Mach number flow, it is anticipated that their applicability is likely to be far greater.
Simulation of wave mitigation by coastal vegetation using smoothed particle hydrodynamics method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iryanto; Gunawan, P. H.
2016-02-01
Vegetation in coastal area lead to wave mitigation has been studied by some researchers recently. The effect of vegetation forest in coastal area is minimizing the negative impact of wave propagation. In order to describe the effect of vegetation resistance into the water flow, the modified model of framework smoothed hydrodynamics particle has been constructed. In the Lagrangian framework, the Darcy, Manning, and laminar viscosity resistances are added. The effect of each resistances is given in some results of numerical simulations. Simulation of wave mitigation on sloping beach is also given.
Calculation of Chemical Detonation Waves With Hydrodynamics and Thermochemical Equation of State
Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Souers, P C; Vitello, P A
2001-08-01
We model detonation waves for solid explosives, using 2-D Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics, with an equation of state (EOS) based on thermochemical equilibrium, coupled with simple kinetic rate laws for a few reactants. The EOS for the product species is based on either a BKWC EOS or on an exponential-6 potential model, whose parameters are fitted to a wide range of shock Hugoniot and static compression data. We show some results for the non ideal explosive, urea nitrate. Such a model is a powerful tool for studying such processes as initiation, detonation wave propagation and detonation wave propagation as a function of cylindrical radius.
Ferrofluids: Thermophysical properties and formation of microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi Khoeini, NargesSadat Susan
This work is a combined effort of experimental and theoretical studies toward better understanding the structural and physical properties of aqueous ferrofluids containing nano-sized magnetite (iron oxide magnetic particles) of about 10nm. Ferrofluids have attracted remarkable attention mainly because their properties can be controlled by means of an externally applied magnetic field. The dispersion of nano-sized magnets in a carrier liquid exhibits superparamagnetic behaviour while retaining its fluid properties. The interplay between hydrodynamic and magnetic phenomena has made ferrofluids an extremely promising and useful tool in wide spectra of applications, from technical applications to biomedical ones. In the presence of a magnetic field, magnetic moments of the nanomagnets suspended in the host liquid are aligned toward the field direction and begin to form microstructures such as short chains, strands and long stripes. As this process advances the microstructures may collapse into bundles and thick chains and form macrostructures. Upon the removal of the magnetic field, nanoparticles will be homogeneously redistributed throughout the sample due to thermal agitation. Zero-field structures, and especially the field-induced assembly of magnetic nanoparticles, are primarily responsible for the change in physical properties of ferrofluids, including thermophysical, optical, rheological, and magnetization properties. Because of the field-induced assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in the field direction, ferrofluids become strongly anisotropic and as a result, ferrofluids can significantly enhance directional heat transfer in a thermal system. Thermophysical properties of a ferrofluid are important in studying heat transfer processes in any thermal application, making the study of their behavior a necessity. Taking into account the influence of the formation and growth of microstructures on change in properties of ferrofluids, one can find the significance of
On the consistency of the drag between air and water in meteorological, hydrodynamic and wave models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Nieuwkoop, Joana; Baas, Peter; Caires, Sofia; Groeneweg, Jacco
2015-07-01
For the design, assessment and flood control of water defences, hydraulic loads in terms of water levels and wave conditions are required and often obtained from numerical models. For these hydraulic loads to be reliable, accurate atmospheric forcing is required. Waves and surges are typically forced by surface stress. However, in most cases, the input for these models consists of 10-m wind velocities that are internally converted to surface stress by applying a particular drag relation. This procedure generally leads to inconsistencies, since the hydrodynamic, wave and atmospheric models often apply different drag relations. By means of a case study, we explored the consequences of this inconsistency in the drag formulation for a North Sea storm wave and surge hindcast. This was done by forcing the hydrodynamic and wave models using both the 10-m wind velocity and the surface stress fields computed by the atmospheric model. Our study results show significant differences between the wave parameter values and water levels computed with surface stress input and 10-m wind velocity input. Our goal is not to assess different drag parameterizations but to raise awareness for this issue and to plea for the use of a consistent drag relation in meteorological and hydrodynamic/wave models. The consistent use of one drag formulation facilitates the identification of problems and the eventual improvement of the drag formulation. Furthermore, we suggest using the so-called pseudo-wind, which is a translation of the surface stress to the 10-m wind speed using a reference drag relation.
Hydrodynamic sensing and behavior by oyster larvae in turbulence and waves.
Fuchs, Heidi L; Gerbi, Gregory P; Hunter, Elias J; Christman, Adam J; Diez, F Javier
2015-05-01
Hydrodynamic signals from turbulence and waves may provide marine invertebrate larvae with behavioral cues that affect the pathways and energetic costs of larval delivery to adult habitats. Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) live in sheltered estuaries with strong turbulence and small waves, but their larvae can be transported into coastal waters with large waves. These contrasting environments have different ranges of hydrodynamic signals, because turbulence generally produces higher spatial velocity gradients, whereas waves can produce higher temporal velocity gradients. To understand how physical processes affect oyster larval behavior, transport and energetics, we exposed larvae to different combinations of turbulence and waves in flow tanks with (1) wavy turbulence, (2) a seiche and (3) rectilinear accelerations. We quantified behavioral responses of individual larvae to local instantaneous flows using two-phase, infrared particle-image velocimetry. Both high dissipation rates and high wave-generated accelerations induced most larvae to swim faster upward. High dissipation rates also induced some rapid, active dives, whereas high accelerations induced only weak active dives. In both turbulence and waves, faster swimming and active diving were achieved through an increase in propulsive force and power output that would carry a high energetic cost. Swimming costs could be offset if larvae reaching surface waters had a higher probability of being transported shoreward by Stokes drift, whereas diving costs could be offset by enhanced settlement or predator avoidance. These complex behaviors suggest that larvae integrate multiple hydrodynamic signals to manage dispersal tradeoffs, spending more energy to raise the probability of successful transport to suitable locations. PMID:25788721
Pu, Jaan Hui; Shao, Songdong
2012-01-01
This research paper presents an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) technique to investigate a regular wave overtopping on the coastal structure of different types. The SPH method is a mesh-free particle modeling approach that can efficiently treat the large deformation of free surface. The incompressible SPH approach employs a true hydrodynamic formulation to solve the fluid pressure that has less pressure fluctuations. The generation of flow turbulence during the wave breaking and overtopping is modeled by a subparticle scale (SPS) turbulence model. Here the ISPH model is used to investigate the wave overtopping over a coastal structure with and without the porous material. The computations disclosed the features of flow velocity, turbulence, and pressure distributions for different structure types and indicated that the existence of a layer of porous material can effectively reduce the wave impact pressure and overtopping rate. The proposed numerical model is expected to provide a promising practical tool to investigate the complicated wave-structure interactions. PMID:22919291
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Heidi L.; Gerbi, Gregory P.
2016-02-01
Plankton exhibit diverse and dramatic responses to fluid motions, and these behaviors are likely critical for survival and fitness. Fluid motions can be generated by organisms or by physical processes, including turbulence and surface gravity waves. Physical processes vary geographically in their intensity and generate hydrodynamic signals experienced by plankton as fluid forces on their sensory receptors. In this synthesis, we review how turbulence and waves vary in space, the scales and statistics of their motions, and the forces exerted on plankton. We then quantify the hydrodynamic signals produced by turbulence and waves in four seascape types - surf zones, inlets and estuaries, the continental shelf, and the open ocean - using published dissipation rates, wind and wave data from buoys, and observations from two coastal sites in Massachusetts, USA. We relate these geographic patterns in signals to the observed behaviors of example species and to the forces sensed by typical plankters with different receptor types. Turbulence-generated shears are largest in the surf zone, inlets and estuaries, while wave-generated accelerations are larger offshore; as a result, each seascape exhibits some range of combined shears and accelerations that is distinct. These signals generate forces on plankton that vary among habitats and with plankton size and swimming speed. Spatial patterns in fluid forces create a potential mechanism for dispersing larvae to distinguish habitats by their hydrodynamic signatures. However, turbulence can be strong in all seascapes and may cause widespread interference in signaling among predators and prey. Plankton with a single receptor type could identify nearshore habitats, while those with multiple receptor types potentially could distinguish inshore vs. offshore seascapes or decode signals produced by physical processes and by other organisms.
Coupling hydrodynamic and wave propagation modeling for waveform modeling of SPE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmat, C. S.; Steedman, D. W.; Rougier, E.; Delorey, A.; Bradley, C. R.
2015-12-01
The goal of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to bring empirical and theoretical advances to the problem of detection and identification of underground nuclear explosions. This paper presents effort to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave propagation from the hydrodynamic/plastic source region to the elastic/anelastic far field thanks to numerical modeling. The challenge is to couple the prompt processes that take place in the near source region to the ones taking place later in time due to wave propagation in complex 3D geologic environments. In this paper, we report on results of first-principles simulations coupling hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus and CASH), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Abaqus and CASH model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. LANL has been recently employing a Coupled Euler-Lagrange (CEL) modeling capability. This has allowed the testing of a new phenomenological model for modeling stored shear energy in jointed material. This unique modeling capability has enabled highfidelity modeling of the explosive, the weak grout-filled borehole, as well as the surrounding jointed rock. SPECFEM3D is based on the Spectral Element Method, a direct numerical method for full waveform modeling with mathematical accuracy (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998, 2002) thanks to its use of the weak formulation of the wave equation and of high-order polynomial functions. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. Displacement time series at these points are computed from output of CASH or Abaqus (by interpolation if needed) and fed into the time marching scheme of SPECFEM3D. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests conducted so far, with a special focus on effect of the local topography.
Hydrodynamic instabilities and transverse waves in propagation mechanism of gaseous detonations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoudi, Y.; Mazaheri, K.; Parvar, S.
2013-10-01
The present study examines the role of transverse waves and hydrodynamic instabilities mainly, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) in detonation structure using two-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of Euler equations. To compare the numerical results with those of experiments, Navier-Stokes simulations are also performed by utilizing the effect of diffusion in highly irregular detonations. Results for both moderate and low activation energy mixtures reveal that upon collision of two triple points a pair of forward and backward facing jets is formed. As the jets spread, they undergo Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The drastic growth of the forward jet found to have profound role in re-acceleration of the detonation wave at the end of a detonation cell cycle. For irregular detonations, the transverse waves found to have substantial role in propagation mechanism of such detonations. In regular detonations, the lead shock ignites all the gases passing through it, hence, the transverse waves and hydrodynamic instabilities do not play crucial role in propagation mechanism of such regular detonations. In comparison with previous numerical simulations present simulation using single-step kinetics shows a distinct keystone-shaped region at the end of the detonation cell.
Acoustic waves in a stratified atmosphere. IV. Three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalkofen, W.; Rossi, P.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
2010-09-01
Context. The quiet solar chromosphere in the interior of supergranulation cells is believed to be heated by the dissipation of acoustic waves that originate with a typical period of 3 min in the photosphere. Aims: We investigate how the horizontal expansion with height of acoustic waves traveling upward into an isothermal, gravitationally stratified atmosphere depends on the size of the source region. Methods: We have solved the three-dimensional, nonlinear, time-dependent hydrodynamic equations for impulsively-generated, upward-propagating acoustic waves, assuming cylindrical symmetry. Results: When the diameter of the source of acoustic waves is small, the pattern of the upward-propagating waves is that of a point source, for which the energy travels upward in a vertical cone, qualitatively matching the observed pattern of bright-point expansion with height. For the largest plausible size of a source region, i.e., with granular size of 1 Mm, wave propagation in the low chromosphere is approximately that of plane waves, but in the middle and upper chromosphere it is also that of a point source. The assumption of plane-wave propagation is not a good approximation in the solar chromosphere. The upward-directed energy flux is larger than that of the solar chromosphere, at least in the middle and upper chromosphere, and probably throughout. Conclusions: Simulations of impulsively generated acoustic waves emitted from source regions with diameters that are small compared to the pressure scale height of the atmosphere qualitatively reproduce the upward expansion observed in chromospheric bright points. The emission features in the cores of the H and K lines are predicted to be blueshifted for a pulse and redshifted for the waves in its wake. The contribution of internal gravity waves to the upward energy flux is small and decreases with increasing size of the source region.
A Stability Analysis for a Hydrodynamic Three-Wave Journal Bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.
2007-01-01
The influence of the wave amplitude and oil supply pressure on the dynamic behavior of a hydrodynamic three-wave journal bearing is presented. Both, a transient and a small perturbation technique, were used to predict the threshold to fractional frequency whirl (FFW). In addition, the behavior of the rotor after FFW appeared was determined from the transient analysis. The turbulent effects were also included in the computations. Bearings having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27.5 mm, and a clearance of 35 microns were analyzed. Numerical results were compared to experimental results obtained at the NASA GRC. Numerical and experimental results showed that the above-mentioned wave bearing with a wave amplitude ratio of 0.305 operates stably at rotational speeds up to 60,000 rpm, regardless of the oil supply pressure. For smaller wave amplitude ratios, a threshold of stability was found. It was observed that the threshold of stability for lower wave amplitude strongly depends on the oil supply pressure and on the wave amplitude. When the FFW occurs, the journal center maintains its trajectory inside the bearing clearance and therefore the rotor can be run safely without damaging the bearing surfaces.
Brumley, Douglas R; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E
2012-12-28
From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves. PMID:23368623
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brumley, Douglas R.; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2012-12-01
From unicellular ciliates to the respiratory epithelium, carpets of cilia display metachronal waves, long-wavelength phase modulations of the beating cycles, which theory suggests may arise from hydrodynamic coupling. Experiments have been limited by a lack of organisms suitable for systematic study of flagella and the flows they create. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry, we report the discovery of metachronal waves on the surface of the colonial alga Volvox carteri, whose large size and ease of visualization make it an ideal model organism for these studies. An elastohydrodynamic model of weakly coupled compliant oscillators, recast as interacting phase oscillators, reveals that orbit compliance can produce fast, robust synchronization in a manner essentially independent of boundary conditions, and offers an intuitive understanding of a possible mechanism leading to the emergence of metachronal waves.
East Frisian Wadden Sea hydrodynamics and wave effects in an unstructured-grid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grashorn, Sebastian; Lettmann, Karsten A.; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Stanev, Emil V.
2015-03-01
An unstructured-grid model (FVCOM) coupled to a surface wave model (FVCOM-SWAVE) with two different setups is used to investigate the hydrodynamic and wave energy conditions during a moderate wind and a storm situation in the southern North Sea. One setup covers the whole North Sea with moderately increased grid resolution at the coast, whereas the other is a very high-resolution Wadden Sea setup that is one-way coupled to the coarser North Sea model. The results of both model setups are validated, compared to each other and analysed with a focus on longshore currents and wave energy. The numerical results show that during storm conditions, strong wave-induced longshore currents occur in front of the East Frisian Wadden Sea islands with current speeds up to 1 m/s. The model setup with the higher resolution around the islands shows even stronger currents than the coarser setup. The wave-current interaction also influences the surface elevation by raising the water level in the tidal basins. The calculated wave energies show large differences between moderate wind and storm conditions with time-averaged values up to 200 kW/m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bever, A. J.; MacWilliams, M.
2012-12-01
Under the conceptual model of sediment transport in San Pablo Bay, a sub-embayment of San Francisco Bay, proposed by Krone (1979), sediment typically enters San Pablo Bay during large winter and spring flows and is redistributed during summer conditions through wind wave resuspension and transport by tidal currents. A detailed understanding of how the waves and tides redistribute sediment within San Francisco Bay is critical for predicting how future sea level rise and a reduction in the sediment supply to the Bay will impact existing marsh and mudflat habitat, tidal marsh restoration projects, and ongoing maintenance dredging of the navigation channels. The three-dimensional UnTRIM San Francisco Bay-Delta Model was coupled with the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model and the SediMorph morphological model, to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic, wind wave, and sediment transport model of the San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Numerical simulations of sediment resuspension due to tidal currents and wind waves and the subsequent transport of this sediment by tidal currents are used to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of sediment fluxes on the extensive shoals in San Pablo Bay under a range of tidal and wind conditions. The results demonstrate that suspended sediment concentration and sediment fluxes within San Pablo Bay are a complex product of tides and waves interacting spatially throughout the Bay, with concentrations responding to local resuspension and sediment advection. Sediment fluxes between the San Pablo Bay shoals and the deeper channel are highest during spring tides, and are elevated for up to a week following wave events, even though the greatest influence of the wave event occurs abruptly.
Hydrodynamics of a cold one-dimensional fluid: the problem of strong shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurtado, Pablo I.
2005-03-01
We study a shock wave induced by an infinitely massive piston propagating into a one-dimensional cold gas. The cold gas is modelled as a collection of hard rods which are initially at rest, so the temperature is zero. Most of our results are based on simulations of a gas of rods with binary mass distribution, and we partcularly focus on the case of spatially alternating masses. We find that the properties of the resulting shock wave are in striking contrast with those predicted by hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches, e.g., the flow-field profiles relax algebraically toward their equilibrium values. In addition, most relevant observables characterizing local thermodynamic equilibrium and equipartition decay as a power law of the distance to the shock layer. The exponents of these power laws depend non-monotonously on the mass ratio. Similar interesting dependences on the mass ratio also characterize the shock width, density and temperature overshoots, etc.
Two-temperature hydrodynamics of laser-generated ultrashort shock waves in elasto-plastic solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilnitsky, Denis K.; Khokhlov, Viktor A.; Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.; Petrov, Yurii V.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Migdal, Kirill P.; Anisimov, Sergey I.
2014-05-01
Shock-wave generation by ultrashort laser pulses opens new doors for study of hidden processes in materials happened at an atomic-scale spatiotemporal scales. The poorly explored mechanism of shock generation is started from a short-living two-temperature (2T) state of solid in a thin surface layer where laser energy is deposited. Such 2T state represents a highly non-equilibrium warm dense matter having cold ions and hot electrons with temperatures of 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the melting point. Here for the first time we present results obtained by our new hybrid hydrodynamics code combining detailed description of 2T states with a model of elasticity together with a wide-range equation of state of solid. New hydro-code has higher accuracy in the 2T stage than molecular dynamics method, because it includes electron related phenomena including thermal conduction, electron-ion collisions and energy transfer, and electron pressure. From the other hand the new code significantly improves our previous version of 2T hydrodynamics model, because now it is capable of reproducing the elastic compression waves, which may have an imprint of supersonic melting like as in MD simulations. With help of the new code we have solved a difficult problem of thermal and dynamic coupling of a molten layer with an uniaxially compressed elastic solid. This approach allows us to describe the recent femtosecond laser experiments.
Metachronal waves in the flagellar beating of Volvox and their hydrodynamic origin
Brumley, Douglas R.; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2015-01-01
Groups of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are capable of coordinating their beating over large scales, routinely exhibiting collective dynamics in the form of metachronal waves. The origin of this behaviour—possibly influenced by both mechanical interactions and direct biological regulation—is poorly understood, in large part due to a lack of quantitative experimental studies. Here we characterize in detail flagellar coordination on the surface of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, an emerging model organism for flagellar dynamics. Our studies reveal for the first time that the average metachronal coordination observed is punctuated by periodic phase defects during which synchrony is partial and limited to specific groups of cells. A minimal model of hydrodynamically coupled oscillators can reproduce semi-quantitatively the characteristics of the average metachronal dynamics, and the emergence of defects. We systematically study the model's behaviour by assessing the effect of changing intrinsic rotor characteristics, including oscillator stiffness and the nature of their internal driving force, as well as their geometric properties and spatial arrangement. Our results suggest that metachronal coordination follows from deformations in the oscillators' limit cycles induced by hydrodynamic stresses, and that defects result from sufficiently steep local biases in the oscillators' intrinsic frequencies. Additionally, we find that random variations in the intrinsic rotor frequencies increase the robustness of the average properties of the emergent metachronal waves. PMID:26040592
Metachronal waves in the flagellar beating of Volvox and their hydrodynamic origin.
Brumley, Douglas R; Polin, Marco; Pedley, Timothy J; Goldstein, Raymond E
2015-07-01
Groups of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are capable of coordinating their beating over large scales, routinely exhibiting collective dynamics in the form of metachronal waves. The origin of this behavior--possibly influenced by both mechanical interactions and direct biological regulation--is poorly understood, in large part due to a lack of quantitative experimental studies. Here we characterize in detail flagellar coordination on the surface of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, an emerging model organism for flagellar dynamics. Our studies reveal for the first time that the average metachronal coordination observed is punctuated by periodic phase defects during which synchrony is partial and limited to specific groups of cells. A minimal model of hydrodynamically coupled oscillators can reproduce semi-quantitatively the characteristics of the average metachronal dynamics, and the emergence of defects. We systematically study the model's behaviour by assessing the effect of changing intrinsic rotor characteristics, including oscillator stiffness and the nature of their internal driving force, as well as their geometric properties and spatial arrangement. Our results suggest that metachronal coordination follows from deformations in the oscillators' limit cycles induced by hydrodynamic stresses, and that defects result from sufficiently steep local biases in the oscillators' intrinsic frequencies. Additionally, we find that random variations in the intrinsic rotor frequencies increase the robustness of the average properties of the emergent metachronal waves. PMID:26040592
Negative magnetophoresis in diluted ferrofluid flow.
Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2015-07-21
We report magnetic manipulation of non-magnetic particles suspended in diluted ferrofluid. Diamagnetic particles were introduced into a circular chamber to study the extent of their deflection under the effect of a non-uniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. Since ferrofluid is a paramagnetic medium, it also experiences a bulk magnetic force that in turn induces a secondary flow opposing the main hydrodynamic flow. Sheath flow rate, particle size, and magnetic field strength were varied to examine this complex behaviour. The combined effect of negative magnetophoresis and magnetically induced secondary flow leads to various operation regimes, which can potentially find applications in separation, trapping and mixing of diamagnetic particles such as cells in a microfluidic system. PMID:26054840
Ferrofluids: Thermophysical properties and formation of microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi Khoeini, NargesSadat Susan
This work is a combined effort of experimental and theoretical studies toward better understanding the structural and physical properties of aqueous ferrofluids containing nano-sized magnetite (iron oxide magnetic particles) of about 10nm. Ferrofluids have attracted remarkable attention mainly because their properties can be controlled by means of an externally applied magnetic field. The dispersion of nano-sized magnets in a carrier liquid exhibits superparamagnetic behaviour while retaining its fluid properties. The interplay between hydrodynamic and magnetic phenomena has made ferrofluids an extremely promising and useful tool in wide spectra of applications, from technical applications to biomedical ones. In the presence of a magnetic field, magnetic moments of the nanomagnets suspended in the host liquid are aligned toward the field direction and begin to form microstructures such as short chains, strands and long stripes. As this process advances the microstructures may collapse into bundles and thick chains and form macrostructures. Upon the removal of the magnetic field, nanoparticles will be homogeneously redistributed throughout the sample due to thermal agitation. Zero-field structures, and especially the field-induced assembly of magnetic nanoparticles, are primarily responsible for the change in physical properties of ferrofluids, including thermophysical, optical, rheological, and magnetization properties. Because of the field-induced assembly of magnetic nanoparticles in the field direction, ferrofluids become strongly anisotropic and as a result, ferrofluids can significantly enhance directional heat transfer in a thermal system. Thermophysical properties of a ferrofluid are important in studying heat transfer processes in any thermal application, making the study of their behavior a necessity. Taking into account the influence of the formation and growth of microstructures on change in properties of ferrofluids, one can find the significance of
A Lagrangian description of nearshore hydrodynamics and rip currents forced by a random wave field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leandro, S.; Cienfuegos, R.; Escauriaza, C. R.
2011-12-01
Nonlinear processes become important for waves propagating in the shoaling and surf zones. Wave shape changes when approaching the coast under the influence of bathymetry, becoming increasingly asymmetric until reaching the breaking limit. In the shoaling zone, non-linearities induce a net velocity in the direction of wave propagation, a phenomenon called Stokes drift, while in the surf zone, currents are mainly driven by spatio-temporal variations in energy dissipation gradients. In this work we aim at investigating and characterizing the nearshore circulation forced by a random wave field propagating over a variable bathymetry. We carry out numerical simulations over a laboratory experiment conducted in a wave basin over a realistic bathymetry [Michallet et al. 2010]. For the hydrodynamics, we use a 2D shock-capturing finite-volume model that solves the non-linear shallow water equations, taking into account energy dissipation by breaking, friction, bed-slope variations, and an accurate description for the moving shoreline in the swash zone [Marche et al. 2007;Guerra et al. 2010]. Model predictions are compared and validated against experimental data giving confidence for its use in the description of wave propagation in the surf/swash zone, together with mean eulerian velocities. The resulting wave propagation and circulation provided by the 2D model will then be used to describe drifter's patterns in the surf zone and construct Lagrangian particle tracking. The chosen experimental configuration is of great interest due to the random wave forcing (slowly modulated), the beach non-uniformities, and the existence of several bar-rip channels that enhance quasi-periodic rip instabilities. During the experiment, balloons filled with water, with a diameter between 5 and 10 cm, were placed in the surf zone in order to characterize circulation in a Lagrangian framework [Castelle et al. 2010]. The time-location of the balloons was continuously tracked by a shore
The dynamics analysis of a ferrofluid shock absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jie; Chang, Jianjun; Li, Decai; Yang, Xiaolong
2016-03-01
The paper presents a shock absorber using three magnets as the inertial mass. Movement of the inertial mass inside a cylindrical body filled with ferrofluid will lead to a viscous dissipation of the oscillating system energy. The influence of a dumbbell-like ferrofluid structure on the energy dissipation is considered and the magnetic restoring force is investigated by experiment and theoretical calculation. A theoretical model of the hydrodynamics and energy dissipation processes is developed, which includes the geometrical characteristics of the body, the fluid viscosity, and the external magnetic field. The theory predicts the experimental results well under some condition. The shock absorber can be used in spacecraft technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasky, Paul D.; Bennett, Mark F.; Melatos, Andrew
2013-03-01
Hydrodynamic turbulence driven by crust-core differential rotation imposes a fundamental noise floor on gravitational wave observations of neutron stars. The gravitational wave emission peaks at the Kolmogorov decoherence frequency which, for reasonable values of the crust-core shear, ΔΩ, occurs near the most sensitive part of the frequency band for ground-based, long-baseline interferometers. We calculate the energy density spectrum of the stochastic gravitational wave background from a cosmological population of turbulent neutron stars generalizing previous calculations for individual sources. The spectrum resembles a piecewise power law, Ωgw(ν)=Ωανα, with α=-1 and 7 above and below the decoherence frequency respectively, and its normalization scales as Ωα∝(ΔΩ)7. Nondetection of a stochastic signal by Initial LIGO implies an upper limit on ΔΩ and hence by implication on the internal relaxation time scale for the crust and core to come into corotation, τd=ΔΩ/Ω˙, where Ω˙ is the observed electromagnetic spin-down rate, with τd≲107yr for accreting millisecond pulsars and τd≲105yr for radio-loud pulsars. Target limits on τd are also estimated for future detectors, namely Advanced LIGO and the Einstein Telescope, and are found to be astrophysically interesting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marques, Wilson, Jr.; Jacinta Soares, Ana; Pandolfi Bianchi, Miriam; Kremer, Gilberto M.
2015-06-01
A shock wave structure problem, like the one which can be formulated for the planar detonation wave, is analyzed here for a binary mixture of ideal gases undergoing the symmetric reaction {{A}1}+{{A}1}\\rightleftharpoons {{A}2}+{{A}2}. The problem is studied at the hydrodynamic Euler limit of a kinetic model of the reactive Boltzmann equation. The chemical rate law is deduced in this frame with a second-order reaction rate, in a chemical regime such that the gas flow is not far away from the chemical equilibrium. The caloric and the thermal equations of state for the specific internal energy and temperature are employed to close the system of balance laws. With respect to other approaches known in the kinetic literature for detonation problems with a reversible reaction, this paper aims to improve some aspects of the wave solution. Within the mathematical analysis of the detonation model, the equation of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve of the final states is explicitly derived for the first time and used to define the correct location of the equilibrium Chapman-Jouguet point in the Hugoniot diagram. The parametric space is widened to investigate the response of the detonation solution to the activation energy of the chemical reaction. Finally, the mathematical formulation of the linear stability problem is given for the wave detonation structure via a normal-mode approach, when bidimensional disturbances perturb the steady solution. The stability equations with their boundary conditions and the radiation condition of the considered model are explicitly derived for small transversal deviations of the shock wave location. The paper shows how a second-order chemical kinetics description, derived at the microscopic level, and an analytic deduction of the equilibrium Hugoniot curve, lead to an accurate picture of the steady detonation with reversible reaction, as well as to a proper bidimensional linear stability analysis.
Wave-driven Hydrodynamics for Different Reef Geometries and Roughness Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, G. L.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.
2013-05-01
In fringing reef systems where a shallow lagoon is present behind the reef crest, wave breaking appears to dominate circulation, controlling numerous key processes such as the transport and dispersion of larvae, nutrients and sediments. Despite their importance, there is a need for more detailed knowledge on the hydrodynamic processes that take place within the surf zone of these systems and the effects different combinations of geometries and roughness have on them. The present study focuses on the use of two-dimensional (2DV) numerical model simulations and data obtained during a field campaign in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico to better understand the detailed surf zone processes that occur over a fringing reef. The model used is Cornell Breaking Wave and Structures (COBRAS), which solves Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Reef geometries implemented in the model include a reef flat and two different reef crests. The effect of roughness on wave setup, radiation stress, mean flows, and cross-shore spectral evolution for the model results was studied using different roughness coefficients (Nikuradse) and a bathymetric profile obtained in the field using the bottom track option of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Field data were also analysed for the configuration and roughness of Puerto Morelos. Model results reveal that for all profiles wave setup increased significantly (~22%) with increasing bed roughness, in agreement with previous findings for sandy beaches.For all wave heights and periods studied, increasing roughness also affected spectral wave evolution across the reef, with a significant reduction in energy, particularly at infragravity frequencies. The presence of a reef crest in the profile resulted in differences in behaviour at infragravity frequencies. For example, preliminary results suggest that there is a shift towards higher frequencies as waves progress into the lagoon when a crest is present, something that does not
Viscoelastic properties of ferrofluids.
Chirikov, D N; Fedotov, S P; Iskakova, L Yu; Zubarev, A Yu
2010-11-01
The paper deals with theoretical study of non linear viscoelastic phenomena in ferrofluids placed in magnetic field. Our attention is focused on the study of nonstationary flow and Maxwell-like relaxation of the macroscopical viscous stress after alternation of the shear rate. We propose that these phenomena can be explained by finite rate of evolution of chainlike aggregates, consisting of the ferrofluid particles. Statistical model of the chains growth-disintegration is suggested. In this model the chain-single particle mechanism of the chains evolution is considered, the effects of the chain-chain interaction are ignored. The proposed model allows us to estimate the time-dependent function of distribution over number of particles in the chain. Having determined this function and using methods of hydromechanics of ferrofluids with chainlike aggregates, we have studied evolution of the ferrofluid viscosity after stepwise alternation of the fluid shear rate. The estimated time of relaxation is in a reasonable agreement with experimental results. Thus, our analysis shows that the observed macroscopical viscoelastic phenomena in ferrofluids can be provided by evolution of the chain ensemble. PMID:21230477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macayeal, D. R.
2009-12-01
The interaction between icebergs, their parent ice shelves and the fluid in which they float (seawater) is one of the most demanding problems in glaciology because the interactions involve multiple widely divergent time scales, a variety of constitutive behaviors along with free surfaces and disconnected domains. As calving begins, compressibility and surface tension of seawater comes into play as free-falling ice encounters the ocean surface, producing jets of spray and filling the water with plumes of bubbles. As calving proceeds, incompressible hydrodynamics describes the interaction between the iceberg and the surface waves (tsunamis) the calving event creates in the ocean. In regions where the Froude number (which inversely measures the ability of the water to relieve pressure on the iceberg, ice shelf and seabed by radiating free-surface gravity waves) is greater than 1, hydraulic pressure coupling can produce extraordinary tensile and compressive stresses in the iceberg and ice shelf, triggering further calving. Eventually, a hydrostatic pressure regime develops in which icebergs may further evolve through capsize, which often produces such strong elastic stress within the iceberg sufficient to cause its disintegration. This presentation will focus on the use of SPH as a means of modeling ice/ocean interaction during iceberg calving. Goals of the investigation will be methodological and will evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of the computation of boundary forces which act on icebergs, ice shelves and seabed/fjord walls during iceberg calving and capsize.
Ferrofluid mediated nanocytometry.
Kose, Ayse Rezzan; Koser, Hur
2012-01-01
We present a low-cost, flow-through nanocytometer that utilizes a colloidal suspension of non-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for label-free manipulation and separation of microparticles. Our size-based separation is mediated by angular momentum transfer from magnetically excited ferrofluid particles to microparticles. The nanocytometer is capable of rapidly sorting and focusing two or more species, with up to 99% separation efficiency and a throughput of 3 × 10(4) particles/s per mm(2) of channel cross-section. The device is readily scalable and applicable to live cell sorting with biocompatible ferrofluids, offering competitive cytometer performance in a simple and inexpensive package. PMID:22076536
Flow control using ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornat, Francois; Beck, David; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard
2013-11-01
A novel flow control technique is proposed which employs a ferrofluidic lubricant infused in a micro-patterned substrate as a ``morphing surface'' for control of wall-bounded flows. Traditionally, morphing surfaces produce dynamic changes in the curvature and roughness of solid substrates for active control of high Reynolds number flow features such as boundary layer separation and turbulent streaks. We show how these surface modifications can be achieved with a thin liquid layer in the presence of a normal magnetic field. By impregnating a chemically-treated, micro-patterned surface with a fluorinated ferrofluid, the fluid is maintained as a thin super-hydrophobic film and can be redistributed on the substrate by magnetic forces to dynamically reveal or conceal the underlying surface roughness. Moreover, the surface topography of the ferrofluid film itself can be modified to produce an enhanced roughness, beyond the scale of the underlying substrate pattern. Both types of ferrofluidic surface modifications are studied in micro- and macro- scale channels in order to assess the feasibility of flow modification at low to moderate Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xing
2016-09-01
To understand magnetic effects on dynamical tides, we study the rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow driven by harmonic forcing. The linear responses are analytically derived in a periodic box under the local WKB approximation. Both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are calculated, and the various parameters are investigated. Although magnetic pressure may be negligible compared to thermal pressure, the magnetic field can be important for the first-order perturbation, e.g., dynamical tides. It is found that the magnetic field splits the resonant frequency, namely the rotating hydrodynamic flow has only one resonant frequency, but the rotating MHD flow has two, one positive and the other negative. In the weak field regime the dissipations are asymmetric around the two resonant frequencies and this asymmetry is more striking with a weaker magnetic field. It is also found that both the kinetic and Ohmic dissipations at the resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the Ekman number and the square of the wavenumber. The dissipation at the resonant frequency on small scales is almost equal to the dissipation at the non-resonant frequencies, namely the resonance takes its effect on the dissipation at intermediate length scales. Moreover, the waves with phase propagation that is perpendicular to the magnetic field are much more damped. It is also interesting to find that the frequency-averaged dissipation is constant. This result suggests that in compact objects, magnetic effects on tidal dissipation should be considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jia-Lin; Hsu, Tian-Jian; Shi, Fengyan; Raubenheimer, Britt; Elgar, Steve
2015-06-01
The interactions between waves, tidal currents, and bathymetry near New River Inlet, NC, USA are investigated to understand the effects on the resulting hydrodynamics and sediment transport. A quasi-3-D nearshore community model, NearCoM-TVD, is used in this integrated observational and modeling study. The model is validated with observations of waves and currents at 30 locations, including in a recently dredged navigation channel and a shallower channel, and on the ebb tidal delta, for a range of flow and offshore wave conditions during May 2012. In the channels, model skills for flow velocity and wave height are high. Near the ebb tidal delta, the model reproduces the observed rapid onshore (offshore) decay of wave heights (current velocities). Model results reveal that this sharp transition coincides with the location of the breaker zone over the ebb tidal delta, which is modulated by semidiurnal tides and by wave intensity. The modulation of wave heights is primarily owing to depth changes rather than direct wave-current interaction. The modeled tidally averaged residual flow patterns show that waves play an important role in generating vortices and landward-directed currents near the inlet entrance. Numerical experiments suggest that these flow patterns are associated with the channel-shoal bathymetry near the inlet, similar to the generation of rip currents. Consistent with other inlet studies, model results suggest that tidal currents drive sediment fluxes in the channels, but that sediment fluxes on the ebb tidal delta are driven primarily by waves.
Towards ferrofluidics for μ-TAS and lab on-a-chip applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Leidong; Koser, Hur
2006-02-01
In this paper, we show that ferrofluids can be pumped very effectively in closed-channel geometries both in the macro- and micro-scales using spatially travelling, sinusoidally time-varying magnetic fields. The results from numerical modelling demonstrate that the optimum pumping frequency is the reciprocal of the Brownian relaxation time constant of the magnetic nanoparticles inside the ferrofluid. Since the Brownian time constant depends in part on the overall hydrodynamic volume of the magnetic nanoparticles, this work has been carried with a view to developing functionalized ferrofluids that can be used as sensitive pathogen detectors in the context of ferrohydrodynamic pumping via travelling magnetic fields. A micro-ferrofluidic device has been designed and fabricated in order to demonstrate the potential development of this technology for pathogen detection. A cost-effective fabrication process combining insulated metal substrate etching and soft lithography is used to realize the prototype micro-ferrofluidic device. Results show good agreement between simulation and experiment. We finally propose a ferrofluid-based pathogen detection scheme that is expected to be insensitive to temperature and viscosity differences between the ferrofluid and the sample to be tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busca, Claudia; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Andrea; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bonaldo, Davide; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco; Paccagnella, Tiziana; Ravaioli, Mariangela; Riminucci, Francesco; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello
2014-05-01
The complex dynamics of the Adriatic Sea are the result of geographical position, orography and bathymetry, as well as rivers discharge and meteorological conditions that influence, more strongly, the shallow northern part. Such complexity requires a constant monitoring of marine conditions in order to support several activities (marine resources management, naval operations, emergency management, shipping, tourism, as well as scientific ones). Platforms, buoys and mooring located in Adriatic Sea supply almost continuously real time punctual information, which can be spatially extended, with some limitations, by drifters and remote sensing. Operational forecasting systems represent valid tools to provide a complete tridimensional coverage of the area, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Hydro-Meteo-Clima Service of the Emilia-Romagna Environmental Agency (ARPA-SIMC, Bologna, Italy) and the Dept. of Life and Environmental Sciences of Università Politecnica delle Marche (DISVA-UNIVPM, Ancona, Italy), in collaboration with the Institute of Marine Science of the National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR, Italy) operationally run several wave and hydrodynamic models on the Adriatic Sea. The main implementations are based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), the wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the coupling of the former two models in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) system. Horizontal resolutions of the different systems range from the 2 km of AdriaROMS to the 0.5 km of the recently implemented northern Adriatic COAWST. Forecasts are produced every day for the subsequent 72 hour with hourly resolution. All the systems compute the fluxes exchanged through the interface with the atmosphere from the numerical weather prediction system named COSMO-I7, an implementation for Italy of the Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model, at 7 km horizontal resolution. Considering the several operational
Magnetorheological properties of some ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timko, M.; Zentko, A.; Zentkova, M.; Koneracka, M.; Kellnerova, V.; Zentkova, A.; Stepan, M.; Barbora, J.
1994-03-01
The effect of an external magnetic field, velocity of flow and concentration of the magnetite on the rheological properties of some mineral oil based ferrofluids have been investigated. It has been shown that the increase of viscosity in magnetic field depends upon the velocity flow of ferrofluid and concentration of magnetite.
Lacy, J.R.; Sherwood, C.R.; Wilson, D.J.; Chisholm, T.A.; Gelfenbaum, G.R.
2005-01-01
Hydrodynamic roughness is a critical parameter for characterizing bottom drag in boundary layers, and it varies both spatially and temporally due to variation in grain size, bedforms, and saltating sediment. In this paper we investigate temporal variability in hydrodynamic roughness using velocity profiles in the bottom boundary layer measured with a high-resolution acoustic Doppler profiler (PCADP). The data were collected on the ebb-tidal delta off Grays Harbor, Washington, in a mean water depth of 9 m. Significant wave height ranged from 0.5 to 3 m. Bottom roughness has rarely been determined from hydrodynamic measurements under conditions such as these, where energetic waves and medium-to-fine sand produce small bedforms. Friction velocity due to current u*c and apparent bottom roughness z0a were determined from the PCADP burst mean velocity profiles using the law of the wall. Bottom roughness kB was estimated by applying the Grant-Madsen model for wave-current interaction iteratively until the model u*c converged with values determined from the data. The resulting kB values ranged over 3 orders of magnitude (10-1 to 10-4 m) and varied inversely with wave orbital diameter. This range of kB influences predicted bottom shear stress considerably, suggesting that the use of time-varying bottom roughness could significantly improve the accuracy of sediment transport models. Bedform height was estimated from kB and is consistent with both ripple heights predicted by empirical models and bedforms in sonar images collected during the experiment. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonelli, Giulio; Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr
2014-07-01
We show that the exact partition function of U( N) six-dimensional gauge theory with eight supercharges on ℂ2 × S 2 provides the quantization of the integrable system of hydrodynamic type known as gl( N) periodic Intermediate Long Wave (ILW). We characterize this system as the hydrodynamic limit of elliptic Calogero-Moser integrable system. We compute the Bethe equations from the effective gauged linear sigma model on S 2 with target space the ADHM instanton moduli space, whose mirror computes the Yang-Yang function of gl( N) ILW. The quantum Hamiltonians are given by the local chiral ring observables of the six-dimensional gauge theory. As particular cases, these provide the gl( N) Benjamin-Ono and Korteweg-de Vries quantum Hamiltonians. In the four dimensional limit, we identify the local chiral ring observables with the conserved charges of Heisenberg plus W N algebrae, thus providing a gauge theoretical proof of AGT correspondence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Chuanqi; An, Yi; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Qingquan; Cao, Zhixian
2016-06-01
We simulate the generation of a landslide-induced impulse wave with a newly-developed soil-water coupling model in the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) framework. The model includes an elasto-plastic constitutive model for soil, a Navier-Stokes equation based model for water, and a bilateral coupling model at the interface. The model is tested with simulated waves induced by a slow and a fast landslide. Good agreement is obtained between simulation results and experimental data. The generated wave and the deformation of the landslide body can both be resolved satisfactorily. All parameters in our model have their physical meaning in soil mechanics and can be obtained from conventional soil mechanics experiments directly. The influence of the dilatancy angle of soil shows that the non-associated flow rule must be selected, and the value of the dilatancy angle should not be chosen arbitrarily, if it is not determined with relative experiments.
Chain-induced effects in the Faraday instability on ferrofluids in a horizontal magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekhonoshin, V. V.; Lange, Adrian
2004-04-01
The linear stability analysis of the Faraday instability on a viscous ferrofluid in a horizontal magnetic field is performed. Strong dipole-dipole interactions lead to the formation of chains elongated in the field direction. The formation of chains results in a qualitative new behavior of the ferrofluid. This new behavior is characterized by a neutral stability curve similar to that observed earlier for Maxwell viscoelastic liquids and causes a significant weakening of the energy dissipation at high frequencies. In the case of a ferrofluid with chains in a horizontal magnetic field, the effective viscosity is anisotropic and depends on the field strength as well as on the wave frequency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi
2007-05-01
Millimeter-sized, spherical silicate grains abundant in chondritic meteorites, which are called as chondrules, are considered to be a strong evidence of the melting event of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disk. One of the most plausible scenarios is that the chondrule precursor dust particles are heated and melt in the high-velocity gas flow (shock-wave heating model). We developed the non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code for analyzing the dynamics of molten droplets exposed to the gas flow. We confirmed that our simulation results showed a good agreement in a linear regime with the linear solution analytically derived by Sekyia et al. [Sekyia, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728]. We found that the non-linear terms in the hydrodynamical equations neglected by Sekiya et al. [Sekiya, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728] can cause the cavitation by producing negative pressure in the droplets. We discussed that the fragmentation through the cavitation is a new mechanism to determine the upper limit of chondrule sizes. We also succeeded to reproduce the fragmentation of droplets when the gas ram pressure is stronger than the effect of the surface tension. Finally, we compared the deformation of droplets in the shock-wave heating with the measured data of chondrules and suggested the importance of other effects to deform droplets, for example, the rotation of droplets. We believe that our new code is a very powerful tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of molten droplets in the framework of the shock-wave heating model and has many potentials to be applied to various problems.
BCS-BEC crossover and quantum hydrodynamics in p-wave superfluids with a symmetry of the A1 phase
Kagan, M. Yu. Efremov, D. V.
2010-03-15
We solve the Leggett equations for the BCS-BEC crossover in a three dimensional resonance p-wave superfluid with the symmetry of the A1 phase. We calculate the sound velocity, the normal density, and the specific heat for the BCS domain ({mu} > 0), for the BEC domain ({mu} < 0), and close to the important point {mu} = 0 in the 100% polarized case. We find the indications of a quantum phase transition close to the point {mu}(T = 0) = 0. Deep in the BCS and BEC domains, the crossover ideas of Leggett, Nozieres, and Schmitt-Rink work quite well. We discuss the spectrum of orbital waves, the paradox of intrinsic angular momentum and the complicated problem of chiral anomaly in the BCS A1 phase at T = 0. We present two different approaches to the chiral anomaly, based on supersymmetric hydrodynamics and on the formal analogy with the Dirac equation in quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the damping of nodal fermions due to different decay processes in the superclean case at T = 0 and find that a ballistic regime {omega}{tau} >> 1 occurs. We propose to use aerogel or nonmagnetic impurities to reach the hydrodynamic regime {omega}{tau} << 1 at T = 0. We discuss the concept of the spectral flow and exact cancelations between time derivatives of anomalous and quasiparticle currents in the equation for the total linear momentum conservation. We propose to derive and solve the kinetic equation for the nodal quasiparticles in both the hydrodynamic and ballistic regimes to demonstrate this cancelation explicitly. We briefly discuss the role of the other residual interactions different from damping and invite experimentalists to measure the spectrum and damping of orbital waves in the A phase of {sup 3}He at low temperatures.
Some results of the hydrodynamic theory of finite-amplitude waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekerzh-Zenkovich, Y. I.
1975-01-01
Standing waves can be interpreted as free waves between two vertical walls; for a standing wave in an unlimited container there is no transport of liquid mass in the horizontal direction. Standing waves of finite amplitude also possess the following properties not possessed by the waves of the linear theory: (1) there are no motionless points, (2) the points of maximum amplitude (crests and troughs) are fixed, and coincide with the antinodes of the original linear wave, (3) the ordinates of the wave crests are greater in absolute magnitude than the ordinates of the troughs; the wave is similar to a trochoid curve; (4) the wave profile never becomes straight; and (5) the frequency of the oscillations depends not only on the wave length but also on the amplitude.
Oldenburg, Curtis; Moridis, George
1998-03-24
We have developed EOS7M, a ferrofluid flow and transport module for TOUGH2. EOS7M calculates the magnetic forces on ferrofluid caused by an external magnetic field and allows simulation of flow and advective transport of ferrofluid-water mixtures through porous media. Such flow problems are strongly coupled and well suited to the TOUGH2 framework. Preliminary applications of EOS7M to some simple pressure and flow problems for which experiments were carried out in the lab show good qualitative agreement with the laboratory results.
Magnetization of multicomponent ferrofluids.
Szalai, I; Dietrich, S
2011-08-17
The solution of the mean spherical approximation (MSA) integral equation for isotropic multicomponent dipolar hard sphere fluids without external fields is used to construct a density functional theory (DFT), which includes external fields, in order to obtain an analytical expression for the external field dependence of the magnetization of ferrofluidic mixtures. This DFT is based on a second-order Taylor series expansion of the free energy density functional of the anisotropic system around the corresponding isotropic MSA reference system. The ensuing results for the magnetic properties are in quantitative agreement with our canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulation data presented here. PMID:21795777
Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I.
2011-12-15
In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.
Exploring multifunctional potential of commercial ferrofluids by magnetic particle hyperthermia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakellari, Despoina; Mathioudaki, Stella; Kalpaxidou, Zoi; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Angelakeris, Makis
2015-04-01
In this work we examine a selection of commercially available magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as candidates for magnetic particle hyperthermia applications combining their primary modality with additional heat triggered actions. Contrary to lab-made magnetic nanoparticles, commercial ferrofluids may be rapidly pushed through the medical approval processes since their applicability has already been addressed successfully (i.e., formulation, reproducibility, toxicity and quality assurance) in conjunction with the strong companies‧ drive in the fast delivery of the new therapy to the patient. Four samples are under study with variable hydrodynamic diameters from two companies (Micromod and Chemicell) consisting of iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The tunable magnetic heating characteristics of the ferrofluids were correlated with particle, field and colloidal solution features. Our work revealed a size-dependent magnetic heating efficiency together with fast thermal response, features that are crucial for adequate thermal efficiency combined with minimum treatment duration and show the potential of such materials as multifunctional theranostic agents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennings, Ingo; Herbers, Dagmar
2006-10-01
The investigations carried out between 2002 and 2004 during six field experiments within the Operational Radar and Optical Mapping in monitoring hydrodynamic, morphodynamic and environmental parameters for coastal management (OROMA) project aimed to improve the effectiveness of new remote sensing monitoring technologies such as shipborne imaging radars in coastal waters. The coastal monitoring radar of the GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Germany, is based on a Kelvin Hughes RSR 1000 X band (9.42 GHz) vertical (VV) polarized river radar and was mounted on board the research vessel Ludwig Prandtl during the experiments in the Lister Tief, a tidal inlet of the German Bight in the North Sea. The important progress realized in this investigation is the availability of calibrated X band radar data. Another central point of the study is to demonstrate the applicability of the quasi-specular scattering theory in combination with the weak hydrodynamic interaction theory for the radar imaging mechanism of the seabed. Radar data have been taken at very low grazing angles ≤2.6° of flood and ebb tide-oriented sand wave signatures at the sea surface during ebb tidal current phases. Current speeds perpendicular to the sand wave crest ≤0.6 m s-1 have been measured at wind speeds ≤4.5 m s-1 and water depths ≤25 m. The difference between the maximum measured and simulated normalized radar cross section (NRCS) modulation of the ebb tide-oriented sand wave is 27%. For the flood tide-oriented sand wave, a difference of 21% has been calculated. The difference between the minimum measured and simulated NRCS modulation of the ebb tide-oriented sand wave is 10%, and for the flood tide-oriented sand wave, a value of 43% has been derived. Phases of measured and simulated NRCS modulations correspond to asymmetric sand wave slopes. The results of the simulated NRCS modulation show the qualitative trend but do not always quantitatively match the measured NRCS modulation profiles
Energy harvesting via ferrofluidic induction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monroe, J. G.; Vasquez, Erick S.; Aspin, Zachary S.; Fairley, John D.; Walters, Keisha B.; Berg, Matthew J.; Thompson, Scott M.
2015-05-01
A series of experiments were conducted to investigate and characterize the concept of ferrofluidic induction - a process for generating electrical power via cyclic oscillation of ferrofluid (iron-based nanofluid) through a solenoid. Experimental parameters include: number of bias magnets, magnet spacing, solenoid core, fluid pulse frequency and ferrofluid-particle diameter. A peristaltic pump was used to cyclically drive two aqueous ferrofluids, consisting of 7-10 nm iron-oxide particles and commercially-available hydroxyl-coated magnetic beads (~800 nm), respectively. The solutions were pulsated at 3, 6, and 10 Hz through 3.2 mm internal diameter Tygon tubing. A 1000 turn copper-wire solenoid was placed around the tube 45 cm away from the pump. The experimental results indicate that the ferrofluid is capable of inducing a maximum electric potential of approximately +/- 20 μV across the solenoid during its cyclic passage. As the frequency of the pulsating flow increased, the ferro-nanoparticle diameter increased, or the bias magnet separation decreased, the induced voltage increased. The type of solenoid core material (copper or plastic) did not have a discernible effect on induction. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ferrofluidic induction and provide insight into its dependence on fluid/flow parameters. Such fluidic/magneto-coupling can be exploited for energy harvesting and/or conversion system design for a variety of applications.
Tunable optical and magneto-optical properties of ferrofluid in the terahertz regime.
Chen, Sai; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Miao, Yinping; Chen, Meng; Li, Jining; Wang, Xianghui; Lin, Lie
2014-03-24
The dielectric property and magneto-optical effects of ferrofluids have been investigated in the terahertz (THz) regime by using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The experiment results show that the refractive index and absorption coefficient of ferrofluid for THz waves rise up with the increase of nanoparticle concentration in the ferrofluid. Moreover, two different THz magneto-optical effects have been found with different external magnetic fields, of which mechanisms have been theoretically explained well by microscopic structure induced refractive index change in the magnetization process and the transverse magneto-optical effect after the saturation magnetization, respectively. This work suggests that ferrofluid is a promising magneto-optical material in the THz regime which has widely potential applications in THz functional devices for THz sensing, modulation, phase retardation, and polarization control. PMID:24663979
Hoeke, R.; Storlazzi, C.; Ridd, P.
2011-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between offshore wave climate and nearshore waves and currents at Hanalei Bay, Hawaii, an exposed bay fringed with coral reefs. Analysis of both offshore in situ data and numerical hindcasts identify the predominance of two wave conditions: a mode associated with local trade winds and an episodic pattern associated with distant source long-period swells. Analysis of 10 months of in situ data within the bay show that current velocities are up to an order of magnitude greater during long-period swell episodes than during trade wind conditions; overall circulation patterns are also fundamentally different. The current velocities are highly correlated with incident wave heights during the swell episodes, while they are not during the modal trade wind conditions. A phase-averaged wave model was implemented with the dual purpose of evaluating application to bathymetrically complex fringing reefs and to examine the propagation of waves into the nearshore in an effort to better explain the large difference in observed circulation during the two offshore wave conditions. The prediction quality of this model was poorer for the episodic condition than for the lower-energy mode, however, it illustrated how longer-period swells are preferentially refracted into the bay and make available far more nearshore wave energy to drive currents compared to waves during modal conditions. The highly episodic circulation, the nature of which is dependent on complex refraction patterns of episodic, long-period swell has implications for flushing and sediment dynamics for incised fringing reef-lined bays that characterize many high islands at low latitudes around the world.
Ferrofluid Photonic Dipole Contours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Michael; Frederick, Jonathan
2008-03-01
Understanding magnetic fields is important to facilitate magnetic applications in diverse fields in industry, commerce, and space exploration to name a few. Large electromagnets can move heavy loads of metal. Magnetic materials attached to credit cards allow for fast, accurate business transactions. And the Earth's magnetic field gives us the colorful auroras observed near the north and south poles. Magnetic fields are not visible, and therefore often hard to understand or characterize. This investigation describes and demonstrates a novel technique for the visualization of magnetic fields. Two ferrofluid Hele-Shaw cells have been constructed to facilitate the imaging of magnetic field lines [1,2,3,4]. We deduce that magnetically induced photonic band gap arrays similar to electrostatic liquid crystal operation are responsible for the photographed images and seek to mathematically prove the images are of exact dipole nature. We also note by comparison that our photographs are very similar to solar magnetic Heliosphere photographs.
Ferrofluid-associated Cutaneous Dyschromia
Arfa, Kenneth S.
2016-01-01
Background: Ferrofluid is a colloidal suspension that usually consists of surfactant-coated nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a carrier liquid. Ferromagnetic fluid forms spikes when the liquid is exposed to a magnetic field. Purpose: The authors describe a man who developed temporary discoloration of his right palm and fingers after accidental cutaneous contact with ferrofluid and discuss some of the current and potential applications of this unique liquid. Methods: A 28-year-old man was evaluating the effects of magnetic fields using ferrofluid. He performed a modification of the “leaping ferrofluid” demonstration in which he held a superstrong (14,800 gauss magnetic field strength) N52 rare earth neodymium magnet in his palm and slowly lowered that hand over an open bowl that was filled with ferrofluid. Results: As the magnet approached the liquid, the ferrofluid became magnetized. The liquid leaped from the bowl and contacted not only the magnet, but also the palmar surface of his hand and fingers, resulting in a black-brown dyschromia of the affected skin. The discoloration completely resolved after two weeks without any adverse sequellae. Conclusion: Ferrofluid has numerous current and potential applications; in addition to being of value educationally and aesthetically (after being subjected to magnetic fields), it is also utilized for audio loudspeakers, medical innovations (such as a component of either a research tool, a diagnostic aid, or a treatment modality), and seals. Although the authors’ patient did not experience any acute or chronic toxicity from his cutaneous exposure to ferrofluid, conservative follow-up for individuals who experience skin contact with ferromagnetic fluid may be appropriate. PMID:27354890
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samaras, Achilleas G.; Gaeta, Maria Gabriella; Moreno Miquel, Adrià; Archetti, Renata
2016-07-01
Numerical modelling has become an essential component of today's coastal planning, decision support and risk assessment. High-resolution modelling offers an extensive range of capabilities regarding simulated conditions, works and practices and provides with a wide array of data regarding nearshore wave dynamics and hydrodynamics. In the present work, the open-source TELEMAC suite and the commercial software MIKE21 are applied to selected coastal areas of South Italy. Applications follow a scenario-based approach in order to study representative wave conditions in the coastal field; the models' results are intercompared in order to test both their performance and capabilities and are further evaluated on the basis of their operational use for coastal planning and design. A multiparametric approach for the rapid assessment of wave conditions in coastal areas is also presented and implemented in areas of the same region. The overall approach is deemed to provide useful insights on the tested models and the use of numerical models - in general - in the above context, especially considering that the design of harbours, coastal protection works and management practices in the coastal zone is based on scenario-based approaches as well.
Niederhaus, John; Ranjan, Devesh; Anderson, Mark; Oakley, Jason; Bonazza, Riccardo; Greenough, Jeff
2005-05-15
Experiments studying the compression and unstable growth of a dense spherical bubble in a gaseous medium subjected to a strong planar shock wave (2.8 < M < 3.4) are performed in a vertical shock tube. The test gas is initially contained in a free-falling spherical soap-film bubble, and the shocked bubble is imaged using planar laser diagnostics. Concurrently, simulations are carried out using a compressible hydrodynamics code in r-z axisymmetric geometry.Experiments and computations indicate the formation of characteristic vortical structures in the post-shock flow, due to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and smaller-scale vortices due to secondary effects. Inconsistencies between experimental and computational results are examined, and the usefulness of the current axisymmetric approach is evaluated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyer, Ashton; Blondin, J. M.; Reynolds, S. P.
2014-01-01
High resolution imaging of two young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), Tycho and SN 1006, has revealed several morphological features which have resisted explanation with numerical simulations. One such feature is the presence of shocked ejecta blobs protruding beyond the mean forward shock radius. Two current theories explain the presence of such ejecta: highly dense ejecta shrapnel produced in the explosion penetrating the forward shock, or plumes generated by hydrodynamic instabilities long after the initial explosion. We investigate the shrapnel theory through hydrodynamic simulations in 2D and 3D of the evolution of dense ejecta clumps embedded in an exponential density profile, appropriate for Type Ia supernovae. We use high-resolution 2D simulations to identify relevant clump parameters which we investigate further in 3D. In contradiction to some former work, we find that sufficiently resolved clumps in 2D models shatter upon collision with the forward shock, yielding new protrusion features. In both 2D and 3D, shrapnel is capable of penetrating the forward shock, but the resultant protrusions in 3D simulations vary significantly from those in similar 2D runs, implying 2D simulations may not be an accurate method of investigating the shrapnel theory. We compare the our simulations with Chandra observations of projections seen in Tycho and SN 1006. This work was performed as part of NC State University's Undergraduate Research in Computational Astrophysics (URCA) program, an REU program supported by the National Science Foundation through award AST-1032736.
Magnetoviscosity in dilute ferrofluids from rotational brownian dynamics simulations.
Soto-Aquino, D; Rinaldi, C
2010-10-01
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles which respond to imposed magnetic fields by changing their viscosity without losing their fluidity. Prior work on modeling the behavior of ferrofluids has focused on using phenomenological suspension-scale continuum equations. A disadvantage of this approach is the controversy surrounding the equation describing the rate of change of the ferrofluid magnetization, the so-called magnetization relaxation equation. In this contribution the viscosity of dilute suspensions of spherical magnetic nanoparticles suspended in a Newtonian fluid and under applied shear and constant magnetic fields is studied through rotational brownian dynamics simulations. Simulation results are compared with the predictions of suspension-scale models based on three magnetization relaxation equations. Excellent agreement is observed between simulation results and the predictions of an equation due to Martsenyuk, Raikher, and Shliomis. Good qualitative agreement is observed with predictions of other equations, although these models fail to accurately predict the magnitude and shear rate dependence of the magnetic-field-dependent effective viscosity. Finally, simulation results over a wide range of conditions are collapsed into master curves using a Mason number defined based on the balance of hydrodynamic and magnetic torques. PMID:21230393
Dynamic analysis of hydrodynamic behavior of a flatfish cage system under wave conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yong; Guan, Chang-tao; Wan, Rong; Huang, Bin; Li, Jiao
2014-04-01
This paper presents a simulation model based on the finite element method. The method is used to analyze the motion response and mooring line tension of the flatfish cage system in waves. The cage system consists of top frames, netting, mooring lines, bottom frames, and floats. A series of scaled physical model tests in regular waves are conducted to verify the numerical model. The comparison results show that the simulated and the experimental results agree well under the wave conditions, and the maximum pitch of the bottom frame with two orientations is about 12°. The motion process of the whole cage system in the wave can be described with the computer visualized technology. Then, the mooring line tensions and the motion of the bottom frame with three kinds of weight are calculated under different wave conditions. According to the numerical results, the differences in mooring line tensions of flatfish cages with three weight modes are indistinct. The maximum pitch of the bottom frame decreases with the increase of the bottom weight.
Coloma, M; Schaffer, J D; Carare, R O; Chiarot, P R; Huang, P
2016-08-01
Beta-amyloid accumulation within arterial walls in cerebral amyloid angiopathy is associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism of beta-amyloid clearance along peri-arterial pathways in the brain is not well understood. In this study, we investigate a transport mechanism in the arterial basement membrane consisting of forward-propagating waves and their reflections. The arterial basement membrane is modeled as a periodically deforming annulus filled with an incompressible single-phase Newtonian fluid. A reverse flow, which has been suggested in literature as a beta-amyloid clearance pathway, can be induced by the motion of reflected boundary waves along the annular walls. The wave amplitude and the volume of the annular region govern the flow magnitude and may have important implications for an aging brain. Magnitudes of transport obtained from control volume analysis and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations are presented. PMID:26729476
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suwa, T.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.; Ogasawara, K.; Watanabe, M.; Hirahara, T.
2014-12-01
A tsunami simulator integrating a 3-D fluid simulation technology that runs on large-scale parallel computers using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been developed together with a 2-D tsunami propagation simulation technique using a nonlinear shallow water wave model. We use the 2-D simulation to calculate tsunami propagation of scale of about 1000km from epicenter to near shore. The 3-D SPH method can be used to calculate the water surface and hydraulic force that a tsunami can exert on a building, and to simulate flooding patterns at urban area of at most km scale. With our simulator we can also see three dimensional fluid feature such as complex changes a tsunami undergoes as it interacts with coastal topography or structures. As a result it is hoped that, e.g. , effect of the structures to dissipate waves energy passing over it can be elucidated. The authors utilize the simulator in the third of five fields of the Strategic Programs for Innovative Research, "Advanced Prediction Researches for Natural Disaster Prevention and Reduction," or the theme "Improvement of the tsunami forecasting system on the HPCI computer." The results of tsunami simulation using the K computer will be reported. We are going to apply it to a real problem of the disaster prevention in future.
Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N
2013-08-01
We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation. PMID:23952405
Dasgupta, B.; Burrows, R.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.
2006-08-15
In this work we investigate how reflected particles modify the Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) relations in a simple hydrodynamical framework. It is assumed that the ions are specularly reflected by the cross-shock potential. For simplicity, an exactly perpendicular shock is assumed, thus other reflection mechanisms, such as magnetic mirroring, can be neglected. Momentum and energy terms are introduced to model reflected particles at the shock and the RH conditions are examined using a geometrical entropy condition to distinguish the physically relevant states. Although such shocks have some common features with combustion shocks within a narrow range of reflection parameters, for a wide range of reflection parameters, particularly for highly oblique shocks, Chapman-Jouguet solutions do not exist. It is conjectured that these shocks comprise a distinct class. Decelerated solutions of the RH conditions are shown to exist only under specific conditions for shocks with reflected particles. Velocity flows both parallel and oblique to the perpendicular shock (with respect to an upstream magnetic field) are considered and found to be strongly sheared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihalas, Dimitri
Basic Radiation Theory Specific Intensity Photon Number Density Photon Distribution Function Mean Intensity Radiation Energy Density Radiation Energy Flux Radiation Momentum Density Radiation Stress Tensor (Radiation Pressure Tensor) Thermal Radiation Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation and a Perfect Gas The Transfer Equation Absorption, Emission, and Scattering The Equation of Transfer Moments of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Transfer Equation Lorentz Transformation of the Photon 4-Momentum Lorentz Transformation of the Specific Intensity, Opacity, and - Emissivity Lorentz Transformation of the Radiation Stress Energy Tensor The Radiation 4-Force Density Vector Covariant Form of the Transfer Equation Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Inertial-Frame Radiation Equations Inertial-Frame Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Comoving-Frame Equation of Transfer Special Relativistic Derivation (D. Mihalas) Consistency Between Comoving-Frame and Inertial-Frame Equations Noninertial Frame Derivation (J. I. Castor) Analysis of O (v/c) Terms Lagrangian Equations of Radiation Hydrodynamics Momentum Equation Gas Energy Equation First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiation Field First Law of Thermodynamics for the Radiating Fluid Mechanical Energy Equation Total Energy Equation Consistency of Different Forms of the Radiating-Fluid Energy - and Momentum Equations Consistency of Inertial-Frame and Comoving-Frame Radiation Energy - and Momentum Equations Radiation Diffusion Radiation Diffusion Nonequilibrium Diffusion The Problem of Flux Limiting Shock Propagation: Numerical Methods Acoustic Waves Numerical Stability Systems of Equations Implications of Shock Development Implications of Diffusive Energy Transport Illustrative Example Numerical Radiation Hydrodynamics Radiating Fluid Energy and Momentum Equations Computational Strategy Energy Conservation Formal Solution Multigroup Equations An Astrophysical Example Adaptive-Grid Radiation
Preparation and Properties of an Aqueous Ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enzel, Patricia; Adelman, Nicholas B.; Beckman, Katie J.; Campbell, Dean J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.
1999-07-01
Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of surfactant-coated magnetic particles in a liquid medium. This paper describes a simple synthesis of an aqueous-based ferrofluid that may be used in an introductory science or engineering laboratory. Magnetite (Fe3O4) particles are precipitated by combining FeCl3 and FeCl2 in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio in aqueous ammonia solution. The resulting particles, ~10-20 nm in diameter based on powder X-ray diffraction, are then treated with aqueous tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which acts as a surfactant. When the resulting ferrofluid is placed near a magnet, it forms conical spikes. This paper also describes a method for repelling both oil- and water-based ferrofluid from solid surfaces that would otherwise be stained by the fluid. Finally, a demonstration of the interaction between ferrofluid and magnetic fields, in which ferrofluid is induced to leap upward by a stack of magnets, is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inogamov, N. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.
2015-12-01
In the early Universe up to hydrogen recombination in the Universe, the radiation pressure was much greater than the pressure of baryons and electrons. Moreover, the energy density of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons was greater than or close to the energy density contained in the rest mass of baryonic matter, i.e., the primordial plasma was a radiated-dominated one and the adiabatic index was close to 4/3. The small density perturbations from which the observed galaxies have grown grew as long as the characteristic perturbation scales exceeded the horizon of the Universe сt at that time. On smaller scales, the density perturbations were standing sound waves. Radiative viscosity and heat conduction must have led to the damping of sound waves on very small scales. After the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, J. Silk calculated the scales of this damping, which is now called Silk damping, knowing the CMBtemperature and assuming the density of baryons and electrons. Observations with the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Planck satellite have revealed the predicted damping of acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum and confirmed one important prediction of the theory. In 1970, R.A. Sunyaev and Ya.B. Zeldovich showed that such energy release in the early Universe should lead to characteristic deviations of the CMB spectrum from the Planck one. The development of the technology of cryogenic detectors of submillimeter and millimeter wavelength radiation has made it possible to measure the CMB spectral distortions at 10-8 of its total intensity (PIXIE). This has sharply increased the interest of theoretical cosmologists in the problem of energy release when smallscale sound waves are damped. We have derived a relativistic formula for the energy of a standing sound wave in a photon-baryon-electron plasma from simple hydrodynamic and thermodynamic relations. This formula is applicable for an arbitrary relation between the
Fine-scale density wave structure of Saturn's rings: A hydrodynamic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griv, E.; Gedalin, M.
2010-10-01
Aims: We examine the linear stability of the Saturnian ring disk of mutually gravitating and physically colliding particles with special emphasis on its fine-scale ~100 m density wave structure, that is, almost regularly spaced, aligned cylindric density enhancements and optically-thin zones with the width and the spacing between them of roughly several tens particle diameters. Methods: We analyze the Jeans' instabilities of gravity perturbations (e.g., those produced by a spontaneous disturbance) analytically by using the Navier-Stokes dynamical equations of a compressible fluid. The theory is not restricted by any assumptions about the thickness of the system. We consider a simple model of the system consisting of a three-dimensional ring disk that is weakly inhomogeneous and whose structure is analyzed by making a horizontally local short-wave approximation. Results: We demonstrate that the disk is probably unstable and that gravity perturbations grow effectively within a few orbital periods. We find that self-gravitation plays a key role in the formation of the fine structure. The predictions of the theory are compared with observations of Saturn's rings by the Cassini spacecraft and are found to be in good agreement. In particular, it appears very likely that some of the quasi-periodic microstructures observed in Saturn's A and B rings - both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric ones - are manifestations of these effects. We argue that the quasi-periodic density enhancements revealed in Cassini data are flattened structures, with a height to width ratio of about 0.3. One should analyze high-resolution of the order of 10 m data acquired for the A and B rings (and probably C ring as well) to confirm this prediction. We also show that the gravitational instability is a potential cluster-forming mechanism leading to the formation of porous 100-m-diameter moonlets of preferred mass ~107 g each embedded in the outer A ring, although this has yet to be directly measured.
Fine-Scale Density Wave Structure of Saturn's Main Rings: A Hydrodynamic Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griv, Evgeny; Gedalin, Michael
The theoretical studies of Maxwell (1859) have showed that the rings around Saturn could not be solid or liquid, but rather a swarm of millions of individual particles rotating in separate concentric orbits at different speeds. A modern very popular model of the particles in Saturn's rings is a smooth ice sphere, whose restitution coefficient is quite high (exceeding 0.63) and decreases as the collision velocity increases. In this work, the linear stability of the Saturnian ring disk of mutually gravitating and physically colliding particles is examined with special emphasis on its fine-scale of the order of 100 m density wave structure, that is, almost regularly spaced, aligned cylindric density enhancements and optically-thin zones with the width and the spacing between them of roughly several tens particle diameters. Jeans' instabilities of small-amplitude gravity perturbations (e.g., those produced by a spontaneous disturbance) are analyzed analytically through the use of Navier-Stokes dynamical equations of a compressible fluid. An essential feature of this study is that the theory is not restricted by any assumptions regarding the thickness of the system. The simple model of the system is considered: the ring disk is considered to be thin, a weakly spatially inhomogeneous, and its structure is considered in a horizontally local short-wave approximation. We show that the disk is probably unstable and gravity perturbations grow effectively within a few orbital periods; self-gravitation plays a key role in the formation of the fine-scale structure while particle collisions play a secondary role. The predictions of the theory are compared with recent observations of Saturn's rings by the Cassini spacecraft and are found to be in good agreement. Particulary, it appears very likely that some of the microstructures observed in Saturn's A and B rings -both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric ones -are manifestations of these effects produced by Jeans' gravitational
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmat, C. S.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E.; Yang, X.; Patton, H. J.
2013-12-01
A goal of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) is to develop explosion source models expanding monitoring capabilities beyond empirical methods. The SPE project combines field experimentation with numerical modelling. The models take into account non-linear processes occurring from the first moment of the explosion as well as complex linear propagation effects of signals reaching far-field recording stations. The hydrodynamic code CASH is used for modelling high-strain rate, non-linear response occurring in the material near the source. Our development efforts focused on incorporating in-situ stress and fracture processes. CASH simulates the material response from the near-source, strong shock zone out to the small-strain and ultimately the elastic regime where a linear code can take over. We developed an interface with the Spectral Element Method code, SPECFEM3D, that is an efficient implementation on parallel computers of a high-order finite element method. SPECFEM3D allows accurate modelling of wave propagation to remote monitoring distance at low cost. We will present CASH-SPECFEM3D results for SPE1, which was a chemical detonation of about 85 kg of TNT at 55 m depth in a granitic geologic unit. Spallation was observed for SPE1. Keeping yield fixed we vary the depth of the source systematically and compute synthetic seismograms to distances where the P and Rg waves are separated, so that analysis can be performed without concern about interference effects due to overlapping energy. We study the time and frequency characteristics of P and Rg waves and analyse them in regard to the impact of free-surface interactions and rock damage resulting from those interactions. We also perform traditional CMT inversions as well as advanced CMT inversions, developed at LANL to take into account the damage. This will allow us to assess the effect of spallation on CMT solutions as well as to validate our inversion procedure. Further work will aim to validate the developed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-03-01
The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin
Andreev, Pavel A
2015-03-01
The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572
Transition to turbulence in Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field transverse to the symmetry axis of the system, turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed investigation of transitions in the flow structure, and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence may be feasible by using ferrofluids. Our study of transition to and evolution of turbulence in the Taylor-Couette ferrofluidic flow system provides insights into the challenging problem of turbulence control. PMID:26065572
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felderhof, B. U.
2011-09-01
Ferrohydrodynamic pumping of a ferrofluid through a circular tube by means of a running magnetic wave is studied in the framework of magnetostatics. The theory for electrohydrodynamic pumping of a polar liquid by means of a running electric wave is shown to be nearly identical. For given fluid parameters, the net flow rate can be optimized by suitable choice of wavenumber and frequency of the running wave.
Ferrofluid separator for nonferrous scrap separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaiser, R.; Mir, L.
1974-01-01
Behavior of nonmagnetic objects within separator is essentially function of density, and independent of size or shape of objects. Results show close agreement between density of object and apparent density of ferrofluid required to float it. Results also demonstrate that very high separation rates are achievable by ferrofluid sink-float separation.
Static Magnetowetting of Ferrofluid Drops.
Rigoni, Carlo; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Talbot, Delphine; Massart, René; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Abou-Hassan, Ali
2016-08-01
We report results of a comprehensive study of the wetting properties of sessile drops of ferrofluid water solutions at various concentrations deposited on flat substrates and subjected to the action of permanent magnets of different sizes and strengths. The amplitude and the gradient of the magnetic field experienced by the ferrofluid are changed by varying the magnets and their distance to the surface. Magnetic forces up to 100 times the gravitational one and magnetic gradients up to 1 T/cm are achieved. A rich phenomenology is observed, ranging from flattened drops caused by the magnetic attraction to drops extended normally to the substrate because of the normal traction of the magnetic field. We find that the former effect can be conveniently described in terms of an effective Bond number that compares the effective drop attraction with the capillary force, whereas the drop's vertical elongation is effectively expressed by a dimensionless number S, which compares the pressure jump at the ferrofluid interface because of the magnetization with the capillary pressure. PMID:27385506
Dispensing nano-pico droplets of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irajizad, Peyman; Farokhnia, Nazanin; Ghasemi, Hadi
2015-11-01
Dispensing miniature volumes of a ferrofluid is of fundamental and practical importance for diverse applications ranging from biomedical devices, optics, and self-assembly of materials. Current dispensing systems are based on microfluidics flow-focusing approaches or acoustic actuation requiring complicated structures. A simple method is presented to continuously dispense the miniature droplets from a ferrofluid reservoir. Once a jet of the ferrofluid is subjected to a constrained flux through a membrane and an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the jet experiences a curvature-driven instability and transforms to a droplet. Ferrofluid droplets in the range of 0.1-1000 nl are dispensed with tunable dispensing frequencies. A model is developed that predicts the dispensed volume of the ferrofluid droplets with an excellent agreement with the measurements.
Behdadfar, Behshid; Kermanpur, Ahmad; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Mozaffari, Morteza
2012-03-15
Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticle were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. They were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The results showed that certain concentrations of citric acid (CA) are required to obtain only magnetic iron oxides with mean particle sizes around 8 nm. CA acts as a modulator and reducing agent in iron oxide formation which controls nanoparticle size. The XRD, magnetic and heating measurements showed that the temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction can affect the magnetic properties of obtained ferrofluids. The synthesized ferrofluids were stable at pH 7. Their mean hydrodynamic size was around 80 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.158. The calculated intrinsic loss power (ILP) was 9.4 nHm{sup 2}/kg. So this clean and cheap route is an efficient way to synthesize high ILP aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. - Graphical abstract: Monodispersed aqueous ferrofluids of iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction method with citric acid as reductant which is an efficient way to synthesize aqueous ferrofluids applicable in magnetic hyperthermia. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were synthesized by hydrothermal-reduction route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Citric acid acted as reducing agent and surfactant in the route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a facile, low energy and environmental friendly route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aqueous iron oxide ferrofluids were monodispersed and stable at pH of 7. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated intrinsic loss power of the synthesized ferrofluids was very high.
Observing the Rosensweig instability of a quantum ferrofluid.
Kadau, Holger; Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Wink, Clarissa; Maier, Thomas; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-02-11
Ferrofluids exhibit unusual hydrodynamic effects owing to the magnetic nature of their constituents. As magnetization increases, a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized, ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. Quantum ferrofluids such as Bose-Einstein condensates with strong dipolar interactions also display superfluidity. The field of dipolar quantum gases is motivated by the search for new phases of matter that break continuous symmetries. The simultaneous breaking of continuous symmetries such as the phase invariance in a superfluid state and the translational symmetry in a crystal provides the basis for these new states of matter. However, interaction-induced crystallization in a superfluid has not yet been observed. Here we use in situ imaging to directly observe the spontaneous transition from an unstructured superfluid to an ordered arrangement of droplets in an atomic dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate. By using a Feshbach resonance to control the interparticle interactions, we induce a finite-wavelength instability and observe discrete droplets in a triangular structure, the number of which grows as the number of atoms increases. We find that these structured states are surprisingly long-lived and observe hysteretic behaviour, which is typical for a crystallization process and in close analogy to the Rosensweig instability. Our system exhibits both superfluidity and, as we show here, spontaneous translational symmetry breaking. Although our observations do not probe superfluidity in the structured states, if the droplets establish a common phase via weak links, then our system is a very good candidate for a supersolid ground state. PMID:26829224
Observing the Rosensweig instability of a quantum ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadau, Holger; Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Wink, Clarissa; Maier, Thomas; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-02-01
Ferrofluids exhibit unusual hydrodynamic effects owing to the magnetic nature of their constituents. As magnetization increases, a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized, ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. Quantum ferrofluids such as Bose-Einstein condensates with strong dipolar interactions also display superfluidity. The field of dipolar quantum gases is motivated by the search for new phases of matter that break continuous symmetries. The simultaneous breaking of continuous symmetries such as the phase invariance in a superfluid state and the translational symmetry in a crystal provides the basis for these new states of matter. However, interaction-induced crystallization in a superfluid has not yet been observed. Here we use in situ imaging to directly observe the spontaneous transition from an unstructured superfluid to an ordered arrangement of droplets in an atomic dysprosium Bose-Einstein condensate. By using a Feshbach resonance to control the interparticle interactions, we induce a finite-wavelength instability and observe discrete droplets in a triangular structure, the number of which grows as the number of atoms increases. We find that these structured states are surprisingly long-lived and observe hysteretic behaviour, which is typical for a crystallization process and in close analogy to the Rosensweig instability. Our system exhibits both superfluidity and, as we show here, spontaneous translational symmetry breaking. Although our observations do not probe superfluidity in the structured states, if the droplets establish a common phase via weak links, then our system is a very good candidate for a supersolid ground state.
Simard, J Marc; Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr
2014-07-15
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157
Pampori, Adam; Keledjian, Kaspar; Tosun, Cigdem; Schwartzbauer, Gary; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr
2014-01-01
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by an explosive blast (blast-TBI) is postulated to result, in part, from transvascular transmission to the brain of a hydrodynamic pulse (a.k.a., volumetric blood surge, ballistic pressure wave, hydrostatic shock, or hydraulic shock) induced in major intrathoracic blood vessels. This mechanism of blast-TBI has not been demonstrated directly. We tested the hypothesis that a blast wave impacting the thorax would induce a hydrodynamic pulse that would cause pathological changes in the brain. We constructed a Thorax-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (TOBIA) and a Jugular-Only Blast Injury Apparatus (JOBIA). TOBIA delivered a collimated blast wave to the right lateral thorax of a rat, precluding direct impact on the cranium. JOBIA delivered a blast wave to the fluid-filled port of an extracorporeal intravenous infusion device whose catheter was inserted retrograde into the jugular vein, precluding lung injury. Long Evans rats were subjected to sublethal injury by TOBIA or JOBIA. Blast injury induced by TOBIA was characterized by apnea and diffuse bilateral hemorrhagic injury to the lungs associated with a transient reduction in pulse oximetry signals. Immunolabeling 24 h after injury by TOBIA showed up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha, ED-1, sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1), and glial fibrillary acidic protein in veins or perivenular tissues and microvessels throughout the brain. The perivenular inflammatory effects induced by TOBIA were prevented by ligating the jugular vein and were reproduced using JOBIA. We conclude that blast injury to the thorax leads to perivenular inflammation, Sur1 up-regulation, and reactive astrocytosis resulting from the induction of a hydrodynamic pulse in the vasculature. PMID:24673157
Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.
2004-01-01
variable depths across the shoal crest and variable wave amplitudes during storms and fair-weather. Arctic surge fronts were associated with southerly storm waves, and southwesterly to westerly currents and sediment transport. Migrating cyclonic fronts generated northerly swell that transformed into southerly sea, and currents and sediment transport that were southeasterly overall. Waves were 36% higher and 9% longer on the seaward side of the shoal, whereas mean currents were 10% stronger landward, where they were directed onshore, in contrast to the offshore site, where seaward currents predominated. Sediment transport initiated by cold fronts was generally directed southeasterly to southwesterly at the offshore site, and southerly to westerly at the nearshore site. The data suggest that both cold fronts and the shoal, exert significant influences on regional hydrodynamics and sediment transport.
Controlling ferrofluid permeability across the blood-brain barrier model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Di; Sun, Linlin; Mi, Gujie; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J.
2014-02-01
In the present study, an in vitro blood-brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). Confirmation of the blood-brain barrier model was completed by examining the permeability of FITC-Dextran at increasing exposure times up to 96 h in serum-free medium and comparing such values with values from the literature. After such confirmation, the permeability of five novel ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluids synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this blood-brain barrier model. All of the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen passed more easily through the blood-brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, diverse magnetic nanomaterials (such as FF) were identified for: (1) MRI use since they were less permeable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier to avoid neural tissue toxicity (e.g. GGB) or (2) brain drug delivery since they were more permeable to the blood-brain barrier (e.g. CPB).
Controlling ferrofluid permeability across the blood–brain barrier model.
Shi, Di; Sun, Linlin; Mi, Gujie; Sheikh, Lubna; Bhattacharya, Soumya; Nayar, Suprabha; Webster, Thomas J
2014-02-21
In the present study, an in vitro blood–brain barrier model was developed using murine brain endothelioma cells (b.End3 cells). Confirmation of the blood–brain barrier model was completed by examining the permeability of FITCDextran at increasing exposure times up to 96 h in serum-free medium and comparing such values with values from the literature. After such confirmation, the permeability of five novel ferrofluid (FF) nanoparticle samples, GGB (ferrofluids synthesized using glycine, glutamic acid and BSA), GGC (glycine, glutamic acid and collagen), GGP (glycine, glutamic acid and PVA), BPC (BSA, PEG and collagen) and CPB (collagen, PVA and BSA), was determined using this blood–brain barrier model. All of the five FF samples were characterized by zeta potential to determine their charge as well as TEM and dynamic light scattering for determining their hydrodynamic diameter. Results showed that FF coated with collagen passed more easily through the blood–brain barrier than FF coated with glycine and glutamic acid based on an increase of 4.5% in permeability. Through such experiments, diverse magnetic nanomaterials (such as FF) were identified for: (1) MRI use since they were less permeable to penetrate the blood–brain barrier to avoid neural tissue toxicity (e.g. GGB) or (2) brain drug delivery since they were more permeable to the blood–brain barrier (e.g. CPB). PMID:24457539
Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentino, Gianna; Mongeau, Eric; Gu, Yu
2014-03-01
We present a low-cost, reconfigurable optofluidic switch exploiting both the optical and magnetic properties of a water-based ferrofluid. This switch is composed of an integrated waveguide orthogonally crossing a microfluidic channel containing high-index oil and a ferrofluid plug. The switch is turned ``ON'' or ``OFF'' by the movement of the ferrofluid plug in response to an external magnetic field. Each switch exhibits a high contrast ratio and millisecond response time. Parallel geometries for both mode and multi-mode waveguides are shown. Saint Joseph's University summer research fund, McNulty Fellows Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-01
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abou, B.; Néron de Surgy, G.; Wesfreid, J. E.
1997-08-01
We have calculated the general dispersion relationship for surface waves on a ferrofluid layer of any thickness and viscosity, under the influence of a uniform vertical magnetic field. The amplification of these waves can induce an instability called peaks instability (Rosensweig instability). The expression of the dispersion relationship requires that the critical magnetic field and the critical wavenumber of the instability depend on the thickness of the ferrofluid layer. The dispersion relationship has been simplified into four asymptotic regimes: thick or thin layer and viscous or inertial behaviour. The corresponding critical values are presented. We show that a typical parameter of the ferrofluid enables one to know in which regime, viscous or inertial, the ferrofluid will be near the onset of instability. Nous avons calculé la relation de dispersion des ondes de surface dans une couche de ferrofluide d'épaisseur et de viscosité quelconques, soumise à un champ magnétique normal à sa surface (instabilité de pics de Rosensweig). Cette relation montre que le champ magnétique critique et le vecteur d'onde critique de l'instabilité dépendent de l'épaisseur de la couche de fluide. La relation de dispersion a été simplifiée pour quatre régimes asymptotiques: couche épaisse ou mince et comportement visqueux ou inertiel. Nous avons calculé les valeurs critiques de l'instabilité dans ces quatre cas. Nous montrons qu'un paramètre typique du ferrofluide permet de savoir dans quel régime, visqueux ou inertiel, se situe le ferrofluide près du seuil de l'instabilité.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Regmi, Rajesh; Sudakar, Chandran; Black, Correy; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna; Lavoie, Melissa; Kahn, David
2009-03-01
We report studies of the structural, magnetic, magneto-thermal and magneto-optic properties of dextran, oleic acid, lauric acid and myristic acid surfacted Fe3O4 nanoparticles of hydrodynamic sizes ranging from 32 nm to 92 nm. All the samples showed saturation magnetization of ˜50 emu/g, significantly smaller than the bulk value for Fe3O4, together with superparamagnetic behavior. The ac magnetization measurements on the dextran coated nanoparticles showed frequency dependent blocking temperature, consistent with superparamgnetic blocking. The ferrofluid heating rates in a 250 Gauss, 100 kHz ac magnetic field varied with the chain lengths of the surfactants, with higher heating rates for longer chains. DC-magnetic-field-induced light scattering patterns produced by two orthogonal He-Ne laser beams passing through the ferrofluid sample revealed different optical signatures for different surfactants.
Temperature dependent light transmission in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John
2015-05-01
We investigate the influence of temperature on the magnetic field induced light transmission in a kerosene based ferrofluid containing oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. At a fixed temperature the transmitted light intensity is found to monotonically increase with incident wavelength due to reduced extinction efficiency at higher wavelength. The transmitted intensity decreases with external magnetic field due to enhanced scattering from the field induced linear chain like structures along the direction of the external magnetic field and due to the build-up of standing waves inside the scattering medium. The extinction of the field induced transmitted light intensity is found to occur at a lower external field as the sample temperature is lowered. The rate of extinction of normalized transmitted light intensity decreased linearly with increasing sample temperature due to slower field induced aggregation kinetics because of an increased Brownian motion of the suspended nanoparticles and a reduced coupling constant. The observed temperature dependent magneto-optical properties of magnetic nanofluids can be exploited for applications in optical devices.
Ferrofluid-based Stretchable Magnetic Core Inductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarus, N.; Meyer, C. D.
2015-12-01
Magnetic materials are commonly used in inductor and transformer cores to increase inductance density. The emerging field of stretchable electronics poses a new challenge since typical magnetic cores are bulky, rigid and often brittle. This paper presents, for the first time, stretchable inductors incorporating ferrofluid as a liquid magnetic core. Ferrofluids, suspensions of nanoscale magnetic particles in a carrier liquid, provide enhanced magnetic permeability without changing the mechanical properties of the surrounding elastomer. The inductor tested in this work consisted of a liquid metal solenoid wrapped around a ferrofluid core in separate channels. The low frequency inductance was found to increase from 255 nH before fill to 390 nH after fill with ferrofluid, an increase of 52%. The inductor was also shown to survive uniaxial strains of up to 100%.
Rheological Properties of Iron Oxide Based Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devi, M.; Mohanta, D.
2009-06-01
In the present work, we report synthesis and magneto-viscous properties of cationic and anionic surfactant coated, iron oxide nanoparticles based ferrofluids. Structural and morphological aspects are revealed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. We compare the rheological/magneto-viscous properties of different ferrofluids for various shear rates (2-450 sec-1) and applied magnetic fields (0-100 gauss). In the absence of a magnetic field, and under no shear case, the ferrofluid prepared with TMAH coated particle is found to be 12% more viscous compared to its counterpart. The rheological properties are governed by non-Newtonian features, and for a definite shear rate, viscosity of a given ferrofluid is found to be strongly dependent on the applied magnetic field as well as nature of the surfactant.
Visualizing Magnetism with Optical Ferrofluid Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, Michael
2015-05-01
a novel technique for the visualization of magnetic fields. The ferrofluid cells are made up of two optically flat windows with a layer of Fe3O4/Fe2O3 ferrofluid between the glass. Using different magnet configurations and lighting, highly structured pictures are obtained of one of the universes forces. Characterized as the magneto-optic Kerr/displacement current effect on self assembled micrometer sized helical rods of Fe304/Fe203.
Ordered macromolecular structures in ferrofluid mixtures
Hayter, J.B.; Pynn, R.; Charles, S.; Skjeltorp, A.T.; Trewhella, J.; Stubbs, G.; Timmins, P.
1989-04-03
We have observed ordering of dilute dispersions of spherical and cylindrical macromolecules in magnetized ferrofluids. The order results from structural correlations between macromolecular and ferrofluid particles rather than from macroscopic magnetostatic effects. We have aligned elongated macromolecules by this technique and have obtained anisotropic neutron-diffraction patterns, which reflect the internal structure of the macromolecules. The method provides a tool for orienting suspended macromolecular assemblies which are not amenable to conventional alignment techniques.
Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones
Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.
1998-03-01
Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.
Investigation into loss in ferrofluid magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J.; Gong, X. M.; Lin, Y. Q.; Liu, X. D.; Chen, L. L.; Li, J. M.; Mao, H.; Li, D. C.
2014-07-01
Ferrofluids containing γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3 nanoparticles (not chemically treated) were synthesized using water and mixed water-glycerol as carrier liquid and the ferrofluid viscosity was modified by varying the glycerol content in the carrier liquid. The apparent magnetization of the ferrofluids decreased with increasing glycerol content. The loss in magnetization is described by the ratio of effective magnetic volume fraction to physical volume fraction of nanoparticles in the ferrofluids as a characteristic parameter. We ascribe the loss to the formation of "dead aggregates" having a ring-like structure of closed magnetic flux rather than to any chemical reaction. Such dead aggregates exist in zero magnetic field and do not contribute to the magnetization in the low or high field regime, so that the effective magnetic volume fraction in the ferrofluids decrease. An increase in carrier liquid viscosity is similar to a weakening of the thermal effect, so the number of dead aggregates increases and the magnetization decreases in inverse proportion to the viscosity. This relationship between the apparent magnetization and ferrofluid carrier liquid viscosity can be termed the "viscomagnetic effect".
Parallel flow in hele-shaw cells with ferrofluids
Miranda; Widom
2000-02-01
Parallel flow in a Hele-Shaw cell occurs when two immiscible liquids flow with relative velocity parallel to the interface between them. The interface is unstable due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type of instability in which fluid flow couples with inertial effects to cause an initial small perturbation to grow. Large amplitude disturbances form stable solitons. We consider the effects of applied magnetic fields when one of the two fluids is a ferrofluid. The dispersion relation governing mode growth is modified so that the magnetic field can destabilize the interface even in the absence of inertial effects. However, the magnetic field does not affect the speed of wave propogation for a given wave number. We note that the magnetic field creates an effective interaction between the solitons. PMID:11046508
Ejection of ferrofluid grains from a ferrofluid using nonlinear acoustic impulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit
2000-03-01
We consider a model study of a dilute ferrofluid in a container with a flat base and an open top surface with monodisperse ferrofluid grains that form a stable colloid in water or oil. The grains are assumed to be under the influence of a strong, uniform, external magnetic field. It is well known that due to the influence of the field, such a system forms chains of ferrofluid grains between the base and the surface of the liquid. The phase-separated system is then subjected to non-linear acoustic impulses at its base. We show that for impulses of any magnitude, it is possible to generate non-dispersive bundles of energy through the chains. By carrying out detailed dynamical simulations of impulse propagation in the chains, we show that for appropriate impulse magnitudes, the ferrofluid grains in each of the chains, which are in the vicinity of the surface, will overcome the force due to surface tension and eject into air. Ferrofluid grains carry a coating of the host liquid, which can be colored for water-based ferrofluids and hence the system may potentially be used to design a nozzle-free inkjet printer. For ferrofluid grains of typical diameter of about 100 Angstroms, the proposed system could lead one to develop inkjet printers with dot sizes that are less than 200 Angstroms and hence to a printing system of unparalleled resolution. [1] S. Sen, M. Manciu and F.S. Manciu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1479 (1999).
A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Bohm, V.; Popp, J.
2009-02-01
With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.
Ferrofluid Droplet Formation by Vibratory Stimulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, Paul; Hsu, Chang-Fang; Ashgriz, Nasser
1996-11-01
A new technique for the formation of ferrofluid droplets is developed. A vertically applied magnetic field is used to cause instabilities and then eventual droplet formation from a pool of ferrofluid. The magnetic field is created by a flat solenoid wrapped around a soft iron core. Instabilities are excited on the ferrofluid surface by applying a field strength below a critical strength for droplet formation. The ferrofluid is then subjected to vertical vibration. The surface vibration is achieved by mounting the ferrofluid container to a speaker. The frequency of this vibration is on the order of 10 Hz. This technique allows the variation of the droplet spacing, by changing the frequency of the pool oscillation, and the variation of the droplet size by changing the strength of the magnetic field. The main advantage of this technique over presently available droplet generators is that it does not require any orfices. The droplets can be formed directly from the surface of a pool of liquid. This eliminates the need for manufacturing minute orfices which may also be plugged easily.
Zablotsky, Dmitry; Blums, Elmars
2011-08-01
In this paper, we consider a concentration grating of magnetic nanoparticles optically induced by thermodiffusion in a layer of ferrofluid in the presence of the external homogeneous magnetic field. The applied field is directed along the concentration gradient and leads to the appearance of the internal nonhomogeneous demagnetizing fields. When the system reaches equilibrium, the optical pumping is switched off, and the grating is allowed to relax. We carry out a stability analysis using the Galerkin approach and numerical simulations of the full system of equations to determine the growth rates and the mode amplitudes of the hydrodynamic and concentration perturbations during the relaxation stage. PMID:21929102
Flow and heat transfer of ferrofluids over a flat plate with uniform heat flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Haq, R. U.
2015-04-01
The present work is dedicated to analyze the flow and heat transport of ferrofluids along a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux and slip velocity. A magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction to the plate. Moreover, three different kinds of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, CoFe2O4, Mn-ZnFe2O4 are incorporated within the base fluid. We have considered two different kinds of base fluids (kerosene and water) having poor thermal conductivity as compared to solid magnetic nanoparticles. Self-similar solutions are obtained and are compared with the available data for special cases. A simulation is performed for each ferrofluid mixture by considering the dominant effects of slip and uniform heat flux. It is found that the present results are in an excellent agreement with the existing literature. The variation of skin friction and heat transfer is also performed at the surface of the plate and then the better heat transfer and of each mixture is analyzed. Kerosene-based magnetite Fe3O4 provides the higher heat transfer rate at the wall as compared to the kerosene-based cobalt ferrite and Mn-Zn ferrite. It is also concluded that the primary effect of the magnetic field is to accelerate the dimensionless velocity and to reduce the dimensionless surface temperature as compared to the hydrodynamic case, thereby increasing the skin friction and the heat transfer rate of ferrofluids.
Lorca, T A; Claus, J R; Eifert, J D; Marcy, J E; Sumner, S S
2003-07-01
The top surface of boneless skinless chicken breasts was inoculated with either green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled Escherichia coli (E. coli-GFP) or rifampicin-resistant E. coli (E. coli-Rif) and subjected to electrically generated hydrodynamic shock wave treatment (HVADH). Cryostat sampling in concert with laser scanning confocal microscopy or plating onto antibiotic selective agar was used to determine if HVADH treatment resulted in the movement of the inoculated bacteria from the outer inoculated surface to the interior of intact boneless skinless chicken breasts. In HVADH-treated boneless skinless chicken breasts, marker bacteria were detected within the first 200 microm below the inoculated surface, 50 to 100 microm beyond the depth of untreated surface inoculated boneless skinless chicken breasts. The exact depth at which the marker bacteria were found was dependent on the cryostat sampling distance used. These results suggest that HVADH treatments affect the movement of surface bacteria. PMID:12872981
Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohlsen, Daniel R.; Hart, John E.; Weidman, Patrick D.
1996-01-01
We are beginning laboratory experiments using magnetically active ferrofluids to study surface waves in novel geometries. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics, and the magnetic body force felt by ferrofluid in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is used to create a geopotential field which is a section of or an entire sphere or cylinder. New optical, electromagnetic and ultrasonic diagnostic techniques are under development to initially study capillary-gravity wave propagation and interaction in such geometries.
Laouar, A; Guerziz, A; Boussaha, A
2016-01-01
This paper focuses on the mathematical study of the existence of solitary gravity waves (solitons) and their characteristics (amplitude, velocity, [Formula: see text]) generated by a piston wave maker lying upstream of a horizontal channel. The mathematical model requires both incompressibility condition, irrotational flow of no viscous fluid and Lagrange coordinates. By using both the inverse scattering method and a given initial potential [Formula: see text] we can transform the KdV equation into Sturm-Liouville spectral problem. The latter problem amounts to find negative discrete eigenvalues [Formula: see text] and associated eigenfunctions [Formula: see text], where each calculated eigenvalue [Formula: see text] gives a soliton and the profile of the free surface. For solving this problem, we can use the Runge-Kutta method. For illustration, two examples of the wave maker movement are proposed. The numerical simulations show that the perturbation of wave maker with hyperbolic tangent displacement under physical conditions affect the number of solitons emitted. PMID:27606157
Magnetic Hyperthermia in ferrofluid-gel composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemala, Humeshkar; Wadehra, Anshu; Dixit, Ambesh; Regmi, Rajesh; Vaishnava, Prem; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna
2012-02-01
Magnetic hyperthermia is the generation of heat by an external magnetic field using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. However, there are still questions concerning magnetic hyperthermia in tissue; in particular the confinement of the nanoparticles at mesoscopic scales. We used Agarose and Alginate gels as models for human tissue and embedded magnetic nanoparticles in them. We report the synthesis and characterization of dextran coated iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Characterization of these nanoparticles was done using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, magnetometry, and hyperthermia measurements. Temperature dependent susceptibility measurements reveal a sharp anomaly in the ferrofluid sample at the freezing temperature. This is conspicuously absent in the ferrofluid-gel composites. Heat generation studies on these superparamagnetic gel-composites revealed a larger heat production in the ferrofluids(˜4W/g) as compared to the gels(˜1W/g), which we attribute to a reduction in Brownian relaxation for the nanoparticles embedded in Agarose and Alginate.
Ferrofluid Microwave Devices With Magnetically Controlled Impedances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fannin, P. C.; Stefu, N.; Marin, C. N.; Malaescu, I.; Totoreanu, R.
2010-08-01
Ferrofluid filled transmission lines are microwave electronic devices. The complex dielectric permittivity and the complex magnetic permeability of a kerosene based ferrofluid with magnetite nanoparticles, in the frequency range (0.5-6) GHz were measured, for several values of polarising field, H. Afterwards, the input impedance of a short-circuited transmission line filled with this ferrofluid was computed using the equation Z = Zc tanh(γl). Here Zc and l are the characteristic impedance and the length of the coaxial line and γ is the propagation constant, depending on the dielectric and magnetic parameters of the material within the line. It is demonstrated how the impedance displays a frequency and polarizing field dependence, which has application in the design of magnetically controlled microwave devices.
Therapeutic efficacy of ferrofluid bound anticancer agent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexiou, Ch.; Arnold, W.; Hulin, P.; Klein, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bergemannand, Ch.; Parak, F. G.
2001-09-01
Ferrofluids coated with starch polymers can be used as biocompatible carriers in a new field of locoregional tumor therapy called "magnetic drug targeting". Bound to medical drugs, such magnetic nanoparticles can be enriched in a desired body compartment using an external magnetic field. In the present study, we confirm the concentration of ferrofluids in VX2 squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the rabbit using histological investigations and MR imaging. The therapeutic efficacy of "magnetic drug targeting" was studied using the rabbit VX2 squamous cell carcinoma model. Mitoxantrone coupled ferrofluids were injected intraarterially into the artery supplying the tumor (femoral artery). The magnetic field (1.7 Tesla) was focused to the tumor placed at the medial portion of the hind limb of New Zealand White rabbits. Complete tumor remissions could be seen without any negative side effects by using only 20% of the normal systemic dosage of the chemotherapeutic agent mitoxantrone. Figs 3, Refs 14.
Use of ferrofluids in machining of metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podgorkov, V. V.
1985-03-01
Ferrofluids controlled by an external magnetic field are suitable as lubricants for moving metal machining parts. Empirical relations of the form M sub c = kDt sub bs sup av sup c were established for the unit cutting torque M sub c as function of the drill diameter, the depth of hole t, the feed rate s, and the cutting rate v when holes in Al3V aluminum alloy, TsAM10-5 zinc alloy, VT1 titanium alloy, or 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless are cut with a drill of R6M5 high-speed steel using a fixture made of nonmagnetic stainless and a ferrofluid based on MVP mineral tool oil as lubricant. Values of the coefficient and the exponents were determined by the Student significance test and Fisher adequacy test. It is found that ferrofluid as lubricant is more effective in machining of nonmagnetic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslov, Sergey A.; Bozhko, Alexandra A.; Putin, Gennady F.; Sidorov, Alexander S.
2012-11-01
Study of Boussinesq convection in a vertical differentially heated fluid layer is one of classical problems in hydrodynamics. It is well known that as the value of fluid's Grashof number increases the basic flow velocity profile becomes unstable with respect to stationary shear-driven disturbances (at Prandtl numbers Pr < 12.5) or thermogravitational waves propagating vertically (at larger values of Prandtl number). However linear stability studies of a similar flow of magnetopolarizable nanosuspensions (ferrofluids) placed in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to a fluid layer predicted the existence of a new type of instability, oblique waves, that arise due to the differential local magnetisation of a non-uniformly heated fluid. The existence of such (thermomagnetic) waves has now been confirmed experimentally using a kerosene-based ferrofluid with magnetite particles of the average size of 10 nm stabilized with oleic acid. The heat transfer rate measurements using thermocouples and flow visualization using a thermosensitive film and an infrared camera have been performed. Perturbation energy analysis has been used to determine the physical nature of various observed instability patterns and quantitatively distinguish between thermogravitational and thermomagnetic waves.
Synchronization via Hydrodynamic Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendelbacher, Franziska; Stark, Holger
2013-12-01
An object moving in a viscous fluid creates a flow field that influences the motion of neighboring objects. We review examples from nature in the microscopic world where such hydrodynamic interactions synchronize beating or rotating filaments. Bacteria propel themselves using a bundle of rotating helical filaments called flagella which have to be synchronized in phase. Other micro-organisms are covered with a carpet of smaller filaments called cilia on their surfaces. They beat highly synchronized so that metachronal waves propagate along the cell surfaces. We explore both examples with the help of simple model systems and identify generic properties for observing synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayter, John B.
1986-02-01
Invited paperColloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to μsec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayter, J. B.
1985-07-01
Colloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to (MU) sec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Structure and hydrodynamics of colloidal systems
Hayter, J.B.
1985-07-01
Colloidal phases (for example, micellar solutions, latex suspensions, ferrofluids and microemulsions) provide excellent model systems with which to test structural and hydrodynamic theories of the liquid state. Interparticle potentials may be attractive or repulsive, and the experimentalist is often free to control the strength, range and symmetry of the interactions. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle neutron spin-echo (SANSE) provide excellent complementary tools for studying the structure and time-dependence of these systems, where correlation lengths typically vary from about one to several tens of nm. Correlation times are usually in the nsec to ..mu..sec range, but may be of order minutes in certain systems. This paper will review some of the current theories and their recent experimental tests, using colloidal systems in which the direct interaction potentials may have spherical, dipolar or cylindrical symmetry and the hydrodynamic interactions may be weak or strong.
Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric
2010-11-01
Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.
Passive Magnetic Bearing With Ferrofluid Stabilization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jansen, Ralph; DiRusso, Eliseo
1996-01-01
A new class of magnetic bearings is shown to exist analytically and is demonstrated experimentally. The class of magnetic bearings utilize a ferrofluid/solid magnet interaction to stabilize the axial degree of freedom of a permanent magnet radial bearing. Twenty six permanent magnet bearing designs and twenty two ferrofluid stabilizer designs are evaluated. Two types of radial bearing designs are tested to determine their force and stiffness utilizing two methods. The first method is based on the use of frequency measurements to determine stiffness by utilizing an analytical model. The second method consisted of loading the system and measuring displacement in order to measure stiffness. Two ferrofluid stabilizers are tested and force displacement curves are measured. Two experimental test fixtures are designed and constructed in order to conduct the stiffness testing. Polynomial models of the data are generated and used to design the bearing prototype. The prototype was constructed and tested and shown to be stable. Further testing shows the possibility of using this technology for vibration isolation. The project successfully demonstrated the viability of the passive magnetic bearing with ferrofluid stabilization both experimentally and analytically.
Ferrofluid Would Seal Linear-Motion Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, J. A.
1983-01-01
Proposed valve employs ferrofluid to make tight seal. Seal requires no precisely machined parts, and hand lapping of valve seats are unnecessary. Magnetic fluid fills gap between shaft and annular pole piece in chamber wall. Precise shaft fit is not necessary.
Anomalous attenuation of ultrasound in ferrofluids under the influence of a magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isler, W. E.; Chung, D. Y.
1978-01-01
Ultrasonic wave propagation has been studied in a water-base ferrofluid by pulse-echo methods. A commercial box-car integrator was used to measure the change in attenuation due to an external magnetic field applied at various angles relative to the ultrasonic propagation vector. Anomalous results were obtained when the attenuation was plotted as a function of the magnetic field strength. As the field increased, the attenuation reached a maximum and then decreased to a flat minimum before it approached saturation at a field of 2 KG. This variation of attenuation with magnetic field cannot be explained from the simple picture derivable from the work of McTague on the viscosity of ferrofluids. In no case was the viscosity seen to decrease with field, nor was the oscillatory behavior observed. The results of this study were compared with the theory developed by Parsons.
Floating and flying ferrofluid bridges induced by external magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Rongchao; Zhou, Yixin; Liu, Jing
2015-04-01
A ferrofluid is a mixture that exhibits both magnetism and fluidity. This merit enables the ferrofluid to be used in a wide variety of areas. Here we show that a floating ferrofluid bridge can be induced between two separated boards under a balanced external magnetic field generated by two magnets, while a flying ferrofluid bridge can be induced under an unbalanced external magnetic field generated by only one magnet. The mechanisms of the ferrofluid bridges were discussed and the corresponding mathematical equations were also established to describe the interacting magnetic force between the ferro particles inside the ferrofluid. This work answered a basic question that, except for the well-known floating water bridges that are related to electricity, one can also build up a liquid bridge that is related to magnetism.
A Novel Implantable Glaucoma Valve Using Ferrofluid
Paschalis, Eleftherios I.; Chodosh, James; Sperling, Ralph A.; Salvador-Culla, Borja; Dohlman, Claes
2013-01-01
Purpose To present a novel design of an implantable glaucoma valve based on ferrofluidic nanoparticles and to compare it with a well-established FDA approved valve. Setting Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. Methods A glaucoma valve was designed using soft lithography techniques utilizing a water-immiscible magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) as a pressure-sensitive barrier to aqueous flow. Two rare earth micro magnets were used to calibrate the opening and closing pressure. In-vitro flow measurements were performed to characterize the valve and to compare it to Ahmed™ glaucoma valve. The reliability and predictability of the new valve was verified by pressure/flow measurements over a period of three months and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis over a period of eight weeks. In vivo assessment was performed in three rabbits. Results In the in vitro experiments, the opening and closing pressures of the valve were 10 and 7 mmHg, respectively. The measured flow/pressure response was linearly proportional and reproducible over a period of three months (1.8 µl/min at 12 mmHg; 4.3 µl/min at 16 mmHg; 7.6 µl/min at 21 mmHg). X-ray diffraction analysis did not show oxidization of the ferrofluid when exposed to water or air. Preliminary in vivo results suggest that the valve is biocompatible and can control the intraocular pressure in rabbits. Conclusions The proposed valve utilizes ferrofluid as passive, tunable constriction element to provide highly predictable opening and closing pressures while maintaining ocular tone. The ferrofluid maintained its magnetic properties in the aqueous environment and provided linear flow to pressure response. Our in-vitro tests showed reliable and reproducible results over a study period of three months. Preliminary in-vivo results were very promising and currently more thorough investigation of this device is underway. PMID:23840691
Experimental method for the purification and reconditioning of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotae, Constantin
1987-03-01
The paper presents the theoretical aspects regarding the magnetogravimetric purification of ferrofluids both in the process of preparation and for their reconditioning from impurities. An experimental device used for magnetogravimetric purification is described together with experiments on some samples of oil-based ferrofluid that became impure with non-mixible solid, liquid, magnetic and nonmagnetic ingredients. The experiments resulted in a complete purification of the ferrofluid samples.
Resistive magneto-hydrodynamical cut-off of Alfvén wave in fully ionized plasmas
Vranjes, J.; Kono, M.
2014-01-15
The term cut-off in the theory of the Alfvén wave is used to describe several different phenomena. In this work, the cut-off due to magnetohydrodynamic resistive damping in fully ionized plasmas is revisited. This cut-off requires short enough wavelengths, it is routinely discussed in numerous works, and graphs depicting it are available even in textbooks. We show that this cut-off is hardly ever possible in real plasmas. This is due to the fact that some essential criteria and conditions become strongly violated in order to achieve the cut-off.
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks.
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M Cristina
2015-12-18
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. PMID:26722945
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2015-12-01
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well-polarized flocks. The continuum equations controlled by only two dimensionless parameters, orientational inertia and alignment strength, are derived by coarse-graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields anisotropic spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. The coupling between spin-current density to the local vorticity field through a nonlinear friction gives rise to a hydrodynamic mode with angular-dependent propagation speed at long wavelengths. This mode becomes unstable as a result of the growth of bend and splay deformations augmented by the spin wave, signaling the transition to complex spatiotemporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks.
Colloids on the frontier of ferrofluids. Rheological properties.
López-López, Modesto T; Gómez-Ramírez, Ana; Rodríguez-Arco, Laura; Durán, Juan D G; Iskakova, Larisa; Zubarev, Andrey
2012-04-17
This paper is devoted to the steady-state rheological properties of two new kinds of ferrofluids. One of these was constituted by CoNi nanospheres of 24 nm in diameter, whereas the other by CoNi nanofibers of 56 nm in length and 6.6 nm in width. These ferrofluids were subjected to shear rate ramps under the presence of magnetic fields of different intensity, and the corresponding shear stress values were measured. From the obtained rheograms (shear stress vs shear rate curves) the values of both the static and the dynamic yield stresses were obtained as a function of the magnetic field. The magnetoviscous effect was also obtained as a function of both the shear rate and the magnetic field. The experimental results demonstrate that upon magnetic field application these new ferrofluids develop yield stresses and magnetoviscous effects much greater than those of conventional ferrofluids, based on nanospheres of approximately 10 nm in diameter. Besides some expected differences, such as the stronger magnetorheological effect in the case of ferrofluids based on nanofibers, some intriguing differences are found between the rheological behaviors of nanofiber ferrofluids and nanosphere ferrofluid. First, upon field application the rheograms of nanofiber ferrofluids present N-shaped dependence of the shear stress on the shear rate. The decreasing part of the rheograms takes place at low shear rate. These regions of negative differential viscosity, and therefore, unstable flow is not observed in the case of nanosphere ferrofluids. The second intriguing difference concerns the curvature of the yield stress vs magnetic field curves. This curvature is negative in the case of nanosphere ferrofluid, giving rise to saturation of the yield stress at medium field, as expected. However, in the case of nanofiber ferrofluid this curvature is positive, which means a faster increase of the yield stress with the magnetic field the higher the magnitude of the latter. These interesting
Numerical Simulation of Ferrofluid Flow for Subsurface Environmental Engineering Applications
Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Moridis, George J.
1997-05-05
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic particles of diameter approximately 10 nm stabilized by surfactants in carrier liquids. The large magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluids allows the mobilization of ferrofluid through permeable rock and soil by the application of strong external magnetic fields. We have developed simulation capabilities for both miscible and immiscible conceptualizations of ferrofluid flow through porous media in response to magnetic forces arising from the magnetic field of a rectangular permanent magnet. The flow of ferrofluid is caused by the magnetization of the particles and their attraction toward a magnet, regardless of the orientation of the magnet. The steps involved in calculating the flow of ferrofluid are (1) calculation of the external magnetic field, (2) calculation of the gradient of the external magnetic field, (3) calculation of the magnetization of the ferrofluid, and (4) assembly of the magnetic body force term and addition of this term to the standard pressure gradient and gravity force terms. We compare numerical simulations to laboratory measurements of the magnetic field, fluid pressures, and the two-dimensional flow of ferrofluid to demonstrate the applicability of the methods coded in the numerical simulators. We present an example of the use of the simulator for a field-scale application of ferrofluids for barrier verification.
Microstructure of bidisperse ferrofluids in a thin layer
Minina, E. S. Muratova, A. B.; Cerda, J. J.; Kantorovich, S. S.
2013-03-15
In this work we present a characterization of the bidisperse ferrofluid microstructures that appear in thin layers of ferrofluid. These layers have been studied by a combination of Langevin dynamics simulations and density functional theory. Our results allow us to compare the microstructures that exist in quasi-two-dimensional ferrofluid nanolayers with the microstructures found in three-dimensional bidisperse ferrofluids. Furthermore, our results allow us to explain the influence of the geometry of the sample on the topology and size-distribution of the observed aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles.
Optimized steric stabilization of aqueous ferrofluids and magnetic nanoparticles.
Jain, Nirmesh; Wang, Yanjun; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Warr, Gregory G
2010-03-16
The preparation and properties of an aqueous ferrofluid consisting of a concentrated (>65 wt %) dispersion of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic, iron oxide (maghemite) nanoparticles stable for several months at high ionic strength and over a broad pH range is described. The 6-8 nm diameter nanoparticles are individually coated with a short poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(acrylamide) copolymer, designed to form the thinnest possible steric stabilizing layer while remaining strongly attached to the iron oxide surface over a wide range of nanoparticle concentrations. Thermogravimetric analysis yields an iron oxide content of 76 wt % in the dried particles, consistent with a dry polymer coating of approximately 1 nm in thickness, while the poly(acrylamide) chain length indicated by electrospray mass spectrometry is consistent with the 4-5 nm increase in the hydrodynamic radius observed by light scattering when the poly(acrylamide) stabilizing chains are solvated. Saturation magnetization experiments indicate nonmagnetic surface layers resulting from the strong chemical attachment of the poly(acrylic acid) block to the particle surface, also observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:19950943
Microstructural investigation of some biocompatible ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Răcuciu, M.; Creangă, D. E.; Bădescu, V.; Sulitanu, N.
2007-09-01
Two batches of aqueous ferrofluids based on iron oxide particles as solid nanomagnetic phase have been prepared by applying the chemical precipitation method. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (N(CH 3) 4OH) and citric acid (C 6H 8O 7) were used to functionalize magnetic cores. Physical tests have been performed in order to reveal the microstructural and magnetic features, both needed for biomedical utilization. The particle size was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetization measurements and X-ray diffraction (for composition and phase information). The dimensional distribution of the ferrophase physical diameter was comparatively discussed using the box-plot statistical method revealing the fulfilling of the main requirements for ferrofluid stability.
Ferrofluid-based liquid-phase microextraction.
Shi, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Yufeng; Lee, Hian Kee
2010-11-19
A new mode of liquid-phase microextraction based on a ferrofluid has been developed. The ferrofluid was composed of silica-coated magnetic particles and 1-octanol as the extractant solvent. The 1-octanol was firmly confined within the silica-coated particles, preventing it from being lost during extraction. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used as model compounds in the development and evaluation of the extraction procedure in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. The optimal conditions were as follows: 20mL sample volume, 10mg of the silica-coated magnetic particles (28mg of ferrofluid), agitation at 20Hz, 20min extraction time, and 2min by sonication with 100μL acetonitrile as the final extraction solvent. Under optimal extraction conditions, enrichment factors ranging from 102- to 173-fold were obtained for the analytes. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 16.8 and 56.7pgmL(-1) and 0.06 and 0.19ngmL(-1), respectively. The linearities were between 0.5-100 and 1-100ngmL(-1) for different PAHs. As the ferrofluid can respond to and be attracted by a magnet, the extraction can be easily achieved by reciprocating movement of an external magnet that served to agitate the sample. No other devices were needed in this new approach of extraction. This new technique is affordable, efficient and convenient for microextraction, and offers portability for potential onsite extraction. PMID:20961552
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
Ferrofluid based micro-electrical energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purohit, Viswas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Jena, Grishma; Mishra, Madhusha; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106 Collaboration
2013-03-01
Innovations in energy harvesting have seen a quantum leap in the last decade. With the introduction of low energy devices in the market, micro energy harvesting units are being explored with much vigor. One of the recent areas of micro energy scavenging is the exploitation of existing vibrational energy and the use of various mechanical motions for the same, useful for low power consumption devices. Ferrofluids are liquids containing magnetic materials having nano-scale permanent magnetic dipoles. The present work explores the possibility of the use of this property for generation of electricity. Since the power generation is through a liquid material, it can take any shape as well as response to small acceleration levels. In this work, an electromagnet-based micropower generator is proposed to utilize the sloshing of the ferrofluid within a controlled chamber which moves to different low frequencies. As compared to permanent magnet units researched previously, ferrofluids can be placed in the smallest of containers of different shapes, thereby giving an output in response to the slightest change in motion. Mechanical motion from 1- 20 Hz was able to give an output voltage in mV's. In this paper, the efficiency and feasibility of such a system is demonstrated.
Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirano, Tetsufumi
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions
Relaxation behavior measuring of transmitted light through ferrofluids film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J.; Liu, X.-D.; Lin, Y.-Q.; Huang, Y.; Bai, L.
2006-01-01
In this paper, relaxation behavior of transmitted light through thin ferrofluid film under an applied magnetic field is measured. The results show that the intensity of transmitted light through a ferrofluid film increases quickly as soon as an external magnetic field is applied then weakens with time. If uniformity of the field is poor, the transmission of light continuously decreases in a measured duration. Otherwise, the transmission of light will tend increasingly towards a stable value after it decreases to a minimum value while the gradient of the field is low. The relaxation time would increase to an order of some hundreds seconds magnitude and is dependent on the strength of magnetic field and viscosity of the ferrofluids. The field-induced relaxation behaviors of transmitted light through ferrofluids correspond to anisotropic microstructure of the ferrofluids under applied magnetic field.
Long term stability of immiscible ferrofluid/water interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malouin, Bernard; Posada, David; Hirsa, Amir
2010-11-01
Recently we have demonstrated pinned-contact, coupled droplet pairs of aqueous ferrofluids in air that can form electromagnetically-activated capillary switches and oscillators. The great variety of available ferrofluids, however, enables the use of immiscible oil-based ferrofluid droplets in a water environment to obtain the same behavior. Such immersed ferrofluid oscillators exhibit natural frequencies (for 5 mm devices) of about 10 Hz. Here we report on the observation of a gradual increase in the resonant frequency of the system in time. Experimental observations suggest that the drift in the natural frequency is a consequence of changes occurring at the ferrofluid/water interface. The interfacial structure of such a complex system (water, oil, surfactant, iron particles) is examined along with its evolution in time, using various microscopy techniques.
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish
Ferrofluids: Modeling, numerical analysis, and scientific computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomas, Ignacio
This dissertation presents some developments in the Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) describing the behavior of ferrofluids. The most widely accepted PDE model for ferrofluids is the Micropolar model proposed by R.E. Rosensweig. The Micropolar Navier-Stokes Equations (MNSE) is a subsystem of PDEs within the Rosensweig model. Being a simplified version of the much bigger system of PDEs proposed by Rosensweig, the MNSE are a natural starting point of this thesis. The MNSE couple linear velocity u, angular velocity w, and pressure p. We propose and analyze a first-order semi-implicit fully-discrete scheme for the MNSE, which decouples the computation of the linear and angular velocities, is unconditionally stable and delivers optimal convergence rates under assumptions analogous to those used for the Navier-Stokes equations. Moving onto the much more complex Rosensweig's model, we provide a definition (approximation) for the effective magnetizing field h, and explain the assumptions behind this definition. Unlike previous definitions available in the literature, this new definition is able to accommodate the effect of external magnetic fields. Using this definition we setup the system of PDEs coupling linear velocity u, pressure p, angular velocity w, magnetization m, and magnetic potential ϕ We show that this system is energy-stable and devise a numerical scheme that mimics the same stability property. We prove that solutions of the numerical scheme always exist and, under certain simplifying assumptions, that the discrete solutions converge. A notable outcome of the analysis of the numerical scheme for the Rosensweig's model is the choice of finite element spaces that allow the construction of an energy-stable scheme. Finally, with the lessons learned from Rosensweig's model, we develop a diffuse-interface model describing the behavior of two-phase ferrofluid flows and present an energy-stable numerical scheme for this model. For a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alazmi, S.; Xu, Y.; Daqaq, M. F.
2016-07-01
When a container carrying a magnetized ferrofluid is subjected to external mechanical stimuli, the sloshing motion of the magnetized ferrofluid generates a time-varying magnetic flux, which can be used to induce an electromotive force in a coil placed adjacent to the container. This process generates an electric current in the coil, and therewith, can be used to transduce external vibrations into electric energy. In this article, we develop a nonlinear analytical model, which governs the electro-magneto-hydrodynamics of an electromagnetic ferrofluid-based vibratory energy harvester. Using perturbation methods, we obtain an approximate analytical solution of the model for a case involving primary resonance excitation of the first mode and a two-to-one internal resonance between the first two modes. This occurs when the external excitation is harmonic with a frequency close to the fundamental sloshing frequency and when the second modal frequency is nearly twice the first modal frequency. Theoretical results are compared to experimental findings illustrating very good qualitative agreement.
Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Marek, Andreas E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de
2013-03-20
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the gravitational wave (GW) signal of the post-bounce evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), employing for the first time relativistic, two-dimensional explosion models with multi-group, three-flavor neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray-plus approximation. The waveforms reflect the accelerated mass motions associated with the characteristic evolutionary stages that were also identified in previous works: a quasi-periodic modulation by prompt post-shock convection is followed by a phase of relative quiescence before growing amplitudes signal violent hydrodynamical activity due to convection and the standing accretion shock instability during the accretion period of the stalled shock. Finally, a high-frequency, low-amplitude variation from proto-neutron star (PNS) convection below the neutrinosphere appears superimposed on the low-frequency trend associated with the aspherical expansion of the SN shock after the onset of the explosion. Relativistic effects in combination with detailed neutrino transport are shown to be essential for quantitative predictions of the GW frequency evolution and energy spectrum, because they determine the structure of the PNS surface layer and its characteristic g-mode frequency. Burst-like high-frequency activity phases, correlated with sudden luminosity increase and spectral hardening of electron (anti-)neutrino emission for some 10 ms, are discovered as new features after the onset of the explosion. They correspond to intermittent episodes of anisotropic accretion by the PNS in the case of fallback SNe. We find stronger signals for more massive progenitors with large accretion rates. The typical frequencies are higher for massive PNSs, though the time-integrated spectrum also strongly depends on the model dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
Elongational flow effects on the vortex growth out of Couette flow in ferrofluids.
Altmeyer, S; Leschhorn, A; Hoffmann, Ch; Lücke, M
2013-05-01
The growth behavior of stationary axisymmetric vortices and of oscillatory, nonaxisymmetric spiral vortices in Taylor-Couette flow of a ferrofluid in between differentially rotating cylinders is analyzed using a numerical linear stability analysis. The investigation is done as a function of the inner and outer cylinder's rotation rates, the axial wave number of the vortex flows, and the magnitude of an applied homogeneous axial magnetic field. In particular, the consequences of incorporating elongational flow effects in the magnetization balance equation on the marginal control parameters that separate growth from decay behavior are determined. That is done for several values of the transport coefficient that measures the strength of these effects. PMID:23767623
Magnetic field effects on viscous fingering of a ferrofluid in an anisotropic Hele-Shaw cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballou, R.; Molho, P.
2005-12-01
When a viscous fluid is pushed into a more viscous one in a Hele-Shaw cell, the interface between the two fluids may become unstable, leading to fingering and ramified patterns. Anisotropy can be introduced by engraving a grid in one plate of the cell, allowing one to obtain dendritic patterns. The use of a ferrofluid as one of the viscous fluid is a way to introduce magnetism in the problem, especially the magnetic field as a control parameter. Magnetic field effects on viscous fingering of ferrofluids have already been studied: in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell, a magnetic field applied in the cell plane is stabilizing when parallel to the interface between the two fluids and destabilizing when normal to the interface. A magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of a radial Hele-Shaw cell has the same destabilizing effect as the pressure. We have studied the effect of a magnetic field, normal to and in the plane of anisotropic radial Hele-Shaw cells te{5}, to characterize the competing effects of hydrodynamics, magnetic field and dipolar energy, and anisotropy. Here we study more precisely the effect of a magnetic field normal to a radial anisotropic Hele-Shaw cell. Figs 8, Refs 9.
Gravity waves in a realistic atmosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liemohn, H. B.; Midgley, J. E.
1966-01-01
Internal atmospheric gravity waves in isothermal medium, solving hydrodynamic equations, determining wave propagation in realistic atmosphere for range of wave parameters, wind amplitude, reflected energy, etc
Cytogenetic changes induced by aqueous ferrofluids in agricultural plants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Răcuciu, Mihaela; Creangă, Dorina
2007-04-01
In this paper, the authors present their results regarding the cellular division rate and the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in the root meristematic cells of agricultural plants when cultivated in the presence of different concentrations of aqueous ferrofluid, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L. The agricultural species ( Zea mays) with a major role in the life of people was chosen for the experimental project. The water-based ferrofluid was prepared following the chemical co-precipitation method, using tetramethylammonium hydroxide as magnetite core stabilizer. Microscopic investigations (cytogenetic tests) resulted in the evaluation of the mitotic and chromosomal aberration index. They appeared to increase following ferrofluid addition.
Damping induced by ferrofluid seals in ironless loudspeaker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinho, M.; Génevaux, J. M.; Dauchez, N.; Brouard, B.; Collas, P.; Mézière, H.
2014-04-01
Damping induced by ferrofluid seals in ironless loudspeakers is investigated in this paper. The magnetic field is steady but not spatially constant. A model to determine the viscous damping coefficient induced by the ferrofluid seal is derived. It is a function of geometrical parameters and local viscosity of the ferrofluid in which dependence from magnetic field, shear rate and frequency is accounted for. Comparison with experimental results shows a good agreement for the thinner seals. An overestimation of the damping is observed for higher volumes. This discrepancy comes from geometric irregularities of the magnet assembly made out of several tiles.
Slow relaxation in structure-forming ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick
2013-10-01
We study the behavior of colloidal magnetic fluids at low density for various dipolar interaction strengths by performing extensive Langevin dynamics simulations with model parameters that mimic cobalt-based ferrofluids used in experiments. Our study mainly focuses on the structural and dynamical properties of dipolar fluids and the influence of structural changes on their dynamics. Drastic changes from chainlike to networklike structures in the absence of an external magnetic field are observed. This crossover plays an important role in the slowing down of dynamics that is reflected in various dynamical properties including the tracer diffusion and the viscosity and also in the structural relaxation.
Slow relaxation in structure-forming ferrofluids.
Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick
2013-10-01
We study the behavior of colloidal magnetic fluids at low density for various dipolar interaction strengths by performing extensive Langevin dynamics simulations with model parameters that mimic cobalt-based ferrofluids used in experiments. Our study mainly focuses on the structural and dynamical properties of dipolar fluids and the influence of structural changes on their dynamics. Drastic changes from chainlike to networklike structures in the absence of an external magnetic field are observed. This crossover plays an important role in the slowing down of dynamics that is reflected in various dynamical properties including the tracer diffusion and the viscosity and also in the structural relaxation. PMID:24229180
Magnetophoretic control of water droplets in bulk ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsikis, Georgios; Bréant, Alexandre; Prakash, Manu
2015-11-01
We present a microfluidic platform for 2-D manipulation of water droplets immersed in bulk oil-based ferrofluid. Although non-magnetic, the droplets are exclusively controlled by magnetic fields, without any pressure-driven flow. The diphasic fluid layer is trapped in a submillimeter Hele-Shaw chamber that includes permalloy tracks on its substrate. An in-plane rotating magnetic field magnetizes the permalloy tracks, thus producing local magnetic gradients, while an orthogonal magnetic field magnetizes the bulk ferrofluid. To minimize the magnetostatic energy of the system, droplets are attracted towards the locations of the tracks where ferrofluid is repelled. Using this technique, we demonstrate synchronous propagation of water droplets, analyze PIV data of the bulk ferrofluid flow and study the kinematics of propagation. In addition, we show droplet break-up, merging and derive relevant scaling laws. Finally, we discuss future applications owing to the biocompatibility of the droplets.
Stable and water-tolerant ionic liquid ferrofluids.
Jain, Nirmesh; Zhang, Xiaoli; Hawkett, Brian S; Warr, Gregory G
2011-03-01
Ionic liquid ferrofluids have been prepared containing both bare and sterically stabilized 8-12 nm diameter superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which remain stable for several months in both protic ethylammonium and aprotic imidazolium room-temperature ionic liquids. These ferrofluids exhibit spiking in static magnetic fields similar to conventional aqueous and nonaqueous ferrofluids. Ferrofluid stability was verified by following the flocculation and settling behavior of dilute nanoparticle dispersions. Although bare nanoparticles showed excellent stability in some ILs, they were unstable in others, and exhibited limited water tolerance. Stability was achieved by incorporating a thin polymeric steric stabilization layer designed to be compatible with the IL. This confers the added benefit of imbuing the ILF with a high tolerance to water. PMID:21338083
Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2015-11-01
Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.
Ferrohydrodynamic evaluation of rotational viscosity and relaxation in certain ferrofluids.
Patel, Rajesh
2012-07-01
A significant effect of aggregation dynamics for aqueous ferrofluid (AF) and kerosene based ferrofluid (KF) using magnetic field dependent capillary viscosity and magneto-optical relaxation measurements is studied. For better comparison parameters of AF and KF are kept similar. Ferrohydrodynamic equations of chain forming ferrofluids, dilute ferrofluids, and Brownian dynamic simulations are compared. It is observed that the rotational viscosity of AF is larger than that of KF due to field induced aggregates in it and strong dipolar interactions. It is also observed that at Ωτ ~ 0.04 both AF and KF viscosity becomes almost similar, suggesting similar behavior at that shear rate. The magneto-optical relaxation in AF exhibits nonexponential behavior when relaxed from higher magnetic field and follows irreversible thermodynamics, whereas for KF the relaxation is exponential and follows the effective field method. This discrepancy is explained based on aggregation dynamics of magnetic particles. Results are well described by the corresponding theoretical models. PMID:23005542
Preparation of magnetic ferrofluids in alternative carrier liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosensweig, R. E.
1970-01-01
Ferrofluids are made by grinding magnetic particles together with a polar surfactant and a nonpolar solvent. The surfactant is adsorbed on the particle surfaces and acts as a coupling agent between the particles and the solvent.
Magnetic-Field Induced Diffraction Patterns from Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem; Lawes, Gavin; Naik, Ratna
2011-04-01
Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a carrier liquid. We report studies of magneto-optic properties of two ferrofluid systems consisting of tetramethyl-ammonium-hydroxide (TMAH)-coated and of dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles of nominal sizes of 6 nm and 12 nm respectively suspended in water. Both samples showed superparamagnetic behavior. The static and time-dependent DC-magnetic-field-induced light scattering patterns produced by two orthogonal He-Ne laser beams passing through the ferrofluid samples revealed significant different optical signatures for the two surfactants. Notably, in contrast to the linear diffraction pattern produced by TMAH-coated nanoparticles, a circular diffraction pattern is reported -- for the first time -- in the dextran-coated ferrofluid.
Pomraning, G.C.
1982-12-31
This course was intended to provide the participant with an introduction to the theory of radiative transfer, and an understanding of the coupling of radiative processes to the equations describing compressible flow. At moderate temperatures (thousands of degrees), the role of the radiation is primarily one of transporting energy by radiative processes. At higher temperatures (millions of degrees), the energy and momentum densities of the radiation field may become comparable to or even dominate the corresponding fluid quantities. In this case, the radiation field significantly affects the dynamics of the fluid, and it is the description of this regime which is generally the charter of radiation hydrodynamics. The course provided a discussion of the relevant physics and a derivation of the corresponding equations, as well as an examination of several simplified models. Practical applications include astrophysics and nuclear weapons effects phenomena.
Static and Dynamic Contact Angles of Immersed Ferrofluid Droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Souvick; Bhowmik, Dipanwita; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Ganguly, Ranjan
2013-11-01
Ferrofluid plug driven micro-pumps are useful for manipulating micro-volume of liquids by providing remote actuation using a localized magnetic field gradient. Inside a microchannel, the ferrofluid experiences combined actions of different relevant body forces. While the pressure, viscous and magnetic forces can be estimated using established techniques, the surface tension force requires information about the contact angle between the ferrofluid and glass capillary wall. We address this phenomenon through experimental characterization of static and dynamic contact angles of oil based ferrofluid (EFH3) droplets on glass surface immersed in pure or surfacted distilled water. The equilibrium static contact angle is found to significantly reduce in presence of a magnetic field. Dynamic contact angles are measured through high-speed imaging as the ferrofluid droplets slide along an inclined glass surface. Variation of contact angle hysteresis, which falls outside the Hoffmann Tanner equation for this case, is also investigated as a function of contact line velocity. A strong dependence is found between the contact angle hysteresis and the wetting time. Findings of the work is useful for designing ferrofluid plug-driven microfluidic plugs for different lab-on-a-chip applications.
Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle focusing and separation.
Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng
2016-05-01
Ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for a variety of manipulations of diamagnetic (or non-magnetic) micro-particles/cells in microfluidics, including sorting, focusing, and enriching. By utilizing size dependent magnetophoresis velocity, most of the existing techniques employ single phase ferrofluids to push the particles towards the channel walls. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for focusing and separating diamagnetic micro-particles by using the laminar fluid interface of two co-flowing fluids-a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid. Next to the microfluidic channel, microscale magnets are fabricated to generate strong localized magnetic field gradients and forces. Due to the magnetic force, diamagnetic particles suspended in the ferrofluid phase migrate across the ferrofluid stream at the size-dependent velocities. Because of the low Reynolds number and high Péclet number associated with the flow, the fluid interface is sharp and stable. When the micro-particles migrate to the interface, they are accumulated near the interface, resulting in effective focusing and separation of particles. We investigated several factors that affect the focusing and separation efficiency, including susceptibility of the ferrofluid, distance between the microfluidic channel and microscale magnet, and width of the microfluidic channel. This concept can be extended to multiple fluid interfaces. For example, a complete separation of micro-particles was demonstrated by using a three-stream multiphase flow configuration. PMID:27190567
Method and device for manipulating ferrofluids for use in cementing wells
Larson, D.B.; Nelson, E.B.
1989-02-07
A device is described for manipulating ferrofluids in a wellbore annulus between a pipe or casing and walls of a well, comprising: (a) means for generating a plurality of alternating magnetic fields distributed in a radial manner, the fields extending into a ferrofluid in the wellbore annulus separating the casing and walls of a subterranean formation; and (b) means for moving and plurality of magnetic fields relative to the ferrofluid, to facilitate movement of the ferrofluid. A method is also discussed for manipulating ferrofluids in a wellbore annulus between a pipe or casing and walls of a well, comprising the steps of: (a) generating at least one magnetic field by a permanently magnetized casing, and magnetic field extending into a ferrofluid in the wellbore annulus separating the casing and walls of a subterranean formation; and (b) moving the casing relative to the ferrofluid, to facilitate movement of the ferrofluid.
Experimental investigation of magnetically driven flow of ferrofluids in porous media
Borglin, S.E.; Moridis, G.J.; Oldenburg, C.M.
1998-08-01
This report presents experimental results of the flow of ferrofluids in porous media to investigate the potential for precisely controlling fluid emplacement in porous media using magnetic fields. Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles stabilized in various carrier liquids. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the ferrofluid becomes magnetized as the particles align with the magnetic field. Potential applications of ferrofluids to subsurface contamination problems include magnetic guidance of reactants to contaminated target zones in the subsurface for in situ treatment or emplacement of containment barriers. Laboratory experiments of magnetically induced ferrofluid flow in porous media in this report demonstrate the potential for mobilizing ferrofluid and controlling fluid emplacement through control of the external magnetic field. The pressures measured in ferrofluid due to the attraction of ferrofluid to a permanent magnet agree well with calculated values. The results show that a predictable pressure gradient is produced in the fluid which is strong near the magnet and drops off quickly with distance. This pressure gradient drives the fluid through sand without significant loss of ferrofluid strength due to filtration or dilution. Flow visualization experiments of ferrofluid in water-filled horizontal Hele-Shaw cells demonstrate that ferrofluid obtains a consistent final arc-shaped configuration around the magnet regardless of initial configuration or flow path toward the magnet. Analogous experiments in actual porous media showed similar features and confirm the ability of ferrofluid to move through porous media by magnetic forces.
Generalized hydrodynamics in the transient regime and irreversible thermodynamics.
Eu, Byung Chan
2004-08-15
In this article the thermodynamically consistent formulation of generalized hydrodynamics is reviewed and applications to shock-wave structures, ultrasonic wave absorption and dispersion and microchannel flows of the generalized hydrodynamics so formulated are discussed. The kinematic terms of the constitutive equations in the generalized hydrodynamic equations for liquids, which have been calculated by means of non-equilibrium grand canonical ensemble, are also presented. PMID:15306429
Magnetic Properties of Dipolar Chains in Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.
2014-06-01
We have investigated the dipole interaction energies per particle and the local dipole field distributions in a frozen-magnetization model of a ferrofluid chain in a saturating magnetic field. A lognormal distribution of particle diameters was assumed. The interaction energies were calculated for one-dimensional arrays of dipoles with moments parallel to the chain. We have computed the energies by various approximations related to the hard sphere particle diameter distribution. A similar approach was followed for the local field distributions. It was found that the energy per particle and mean local field were largely determined by the mean particle diameter, but the distribution of local fields was sensitive to both the mean diameter and the assumptions about spatial correlations between particles of different size. Detailed results are presented for water-soluble Fe3O4/PAA (polyacrylic acid).
A ferrofluid-based wireless pressure sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitnis, Girish; Ziaie, Babak
2013-12-01
This paper presents a wireless pressure sensor design based on magnetic fluid displacement over a planar coil and its corresponding inductance change. The design of the pressure sensor is presented followed by its fabrication and characterization. Experimental results show a good correlation with a nonlinear model relating the applied pressure to the change in coil self-resonant frequency. A prototype sensor (radius = 6 mm, thickness = 2 mm) based on the above principal using an oil-based ferrofluid (50 µl, ferrite concentration 2%), a polyimide-embedded planar coil (L = 1 µH), and a 25 µm thick polyimide membrane shows a sensitivity of 3 KHz mmHg-1 with a base-line resonant frequency of f0 = 109 MHz.
Viscoelasticity of mono- and polydisperse inverse ferrofluids.
Saldivar-Guerrero, Ruben; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo; Aksel, Nuri; Heymann, Lutz; Rodriguez-Fernández, Oliverio S
2006-08-28
We report on measurements of a magnetorheological model fluid created by dispersing nonmagnetic microparticles of polystyrene in a commercial ferrofluid. The linear viscoelastic properties as a function of magnetic field strength, particle size, and particle size distribution are studied by oscillatory measurements. We compare the results with a magnetostatic theory proposed by De Gans et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4518 (1999)] for the case of gap spanning chains of particles. We observe these chain structures via a long distance microscope. For monodisperse particles we find good agreement of the measured storage modulus with theory, even for an extended range, where the linear magnetization law is no longer strictly valid. Moreover we compare for the first time results for mono- and polydisperse particles. For the latter, we observe an enhanced storage modulus in the linear regime of the magnetization. PMID:16965057
Lithium ferrite nanoparticles for ferrofluid applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sankaranarayanan, V. K.; Prakash, Om; Pant, R. P.; Islam, Mohammad
2002-11-01
Nanoparticles of Lithium ferrite in the particle size range of 10 nm have been prepared by a citrate precursor method at a relatively low temperature of 200°C. The particles show characteristic infra red (IR) spectrum of lithium ferrite and broadened X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns typical of the nanoparticle nature. The sample decomposed at 200°C has the β-LiFe 5O 8 type (a disordered type of spinel) structure which on annealing at 350°C transforms to the α-LiFe 5O 8 type (an ordered type spinel) structure as shown by both IR spectra and XRD studies. Magnetization curves indicate a particle size distribution consisting of both ferromagnetic particles and a superparamagnetic fraction. With 4 ΠMs values of 2000 G these particles could be useful for applications in certain low magnetization ferrofluids.
Linear viscoelasticity of an inverse ferrofluid.
de Gans, B J; Blom, C; Philipse, A P; Mellema, J
1999-10-01
A magnetorheological fluid consisting of colloidal silica spheres suspended in an organic ferrofluid is described. Its linear viscoelastic behavior as a function of frequency, magnetic field strength, and silica volume fraction was investigated with a specially designed magnetorheometer. The storage modulus G' is at least an order of magnitude larger than the loss modulus G" at all magnetic field strengths investigated. G' does depend only weakly on frequency, and linearly on volume fraction. A model is presented for the high frequency limit of the storage modulus G'(infinity). In the model our system is treated as a collection of single noninteracting chains of particles. Assuming a dipolar magnetic interaction, theory and experiment show reasonable agreement at high frequencies. PMID:11970308
A ferrofluidic deformable mirror for ophthalmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macpherson, J. B.; Thibault, S.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A. M.; Carufel, N.; Asselin, D.; Jerominek, H.; Campbell, M. C. W.
2005-09-01
Optical aberrations reduce the imaging quality of the human eye. In addition to degrading vision, this limits our ability to illuminate small points of the retina for therapeutic, surgical or diagnostic purposes. When viewing the rear of the eye, aberrations cause structures in the fundus to appear blurred, limiting the resolution of ophthalmoscopes (diagnostic instruments used to image the eye). Adaptive optics, such as deformable mirrors may be used to compensate for aberrations, allowing the eye to work as a diffraction-limited optical element. Unfortunately, this type of correction has not been widely available for ophthalmic applications because of the expense and technical limitations of current deformable mirrors. We present preliminary design and characterisation of a deformable mirror suitable for ophthalmology. In this ferrofluidic mirror, wavefronts are reflected from a fluid whose surface shape is controlled by a magnetic field. Challenges in design are outlined, as are advantages over traditional deformable mirrors.
Rotating Hele-Shaw cells with ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, José A.
2000-08-01
We investigate the flow of two immiscible, viscous fluids in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell, when one of the fluids is a ferrofluid and an external magnetic field is applied. The interplay between centrifugal and magnetic forces in determining the instability of the fluid-fluid interface is analyzed. The linear stability analysis of the problem shows that a nonuniform, azimuthal magnetic field, applied tangential to the cell, tends to stabilize the interface. We verify that maximum growth rate selection of initial patterns is influenced by the applied field, which tends to decrease the number of interface ripples. We contrast these results with the situation in which a uniform magnetic field is applied normally to the plane defined by the rotating Hele-Shaw cell.
Low temperature viscosity in elongated ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alarcón, T.; Pérez-Madrid, A.; Rubí, J. M.
1997-12-01
We have studied the relaxation and transport properties of a ferrofluid in an elongational flow. These properties are influenced by the bistable nature of the potential energy. Bistability comes from the irrotational character of the flow together with the symmetry of the dipoles. Additionally, the presence of a constant magnetic field destroys the symmetry of the potential energy magnetizing the system. We have shown that at a moderate temperature, compared to the height of the energy barrier, the viscosity decreases with respect to the value it would have if the potential were stable. This phenomenon is known as the "negative viscosity" effect. Thermal motion induces jumps of the magnetic moment between the two stable states of the system leading to the aforementioned lowered dissipation effect.
The extrinsic hysteresis behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids.
Lin, Lihua; Li, Jian; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Longlong; Li, Junming; Li, Decai
2014-10-01
We report on the magnetization behavior of dilute binary ferrofluids based on γ-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) composite nanoparticles (A particles), with diameter about 11 nm, and ferrihydrite (Fe(5)O(7)(OH) ・4H2O) nanoparticles (B particles), with diameter about 6 nm. The results show that for the binary ferrofluids with A-particle volume fraction φ(A) = 0.2% and B-particle volume fractions φ(B) = 0.1% and φ(B) = 0.6%, the magnetization curves exhibit quasi-magnetic hysteresis behavior. The demagnetizing curves coincide with the magnetizing curves at high fields. However, for single γ-Fe(2)O(3)/Ni(2)O(3) ferrofluids with φ(A) = 0.2% and binary ferrofluids with φ(A) = 0.2% and φ(B) = 1.0%, the magnetization curves do not behave in this way. Additionally, at high field (750 kA/m), the binary ferrofluid with φ(B) = 1.0% has the smallest magnetization. From the model-of-chain theory, the extrinsic hysteresis behavior of these samples is attributed to the field-induced effects of pre-existing A particle chains, which involve both Brownian rotation of the chains'moments and a Néel rotation of the particles' moments in the chains. The loss of magnetization for the ferrofluids with φ(B) = 1.0% is attributed to pre-existing ring-like A-particle aggregates. These magnetization behaviors of the dilute binary ferrofluids not only depend on features of the strongly magnetic A-particle system, but also modifications of the weaker magnetic B-particle system. PMID:25365919
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viallet, M.; Goffrey, T.; Baraffe, I.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Popov, M. V.; Pratt, J.; Walder, R.
2016-02-01
This work is a continuation of our efforts to develop an efficient implicit solver for multidimensional hydrodynamics for the purpose of studying important physical processes in stellar interiors, such as turbulent convection and overshooting. We present an implicit solver that results from the combination of a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method and a preconditioning technique tailored to the inviscid, compressible equations of stellar hydrodynamics. We assess the accuracy and performance of the solver for both 2D and 3D problems for Mach numbers down to 10-6. Although our applications concern flows in stellar interiors, the method can be applied to general advection and/or diffusion-dominated flows. The method presented in this paper opens up new avenues in 3D modeling of realistic stellar interiors allowing the study of important problems in stellar structure and evolution.
Magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of oil-based ferrofluids and magnetorheological fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Getzie, Travis
The magneto-optical and rheological behaviors of magnetic fluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids have been investigated. A magneto-optical apparatus was constructed which enabled us to investigate the birefringence and dichroism of ferrofluids at various levels of applied magnetic field. Specifically, the effects of the film thickness of oil-based ferrofluids and the concentration of surfactant in the oil-based ferrofluids on their magneto-optical behavior were investigated. A commercial magneto-rheological instrument (Physica MCR 301, Anton Paar) equipped with a cone-and-plate fixture was employed to investigate the transient and steady-state shear flow of both ferrofluids and MR fluids as a function of shear rate at various levels of applied magnetic fields. The rheological investigation has enabled us to determine the effect of applied magnetic field on the shear viscosity and yield stress of ferrofluids and MR fluids. A special ferrofluid was prepared by filtering out nearly all of the surfactant and small particles in an oil-based ferrofluid. We then compared its magneto-optical and rheological behaviors with those of an unfiltered ferrofluid. Further, we have found that the ferrofluid with a lower concentration of surfactant gave rise to larger birefringence and yield stress, and stronger shear thinning behavior than the ferrofluid containing a higher concentration of surfactant. This observation has lead us to conclude that an increase in unbound surfactant in a ferrofluid hindered chain formation of magnetic particles, leading to a decrease in the optical and rheological behaviors of the ferrofluid. Optical microscopy confirmed no visible chain formation of magnetic particles in the ferrofluid having a high concentration of surfactant owing to weak yield stress, birefringence, and shear thinning. On the other hand, we observed from optical microscopy that the filtered ferrofluid gave rise to larger yield stress, birefringence, and stronger shear thinning
Sink-float ferrofluid separator applicable to full scale nonferrous scrap separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
Design and performance of a ferrofluid levitation separator for recovering nonferrous metals from shredded automobiles are reported. The scrap separator uses an electromagnet to generate a region of constant density within a pool of ferrofluid held between the magnetic poles; a saturated kerosene base ferrofluid as able to float all common industrial metals of interest. Conveyors move the scrap into the ferrofluid for separation according to density. Results of scrap mixture separation studies establish the technical feasibility of relatively pure aluminum alloy and zinc alloy fractions from shredded automobile scrap by this ferrofluid levitation process. Economic projections indicate profitable operation for shredders handling more than 300 cars per day.
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-12-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices.
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638
Magnetic field induced flow pattern reversal in a ferrofluidic Taylor-Couette system.
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Do, Younghae; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of ferrofluidic wavy vortex flows in the counter-rotating Taylor-Couette system, with a focus on wavy flows with a mixture of the dominant azimuthal modes. Without external magnetic field flows are stable and pro-grade with respect to the rotation of the inner cylinder. More complex behaviors can arise when an axial or a transverse magnetic field is applied. Depending on the direction and strength of the field, multi-stable wavy states and bifurcations can occur. We uncover the phenomenon of flow pattern reversal as the strength of the magnetic field is increased through a critical value. In between the regimes of pro-grade and retrograde flow rotations, standing waves with zero angular velocities can emerge. A striking finding is that, under a transverse magnetic field, a second reversal in the flow pattern direction can occur, where the flow pattern evolves into pro-grade rotation again from a retrograde state. Flow reversal is relevant to intriguing phenomena in nature such as geomagnetic reversal. Our results suggest that, in ferrofluids, flow pattern reversal can be induced by varying a magnetic field in a controlled manner, which can be realized in laboratory experiments with potential applications in the development of modern fluid devices. PMID:26687638
Hydrodynamics of Turning Flocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xingbo; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2015-03-01
We present a hydrodynamic model of flocking that generalizes the familiar Toner-Tu equations to incorporate turning inertia of well polarized flocks. The continuum equations are derived by coarse graining the inertial spin model recently proposed by Cavagna et al. The interplay between orientational inertia and bend elasticity of the flock yields spin waves that mediate the propagation of turning information throughout the flock. When the inertia is large, we find a novel instability that signals the transition to complex spatio-temporal patterns of continuously turning and swirling flocks. This work was supported by the NSF Awards DMR-1305184 and DGE-1068780 at Syracuse University and NSF Award PHY11-25915 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant No. 2919 at the KITP at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Motion of Ferrofluid Droplets Under Oscillating Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yu; Chow, Huiyanangel; Morris, Karl
Ferrofluids are stable, colloidal suspensions of single-domain ferromagnetic particles of nanometer size. Because of their good sealing properties and ease of actuation, ferrofluids are ideal for applications in Lab-On-Chip, or micro-total analysis systems (μTAS). In particular, because of their changing viscosity and surface properties under magnetic fields, as well as previously reported nonlinear behavior in bulk volumes, understanding the periodic movement of ferrofluid droplets for applications in pumping, valving and switching is important. We characterize the movement of ferrofluid droplets with volumes from 80 nL to 200 nL under oscillating magnetic fields in the frequency range 1Hz to 100Hz. Oil-based ferrofluid droplets are placed in circular cross-sectional capillaries and motion is recorded using a high-speed camera, then distilled using computer-assisted image analysis. Kinematics variables such as the position and velocity of the droplets' centers of mass are observed. Nonlinear behaviors in droplet shape and travel distance per cycle of actuation are also presented. This work was supported by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.
The Dynamics of Agglomerated Ferrofluid in Steady and Pulsatile Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Alicia; Stewart, Kelley; Vlachos, Pavlos
2007-11-01
Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) is a promising technique to deliver medication via functionalized magnetic particles to target sites in the treatment of diseases. In this work, the physics of steady and pulsatile flows laden with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a square channel under the influence of a magnetic field induced by a 0.6 Tesla permanent magnet is studied. Herein, the dynamics of ferrofluid shedding from an initially accumulated mass in water are examined through shadowgraph imaging using two orthogonal cameras. Fundamental differences in the ferrofluid behavior occur between the steady and pulsatile flow cases, as expected. For steady flows, vortex ring shedding is visualized from the mass, and periodic shedding occurs only for moderate mass sizes where the shear forces in the flow interact with the magnetic forces. At Reynolds numbers below 500 with pulsatile flow, suction and roll up of the ferrofluid is seen during the low and moderate periods of flow, followed by the ejection of ferrofluid during high flow. These shadowgraphs illustrate the beauty and richness of ferrofluid dynamics, an understanding of which is instrumental to furthering MDT as an effective drug delivery device.
Study on the magnetorheological properties of maghemite-kerosene ferrofluid.
Ghasemi, E; Mirhabibi, A; Edrissi, M; Aghababazadeh, R; Brydson, R M
2009-07-01
As the ferrofluids are synthesized in a controlled atmosphere to Prevent oxidation of the magnetite phase; most reports of rheological properties have been derived from magnetite based ferrofluids. In this paper a ferrofluid based on iron oxide was synthesized by co-precipitation with air. Lauric acid was used to coat magnetic nanoparticles in the kerosene. The microstructural features of the ferrofluid and the variation with time and temperature of its rheologic and magnetic properties were investigated. The results indicated that the magnetic particles had an average size of 10.6 nm consisting of maghemite as the major phase. Viscosity of ferrofluid showed considerable variation with time and temperature. It was specified that the time dependency of the magnetoviscousity is related to particle size and rearrangement of nanoparticles of product is independent from the magnetic field. Moreover at low shear rates (< 0.1 s(-1)) the interaction of nanoparticles is related to the van der waals forces which cause the increase of the viscosity with time. The temperature effect showed that the magnetoviscosity decreases considerably above 45 degrees C. PMID:19916442
Stress relaxation in a ferrofluid with clustered nanoparticles.
Borin, Dmitry Yu; Zubarev, Andrey Yu; Chirikov, Dmitry N; Odenbach, Stefan
2014-10-01
The formation of structures in a ferrofluid by an applied magnetic field causes various changes in the rheological behaviour of the ferrofluid. A ferrofluid based on clustered iron nanoparticles was investigated. We experimentally and theoretically consider stress relaxation in the ferrofluid under the influence of a magnetic field, when the flow is suddenly interrupted. It is shown that the residual stress observed in the fluid after the relaxation is correlated with the measured and theoretically predicted magnetic field-induced yield stress. Furthermore, we have shown that the total macroscopic stress in the ferrofluid after the flow is interrupted is defined by the presence of both linear chains and dense, drop-like bulk aggregates. The proposed theoretical approach is consistent with the experimentally observed behaviour, despite a number of simplifications which have been made in the formulation of the model. Thus, the obtained results contribute a lot to the understanding of the complex, magnetic field-induced rheological properties of magnetic colloids near the yield stress point. PMID:25229878
Hydrodynamic loading of tensegrity structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wroldsen, Anders S.; Johansen, Vegar; Skelton, Robert E.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.
2006-03-01
This paper introduces hydrodynamic loads for tensegrity structures, to examine their behavior in marine environments. Wave compliant structures are of general interest when considering large marine structures, and we are motivated by the aquaculture industry where new concepts are investigated in order to make offshore installations for seafood production. This paper adds to the existing models and software simulations of tensegrity structures exposed to environmental loading from waves and current. A number of simulations are run to show behavior of the structure as a function of pretension level and string stiffness for a given loading condition.
Continuous-flow sheathless diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yilong; Song, Le; Yu, Liandong; Xuan, Xiangchun
2016-08-01
Separating particles from a complex mixture is often necessary in many chemical and biomedical applications. This work presents a continuous-flow sheathless diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids through U-shaped microchannels. Due to the action of a size-dependent magnetic force, diamagnetic particles are focused into a single stream in the inlet branch of the U-turn and then continuously separated into two streams in its outlet branch. A 3D numerical model is developed to predict and understand the diamagnetic particle transport during this separation process. The numerical predictions are found to agree well with the experimental observations in a systematic study of the effects of multiple parameters including ferrofluid flow rate, concentration and magnet-channel distance. Additional numerical studies of the geometric effects of the U-turn reveal that increasing the outlet-branch width of the U-turn can significantly enhance the diamagnetic particle separation in ferrofluids.
Experimental demonstration of metamaterial ``multiverse'' in a ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Yost, Bradley; Bates, Evan; Smolyaninova, Vera N.
2013-06-01
Extraordinary light rays propagating inside a hyperbolic metamaterial look similar to particle world lines in a 2+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime [1]. Magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid are known to form nanocolumns aligned along the magnetic field, so that a hyperbolic metamaterial may be formed at large enough nanoparticle concentration nH. Here we investigate optical properties of such a metamaterial just below nH. While on average such a metamaterial is elliptical, thermal fluctuations of nanoparticle concentration lead to transient formation of hyperbolic regions (3D Minkowski spacetimes) inside this metamaterial. Thus, thermal fluctuations in a ferrofluid look similar to creation and disappearance of individual Minkowski spacetimes (universes) in the cosmological multiverse. This theoretical picture is supported by experimental measurements of polarization-dependent optical transmission of a cobalt based ferrofluid at 1500 nm.
Experimental demonstration of metamaterial "multiverse" in a ferrofluid.
Smolyaninov, Igor I; Yost, Bradley; Bates, Evan; Smolyaninova, Vera N
2013-06-17
Extraordinary light rays propagating inside a hyperbolic metamaterial look similar to particle world lines in a 2 + 1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid are known to form nanocolumns aligned along the magnetic field, so that a hyperbolic metamaterial may be formed at large enough nanoparticle concentration nH. Here we investigate optical properties of such a metamaterial just below nH. While on average such a metamaterial is elliptical, thermal fluctuations of nanoparticle concentration lead to transient formation of hyperbolic regions (3D Minkowski spacetimes) inside this metamaterial. Thus, thermal fluctuations in a ferrofluid look similar to creation and disappearance of individual Minkowski spacetimes (universes) in the cosmological multiverse. This theoretical picture is supported by experimental measurements of polarization-dependent optical transmission of a cobalt based ferrofluid at 1500 nm. PMID:23787680
Three-dimensional diamagnetic particle deflection in ferrofluid microchannel flows
Liang, Litao; Zhu, Junjie; Xuan, Xiangchun
2011-01-01
Magnetic field-induced particle manipulation is a promising technique for biomicrofluidics applications. It is simple, cheap, and also free of fluid heating issues that accompany other common electric, acoustic, and optical methods. This work presents a fundamental study of diamagnetic particle motion in ferrofluid flows through a rectangular microchannel with a nearby permanent magnet. Due to their negligible magnetization relative to the ferrofluid, diamagnetic particles experience negative magnetophoresis and are repelled away from the magnet. The result is a three-dimensionally focused particle stream flowing near the bottom outer corner of the microchannel that is the farthest to the center of the magnet and hence has the smallest magnetic field. The effects of the particle’s relative position to the magnet, particle size, ferrofluid flow rate, and concentration on this three-dimensional diamagnetic particle deflection are systematically studied. The obtained experimental results agree quantitatively with the predictions of a three-dimensional analytical model. PMID:22662037
Structure, synthetic methods, magnetic properties and biomedical applications of ferrofluids.
Shokrollahi, H
2013-07-01
This paper is aimed at conducting a survey of the synthetic methods and magnetic properties of nanoparticles as ferrofluids used in biomedicine. As compared with other works in the field, the distinctive feature of the current work is the systematic study of recent advances in ferrofluids utilized in hyperthermia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The most important feature for application of ferrofluids is super-paramagnetic behavior of magnetic cores with relatively high saturation magnetization. Although Fe3O4 nanoparticles have traditionally been used in medicine; the modified Mn-ferrite has recently received special attention due to its higher saturation magnetization and r2-relaxivity as a contrast agent in MRI. Co-ferrite nanoparticles are also good candidates for hyperthermia treatment because of their high coercivity and magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The thermal decomposition and hydrothermal methods are good candidates for obtaining appropriate super-paramagnetic particles. PMID:23623058
A capillary viscometer designed for the characterization of biocompatible ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, J.; Odenbach, S.
2016-08-01
Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles are receiving a growing interest in biomedical research. These ferrofluids can, e.g., be used for the treatment of cancer, making use of the drug targeting principle or using an artificially induced heating. To enable a safe application the basic properties of the ferrofluids have to be well understood, including the viscosity of the fluids if an external magnetic field is applied. It is well known that the viscosity of ferrofluids rises if a magnetic field is applied, where the rise depends on shear rate and magnetic field strength. In case of biocompatible ferrofluids such investigations proved to be rather complicated as the experimental setup should be close to the actual application to allow justified predictions of the effects which have to be expected. Thus a capillary viscometer, providing a flow situation comparable to the flow in a blood vessel, has been designed. The glass capillary is exchangeable and different inner diameters can be used. The range of the shear rates has been adapted to the range found in the human organism. The application of an external magnetic field is enabled with two different coil setups covering the ranges of magnetic field strengths required on the one hand for a theoretical understanding of particle interaction and resulting changes in viscosity and on the other hand for values necessary for a potential biomedical application. The results show that the newly designed capillary viscometer is suitable to measure the magnetoviscous effect in biocompatible ferrofluids and that the results appear to be consistent with data measured with rotational rheometry. In addition, a strong change of the flow behaviour of a biocompatible ferrofluid was proven for ranges of the shear rate and the magnetic field strength expected for a potential biomedical application.
Printing microstructures in a polymer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.
2016-03-01
We print complex curvilinear microstructures in an elastomer matrix using a ferrofluid droplet as the print head. A magnetic field moves the droplet along a prescribed path in liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The droplet sheds magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) clusters in its wake, forming printed features. The PDMS is subsequently heated so that it crosslinks, which preserves the printed features in the elastomer matrix. The competition between magnetic and drag forces experienced by the ferrofluid droplet and its trailing MNPs highlight design criteria for successful printing, which are experimentally confirmed. The method promises new applications, such as flexible 3D circuitry.
Magnetic and structural investigations on barium hexaferrite ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, R.; Hiergeist, R.; Gawalek, W.; Hoell, A.; Wiedenmann, A.
2002-11-01
Barium hexaferrite BaFe 12-2 xTi xCo xO 19 ferrofluids have been prepared using oleic acid as surfactant and Isopar M ® or dodecane as carrier liquid. The ferrite particles were prepared by glass crystallization. Hysteresis parameters, the initial susceptibility versus temperature and the magnetic particle size were obtained by VSM. Ferrofluids with a partly deuterated carrier liquid were investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). SANS curves lead to a bimodal size distribution consisting of single magnetic particles with an organic shell and aggregated particles with an incomplete organic layer.
Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szalai, I.; Nagy, S.; Dietrich, S.
2015-10-01
Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.041405] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983), 10.1080/00268978300100621] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data.
Azimuthal field instability in a confined ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.
2015-02-01
We report the development of interfacial ferrohydrodynamic instabilities when an initially circular bubble of a nonmagnetic inviscid fluid is surrounded by a viscous ferrofluid in the confined geometry of a Hele-Shaw cell. The fluid-fluid interface becomes unstable due to the action of magnetic forces induced by an azimuthal field produced by a straight current-carrying wire that is normal to the cell plates. In this framework, a pattern formation process takes place through the interplay between magnetic and surface tension forces. By employing a perturbative mode-coupling approach we investigate analytically both linear and intermediate nonlinear regimes of the interface evolution. As a result, useful analytical information can be extracted regarding the destabilizing role of the azimuthal field at the linear level, as well as its influence on the interfacial pattern morphology at the onset of nonlinear effects. Finally, a vortex sheet formalism is used to access fully nonlinear stationary solutions for the two-fluid interface shapes.
Linear and nonlinear magnetic properties of ferrofluids.
Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S
2015-10-01
Within a high-magnetic-field approximation, employing Ruelle's algebraic perturbation theory, a field-dependent free-energy expression is proposed which allows one to determine the magnetic properties of ferrofluids modeled as dipolar hard-sphere systems. We compare the ensuing magnetization curves, following from this free energy, with those obtained by Ivanov and Kuznetsova [Phys. Rev. E 64, 041405 (2001)] as well as with new corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data. Based on the power-series expansion of the magnetization, a closed expression for the magnetization is also proposed, which is a high-density extension of the corresponding equation of Ivanov and Kuznetsova. From both magnetization equations the zero-field susceptibility expression due to Tani et al. [Mol. Phys. 48, 863 (1983)] can be obtained, which is in good agreement with our MC simulation results. From the closed expression for the magnetization the second-order nonlinear magnetic susceptibility is also derived, which shows fair agreement with the corresponding MC simulation data. PMID:26565247
Azimuthal field instability in a confined ferrofluid.
Dias, Eduardo O; Miranda, José A
2015-02-01
We report the development of interfacial ferrohydrodynamic instabilities when an initially circular bubble of a nonmagnetic inviscid fluid is surrounded by a viscous ferrofluid in the confined geometry of a Hele-Shaw cell. The fluid-fluid interface becomes unstable due to the action of magnetic forces induced by an azimuthal field produced by a straight current-carrying wire that is normal to the cell plates. In this framework, a pattern formation process takes place through the interplay between magnetic and surface tension forces. By employing a perturbative mode-coupling approach we investigate analytically both linear and intermediate nonlinear regimes of the interface evolution. As a result, useful analytical information can be extracted regarding the destabilizing role of the azimuthal field at the linear level, as well as its influence on the interfacial pattern morphology at the onset of nonlinear effects. Finally, a vortex sheet formalism is used to access fully nonlinear stationary solutions for the two-fluid interface shapes. PMID:25768610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekhonoshin, V. V.; Lange, Adrian
2002-06-01
A linear stability analysis of the free surface of a horizontally unbounded ferrofluid layer of arbitrary depth subjected to vertical vibrations and a horizontal magnetic field is performed. A nonmonotonic dependence of the stability threshold on the magnetic field is found at high frequencies of the vibrations. The reasons for the decrease of the critical acceleration amplitude caused by a horizontal magnetic field are discussed. It is revealed that the magnetic field can be used to select the first unstable pattern of Faraday waves. In particular, a rhombic pattern as a superposition of two different oblique rolls can occur. A scaling law is presented which maps all data into one graph for the tested range of viscosities, frequencies, magnetic fields, and layer thicknesses.
Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics
Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2007-07-03
This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.
Preparation and characterization of silicon oil based ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, H. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Qu, J. M.; Hong, R. Y.; Li, H. Z.
2011-10-01
Stable silicon oil based ferrofluid was prepared in the present investigation. Silicon oil surfactant ethoxy terminated polydimethylsiloxane was used to modify the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. The Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were firstly coated with a SiO 2 layer by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. Then using the active hydroxyl groups on the surface of the SiO 2, silicon oil surfactant was covalently grafted onto the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles surface. The ethoxy terminated polydimethylsiloxane has similar molecular chain structure and good compatibility with that of the carrier liquid, thus ensuring stable dispersion of modified Fe 3O 4 in the carrier silicon oil. The interaction between Fe 3O 4 and the modifier was characterized by IR and XPS. The crystal structure and the magnetic properties of the Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles were determined by XRD and VSM, respectively. The size and morphology of the particles were observed using TEM. The properties of the silicon oil based ferrofluid were characterized by Gouy magnetic balance. The results indicated that the ferrofluid had high magnetism and good stability. The rheological properties and thermostability of the ferrofluid were also investigated.
Oblique magnetic field effects over stability in superposed viscous ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jothimani, S.; Anjali Devi, S. P.
2000-12-01
The interface of two superposed viscous ferrofluids of infinite depth in the presence of an uniform magnetic field oblique to the interface is considered. The fluids are assumed to be incompressible and a surface tension T acts on the interface. Solutions of the linear problem and the linear dispersion relation are found. Exchange of stabilities are discussed for various cases.
The effects of polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camp, Philip J.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.
2014-11-01
The effects of particle-size polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of concentrated ferrofluids are analyzed using a combination of theory and computer simulation. The study is focused on a model ferrofluid with a prescribed magnetic-core diameter distribution, a fixed non-magnetic surface layer (corresponding to a demagnetized layer and adsorbed surfactant) and a combination of dipolar and hard-core interactions. The non-trivial effects of polydispersity are identified by comparing the initial susceptibilities of monodisperse and polydisperse ferrofluids with the same Langevin susceptibility. The theory is based on a correction to the second-order modified mean-field theory arising from a formal Mayer-type cluster expansion; this correction is dependent on a parameter similar to the normal dipolar coupling constant, except that it contains a complicated double average over the particle-size distribution, which means that the initial susceptibility should depend significantly on polydispersity. Specifically, the theory predicts that the initial susceptibility is enhanced significantly by polydispersity. This prediction is tested rigorously against results from Monte Carlo simulations and is found to be robust. The qualitative agreement between theory and simulation is already satisfactory, but the quantitative agreement could be improved by a systematic extension of the cluster expansion. The overall conclusion is that polydispersity should be accounted for carefully in magnetogranulometric analyses of real ferrofluids.
The effects of polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of ferrofluids.
Camp, Philip J; Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O
2014-11-12
The effects of particle-size polydispersity on the initial susceptibilities of concentrated ferrofluids are analyzed using a combination of theory and computer simulation. The study is focused on a model ferrofluid with a prescribed magnetic-core diameter distribution, a fixed non-magnetic surface layer (corresponding to a demagnetized layer and adsorbed surfactant) and a combination of dipolar and hard-core interactions. The non-trivial effects of polydispersity are identified by comparing the initial susceptibilities of monodisperse and polydisperse ferrofluids with the same Langevin susceptibility. The theory is based on a correction to the second-order modified mean-field theory arising from a formal Mayer-type cluster expansion; this correction is dependent on a parameter similar to the normal dipolar coupling constant, except that it contains a complicated double average over the particle-size distribution, which means that the initial susceptibility should depend significantly on polydispersity. Specifically, the theory predicts that the initial susceptibility is enhanced significantly by polydispersity. This prediction is tested rigorously against results from Monte Carlo simulations and is found to be robust. The qualitative agreement between theory and simulation is already satisfactory, but the quantitative agreement could be improved by a systematic extension of the cluster expansion. The overall conclusion is that polydispersity should be accounted for carefully in magnetogranulometric analyses of real ferrofluids. PMID:25327692
Magnetic sensing with ferrofluid and fiber optic connectors.
Homa, Daniel; Pickrell, Gary
2014-01-01
A simple, cost effective and sensitive fiber optic magnetic sensor fabricated with ferrofluid and commercially available fiber optic components is described in this paper. The system uses a ferrofluid infiltrated extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) interrogated with an infrared wavelength spectrometer to measure magnetic flux density. The entire sensing system was developed with commercially available components so it can be easily and economically reproduced in large quantities. The device was tested with two different ferrofluid types over a range of magnetic flux densities to verify performance. The sensors readily detected magnetic flux densities in the range of 0.5 mT to 12.0 mT with measurement sensitivities in the range of 0.3 to 2.3 nm/mT depending on ferrofluid type. Assuming a conservative wavelength resolution of 0.1 nm for state of the art EFPI detection abilities, the estimated achievable measurement resolution is on the order 0.04 mT. The inherent small size and basic structure complimented with the fabrication ease make it well-suited for a wide array of research, industrial, educational and military applications. PMID:24573312
Smolyaninov, Igor I; Smolyaninova, Vera N; Smolyaninov, Alexei I
2015-08-28
In the presence of an external magnetic field, cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial. The wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside the ferrofluid, exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective three-dimensional Minkowski space-time is played by the spatial coordinate directed along the periodic nanoparticle chains aligned by the magnetic field. Here, we present a microscopic study of point, linear, planar and volume defects of the nanoparticle chain structure and demonstrate that they may exhibit strong similarities with such Minkowski space-time defects as magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings and the recently proposed space-time cloaks. Experimental observations of such defects are described. PMID:26217055
Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Smolyaninov, Alexei I.
2015-01-01
In the presence of an external magnetic field, cobalt nanoparticle-based ferrofluid forms a self-assembled hyperbolic metamaterial. The wave equation, which describes propagation of extraordinary light inside the ferrofluid, exhibits 2+1 dimensional Lorentz symmetry. The role of time in the corresponding effective three-dimensional Minkowski space–time is played by the spatial coordinate directed along the periodic nanoparticle chains aligned by the magnetic field. Here, we present a microscopic study of point, linear, planar and volume defects of the nanoparticle chain structure and demonstrate that they may exhibit strong similarities with such Minkowski space–time defects as magnetic monopoles, cosmic strings and the recently proposed space–time cloaks. Experimental observations of such defects are described. PMID:26217055
Dynamics of Single Chains of Suspended Ferrofluid Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutillas, S.; Liu, J.
1999-01-01
. Therefore, only motions in this plane are probed. A very dilute sample of a ferrofluid emulsion with a particle volume fraction of 10(exp -5) is used in this experiment. We chose such a low volume fraction to avoid multiple light scattering as well as lateral chain-chain aggregation. DLS measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,t) of the sample (q is the scattering wave vector, t is the time). In the absence of the magnetic field, identical particles of ferrofluid droplets are randomly distributed and S(q,t) reduces to exp(-q(exp 2)2D(sub 0)t). D(sub 0)=(kT/(6(pi)(eta)(a)) is the diffusion coefficient of Brownian particles (where Xi = (6(pi)(eta)(a)) is the Stokes frictional coefficient of a spherical particle in a fluid of viscosity eta). If interactions or polydispersity can not be ignored, an effective diffusion coefficient is introduced. Formally, D(sub eff) is defined as: D(sub eff) = - q(exp -2) partial derivative of (ln(S(q,t)) with respect to time, as t goes to 0. D(sub eff) reduces to D(sub 0) if no interactions and only a few particles size are present. Therefore, we can use DLS to measure particle size. The particle radius was found to be a=0.23 mu m with 7% of polydispersity. In this case, if we vary the scattering angle theta (and so q) we do not have any change in the measured diffusion coefficient: it is q-independent. When a magnetic field is applied, particles aggregate into chains if lambda > 1. We first studied the kinetics of the chain formation when lambda = 406. At a fixed scattering angle, we measured diffusion coefficient D(sub eff) as a function of time. Experimentally, we find that D(sub eff) decreases monotonously with time. Physically, this means that chains are becoming longer and longer. Since we are only sensitive to motions in the scattering plane and since chains have their main axis perpendicular to this plane, the measured diffusion coefficient is the trans-verse diffusion coefficient. We can relate D(sub eff) to the mean number of
Thermodynamics of ferrofluids in applied magnetic fields.
Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Camp, Philip J
2013-10-01
The thermodynamic properties of ferrofluids in applied magnetic fields are examined using theory and computer simulation. The dipolar hard sphere model is used. The second and third virial coefficients (B(2) and B(3)) are evaluated as functions of the dipolar coupling constant λ, and the Langevin parameter α. The formula for B(3) for a system in an applied field is different from that in the zero-field case, and a derivation is presented. The formulas are compared to results from Mayer-sampling calculations, and the trends with increasing λ and α are examined. Very good agreement between theory and computation is demonstrated for the realistic values λ≤2. The analytical formulas for the virial coefficients are incorporated in to various forms of virial expansion, designed to minimize the effects of truncation. The theoretical results for the equation of state are compared against results from Monte Carlo simulations. In all cases, the so-called logarithmic free energy theory is seen to be superior. In this theory, the virial expansion of the Helmholtz free energy is re-summed in to a logarithmic function. Its success is due to the approximate representation of high-order terms in the virial expansion, while retaining the exact low-concentration behavior. The theory also yields the magnetization, and a comparison with simulation results and a competing modified mean-field theory shows excellent agreement. Finally, the putative field-dependent critical parameters for the condensation transition are obtained and compared against existing simulation results for the Stockmayer fluid. Dipolar hard spheres do not undergo the transition, but the presence of isotropic attractions, as in the Stockmayer fluid, gives rise to condensation even in zero field. A comparison of the relative changes in critical parameters with increasing field strength shows excellent agreement between theory and simulation, showing that the theoretical treatment of the dipolar interactions
Rheological characterization of a magnetorheological ferrofluid using iron nitride nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armijo, Leisha M.; Ahuré-Powell, Louise A.; Wereley, Norman M.
2015-05-01
Magnetorheology of a magnetorheological ferrofluid (MRFF) was investigated to study the role of a ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) additive in magnetorheological fluids (MRFs). Iron nitride (Fe16N2) NPs, nominally within the diameter range of ˜16-45 nm (spherical NPs) and ˜30-66 nm (cubic NPs), were coated with carboxy-polyethylene glycol (carboxy-PEG) and dispersed in silicone oil in order to produce a magnetic carrier fluid or ferrofluid for two solids loadings: 2 vol. % and 5 vol. %. Conventional spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles, varying in diameter from 6 to 10 μm, were suspended in the ferrofluid at 25 vol. % solids loading. Rheological properties of the MRFF synthesized with the carboxy-PEG-based ferromagnetic carrier fluid were compared to the MRF synthesized with silicone oil to determine how ferrofluid can influence dynamic viscosity and yield stress. Rheological measurements of both MRF and MRFF samples were carried out using a Paar Physica 300 rheometer to estimate the field-off viscosity and to measure flow curves (i.e., shear stress vs. shear rate) as a function of magnetic field. A Bingham-plastic model was used to characterize the flow curves, and results show that there is an increase in the dynamic viscosity of the MRFF over the MRF. The ferromagnetic carrier fluid greatly increases yield stress as only 2 vol. % of added carboxy-PEG NPs improves the yield stress performance by almost 5%. A second MRFF sample synthesized with 5 vol. % of added carboxy-PEG NPs contained in the ferrofluid significantly enhanced the yield stress performance by 13% over the MRF at the same CI solids loading (25 vol. %).
Oscillatory-like relaxation behavior of light transmitted through ferrofluids.
Li, Jian; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Fu, Jun; Miao, Hua; Zhang, Qingmei; Zhang, Tingzhen
2011-10-20
An oscillatory-like relaxation process in which there are two valleys in the T-t curve is observed when light is transmitted through binary ferrofluids composed of both ferrimagnetic CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles and paramagnetic p-MgFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles in the presence of a high magnetic field and through pure (single) CoFe(2)O(4) ferrofluids in a low magnetic field. This relaxation behavior is explained using a model of a bidispersed system based on both chained and unchained particles. In such a bidispersed system, the variation of the transmitted light results mainly from the motion of the chains, with the polarized unchained particles' gas producing the modulation effect. The oscillatory-like relaxation phenomenon depends on the features of both the chained and unchained particle systems. If either the particle volume fraction of chained particles or of unchained particles is very low, or the degree of polarization of the unchained particles gas is very weak, a simple nonlinear relaxation process, giving only a valley in the T-t curve, will appear for the transmitted light. For pure CoFe(2)O(4) ferrofluids, the number of chained and unchained particles does not remain constant under different values of the magnetic field. According to the analysis of the relaxation behavior of transmitted light, it is known that binary ferrofluids based on strong magnetic CoFe(2)O(4) particles and weak magnetic p-MgFe(2)O(4) particles can be much closer to the theoretical bidispersed system than single ferrofluids containing only strong magnetic particles. PMID:22015404
Torres-Díaz, I; Rinaldi, C
2014-11-21
Ferrofluids are suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that have the attractive feature of being controlled by applied magnetic fields. Ferrofluids have been studied for decades in an ever growing number of applications that take advantage of their response to applied magnetic fields. Here, we provide a summary of recent advances in established and emerging applications of ferrofluids, including applications in optics, sensors, actuators, seals, lubrication, and static/dynamic magnetically driven assembly of structures. PMID:25277700
Hydrodynamic instability in warped astrophysical discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogilvie, Gordon I.; Latter, Henrik N.
2013-08-01
Warped astrophysical discs are usually treated as laminar viscous flows, which have anomalous properties when the disc is nearly Keplerian and the viscosity is small: fast horizontal shearing motions and large torques are generated, which cause the warp to evolve rapidly, in some cases at a rate that is inversely proportional to the viscosity. However, these flows are often subject to a linear hydrodynamic instability, which may produce small-scale turbulence and modify the large-scale dynamics of the disc. We use a warped shearing sheet to compute the oscillatory laminar flows in a warped disc and to analyse their linear stability by the Floquet method. We find widespread hydrodynamic instability deriving from the parametric resonance of inertial waves. Even very small, unobservable warps in nearly Keplerian discs of low viscosity can be expected to generate hydrodynamic turbulence, or at least wave activity, by this mechanism.
On-demand microfluidic droplet manipulation using hydrophobic ferrofluid as a continuous-phase.
Zhang, Kai; Liang, Qionglin; Ai, Xiaoni; Hu, Ping; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan
2011-04-01
Multiple essential microdroplet operation units, including splitting, dispensing, oil-phase exchange, trapping, release and demulsification, were successfully implemented by combining hydrophobic ferrofluid with microfluidic chips. PMID:21327251
Gu, Yu; Valentino, Gianna; Mongeau, Eric
2014-02-01
We present a low-cost, reconfigurable, parallel optofluidic switch that exploits the optical and magnetic properties of water-based ferrofluid. Each switch is composed of an integrated waveguide orthogonally crossing a microfluidic channel containing high-index oil and a ferrofluid plug. The switch is turned ON or OFF by movement of the ferrofluid plug. In contrast to conventional integrated switches, ferrofluid plugs act as switching mechanisms that are portable and reconfigurable. Switches are demonstrated in parallel geometries for single and multimode waveguides. Possible applications include optofluidic memory, multiplexed sensing for lab-on-chip, or frequency-encoded laser excitation. PMID:24514168
An Approach to Measurment of Permeability/Permittivity Tensor of Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, Daniel
2015-09-01
The magnetic field acting on the ferrofluids causes microstructural conversions that result in a change of their permeability. For this physical phenomenon is referred to as field induced magnetism (FIMA). An experimental method is described for ferrofluids in this state to examine their permeability tensor. Also an analogous phenomenon is described also when there is a change of the ferrofluids permittivity. We call it field induced dielectric anisotropy (FIDA). The contribution describes the method of measuring of the permittivity tensor. It can be expected that the FIMA and FIDA of ferrofluids will find interesting applications in designing of various sensors, in measurement technology, in mechatronic and in other areas of practice.
An analytical description of hydrodynamic instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanov, S. V.; Sasorov, P. V.
The proper approach to the investigation of the nonlinear stage of hydrodynamic instabilities in a plasma has been discussed. Both the Buneman instability and the beam instability have been considered. A similarity between the nonlinear stage of the beam plasma instability and the process of self-modulation and self-focusing of nonlinear waves is revealed.
Effects of fatty acid surfactants on the magnetic and magnetohydrodynamic properties of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regmi, Rajesh; Black, Correy; Sudakar, C.; Keyes, P. H.; Naik, Ratna; Lawes, G.; Vaishnava, Prem; Rablau, Cornel; Kahn, David; Lavoie, Melissa; Garg, Vijayendra K.; Oliveira, A. C.
2009-12-01
We prepared Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles having diameters of approximately 12 nm by chemical coprecipitation, which were coated with three different fatty acid surfactants: oleic acid, lauric acid, and myristic acid. From x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements we confirmed that Fe3O4 is the only phase present in the samples. The zero field cooled magnetization curves for the nanoparticles exhibit broad peaks, consistent with superparamagnetic blocking for the polydisperse samples, and a saturation magnetization smaller than that for bulk Fe3O4. Although there are minimal differences in the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles having different surfactants, we find significant changes in the hydrodynamic response depending on chain length. Hyperthermia measurements show considerably larger response for oleic acid-coated samples, while magneto-optical studies indicate that these samples have slower dynamics of aggregation under the influence of a dc field. These results suggest that the magnetohydrodynamic response of ferrofluids can be controlled by judiciously selecting appropriate surfactants.
Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brullot, W.; Reddy, N. K.; Wouters, J.; Valev, V. K.; Goderis, B.; Vermant, J.; Verbiest, T.
2012-06-01
Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using a modified forced hydrolysis method were functionalized with polyethylene glycol silane (PEG silane), precipitated and dried. These functionalized particles are dispersable in a range of solvents and concentrations depending on the desired properties. Examples of tunable properties are magnetic behavior, optical and magneto-optical response, thermal features and rheological behavior. As such, PEG silane functionalized particles represent a platform for the development of new materials that have broad applicability in e.g. biomedical, industrial or photonic environments. Magnetic, optical, magneto-optical, thermal and rheological properties of several ferrofluids based on PEG coated particles with different concentrations of particles dispersed in low molecular mass polyethylene glycol were investigated, establishing the applicability of such materials.
Preparation of a biocompatible magnetic film from an aqueous ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albornoz, Cecilia; Jacobo, Silvia E.
2006-10-01
Very promising nanoparticles for biomedical applications or in medical drug targeting are superparamagnetic nanoparticles based on a core consisting of iron oxides (SPION) that can be targeted through external magnets. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a unique synthetic biocompatible polymer that can be chemically cross-linked to form a gel. Biotechnology applications of magnetic gels include biosensors, targeted drug delivery, artificial muscles and magnetic buckles. These gels are produced by incorporating magnetic materials in the polymer composites. In this paper we report the synthesis of an aqueous ferrofluid and the preparation of a biocompatible magnetic gel with polyvinyl alcohol and glutharaldehyde (GTA). HClO 4 was used to induce the peptization since this kind of ferrofluid does not have surfactant. The magnetic gel was dried to generate a biocompatible film.
Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetic Flow Instabilities in Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brumme, Christian; Shaw, Ryan; Zhou, Yilong; Prabhakaran, Rama; Xuan, Xiangchun
We have demonstrated in our earlier work that the application of a tangential electric field can draw fluid instabilities at the interface of a ferrofluid/water co-flow. These electrokinetic flow instabilities are produced primarily by the mismatch of electric conductivities of the two fluids. We demonstrate in this talk that the Joule heating induced fluid temperature rises and gradients can significantly suppress the electrokinetic flow instabilities. We also develop a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model to predict the fluid temperature, flow and concentration fields in the two-fluid system with the goal to understand the Joule heating effects on electric field-driven ferrofluid flow instabilities. This work was supported by the Honors and Creative Inquiry programs at Clemson University.
On the theory of the magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids
Zubarev, A. Yu. Chirikov, D. N.
2010-06-15
The microscopic origin of viscoelastic effects in ferrofluids is studied theoretically. The growth kinetics of chain aggregates formed by magnetic ferroparticles under the action of the dipole-dipole interaction between them is analyzed. It is shown that the evolution rate for an ensemble of chains determines the rate of variation in the macroscopic stress of the medium upon a change in the applied external field and/or in the shear flow velocity. Consequently, the viscoelastic properties of magnetic fluids can be explained by the chain formation-destruction processes. The proposed microscopic model of a ferrofluid makes it possible (apparently, for the first time) to estimate the characteristic time of viscoelasticity corresponding to experimental results.
Tritium test of a ferro-fluidic rotary seal
Antipenkov, A.; Day, C.; Adami, H. D.
2008-07-15
The ferro-fluidic seal is being investigated as an internal rotary seal for tritium compatible mechanical roots type vacuum pumps. After its successful testing with helium and integration into a small (250 m{sup 3}/h) test roots pump, the seal, made as a cartridge, has been integrated into a special test unit and is currently being tested with tritium in order to define the leak rates and the possible degradation of the ferro-fluid under long term exposure to tritium radiation. The tritium pressure from one side of the seal is 0.125 MPa, the nitrogen pressure from the other side is 0.075 MPa, the rotation speed is maintained at 1500 rpm. The tritium leak through the cartridge contributes to the tritium concentration in the nitrogen, which is continuously measured by an ionisation chamber; the pressure in both chambers is continuously registered by precise pressure gauges. The experimental program is discussed. (authors)
The effect of suspended Fe3O4 nanoparticle size on magneto-optical properties of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brojabasi, Surajit; Muthukumaran, T.; Laskar, J. M.; Philip, John
2015-02-01
We investigate the effect of hydrodynamic particle size on the magnetic field induced light transmission and transmitted speckle pattern in water based ferrofluids containing functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size ranging from 15 to 46 nm. Three water-based magnetic nanofluids, containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized with poly-acrylic acid (PAA), tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) and phosphate, are used in the present study. In all three cases, the transmitted light intensity starts decreasing above a certain magnetic field (called first critical field) and becomes a minimum at another field (second critical field). These two critical fields signify the onset of linear aggregation process and zippering transitions between fully grown chains, respectively. Both these critical fields shift towards a lower magnetic field with increasing hydrodynamic diameter, due to stronger magnetic dipolar interactions. The first and the second critical fields showed a power law dependence on the hydrodynamic diameters. The dipolar resonances occurring at certain values of the scatterer size, leads to the field induced extinction of light. Both the onset of chaining and zippering transitions were clearly evident in the time dependent transmitted light intensity. Above the first critical field, the lobe part of the transmitted intensity and the lobe speckle contrast values increase with increasing external magnetic field due to reduced Brownian motion of the field induced aggregates. The speckle contrast was highest for nanoparticle with the largest hydrodynamic diameter, due to reduced Brownian motion. These results provide better insight into field dependent light control in magnetic colloids, which may find interesting applications in magneto-optical devices.
Small-amplitude oscillatory shear magnetorheology of inverse ferrofluids.
Ramos, Jose; de Vicente, Juan; Hidalgo-Alvarez, Roque
2010-06-15
A comprehensive investigation is performed on highly monodisperse silica-based inverse ferrofluids under small-amplitude oscillatory shear in the presence of external magnetic fields up to 1 T. The effect of particle volume fraction and continuous medium Newtonian viscosity is thoroughly investigated. Experimental results for storage modulus are used to validate existing micromechanical magnetorheological models assuming different particle-level field-induced structures. PMID:20345105
Effect of interparticle interaction on magnetic hyperthermia in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubarev, A. Yu.; Iskakova, L.; Abu-Bakr, A. F.
2015-11-01
The work deals with the theoretical study of effect of magnetic interaction between single-domain ferromagnetic particles on the hyperthermia effect produced by these particles under the action of oscillating magnetic field. We consider a homogeneous (without heterogeneous aggregates) ferrofluid consisting of identical spherical Brownian particles. Effects of the particles diameter and their magnetic properties on the intensity of the heat production are studied.
Cluster formation in ferrofluids induced by holographic optical tweezers.
Masajada, Jan; Bacia, Marcin; Drobczyński, Sławomir
2013-10-01
Holographic optical tweezers were used to show the interaction between a strongly focused laser beam and magnetic nanoparticles in ferrofluid. When the light intensity was high enough, magnetic nanoparticles were removed from the beam center and formed a dark ring. The same behavior was observed when focusing vortex or Bessel beams. The interactions between two or more separated rings of magnetic nanoparticles created by independent optical traps were also observed. PMID:24081086
Dynamics of Single Chains of Suspended Ferrofluid Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cutillas, S.; Liu, J.
1999-01-01
. Therefore, only motions in this plane are probed. A very dilute sample of a ferrofluid emulsion with a particle volume fraction of 10(exp -5) is used in this experiment. We chose such a low volume fraction to avoid multiple light scattering as well as lateral chain-chain aggregation. DLS measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,t) of the sample (q is the scattering wave vector, t is the time). In the absence of the magnetic field, identical particles of ferrofluid droplets are randomly distributed and S(q,t) reduces to exp(-q(exp 2)2D(sub 0)t). D(sub 0)=(kT/(6(pi)(eta)(a)) is the diffusion coefficient of Brownian particles (where Xi = (6(pi)(eta)(a)) is the Stokes frictional coefficient of a spherical particle in a fluid of viscosity eta). If interactions or polydispersity can not be ignored, an effective diffusion coefficient is introduced. Formally, D(sub eff) is defined as: D(sub eff) = - q(exp -2) partial derivative of (ln(S(q,t)) with respect to time, as t goes to 0. D(sub eff) reduces to D(sub 0) if no interactions and only a few particles size are present. Therefore, we can use DLS to measure particle size. The particle radius was found to be a=0.23 mu m with 7% of polydispersity. In this case, if we vary the scattering angle theta (and so q) we do not have any change in the measured diffusion coefficient: it is q-independent. When a magnetic field is applied, particles aggregate into chains if lambda > 1. We first studied the kinetics of the chain formation when lambda = 406. At a fixed scattering angle, we measured diffusion coefficient D(sub eff) as a function of time. Experimentally, we find that D(sub eff) decreases monotonously with time. Physically, this means that chains are becoming longer and longer. Since we are only sensitive to motions in the scattering plane and since chains have their main axis perpendicular to this plane, the measured diffusion coefficient is the trans-verse diffusion coefficient. We can relate D(sub eff) to the mean number of
Moridis, George J.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.
2001-01-01
Disclosed are processes for monitoring and control of underground contamination, which involve the application of ferrofluids. Two broad uses of ferrofluids are described: (1) to control liquid movement by the application of strong external magnetic fields; and (2) to image liquids by standard geophysical methods.
Dielectric behavior of some ferrofluids in low-frequency fields.
Malaescu, I; Marin, C N
2002-07-01
The dielectric behavior of a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene was analyzed taking into account the Schwarz model, concerning the low-frequency dielectric behavior in systems consisting of colloidal particles suspended in electrolytes. For this reason, the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss factor, in the frequency range of 10 Hz-500 kHz, at different temperatures between 20 degrees C and 100 degrees C were measured. Based on these experimental results, the experimental dependencies on both temperature of the relaxation time and activation energy of the relaxation process were analyzed. The obtained results show that the Schwarz model can be applied, in order to explain the low-frequency dielectric behavior of a ferrofluid with magnetite particles in kerosene, if the change of counterion concentration at the surface of colloidal particles is taken into account. Consequently, it is shown that the dielectric spectroscopy can be used in order to analyze the presence of particle agglomerations within ferrofluids. PMID:16290703
Properties of Ferrofluids Prepared with an Isoparaffin Base.
Kim, Jong-Hee; Park, Keun-Bae
2016-06-01
Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by adding ammonium hydroxide to an iron chloride solution. An unsaturated oleate surfactant was adsorbed on the magnetic particles, and a nonionic Span 20 surfactant was applied onto the oleate-adsorbed particles to form a bilayer structure. The bilayer nanoparticles formed stable dispersions with isoparaffin as the liquid base. The experimental parameters were determined at each concentration to prepare isoparaffin-based ferrofluids with concentrations of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/mL; these were characterized by density, dispersion, magnetization and viscosity. The density of the fluids increased in proportion to the concentration from 0.93 g/mL to 1.22 g/mL, whereas the dispersion stability decreased from 97% to 69% with increasing ferrofluid concentration. The saturation magnetization of the ferrofluids depended upon the content of particles in the fluid, with values of 17.8 to 42.2 mT at the concentrations of 200 to 500 mg/mL, respectively. The fluid viscosity increased exponentially with the concentration increase in the same range, from 5.1 cP to 53.7 cP at 20 degrees C and from 3.2 cP to 25.6 cP at 40 degrees C. PMID:27427732
Magneto-viscosity of MnZn-ferrite ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thirupathi, Gadipelly; Singh, Rajender
2014-09-01
Mn0.75Zn0.25Fe2O4 (MZF) ferrofluid was synthesized using a precipitation method in ethylene glycol colloidal media. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies show nanophase of the MZF ultra fine nanoparticles. The magnetization (M) vs magnetic field (H) show zero coercivity and high saturation field characteristic of superparamagnetic behavior. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) data show the formation of aggregates or clusters with size distribution ranging from 50 to 600 nm. Magneto-viscosity of the ferrofluid is studied using rheological measurements under magnetic field up to 1.3 T. The behavior of shear rate vs effective shear viscosity (η) plot in zero and higher magnetic field changes from non-Newtonian to Newtonian as shear rate increases. At a steady shear rate irreversible nonlinear behavior is observed in η vs H plots. The data indicate the particle size distribution and formation of chains in the ferrofluid with increase in magnetic field.
Ferrofluid-based dispersive solid phase extraction of palladium.
Farahani, Malihe Davudabadi; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Gharehbaghi, Maysam
2013-05-15
A new mode of dispersive solid phase extraction based on ferrofluid has been developed. In this method, an appropriate amount of ferrofluid is injected rapidly into the aqueous sample by a syringe. Since the sorbent is highly dispersed in the aqueous phase, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. The ferrofluid can be attracted by a magnet and no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. Palladium was used as a model compound in the development and evaluation of the extraction procedure in combination with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The experimental parameters (pH, DDTC concentration, type and concentration of eluent, the amount of adsorbent, extraction time, and the effect of interfering ions) were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 1-100 μg L(-1) and relative standard deviation of 3.3% at 0.1 μg mL(-1) was obtained (n=7). The limit of detection and enrichment factor (EF) was obtained to be 0.35 μg L(-1) and 267, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent at optimum conditions was found to be 24.6 mg g(-1) for Pd(II). The method was validated using certified reference material, and has been applied for the determination of trace Pd(II) in actual samples with satisfactory results. PMID:23618148
Aqueous ferrofluid of magnetite nanoparticles: Fluorescence labeling and magnetophoretic control.
Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Goodarzi, Alireza; Swihart, Mark T; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Kaur, Navjot; Furlani, Edward P; Prasad, Paras N
2005-03-10
A method is presented for the preparation of a biocompatible ferrofluid containing dye-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles that can serve as fluorescent markers. This method entails the surface functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles using citric acid to produce a stable aqueous dispersion and the subsequent binding of fluorescent dyes to the surface of the particles. Several ferrofluid samples were prepared and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), BET surface area analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and SQUID magnetometry. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to study the response of the fluorescent nanoparticles to an applied magnetic field and their uptake by cells in vitro. Results are presented on the distribution of particle sizes, the fluorescent and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles, and the nature of their surface bonds. Biocompatible ferrofluids with fluorescent nanoparticles enable optical tracking of basic processes at the cellular level combined with magnetophoretic manipulation and should be of substantial value to researchers engaged in both fundamental and applied biomedical research. PMID:16851439
Accelerated thermal aging of petroleum-based ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Segal, V.; Nattrass, D.; Raj, K.; Leonard, D.
1999-07-01
The effect of elevated temperature on the physical and insulating properties of ferrofluid specifically developed for use as a liquid dielectric (D-fluid) for power transformers has been investigated. The D-fluid was produced as a colloidal mix of a specifically synthesized ferrofluid with a conventional mineral oil, and it was subjected to thermal aging conditions modeled after a typical power transformer where the insulation fluid is expected to retain its dielectric performance for about 40 years of continuous service in a sealed tank. The well-known Arrhenius relationship was employed to model "life in service" for up to 40 years at 105°C which corresponded to holding the samples in sealed jars for 10 weeks at 185°C. Another set of small ampules (5 ml) was prepared to test the main physical properties after even longer aging. D-fluid tested after a period of 34 and 50 weeks at 185°C showed no degradation of thermal or colloid stability. The dielectric colloid was also subjected to a 21 day-long test at 110°C in a sealed jar in the presence of typical transformer materials: copper, cellulose, and silicon steel (so-called "bomb" test). Finally, the ferrofluid went through an oxidation stability test (ASTM D2440). Test results show that the newly developed dielectric colloid satisfies the long-term service requirements the transformer users typically apply to conventional mineral oils.
Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids.
Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P
2013-10-01
We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70 wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8 emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12 wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2 emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. PMID:23859815
Rajnak, Michal; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj
2015-08-17
Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajnak, Michal; Petrenko, Viktor I.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Ivankov, Olexandr I.; Feoktystov, Artem; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kurimsky, Juraj; Kopcansky, Peter; Timko, Milan
2015-08-01
Ferrofluids typically respond to magnetic fields and can be manipulated by external magnetic fields. Here, we report on formation of visually observable patterns in a diluted low-polarity ferrofluid exposed to external electric fields. This presents a specific type of ferrofluid structure driven by a combined effect of electrohydrodynamics and electrical body forces. The free charge and permittivity variation are considered to play a key role in the observed phenomenon. The corresponding changes in the ferrofluid structure have been found at nanoscale as well. By small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we show that the magnetic nanoparticles aggregate in direct current (dc) electric field with a strong dependence on the field intensity. The anisotropic aggregates preferably orient in the direction of the applied electric field. Conducting SANS experiments with alternating current (ac) electric fields of various frequencies, we found a critical frequency triggering the aggregation process. Our experimental study could open future applications of ferrofluids based on insulating liquids.
Preparation of a novel ferrofluidic photoresist for two-photon photopolymerization technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Ye; Lu, Dongxiao; Jiang, Haobo; Lin, Xiaomei
2012-10-01
We present a novel route for the preparation of ferrofluidic photoresist compatible with two-photon photopolymerization (TPP). To get a homogeneous ferrofluidic photoresit, the compatibility of photoresist and magnetic materials has been improved. Monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles synthesized via thermal decomposition of iron precursor were stabilized by 6-(methacryloyloxy) hexanoic acid (a kind of acrylate-based monomer). A ferrofluidic photoresist was prepared by doping the modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles in acrylate-based resin. In this way, the dispersibility of nanoparticles in photoresist was enhanced significantly. As a representative example, a precise magnetic micron-sized spring was created. In the test of the magnetic response, the sensitivity of magnetic microspring was improved remarkably due to the optimization of the ferrofluidic photoresist. When the intensity of external magnetic field reached a value of 1500 Gs, the deformation rate of the microspring would get to 2.25, indicating the compatibility of the ferrofluidic photoresist in microfabrication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manciu, Felicia S.; Manciu, Marian; Sen, Surajit
2000-10-01
We consider a model dilute ferrofluid that is subjected to a strong, homogeneous magnetic field directed perpendicular to the surface of the ferrofluid, such that there is a chain formation in the direction perpendicular to the surface of the liquid. We study the propagation of impulses generated at high-frequency across finite times through the ferrofluid chains. Our numerical analysis shows that a very high-frequency sequence of non-linear acoustic pulses of appropriate magnitudes, initiated at the base of the container, can lead to the ejection of desired number of ferrofluid grains through the liquid-air interface. The proposed mechanism, if successfully realized in the laboratory, could help design a nozzle-free, ultrafast, ink-jet printer of unparalleled resolution.
Hydrodynamic effects in proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek
2011-01-01
Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.
Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.
Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek
2011-01-26
Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mojumder, Satyajit; Rabbi, Khan Md.; Saha, Sourav; Hasan, MN; Saha, Suvash C.
2016-06-01
In this study magneto-hydrodynamic convection in a half-moon shaped cavity filled with ferrofluid has been analyzed numerically. The cavity has two semi-circular bottom heaters and effect of the distance between these two heaters (λ = 0.1 , 0.4) has been thoroughly investigated. Numerical simulation has been carried out for a wide range of Rayleigh number (Ra =103 ∼107), Hartmann number (Ha = 0 ∼ 100) and inclination angle of magnetic field (γ = 0 ° ∼ 90 °) to understand the flow field, thermal field and entropy generation respectively. Cobalt-kerosene and Fe3 O4 -water ferrofluids are used for the present investigation and considered as a single phase fluid. Galerkin weighted residual method of finite element analysis has been used for numerical solution. The code validation and grid independency test have been carried out to justify the numerical accuracy. It has been observed that increment of magnetic field reduces the heat transfer rate, whereas increment of heater distance augments the heat transfer rate significantly. Results are discussed on the basis of Nusselt number (Nu), Bejan number (Be) and shown by contours and 3D plots. It has also been found that λ = 0.4 always shows better heat transfer rate and entropy optimization.
Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohlsen, D. R.; Hart, J. E.; Weidman, P. D.
1999-01-01
Terrestrial laboratory experiments studying various fluid dynamical processes are constrained, by being in an Earth laboratory, to have a gravitational body force which is uniform and unidirectional. Therefore fluid free-surfaces are horizontal and flat. Such free surfaces must have a vertical solid boundary to keep the fluid from spreading horizontally along a gravitational potential surface. In atmospheric, oceanic, or stellar fluid flows that have a horizontal scale of about one-tenth the body radius or larger, sphericity is important in the dynamics. Further, fluids in spherical geometry can cover an entire domain without any sidewall effects, i.e. have truly periodic boundary conditions. We describe spherical body-force laboratory experiments using ferrofluid. Ferrofluids are dilute suspensions of magnetic dipoles, for example magnetite particles of order 10 nm diameter, suspended in a carrier fluid. Ferrofluids are subject to an additional body force in the presence of an applied magnetic field gradient. We use this body force to conduct laboratory experiments in spherical geometry. The present study is a laboratory technique improvement. The apparatus is cylindrically axisymmetric. A cylindrical ceramic magnet is embedded in a smooth, solid, spherical PVC ball. The geopotential field and its gradient, the body force, were made nearly spherical by careful choice of magnet height-to-diameter ratio and magnet size relative to the PVC ball size. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics by immersing the "planet" and its ferrofluid "ocean" in an immiscible silicone oil/freon mixture of the same density. Thus the earth gravity is removed from the dynamics of the ferrofluid/oil interface and the only dynamically active force there is the radial magnetic gravity. The entire apparatus can rotate, and waves are forced on the ferrofluid surface by exterior magnets. The biggest improvement in technique is in the wave visualization. Fluorescing dye is added to
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel
2016-04-01
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Hydrodynamical evolution of coalescing binary neutron stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.
1992-01-01
The hydrodynamics of the final merging of two neutron stars and the corresponding gravitational wave emission is studied in detail. Various test calculations are presented, including the compressible Roche and Darwin problems and the head-on collision of two polytropes. A complete coalescence calculation is presented for the simplest case of two identical neutron stars, represented by Gamma = 2 polytropes, in a circular orbit, with their spins aligned and synchronized with the orbital rotation.
The Effect of Particle Concentration on the Heating Rate of Ferrofluids for Magnetic Hyperthermia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malaescu, I.; Marin, C. N.; Bunoiu, M.; Fannin, P. C.; Stefu, N.; Iordaconiu, L.
2015-12-01
The complex magnetic susceptibility χ(f) = χ'(f) - i χ″(f), of a ferrofluid sample with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene and stabilized with oleic acid, over the range 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz, was determined. The initial sample has been successively diluted with kerosene (with a dilution rate of 2/3), thus obtaining further three samples. Using the complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of each sample, the frequency field and particle concentration dependencies of the heating rate of the ferrofluid samples, were analyzed. The results show the possibility of using the heating rate of ferrofluid samples with different particle concentrations, in hyperthermia applications.
Single-mode fiber variable optical attenuator based on a ferrofluid shutter.
Duduś, Anna; Blue, Robert; Uttamchandani, Deepak
2015-03-10
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a single-mode fiber variable optical attenuator (VOA) based on a ferrofluid shutter actuated by a magnetic field created by a low voltage electromagnet. We compare the performance of a VOA using oil-based ferrofluid, with one VOA using water-based 12 ferrofluid, and demonstrate broadband optical attenuation of up to 28 dB with polarization dependent 13 loss of 0.85 dB. Our optofluidic VOA has advantages over MEMS-based VOAs such as simple construction and the absence of mechanical moving parts. PMID:25968370
Wang, Xianping; Yin, Cheng; Sun, Jingjing; Han, Qingbang; Li, Honggen; Sang, Minghuang; Yuan, Wen; Cao, Zhuangqi
2013-11-01
We present a novel and simple mechanism for the fabrication of periodic microstructure based on a ferrofluids core/metal cladding optical waveguide chip. The ultrahigh-order modes excited in the millimeter scale guiding layer lead to the ordered particle aggregates in ferrofluids without applying a magnetic field. Since the absorption of photons by the extremely dilute ferrofluids is extremely small and the Soret effect is not noticeable, a tentative explanation in terms of the optical trapping effect is proposed. Furthermore, this scheme exhibits all-optically tunable reflectivity and lateral Goos-Hänchen shift, which potentially may be for practical use in novel optical devices. PMID:24216657
Phase-shifted Bragg microstructured optical fiber gratings utilizing infiltrated ferrofluids.
Candiani, Alessandro; Margulis, Walter; Sterner, Carola; Konstantaki, Maria; Pissadakis, Stavros
2011-07-01
Results are presented on the efficient spectral manipulation of uniform and chirped Bragg reflectors inscribed in microstructured optical fibers utilizing short lengths of ferrofluids infiltrated in their capillaries. The infiltrated ferrofluidic defects can generate either parasitic reflection notch features in uniform Bragg reflectors of up to 80% visibility and ~0.1 nm spectral shift or tunability of the bandwidth and strength reflection up to 100% when introduced into chirped gratings. Spectra are presented for different spatial positions and optical characteristics of the ferrofluidic section. PMID:21725475
Size dependence of magnetorheological properties of cobalt ferrite ferrofluid
Radhika, B.; Sahoo, Rasmita; Srinath, S.
2015-06-24
Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method at reaction temperatures of 40°C and 80°C. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm cubic phase formation. The average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼30nm and ∼48nm for 40°C sample and 80°C sample respectively. Magnetic properties measured using vibrating sample magnetometer show higher coercivety and magnetization for sample prepared at 80°C. Magnetorheological properties of CoFe2O4 ferrofluids were measured and studied.
Diffraction patterns in ferrofluids: Effect of magnetic field and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radha, S.; Mohan, Shalini; Pai, Chintamani
2014-09-01
In this paper, we report the experimental observation of diffraction patterns in a ferrofluid comprising of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in hexane by a 10 mW He-Ne laser beam. An external dc magnetic field (0-2 kG) was applied perpendicular to the beam. The diffraction pattern showed a variation at different depths of the sample in both zero and applied magnetic field. The patterns also exhibit a change in shape and size as the external field is varied. This effect arises due to thermally induced self-diffraction under the influence of gravity and external magnetic field.
Versatile transmission ellipsometry to study linear ferrofluid magneto-optics.
Kooij, E S; Gâlcă, A C; Poelsema, B
2006-12-01
Linear birefringence and dichroism of magnetite ferrofluids are studied simultaneously using spectroscopic ellipsometry in transmission mode. It is shown that this versatile technique enables highly accurate characterisation of magneto-optical phenomena. Magnetic field-dependent linear birefringence and dichroism as well as the spectral dependence are shown to be in line with previous results. Despite the qualitative agreement with established models for magneto-optical phenomena, these fail to provide an accurate, quantitative description of our experimental results using the bulk dielectric function of magnetite. We discuss the results in relation to these models, and indicate how the modified dielectric function of the magnetite nanoparticles can be obtained. PMID:16997315
Size dependence of magnetorheological properties of cobalt ferrite ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radhika, B.; Sahoo, Rasmita; Srinath, S.
2015-06-01
Cobalt Ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation method at reaction temperatures of 40°C and 80°C. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm cubic phase formation. The average crystallite sizes were found to be ˜30nm and ˜48nm for 40°C sample and 80°C sample respectively. Magnetic properties measured using vibrating sample magnetometer show higher coercivety and magnetization for sample prepared at 80°C. Magnetorheological properties of CoFe2O4 ferrofluids were measured and studied.
Formation of magnetoconvection by photoabsorptive methods in ferrofluid layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zablotsky, Dmitry; Mezulis, Ansis; Blums, Elmars
2013-04-01
A periodic concentration grating was induced in a layer of ferrofluid by photoabsorption and thermophoresis under the action of the applied uniform magnetic field. The application of the external field causes the appearance of an internal demagnetizing field within the layer and of magnetic forces due to the non-uniform distribution of concentration. The induced magnetic forces cause the appearance of parasitic microconvection within the layer. The experimental observations of the formation stage of the grating are interpreted to explain magnetoconvection, making use of numerical simulations.
Klein-Gordon Equation in Hydrodynamical Form
Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2010-01-01
We follow and modify the Feshbach-Villars formalism by separating the Klein-Gordon equation into two coupled time-dependent Schroedinger equations for the particle and antiparticle wave functions with positive probability densities. We find that the equation of motion for the probability densities is in the form of relativistic hydrodynamics where various forces have their physical and classical counterparts. An additional element is the presence of the quantum stress tensor that depends on the derivatives of the amplitude of the wave function.
Resurgence in extended hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aniceto, Inês; Spaliński, Michał
2016-04-01
It has recently been understood that the hydrodynamic series generated by the Müller-Israel-Stewart theory is divergent and that this large-order behavior is consistent with the theory of resurgence. Furthermore, it was observed that the physical origin of this is the presence of a purely damped nonhydrodynamic mode. It is very interesting to ask whether this picture persists in cases where the spectrum of nonhydrodynamic modes is richer. We take the first step in this direction by considering the simplest hydrodynamic theory which, instead of the purely damped mode, contains a pair of nonhydrodynamic modes of complex conjugate frequencies. This mimics the pattern of black brane quasinormal modes which appear on the gravity side of the AdS/CFT description of N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma. We find that the resulting hydrodynamic series is divergent in a way consistent with resurgence and precisely encodes information about the nonhydrodynamic modes of the theory.
Effect of an alternating nonuniform magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goharkhah, Mohammad; Ashjaee, Mehdi
2014-08-01
Forced convective heat transfer of water based Fe3O4 nanofluid (ferrofluid) in the presence of an alternating non-uniform magnetic field is investigated numerically. The geometry is a two-dimensional channel which is subjected to a uniform heat flux at the top and bottom surfaces. Nonuniform magnetic field produced by eight line source dipoles is imposed on several parts of the channel. Also, a rectangular wave function is applied to the dipoles in order to turn them on and off alternatingly. The effects of the alternating magnetic field strength and frequency on the convective heat transfer are investigated for four different Reynolds numbers (Re=100, 600, 1200 and 2000) in the laminar flow regime. Comparing the results with zero magnetic field case, show that the heat transfer enhancement increases with the Reynolds number and reaches a maximum of 13.9% at Re=2000 and f=20 Hz. Moreover, at a constant Reynolds number, it increases with the magnetic field intensity while an optimum value exists for the frequency. Also, the optimum frequency increases with the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is always accompanied by a pressure drop penalty. A maximum pressure drop increase of 6% is observed at Re=2000 and f=5 Hz which shows that the pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement.
Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of miscible ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moatimid, Galal M.; El-Dib, Yusry O.
1996-02-01
We study the stability of an interface between two inviscid magnetic fluids of different densities flowing parallel to each other in an oscillatory manner. The system is pervaded by a uniform oblique magnetic field distribution. The analysis allows for mass and heat transfer across the interface. A general eigenvalue relation is derived and discussed analytically. The classical stability criterion is found to be substantially modified due to the effect of the oblique magnetic field with mass and heat transfer. Some previous studies are reported for appropriate data choices. The longitudinal magnetic field has a strong stabilizing influence on all wavelengths, which can be used to suppress the destabilizing influence of the mass and heat transfer. We conclude with a discussion of the stability of unsteady shear layers on the basis of the results. The parametric excitation of the surface waves is analyzed by means of the multiple-time-scales method. The transition curves are obtained analytically.
Rheological investigations of ferrofluids with a shear stress controlled rheometer.
Shahnazian, Hamid; Odenbach, Stefan
2008-05-21
The appearance of field- and shear-dependent changes of viscosity-the magnetoviscous effect-is correlated to the formation of chains and structures of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, the formation of these structures leads to the appearance of viscoelastic effects or other non-Newtonian features in ferrofluids in the presence of a magnetic field. In order to describe these phenomena, different theoretical approaches have been developed which explain the mechanism of these effects with different assumptions. One point in which these models differ, and which has to be clarified, is the appearance of yield stress and its dependence on magnetic field strength. With this aim, a stress controlled rheometer has been designed to prove the existence of this very small field-dependent yield stress for ferrofluids. The results presented here show a dependence of the yield stress on the magnetic field strength as well as on the interparticle interaction and particle size distribution. Finally, yield stress experiments have been performed for different geometries of the shear cell in order to get more information about the microstructure formed by the magnetic particles. PMID:21694266
Anisotropy of magnetoviscous effect in structure-forming ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick
2015-07-01
The magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with change in magnetic field strength, and the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with orientation of magnetic field, have been a focus of interest for four decades. A satisfactory understanding of the microscopic origin of anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect in magnetic fluids is still a matter of debate and a field of intense research. Here, we present an extensive simulation study to understand the relation between the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect and the underlying change in microstructures of ferrofluids. Our results indicate that field-induced chainlike structures respond very differently depending on their orientation relative to the direction of an externally applied shear flow, which leads to a pronounced anisotropy of viscosity. In this work, we focus on three exemplary values of dipolar interaction strengths which correspond to weak, intermediate, and strong interactions between dipolar colloidal particles. We compare our simulation results with an experimental study on cobalt-based ferrofluids as well as with an existing theoretical model called the chain model. A nonmonotonic behavior in the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect is observed with increasing dipolar interaction strength and is explained in terms of microstructure formation.
Microstructure analysis of monodisperse ferrofluid monolayers: theory and simulation.
Kantorovich, Sofia; Cerdà, Juan J; Holm, Christian
2008-04-14
We try to elucidate the microstructure formation in a monodisperse ferrofluid monolayer. The system under study consists of soft sphere magnetic dipolar particles confined to a thin fluid layer. The positions of the particles are constrained to a 2D geometry, whereas the particle magnetic dipole moments are not fixed to the body systems, and are free to rotate in 3 dimensions, hence forming in what we call a quasi-2D geometry. Using a combination of analytical density functional theory and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find that for the studied range of parameters the majority of aggregates might be divided into two types: chains and rings. Their sizes and area fractions are strongly influenced by the geometrical constraints. We show that for quasi-2D systems the excluded area effects play one of the most important parts in the microstructure formation. The simulation technique and the theoretical model put forward in the present paper agree qualitatively with the results of recent in situ observations of the microstructures observed in ferrofluid monolayers [M. Klokkenberg, R. P. A. Dullens, W. K. Regel, B. H. Erné, A. P. Philipse, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2006, 96, 037203]. PMID:18368181
Raman spectroscopy investigation of magnetite nanoparticles in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavov, L.; Abrashev, M. V.; Merodiiska, T.; Gelev, Ch.; Vandenberghe, R. E.; Markova-Deneva, I.; Nedkov, I.
2010-07-01
Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in two types of β-cyclodextrin suspensions. An approach is presented for characterization of the magnetic core in liquid surrounding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The effect of elevating laser power on the structural stability and chemical composition of magnetite in the ferrofluids is discussed. The data are compared with data from dry by-products from the fluids. Powder samples undergo total phase transition from magnetite to hematite at laser power of 1.95 mW. The same nanoparticles in the fluid undergo transformation at 9 mW, but no hematite positions appear throughout that investigation. The Raman spectra revealed that the main phase of the magnetic core in the fluids is magnetite. That is indicated by a strong and non-diminishing in intensity peak at 670 cm -1. A second phase is present at the nanoparticle's surface with Raman spectroscopy unveiling maghemite-like and small fractions of goethite-like structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy investigations confirm deviations in the surface structure and also point to the fact that the oxidation process starts at an early stage after formation of the nanoparticles. The analyses of the infrared data also show that β-cyclodextrin molecules retain their cyclic character and the coating does not affect the oxidation process once the particles are evicted from the fluids. A Mössbauer spectroscopy measurement on a ferrofluidic sample is also presented.
A comparative study of different ferrofluid constitutive equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaloni, Purna
2011-11-01
Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of fine ferromagnetic monodomain nanoparticles in a non-conducting carrier fluid. The particles are coated with a surfacant to avoid agglomeration and coagulation.Brownian motion keeps the nanoparticles from settling under gravity. In recent years these fluids have found several applications including in liquid seals in rotary shafts for vacuum system and in hard disk drives of personal computers, in cooling and damping of loud speakers, in shock absorbers and in biomedical applications. A continuum description of ferrofluids was initiated by Neuringer and Rosensweig but the theory had some limitations. In subsequent years,several authors have proposed generalization of the above theory.Some of these are based upon the internal particle rotation concept, some are phemonological, some are based upon a thermodynamic framework, some employ statistical approach and some have used the dynamic mean field approach. The results based upon these theories ane in early stages and inconclusive. Our purpose is, first, to critically examine the basic foundations of these equations and then study the pedictions obtained in all the theories related to an experimental as well as a theoretical study.
Anisotropy of magnetoviscous effect in structure-forming ferrofluids.
Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick
2015-07-01
The magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with change in magnetic field strength, and the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with orientation of magnetic field, have been a focus of interest for four decades. A satisfactory understanding of the microscopic origin of anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect in magnetic fluids is still a matter of debate and a field of intense research. Here, we present an extensive simulation study to understand the relation between the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect and the underlying change in microstructures of ferrofluids. Our results indicate that field-induced chainlike structures respond very differently depending on their orientation relative to the direction of an externally applied shear flow, which leads to a pronounced anisotropy of viscosity. In this work, we focus on three exemplary values of dipolar interaction strengths which correspond to weak, intermediate, and strong interactions between dipolar colloidal particles. We compare our simulation results with an experimental study on cobalt-based ferrofluids as well as with an existing theoretical model called the chain model. A nonmonotonic behavior in the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect is observed with increasing dipolar interaction strength and is explained in terms of microstructure formation. PMID:26274161
Dipolar Vortices and Dark Solitons in Quantum Ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, Nick; Bland, Thomas; Edmonds, Matthew; Proukakis, Nick; Martin, Andrew; O'Dell, Duncan
2016-05-01
The experimental achievement of Bose-condensed gases of atoms with large magnetic dipole moments has realized a quantum ferrofluid, which combines both superfluid and ferrofluid properties. Here the conventional isotropic and short-range atom-atom interactions become supplemented by long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions, enriching the physical properties of the system. Here we discuss how the dipolar interactions modify quantized vortices, the fundamental nonlinear excitations of superfluids in two and three dimensions. As well as distorting the vortex profile, the dipolar interactions cause each vortex to approximate a macroscopic dipole; the vortex-vortex interaction then develops a novel anisotropic and long-range contribution. This is shown to significantly modify the two-vortex dynamics, and has implications for multi-vortex states. We also extend our analysis to dark solitons, the one-dimensional analogs of vortices, where dipolar interactions support unconventional dark soliton bound states. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council of the UK (Grant No. EP/M005127/1).
Density separation of solids in ferrofluids with magnetic grids
Fay, H.; Quets, J.M.
1980-04-01
Nonmagnetic solids in a superparamagnetic ferrofluid are subjected to body forces proportional to the intensity of magnetization of the fluid and the gradient of the magnetic field. An apparent density of the fluid can be defined from the force equations, and since the apparent density can be much larger than the true density, it is possible to levitate or float dense objects. Mixtures of solids with a density greater than the apparent density sink while lower density solids float. In practice it is difficult to create a uniform gradient over a large volume and single gap magnetic separators require very large magnets or have a limited throughput. To overcome that problem, multiple gap magnetic grids have been designed. Such grids consist of planar arrays of parallel bars of alternating polarity, driven by permanent magnets. When immersed in ferrofluid, magnetic grids create nonuniform field gradients and apparent densities in the fluid. However, both analysis and experimental measurements show that the grid acts as a barrier to particles below a critical density, while permitting more dense particles to fall through the grid. Thus, a magnetic grid filter can be used as a high throughput binary separator of solids according to their densities. Such filters can be cascaded for more complex separations. Several magnetic grid filters have been designed, built, and tested. Magnetic measurements qualitatively agree with the theoretical predictions. Experiments with synthetic mixtures have demonstrated that good binary separations can be made.
Preparation and characterization of thermal-sensitive ferrofluids for drug delivery application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ting-Yu; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Hu, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Szu-Ping; Chen, San-Yuan
2007-03-01
Novel thermal-sensitive ferrofluids (F127-ferrofluids) consisting of core-shell-type magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in Pluronic F127-containing aqueous solution were prepared. The core (magnet)-shell (Pluronic F127) nanoparticles were synthesized by in situ co-precipitation process, which were characterized using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometer. The F127-ferrofluids gelled above the lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of approximately 23-28 °C, which were higher than that of pure Pluronic F127-fluids (21-25 °C). The increase in the LCST of the F127 ferrofluids may be attributed to a result of a physical interaction between the F127 molecules and the core-shell magnetic nanoparticles.
Turbulence in ferrofluids in channel flow with steady and oscillating magnetic fields.
Schumacher, Kristopher R; Riley, James J; Finlayson, Bruce A
2011-01-01
The turbulent flow of a ferrofluid in channel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation. The method of analysis is an extension of that used for Newtonian fluids, with additional features necessary to model the ferrofluid. The analysis is applied to low Reynolds number turbulence in the range of existing experimental data in a capillary. For steady and oscillating magnetic fields, comparisons are made between a Newtonian fluid and a ferrofluid by comparing the pressure drop, turbulent Reynolds number, turbulent kinetic energy (k), Reynolds stress, velocity, and spin profiles. The results are also compared with predictions of a k-ɛ model to show the accuracy of that model when applied to ferrofluids, where ɛ is the rate of viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy. PMID:21405774
Polydispersity effects on the magnetization of diluted ferrofluids: a lognormal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu-Fei; Shi, Li-Qun
2010-10-01
Based on a lognormal particle size distribution, this paper makes a model analysis on the polydispersity effects on the magnetization behaviour of diluted ferrofluids. Using a modified Langevin relationship for the lognormal dispersion, it first performs reduced calculations without material parameters. From the results, it is extrapolated that for the ferrofluid of lognormal polydispersion, in comparison with the corresponding monodispersion, the saturation magnetization is enhanced higher by the particle size distribution. It also indicates that in an equivalent magnetic field, the lognormally polydispersed ferrofluid is magnetically saturated faster than the corresponding monodispersion. Along the theoretical extrapolations, the polydispersity effects are evaluated for a typical ferrofluid of magnetite, with a dispersity of σ = 0.20. The results indicate that the lognormal polydispersity leads to a slight increase of the saturation magnetization, but a noticeable increase of the speed to reach the saturation value in an equivalent magnetic field.
Nonlinear deformation of a ferrofluid droplet in a uniform magnetic field.
Zhu, Gui-Ping; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Ramanujan, R V; Huang, Xiao-Yang
2011-12-20
This paper reports experimental and numerical results of the deformation of a ferrofluid droplet on a superhydrophobic surface under the effect of a uniform magnetic field. A water-based ferrofluid droplet surrounded by immiscible mineral oil was stretched by a magnetic field parallel to the substrate surface. The results show that an increasing flux density increases the droplet width and decreases the droplet height. A numerical model was established to study the equilibrium shape of the ferrofluid droplet. The governing equations for physical fields, including the magnetic field, are solved by the finite volume method. The interface between the two immiscible liquids was tracked by the level-set method. Nonlinear magnetization was implemented in the model. Comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the numerical model can predict well the nonlinear deformation of a ferrofluid droplet in a uniform magnetic field. PMID:22044246
Graphene oxide/ferrofluid/cement composites for electromagnetic interference shielding application.
Singh, Avanish Pratap; Mishra, Monika; Chandra, Amita; Dhawan, S K
2011-11-18
This paper deals with the preparation of graphene oxide-ferrofluid-cement nanocomposites to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) in the 8.2-12.4 GHz frequency range. It has been observed that incorporation of graphene oxide (30 wt%) along with an appropriate amount of ferrofluid in the cement matrix leads to a shielding effectiveness of 46 dB (>99% attenuation).The presence of graphene oxide and ferrofluid in the cement leads to strong polarizations and magnetic losses that consequently result in higher shielding effectiveness compared to pristine cement. The resulting nanocomposites have shown Shore hardness of 54 and dc conductivity of 10.40 S cm( - 1). SEM reveals the homogeneous dispersion of graphene oxide and ferrofluid in the cement matrix. PMID:22024967
Graphene oxide/ferrofluid/cement composites for electromagnetic interference shielding application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pratap Singh, Avanish; Mishra, Monika; Chandra, Amita; Dhawan, S. K.
2011-11-01
This paper deals with the preparation of graphene oxide-ferrofluid-cement nanocomposites to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) in the 8.2-12.4 GHz frequency range. It has been observed that incorporation of graphene oxide (30 wt%) along with an appropriate amount of ferrofluid in the cement matrix leads to a shielding effectiveness of 46 dB (>99% attenuation).The presence of graphene oxide and ferrofluid in the cement leads to strong polarizations and magnetic losses that consequently result in higher shielding effectiveness compared to pristine cement. The resulting nanocomposites have shown Shore hardness of 54 and dc conductivity of 10.40 S cm - 1. SEM reveals the homogeneous dispersion of graphene oxide and ferrofluid in the cement matrix.
Hydrodynamics of spin-polarized transport and spin pendulum
Gurzhi, R. N. Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yanovsky, A. V.
2007-07-15
The dynamics of a nonequilibrium spin system dominated by collisions preserving the total quasimomentum of the interacting electrons and quasiparticles is considered. An analysis of the derived hydrodynamic equations shows that weakly attenuated spin-polarization waves associated with an oscillating drift current can exist in a magnetically inhomogeneous conducting ring. Spin-polarized transport in a ballistic regime of wave propagation through a conductor is also considered, and a simple method is proposed for distinguishing these waves from spin and current oscillations that develop in the hydrodynamic regime. It is shown that a potential difference arises between the leads of an open nonuniformly spin-polarized conductor as a manifestation of spin polarization of electron density. This spin-mediated electrical phenomenon occurs in both hydrodynamic and diffusive limits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinella-Mamo, V.; Paranjape, M.
2009-02-01
Both ferrofluidics and genetic algorithms are relatively new fields. Due to complex physical interactions, ferrofluidic topographies and assemblies have only been solved using finite time step, Lattice Boltzmann, and finite-element methods in very simple magnetic field configurations. In this paper, we show that it is possible (and highly advantageous) to employ genetic algorithms to solve for the fluid topographies, which can be extended to include more complex magnetic fields.
Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal
Conroy, William T.; Dietle, Lannie L.; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.
2001-01-01
A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.
Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field
Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos
2015-07-15
Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.
Three-dimensional x-ray imaging of macro-clusters in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wah-Keat
2009-11-01
Ferrofluids are a class of magnetic fluids where nano-sized (˜ 10 nm) magnetic particles are dispersed in a carrier fluid. Ferrofluids have long been used for vacuum seals, but lately, has been proposed for a multitude of new applications including heat transfer and biomedicine. It has been known for some time that the magnetic particles tend to align with an applied magnetic field and that the individual chains can coalesce and form thick and long macro-sized structures whose shapes depend on the properties of the ferrofluid and the applied field. However, due to their opacity to visible light, ferrofluid experiments have been mainly limited to very thin films (˜ 10s of microns). Since the macro-structures can be in the 10-100 micron range, thin film measurements are susceptible to wall effects. TEM and resin techniques have been used to study the structure of these clusters. However, it is doubtful if these frozen or dried structures reflect the natural fluid state. Here, we present x-ray microtomography measurements on a mm-sized tube of ferrofluid under an applied magnetic field. We show the three-dimensional nature of the columns and labyrinth structures. The measurements also allow us to provide estimates on the local magnetic particle concentration within the ferrofluid.
Experiment studies of iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver.
Zhang, X; Lin, R; Lin, Y; Wu, R H
2005-01-01
To study possibility for iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid retention in rabbit liver. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid were injected into liver right lobe through portal vein in 5 rabbits... - calibrate meter showed continuous.. counts in the region injected. Then the relative metabolic parameters were calculated. Left lobe livers, right lobe livers and lungs of the rabbits were examined in pathology, and the right lobe livers were examined by electron microscope. Five rabbits injected purely 131Iiodinated oil were designated as control group. Single metabolic mode was found in the rabbits in nanometer ferrofluid group. The biological half-life of 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid was not different from control group's slow metabolic portion. But control group's rapid metabolic portion were eliminated in a higher speed, range from 8% to 44%. More damage was found in nanometer ferrofluid group's right lobe livers. 131I- iodinated oil nanometer ferrofluid possess the opportunity of local retention in human body and further study is worthwhile. PMID:17282574
Flow of immiscible ferrofluids in a planar gap in a rotating magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sule, Bhumika; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos
2015-07-01
Analytical solutions are obtained for the steady, fully developed flow of two layers of immiscible ferrofluids of different thicknesses between two parallel plates. Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balance relations are derived for the case when there is a ferrofluid-ferrofluid interface to obtain the translational and spin velocity profiles in the gap. As expected for the limit of low applied field amplitude, the magnitude of the translational velocity is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied magnetic field and to the square of the magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the velocity profiles are obtained for the zero spin viscosity and non-zero spin viscosity cases and the effect of applied pressure gradient on the flows is studied. The spin velocity in both ferrofluid phases is in the direction of the rotating magnetic field, except for cases of extreme applied pressure gradients for which the fluid vorticity opposes the spin. We find that for the case of non-zero spin viscosity, flow reversals are predicted using representative ferrofluid property values and field conditions. The unique predictions of the solution with non-zero spin viscosity could be used to experimentally test the existence of couple stresses in ferrofluids and the validity of previously reported values of the so-called spin viscosity.
The Radiation Transport Conundrum in Radiation Hydrodynamics
Castor, J I
2005-03-18
The summary of this paper is: (1) The conundrum in the title is whether to treat radiation in the lab frame or the comoving frame in a radiation-hydrodynamic problem; (2) Several of the difficulties are associated with combining a somewhat relativistic treatment of radiation with a non-relativistic treatment of hydrodynamics; (3) The principal problem is a tradeoff between easily obtaining the correct diffusion limit and describing free-streaming radiation with the correct wave speed; (4) The computational problems of the comoving-frame formulation in more than one dimension, and the difficulty of obtaining both exact conservation and full u/c accuracy argue against this method; (5) As the interest in multi-D increases, as well as the power of computers, the lab-frame method is becoming more attractive; and (6) The Monte Carlo method combines the advantages of both lab-frame and comoving-frame approaches, its only disadvantage being cost.
Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.
Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn
2013-06-17
We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens. PMID:23787690
Optical imaging using spatial grating effects in ferrofluids
Dave, Vishakha; Virpura, Hiral; Patel, Rajesh
2015-06-24
Under the effect of magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid tend to align in the direction of the magnetic field. This alignment of the magnetic nanoparticles behaves as a spatial grating and diffract light, when light is propagating perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field. The chains of the magnetic nanoparticles represents a linear series of fringes like those observed in a grating/wire. Under applied magnetic field the circular beam of light transforms into a prominent diffraction line in the direction perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. This diffracted light illuminates larger area on the screen. This behavior can be used as magneto controlled illumination of the object and image analysis.
Concentration and temperature effect in microstructure of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Török, Gy.; Lebedev, V. T.; Bica, D.; Vékás, L.; Avdeev, M. V.
2006-05-01
The spatial correlations in magnetite-based ferrofluids (FF) with pentanol carrier have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, as dependent on the concentration of magnetic phase ( C=0.6-20 vol%) and temperature (20-85 °C). Some peculiarities in the structure of FF were detected. An anomalous increase of short range order by heating of low-concentrated FF ( C˜0.6-4.0 vol%); the formation of short range order at ambient temperature which weakens at growing concentrations C=7-14 vol% and the existence of a stable structure at the highest concentration C˜20 vol% when particles' shell interpenetrate. Neutron scattering data are discussed with regard to the particles' intrinsic magnetisation enhancement induced by ordering.
Optical imaging using spatial grating effects in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dave, Vishakha; Virpura, Hiral; Patel, Rajesh
2015-06-01
Under the effect of magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid tend to align in the direction of the magnetic field. This alignment of the magnetic nanoparticles behaves as a spatial grating and diffract light, when light is propagating perpendicular to the direction of the applied magnetic field. The chains of the magnetic nanoparticles represents a linear series of fringes like those observed in a grating/wire. Under applied magnetic field the circular beam of light transforms into a prominent diffraction line in the direction perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. This diffracted light illuminates larger area on the screen. This behavior can be used as magneto controlled illumination of the object and image analysis.
Fluctuations in relativistic causal hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Mishra, Ananta P.
2014-05-01
Formalism to calculate the hydrodynamic fluctuations by applying the Onsager theory to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation is already known. In this work, we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations within the framework of the second order hydrodynamics of Müller, Israel and Stewart and its generalization to the third order. We have also calculated the fluctuations for several other causal hydrodynamical equations. We show that the form for the Onsager-coefficients and form of the correlation functions remain the same as those obtained by the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation and do not depend on any specific model of hydrodynamics. Further we numerically investigate evolution of the correlation function using the one dimensional boost-invariant (Bjorken) flow. We compare the correlation functions obtained using the causal hydrodynamics with the correlation function for the relativistic Navier-Stokes equation. We find that the qualitative behavior of the correlation functions remains the same for all the models of the causal hydrodynamics.
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-08-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes
Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert
2014-01-01
From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377
López, J. González, Luz E.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Gómez, M. E.; Porras-Montenegro, N.; Zambrano, G.
2014-05-21
Ferrofluids based on magnetic Co{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method from aqueous salt solutions of Co (II), ZnSO{sub 4}, and Fe (III) in an alkaline medium. Ferrofluids placed in an external magnetic field show properties that make them interesting as magneto-controllable soft photonic crystals. Morphological and structural characterizations of the samples were obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies. Magnetic properties were investigated with the aid of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Herein, the Co{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples showed superparamagnetic behavior, according to hysteresis loop results. Taking in mind that the Co-Zn ferrite hysteresis loop is very small, our magnetic nanoparticles can be considered soft magnetic material with interesting technological applications. In addition, by using the plane-wave expansion method, we studied the photonic band structure of 2D photonic crystals made of ferrofluids with the same nanoparticles. Previous experimental results show that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the ferrofluid plane agglomerates the magnetic nanoparticles in parallel rods to form a hexagonal 2D photonic crystal. We calculated the photonic band structure of photonic crystals by means of the effective refractive index of the magnetic fluid, basing the study on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, finding that the photonic band structure does not present any band gaps under the action of applied magnetic field strengths used in our experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, J.; González, Luz E.; Quiñonez, M. F.; Gómez, M. E.; Porras-Montenegro, N.; Zambrano, G.
2014-05-01
Ferrofluids based on magnetic Co0.25Zn0.75Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method from aqueous salt solutions of Co (II), ZnSO4, and Fe (III) in an alkaline medium. Ferrofluids placed in an external magnetic field show properties that make them interesting as magneto-controllable soft photonic crystals. Morphological and structural characterizations of the samples were obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy studies. Magnetic properties were investigated with the aid of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. Herein, the Co0.25Zn0.75Fe2O4 samples showed superparamagnetic behavior, according to hysteresis loop results. Taking in mind that the Co-Zn ferrite hysteresis loop is very small, our magnetic nanoparticles can be considered soft magnetic material with interesting technological applications. In addition, by using the plane-wave expansion method, we studied the photonic band structure of 2D photonic crystals made of ferrofluids with the same nanoparticles. Previous experimental results show that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the ferrofluid plane agglomerates the magnetic nanoparticles in parallel rods to form a hexagonal 2D photonic crystal. We calculated the photonic band structure of photonic crystals by means of the effective refractive index of the magnetic fluid, basing the study on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, finding that the photonic band structure does not present any band gaps under the action of applied magnetic field strengths used in our experimental conditions.
Modeling of textural changes in beef loins subjected to hydrodynamic pressure
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
High hydrodynamic pressure has been considered as a new novel food processing technique to impart favorable textural changes in meat. It is believed that a hydrodynamic pressure wave could be used to tenderize otherwise unacceptably tough cuts of beef, and allow them to be used in more valuable prod...
HYDRODYNAMIC AND MORPHOLOGIC MODELING AT CAPE FEAR INLET, NC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashlan, L. R.; Dennis, W. A.; Wutkowski, M. J.
2009-12-01
The Coastal Modeling System (CMS) was applied to compute tidal hydrodynamics, wave transformation, sediment transport and morphology change in the Cape Fear Inlet area. Measured water level, current and wave data in the Cape Fear area were collected from gauges maintained by Wilmington Harbor Monitoring Program. The models were calibrated by comparing simulated and measured water level, current and wave data. Numerical simulations of coupled circulation, wave and sediment transport models were used to estimate the morphology change for a surveyed area during a three month period. The agreement between predicted and measured topographic changes were acceptable. Morphology change analysis will be used in the future to examine different channel alignment scenarios.
Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Pickett, Rodney; Strother, Terrance
2013-08-01
We report on the development of a test-particle based kinetic Monte Carlo code for large systems and its application to simulate matter in the continuum regime. Our code combines advantages of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and the Point-of-Closest-Approach methods to solve the collision integral of the Boltzmann equation. With that, we achieve a high spatial accuracy in simulations while maintaining computational feasibility when applying a large number of test-particles. The hybrid setup of our approach allows us to study systems which move in and out of the hydrodynamic regime, with low and high particle densities. To demonstrate our code's ability to reproduce hydrodynamic behavior we perform shock wave simulations and focus here on the Sedov blast wave test. The blast wave problem describes the evolution of a spherical expanding shock front and is an important verification problem for codes which are applied in astrophysical simulation, especially for approaches which aim to study core-collapse supernovae.
Optical Kerr Spatiotemporal Dark-Lump Dynamics of Hydrodynamic Origin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baronio, Fabio; Wabnitz, Stefan; Kodama, Yuji
2016-04-01
There is considerable fundamental and applicative interest in obtaining nondiffractive and nondispersive spatiotemporal localized wave packets propagating in optical cubic nonlinear or Kerr media. Here, we analytically predict the existence of a novel family of spatiotemporal dark lump solitary wave solutions of the (2 +1 )D nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Dark lumps represent multidimensional holes of light on a continuous wave background. We analytically derive the dark lumps from the hydrodynamic exact soliton solutions of the (2 +1 )D shallow water Kadomtsev-Petviashvili model, inheriting their complex interaction properties. This finding opens a novel path for the excitation and control of optical spatiotemporal waveforms of hydrodynamic footprint and multidimensional optical extreme wave phenomena.
Hydrodynamic interactions of cilia on a spherical body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasouri, Babak; Elfring, Gwynn J.
2015-11-01
The emergence of metachronal waves in ciliated microorganisms can arise solely from the hydrodynamic interactions between the cilia. For a chain of cilia attached to a flat ciliate, it was observed that fluid forces can lead the system to form a metachronal wave. However, several microorganisms such as paramecium and volvox possess a curved shaped ciliate body. To understand the effect of this geometry on the formation of metachronal waves, we evaluate the hydrodynamic interactions of cilia near a large spherical body. Using a minimal model, we show that for a chain of cilia around the sphere, the embedded periodicity in the geometry leads the system to synchronize. We also report an emergent wave-like behavior when an asymmetry is introduced to the system.
Optical Kerr Spatiotemporal Dark-Lump Dynamics of Hydrodynamic Origin.
Baronio, Fabio; Wabnitz, Stefan; Kodama, Yuji
2016-04-29
There is considerable fundamental and applicative interest in obtaining nondiffractive and nondispersive spatiotemporal localized wave packets propagating in optical cubic nonlinear or Kerr media. Here, we analytically predict the existence of a novel family of spatiotemporal dark lump solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)D nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Dark lumps represent multidimensional holes of light on a continuous wave background. We analytically derive the dark lumps from the hydrodynamic exact soliton solutions of the (2+1)D shallow water Kadomtsev-Petviashvili model, inheriting their complex interaction properties. This finding opens a novel path for the excitation and control of optical spatiotemporal waveforms of hydrodynamic footprint and multidimensional optical extreme wave phenomena. PMID:27176522
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Javier; Gonzalez, Luz Esther; Quinonez, Mario; Porras, Nelson; Zambrano, Gustavo; Gomez, Maria Elena
2014-03-01
Using a ferrfluid of cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles Co(1 - x)ZnxFe2O4 coated with oleic acid and suspended in ethanol, we have fabricated a 2D photonic crystal (PC) by the application of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the ferrofluid. The 2D PC is made by rods of nanoparticles organized in a hexagonal structure. By means of the plane-wave expansion method, we study its photonic band structure (PBS) which depends on the effective permittivity and on the area ratio of the liquid phase. Additionaly, taking into account the Maxwell-Garnett theory we calculated the effective permittivity of the rods. We have found that the effective refractive index of the ferrofluid increases with its magnetization. Using these results we calculate the band structure of the photonic crystal at different applied magnetic fields, finding that the increase of the applied magnetic field shifts the band structure to lower frequencies with the appearance of more band gaps. Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali, Colombia
Probst, R.; Lin, J.; Komaee, A.; Nacev, A.; Cummins, Z.
2010-01-01
Any single permanent or electro magnet will always attract a magnetic fluid. For this reason it is difficult to precisely position and manipulate ferrofluid at a distance from magnets. We develop and experimentally demonstrate optimal (minimum electrical power) 2-dimensional manipulation of a single droplet of ferrofluid by feedback control of 4 external electromagnets. The control algorithm we have developed takes into account, and is explicitly designed for, the nonlinear (fast decay in space, quadratic in magnet strength) nature of how the magnets actuate the ferrofluid, and it also corrects for electro-magnet charging time delays. With this control, we show that dynamic actuation of electro-magnets held outside a domain can be used to position a droplet of ferrofluid to any desired location and steer it along any desired path within that domain – an example of precision control of a ferrofluid by magnets acting at a distance. PMID:21218157
Generalized hydrodynamic transport in lattice-gas automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi; Chen, Hudong; Chen, Shiyi; Doolen, Gary D.; Lee, Yee-Chun
1991-01-01
The generalized hydrodynamics of two-dimensional lattice-gas automata is solved analytically in the linearized Boltzmann approximation. The dependence of the transport coefficients (kinematic viscosity, bulk viscosity, and sound speed) upon wave number k is obtained analytically. Anisotropy of these coefficients due to the lattice symmetry is studied for the entire range of wave number, k. Boundary effects due to a finite mean free path (Knudsen layer) are analyzed, and accurate comparisons are made with lattice-gas simulations.
Generalized hydrodynamic transport in lattice-gas automata
Luo, L. School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0430 ); Chen, H. Department of Physics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 ); Chen, S. Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 ); Doolen, G.D.; Lee, Y. )
1991-06-15
The generalized hydrodynamics of two-dimensional lattice-gas automata is solved analytically in the linearized Boltzmann approximation. The dependence of the transport coefficients (kinematic viscosity, bulk viscosity, and sound speed) upon wave number {bold k} is obtained analytically. Anisotropy of these coefficients due to the lattice symmetry is studied for the entire range of wave number, {bold k}. Boundary effects due to a finite mean free path (Knudsen layer) are analyzed, and accurate comparisons are made with lattice-gas simulations.
Hydrodynamic Simulations of Giant Impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reinhardt, Christian; Stadel, Joachim
2013-07-01
We studied the basic numerical aspects of giant impacts using Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH), which has been used in most of the prior studies conducted in this area (e.g., Benz, Canup). Our main goal was to modify the massive parallel, multi-stepping code GASOLINE widely used in cosmological simulations so that it can properly simulate the behavior of condensed materials such as granite or iron using the Tillotson equation of state. GASOLINE has been used to simulate hundreds of millions of particles for ideal gas physics so that using several millions of particles in condensed material simulations seems possible. In order to focus our attention of the numerical aspects of the problem we neglected the internal structure of the protoplanets and modelled them as homogenous (isothermal) granite spheres. For the energy balance we only considered PdV work and shock heating of the material during the impact (neglected cooling of the material). Starting at a low resolution of 2048 particles for the target and the impactor we run several simulations for different impact parameters and impact velocities and successfully reproduced the main features of the pioneering work of Benz from 1986. The impact sends a shock wave through both bodies heating the target and disrupting the remaining impactor. As in prior simulations material is ejected from the collision. How much, and whether it leaves the system or survives in an orbit for a longer time, depends on the initial conditions but also on resolution. Increasing the resolution (to 1.2x10⁶ particles) results in both a much clearer shock wave and deformation of the bodies during the impact and a more compact and detailed "arm" like structure of the ejected material. Currently we are investigating some numerical issues we encountered and are implementing differentiated models, making one step closer to more realistic protoplanets in such giant impact simulations.
Newtonian hydrodynamics with general relativistic pressure
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim E-mail: hr@kasi.re.kr
2013-10-01
We present the general relativistic pressure correction terms in Newtonian hydrodynamic equations to the nonlinear order: these are equations (1.1)–(1.3). The derivation is made in the zero-shear gauge based on the fully nonlinear formulation of cosmological perturbation in Einstein's gravity. The correction terms differ from many of the previously suggested forms in the literature based on hand-waving manners. We confirm our results by comparing with (i) the nonlinear perturbation theory, (ii) the first order post-Newtonian approximation, and (iii) the special relativistic limit, and by checking (iv) the consistency with full Einstein's equation.
Consistent Hydrodynamics for Phase Field Crystals.
Heinonen, V; Achim, C V; Kosterlitz, J M; Ying, See-Chen; Lowengrub, J; Ala-Nissila, T
2016-01-15
We use the amplitude expansion in the phase field crystal framework to formulate an approach where the fields describing the microscopic structure of the material are coupled to a hydrodynamic velocity field. The model is shown to reduce to the well-known macroscopic theories in appropriate limits, including compressible Navier-Stokes and wave equations. Moreover, we show that the dynamics proposed allows for long wavelength phonon modes and demonstrate the theory numerically showing that the elastic excitations in the system are relaxed through phonon emission. PMID:26824543
Fast Lattice Boltzmann Solver for Relativistic Hydrodynamics
Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Boghosian, B. M.; Succi, S.
2010-07-02
A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.
Effect of hydrodynamic pressure processing on chevon quality characteristics
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) technology, which involves exposure of packaged meat to a supersonic shock wave under water created by a small amount of explosive, has been shown to improve meat tenderness, but its effect on chevon tenderness has not been studied so far. The objective of this...
Inactivation and injury of pathogenic bacteria by hydrodynamic pressure treatment
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) is an innovative non-thermal technology developed for improving meat tenderness. The shock waves generated in the HDP process cause significant disruption of myofibrillar proteins in muscle tissue resulting in improved tenderness of various beef cuts. The same ...
Interfacial stress balances in structured continua and free surface flows in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Arlex; Rinaldi, Carlos
2014-04-01
Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balances are obtained for a structured continuum and for the special case of a ferrofluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a Newtonian fluid. The interfacial balance equations account for the effects of surface tension and surface tension gradient, magnetic surface excess forces, antisymmetric stresses, and couple stresses in driving interfacial flows in ferrofluids. Application of the interfacial balance equations is illustrated by obtaining analytical expressions for the translational and spin velocity profiles in a thin film of ferrofluid on an infinite flat plate when a rotating magnetic field is applied with axis of rotation parallel to the ferrofluid/air interface. The cases of zero and non-zero spin viscosity are considered for small applied magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the maximum translational velocity, slope of the translational velocity profile at the ferrofluid/air interface, and volumetric flow rate are obtained and their use to test the relevance of spin viscosity and couple stresses in the flow situation under consideration is discussed.
Optical fibre long period grating spectral actuators utilizing ferrofluids as outclading overlayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstantaki, M.; Candiani, A.; Pissadakis, S.
2011-03-01
Results are presented on the spectral tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing water and oil based ferrofluids as outclading overlayers, under static magnetic field stimulus. Two approaches are adopted for modifying the ambient refractive index at the position of the long period grating. In the first approach, a water based ferrofluid is controllably translated along the length of the grating via a magnetic field. Changes as high as 7.5nm and 6.5dB are monitored in the wavelength and strength, respectively, of the attenuation bands of the grating. The repeatable performance of this device for repetitive forward and backward translation verifies that no ferrofluidic residue is left on the fibre, due to silanization cladding functionalisation. In the second approach, the refractive index of an oil based ferrofluidic overlayer is modified through the magneto-optical effect. For an applied static magnetic field in the order of 400 Gauss the strength of the attenuation band of the grating is modified by more than 10% while its spectral position remains unaffected. Accordingly for the implementation of the last approach, the magnetically induced refractive index changes of ferrofluids of different solution concentrations are studied by employing diffraction efficiency measurements.
Interfacial stress balances in structured continua and free surface flows in ferrofluids
Chaves, Arlex; Rinaldi, Carlos
2014-04-15
Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balances are obtained for a structured continuum and for the special case of a ferrofluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a Newtonian fluid. The interfacial balance equations account for the effects of surface tension and surface tension gradient, magnetic surface excess forces, antisymmetric stresses, and couple stresses in driving interfacial flows in ferrofluids. Application of the interfacial balance equations is illustrated by obtaining analytical expressions for the translational and spin velocity profiles in a thin film of ferrofluid on an infinite flat plate when a rotating magnetic field is applied with axis of rotation parallel to the ferrofluid/air interface. The cases of zero and non-zero spin viscosity are considered for small applied magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the maximum translational velocity, slope of the translational velocity profile at the ferrofluid/air interface, and volumetric flow rate are obtained and their use to test the relevance of spin viscosity and couple stresses in the flow situation under consideration is discussed.
EUNHA: a New Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulation Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Jihye; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Park, Changbom
2014-06-01
We develop a parallel cosmological hydrodynamic simulation code designed for the study of formation and evolution of cosmological structures. The gravitational force is calculated using the TreePM method and the hydrodynamics is implemented based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The initial displacement and velocity of simulation particles are calculated according to second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory using the power spectra of dark matter and baryonic matter. The initial background temperature is given by Recfast and the temperature fluctuations at the initial particle position are assigned according to the adiabatic model. We use a time-limiter scheme over the individual time steps to capture shock-fronts and to ease the time-step tension between the shock and preshock particles. We also include the astrophysical gas processes of radiative heating/cooling, star formation, metal enrichment, and supernova feedback. We test the code in several standard cases such as one-dimensional Riemann problems, Kelvin-Helmholtz, and Sedov blast wave instability. Star formation on the galactic disk is investigated to check whether the Schmidt-Kennicutt relation is properly recovered. We also study global star formation history at different simulation resolutions and compare them with observations.
Hydrodynamic Forces on Microbubbles under Ultrasound Excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto
2014-11-01
Ultrasound (US) pressure waves exert a force on microbubbles that can be used to steer them in a flow. To control the motion of microbubbles under ultrasonic excitation, the coupling between the volume oscillations induced by the ultrasound pressure and the hydrodynamic forces needs to be well understood. We present experimental results for the motion of small, coated microbubbles, with similar sizes and physico-chemical properties as clinically-available ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). The size distribution for the bubbles, resulting from the in-house manufacturing process, was characterized by analysis of high magnification microscopic images and determined to be bimodal. More than 99% of the volume is contained in microbubbles less than 10 microns in diameter, the size of a red blood cell. The motion of the microbubbles in a pulsatile flow, at different Reynolds and Womersley numbers, is studied from tracking of high-speed shadowgraphy. The influence of ultrasound forcing, at or near the resonant frequency of the bubbles, on the hydrodynamic forces due to the pulsatile flow is determined from the experimental measurements of the trajectories. Previous evidence of a sign reversal in Saffman lift is the focus of particular attention, as this is frequently the only hydrodynamic force acting in the direction perpendicular to the flow pathlines. Application of the understanding of this physical phenomenon to targeted drug delivery is analyzed in terms of the transport of the microbubbles. NSF GRFP.
Hydrodynamic Instabilities at an Oblique Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuranz, Carolyn; di Stefano, Carlos; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.
2015-11-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities are an important phenomenon that have consequences in many high-energy-density systems, including astrophysical systems and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Using the Omega EP laser we have created a sustained shock platform to drive a steady shock wave using a ~ 30 ns laser pulse. Coupled with a Spherical Crystal Imager we have created high-resolution x-ray radiographs to diagnose the evolution of complex hydrodynamic structures. This experiment involves a hydrodynamically unstable interface at an oblique angle so that the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz processes are present. A dual-mode perturbation is machined onto the interface and we seek to observe the merging of vertical structures. Preliminary data from recent experiments and simulations results will be shown. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0002032 and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001944.
Hydrodynamic modes for granular gases.
Dufty, James W; Brey, J Javier
2003-09-01
The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linearized Boltzmann equation for inelastic hard spheres (d=3) or disks (d=2) corresponding to d+2 hydrodynamic modes are calculated in the long wavelength limit for a granular gas. The transport coefficients are identified and found to agree with those from the Chapman-Enskog solution. The dominance of hydrodynamic modes at long times and long wavelengths is studied via an exactly solvable kinetic model. A collisional continuum is bounded away from the hydrodynamic spectrum, assuring a hydrodynamic description at long times. The bound is closely related to the power law decay of the velocity distribution in the reference homogeneous cooling state. PMID:14524742
Molecular Hydrodynamics from Memory Kernels.
Lesnicki, Dominika; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Carof, Antoine; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2016-04-01
The memory kernel for a tagged particle in a fluid, computed from molecular dynamics simulations, decays algebraically as t^{-3/2}. We show how the hydrodynamic Basset-Boussinesq force naturally emerges from this long-time tail and generalize the concept of hydrodynamic added mass. This mass term is negative in the present case of a molecular solute, which is at odds with incompressible hydrodynamics predictions. Lastly, we discuss the various contributions to the friction, the associated time scales, and the crossover between the molecular and hydrodynamic regimes upon increasing the solute radius. PMID:27104730
Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing
Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.
2002-01-01
A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.
Hydrodynamics of pronuclear migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazockdast, Ehssan; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael
2014-11-01
Microtubule (MT) filaments play a key role in many processes involved in cell devision including spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and pronuclear positioning. We present a direct numerical technique to simulate MT dynamics in such processes. Our method includes hydrodynamically mediated interactions between MTs and other cytoskeletal objects, using singularity methods for Stokes flow. Long-ranged many-body hydrodynamic interactions are computed using a highly efficient and scalable fast multipole method, enabling the simulation of thousands of MTs. Our simulation method also takes into account the flexibility of MTs using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory as well as their dynamic instability. Using this technique, we simulate pronuclear migration in single-celled Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Two different positioning mechanisms, based on the interactions of MTs with the motor proteins and the cell cortex, are explored: cytoplasmic pulling and cortical pushing. We find that although the pronuclear complex migrates towards the center of the cell in both models, the generated cytoplasmic flows are fundamentally different. This suggest that cytoplasmic flow visualization during pronuclear migration can be utilized to differentiate between the two mechanisms.
Simulating hydrodynamics on tidal mudflats
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, S.; Lippmann, T. C.
2014-12-01
Biogeochemical cycling in estuaries is governed by fluxes from both riverine sources and through estuarine sediment deposits. Although estimates from river sources are relatively common and easily sampled, estimates of nutrient fluxes through the fluid-sediment interface are less common and limited to deeper portions of the bays away from intertidal areas. Lack of quantifiable shear stress estimates over intertidal areas limits our overall understanding of nutrient budgets in estuaries. Unfortunately, observation of intertidal hydrodynamics and nutrient fluxes over tidal flats and near the water's edge is difficult owing to the temporally varying and spatially extensive region where the tides inundate, and thus numerical modeling is often employed. In this work, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic model was used to investigate the shear stresses over intertidal mudflats in the Great Bay, a tidally-dominated New England estuary cut by several tidal channels and with over 50% of the estuary exposed at low tide. The ROMS wetting and drying scheme was used to simulate the rising and falling tide on the flats, a successful approach adapted in other regions of the world but not always inclusive of tidal channels. Bathymetric data obtained in 2009 and 2013 was used to define the model grid. Predicted tides are forced at Adam's Pt., a natural constriction in the estuary about 20 km upstream of the mouth and at the entrance to the Great Bay. Of particular interest are fluxes of material on-to and off-of the tidal flats which contribute to water quality conditions in the estuary, and are largely governed by shear stresses that drive nutrient fluxes at the fluid-sediment interface. Basin wide estimates of near-bottom shear stresses can be used to estimate first order nutrient fluxes over a tidal cycle and hence describe general biogeochemical dynamics of the estuary. Future work will include enhanced forcing of currents by
A new method to prepare water based Fe3O4 ferrofluid with high stabilization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Tongxiao; Bian, Xiufang; Yang, Chuncheng
2015-11-01
A new method to prepare water based Fe3O4 ferrofluid with high stabilization has been reported in this paper. Oleic acid/ polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000)/agar/oleic acid have been used as surfactants and added to the fluid one after another. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) have been used to characterize the structure, component and morphology of magnetic nanoparticles, respectively. We have observed the microstructure of chain-like (or stick-like) structure under applied magnetic field, which composes of several nanoparticles in the width direction and hundreds of nanoparticles in the length direction. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Gouy magnetic balance (GMB) have been used to measure the magnetic properties and stability of the ferrofluid. The result shows that the magnetic nanoparticles have high saturation magnetization and the ferrofluid has high stability under magnetic and gravitational field.
Seo, Hyeon-Seok; Boo, Jin-Hyo; Kim, Youn-Jea
2015-10-01
This study numerically investigated the flow characteristics in a rectangular enclosure filled with oil-based ferrofluid (EFH-1, Ferrotec.) under the influence of external magnetic fields. The rectangular enclosure contained obstacles with different shapes, such as a rectangle and a triangle mounted on the top and bottom wall surfaces. In order to generate external magnetic fields, a permanent magnet was located in the lower part of the rectangular enclosure, and its direction was selected to be either horizontal or vertical. Our results showed that the ferrofluid flow fields were affected by the applied external magnetic field direction and eddy flow phenomena in the working fluid were generated in the vicinity of high magnetic flux density distributions, such as at the edge of the permanent magnet. It was also confirmed that the magnetophoretic force distributions in the analysis model played a significant role in the development of the ferrofluid flow fields. PMID:26726349
Dielectric response of transformer oil based ferrofluid in low frequency range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajnak, M.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Marton, K.; Tomco, L.; Taculescu, A.; Vekas, L.; Kovac, J.; Vavra, I.; Tothova, J.; Kopcansky, P.; Timko, M.
2013-07-01
In this article, our experimental study of the dynamic dielectric behaviour of transformer oil-based ferrofluid with magnetite nanoparticles is presented. Frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and dissipation factor were measured within the frequency range from 20 Hz to 2 MHz by a capacitance method. The ferrofluid samples were placed in a liquid crystal cell, and experiments were carried out in an electromagnetically anechoic chamber. Two polarization processes and corresponding relaxations were revealed within the applied frequency range. Schwarz theory of electric double layer polarization is used to explain the low frequency relaxation maximum. Moreover, the shift of the maximum position towards higher frequencies is observed as the magnetic volume fraction in the ferrofluid increases. The related decrease in relaxation time due to higher counterion mobility is analysed. Reduced electric field intensity due to depolarization field, which is dependent on the particle concentration, is proposed as the reason for the maxima shift. This assumption is wholly supported by a complementary experiment.
Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvester Using Springless Proof Mass and Ferrofluid as a Lubricant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, S. H.; Ju, S.; Choi, Y.; Jun, S.; Park, S. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, H. W.; Ji, C.-H.
2013-12-01
This paper presents an electromagnetic energy harvester using an array of rectangular permanent magnets as springless proof mass and ferrofluid as a lubricating material. Lateral motion of the multi-pole magnet array generates voltage across an array of copper windings formed under the aluminum channel in response to low frequency external vibrations such as human-body-induced motion. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and output voltage has been measured at various input frequencies and accelerations provided by a vibration exciter. Device with ferrofluid lubrication generated maximum open-circuit voltage of 0.47V at 3g vibration at 12Hz, which is 8% higher than that of the device without lubricant. Maximum output power of 71.26μW has been obtained at 40.8Ω with the device with ferrofluid lubrication.
Paul, Nibedita; Devi, Manasi; Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Saha, Abhijit
2012-02-15
The present work reports on magnetically induced optical activity (such as Faraday rotation and linear dichroism) of pristine and gamma-irradiated gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticle-based ferrofluids. The ferrofluids were produced by dispersing N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-coated {approx}9-nm-sized Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a carrier fluid of ethanol. The ferrofluids were then irradiated with 1.25 MeV energetic gamma rays (dose: 868 Gy and 2.635 kGy). Irradiation-led formation of a number of point defects was revealed through high resolution electron microscopy. The interaction of light with the ionized point defects is believed to have caused substantial improvement in the magneto-optic response of irradiated magnetic fluids.
Optical properties in one-dimensional graded soft photonic crystals with ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Chunzhen; Wang, Junqiao; Zhu, Shuangmei; He, Jinna; Ding, Pei; Liang, Erjun
2013-05-01
We theoretically investigate the optical properties in one-dimensional graded soft photonic crystals (1D GSPCs). The proposed structure is constituted of the stacked ferrofluids layer and the dielectric layer. Due to the supermagnetic response of the ferromagnetic nanoparticles, they will align in a line under the influence of the initiated magnetic field, thereby modulating the refractive index of the ferrofluids layer. By resorting to the transfer matrix method, the dispersion relation, transmittance and reflectance in 1D GSPCs were calculated. Numerical results show that a broad photonic band gap appears in such systems, which can even be broadened by increasing the volume fraction of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, perfect transmittance of our proposed structure can be realized with an increased number of ferrofluid layers. In comparison with conventional PCs materials, 1D GSPCs composed of liquid material offer a very flexible route to implementation, which can be widely used in the application of optical filters, waveguides, reflectors and so on.
Ferrofluid based deformable mirrors: a new approach to adaptive optics using liquid mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laird, Phil R.; Bergamasco, R.; Bérubé, Vincent; Borra, Ermanno F.; Gingras, Julie; Ritcey, Anna-Marie R.; Rioux, Myriam; Robitaille, Nathalie; Thibault, Simon; Vieira da Silva, L., Jr.; Yockell-Lelièvre, Helene
2003-02-01
The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.
Simulation of the magnetization dynamics of diluted ferrofluids in medical applications.
Rogge, Henrik; Erbe, Marlitt; Buzug, Thorsten M; Lüdtke-Buzug, Kerstin
2013-12-01
Ferrofluids, which are stable, colloidal suspensions of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles, have a large impact on medical technologies like magnetic particle imaging (MPI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia. Here, computer simulations promise to improve our understanding of the versatile magnetization dynamics of diluted ferrofluids. A detailed algorithmic introduction into the simulation of diluted ferrofluids will be presented. The algorithm is based on Langevin equations and resolves the internal and the external rotation of the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles, i.e., the Néel and Brown diffusion. The derived set of stochastic differential equations are solved by a combination of an Euler and a Heun integrator and tested with respect to Boltzmann statistics. PMID:24163220
The Quantum Hydrodynamic Description of Tunneling
Kendrick, Brian K.
2012-06-15
The quantum hydrodynamic approach is based on the de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics. The resulting fluid-like equations of motion describe the flow of probability and an accurate solution to these equations is equivalent to solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic approach provides new insight into the mechanisms as well as an alternative computational approach for treating tunneling phenomena. New concepts include well-defined 'quantum trajectories', 'quantum potential', and 'quantum force' all of which have classical analogues. The quantum potential and its associated force give rise to all quantum mechanical effects such as zero point energy, tunneling, and interference. A new numerical approach called the Iterative Finite Difference Method (IFDM) will be discussed. The IFDM is used to solve the set of non-linear coupled hydrodynamic equations. It is 2nd-order accurate in both space and time and exhibits exponential convergence with respect to the iteration count. The stability and computational efficiency of the IFDM is significantly improved by using a 'smart' Eulerian grid which has the same computational advantages as a Lagrangian or Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) grid. The IFDM is also capable of treating anharmonic potentials. Example calculations using the IFDM will be presented which include: a one-dimensional Gaussian wave packet tunneling through an Eckart barrier, a one-dimensional bound-state Morse oscillator, and a two-dimensional (2D) model collinear reaction using an anharmonic potential energy surface. Approximate treatments of the quantum hydrodynamic equations will also be discussed which could allow scaling of the calculations to hundreds of degrees of freedom which is important for treating tunneling phenomena in condensed phase systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Lin, Yueqiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingmei; Miao, Hua; Fu, Jun; Lin, Lihua
2012-06-01
In binary ferrofluids composed of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3/Ni2O3 composite nanoparticles (A particles) and noncrystalline Fe2O3 nanoparticles (B particles), the A particles alone will form chain-like aggregates upon application of a magnetic field. Due to both the long-range 'magnetic convergent force' (FC) and the short-range 'magnetic divergent force' (FD), the A-particle chains immersed in the B-particle 'sea' will move in a manner similar to the process of vibrational damping. The apparent damping of the ferrofluids will vary from weak to overdamping according to the motion of the chains, so that the intensity of light transmitted through a ferrofluid film along the direction of the field would tend to stabilize after a period of rapid decrements and increments. In binary ferrofluids, the B-particle system can produce a modulation effect on both the damping and the driving force, further stabilizing the behavior of the transmitted light. At low fields (e.g., 500 Gs, 900 Gs) only the modulation of the viscosity drag force (Fv) is considerable, so that overdamping increases linearly with B-particle volume fraction (ФB), and the variation in the transmitted light is much slower during the process tending towards stability as ФB increases. However, at high fields (e.g., 1300 Gs) the polarization of the B-particle 'sea' is enhanced, so that FD is modulated as well as Fv (i.e., both the practical damping and driving forces are modulated simultaneously). Thus, the apparent overdamping of the binary ferrofluids system will vary non-linearly as ФB increases, and the transmitted light will tend to stabilize faster for ferrofluids with high ΦB than for those with low ФB at an applied magnetic field of 1300 Gs.
Static and Dynamic Responses of AN Adaptive Optics Ferrofluidic Mirror - Poster Paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seaman, A.; Cookson, C. J.; MacPherson, J. B.; Borra, E. F.; Ritcey, A. M.; Asselin, D.; Jerominek, H.; Thibault, S.; Campbell, M. C. W.
2008-01-01
Ferrofluidic mirrors can be used to improve images of structures at the rear of the eye and may be an effective, low cost solution for adaptive optics, perhaps allowing it to become widespread in clinical settings. We use a Hartmann-Shack wavefront reconstruction technique to study the static and dynamic responses of a ferrofluidic mirror. The displacement heights versus the current in the magnetic field actuators of the mirror have been measured, as well as actuator influence functions (including non-linearites). Finally, we also characterized the real-time dynamics of the mirror.
Mössbauer evidence of 57Fe3O4 based ferrofluid biodegradation in the brain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polikarpov, D.; Cherepanov, V.; Chuev, M.; Gabbasov, R.; Mischenko, I.; Nikitin, M.; Vereshagin, Y.; Yurenia, A.; Panchenko, V.
2014-04-01
The ferrofluid, based on 57Fe isotope enriched Fe3O4 nanoparticles, was synthesized, investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy method and injected transcranially in the ventricle of the rat brain. The comparison of the Mössbauer spectra of the initial ferrofluid and the rat brain measured in two hours and one week after the transcranial injection allows us to state that the synthesized magnetic 57Fe3O4 nanoparticles undergo intensive biodegradation in live brain and, therefore, they can be regarded as a promising target for a new method of radionuclide-free Mössbauer brachytherapy.
Meniscus of a ferrofluid around a vertical cylindrical wire carrying electric current.
John, Thomas; May, Kathrin; Stannarius, Ralf
2011-05-01
We study the meniscus profiles of ferrofluids in the magnetic field of a vertical current-carrying wire. Measurements of the free ferrofluid surface profile are quantitatively compared with numerical calculations. The theoretical model leads to a second-order ordinary differential equation. All material parameters are determined in independent experiments, therefore no fitting parameters are involved in the calculations. The experimental results can be modeled by the equilibrium of magnetic, gravitational, and interface tension forces. The classical model that neglects interface tension yields significant deviations from the experimental profiles in the parameter range studied. PMID:21728648
Szalai, I; Nagy, S; Dietrich, S
2013-11-20
The influence of polydispersity on the magnetization of ferrofluids is studied based on a previously published magnetization equation of state (Szalai and Dietrich, 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 326004) and computer simulations. The polydispersity of the particle diameter is described by the gamma distribution function. Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to test these theoretical results for the initial susceptibility and the magnetization. The results for the magnetic properties of the polydisperse systems turn out to be in quantitative agreement with our present simulation data. In addition, we find good agreement between our theory and experimental data for magnetite-based ferrofluids. PMID:24153397
Generalized hydrodynamics model for strongly coupled plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaw, A.; Murillo, M. S.
2015-07-01
Beginning with the exact equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy, we obtain the density, momentum, and stress tensor-moment equations. We close the moment equations with two closures, one that guarantees an equilibrium state given by density-functional theory and another that includes collisions in the relaxation of the stress tensor. The introduction of a density functional-theory closure ensures self-consistency in the equation-of-state properties of the plasma (ideal and excess pressure, electric fields, and correlations). The resulting generalized hydrodynamics thus includes all impacts of Coulomb coupling, viscous damping, and the high-frequency (viscoelastic) response. We compare our results with those of several known models, including generalized hydrodynamic theory and models obtained using the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation and the quasilocalized charge approximation. We find that the viscoelastic response, including both the high-frequency elastic generalization and viscous wave damping, is important for correctly describing ion-acoustic waves. We illustrate this result by considering three very different systems: ultracold plasmas, dusty plasmas, and dense plasmas. The new model is validated by comparing its results with those of the current autocorrelation function obtained from molecular-dynamics simulations of Yukawa plasmas, and the agreement is excellent. Generalizations of this model to mixtures and quantum systems should be straightforward.
Hydrodynamic effects in the atmosphere of variable stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, C. G., Jr.; Bunker, S. S.
1975-01-01
Numerical models of variable stars are established, using a nonlinear radiative transfer coupled hydrodynamics code. The variable Eddington method of radiative transfer is used. Comparisons are for models of W Virginis, beta Doradus, and eta Aquilae. From these models it appears that shocks are formed in the atmospheres of classical Cepheids as well as W Virginis stars. In classical Cepheids, with periods from 7 to 10 days, the bumps occurring in the light and velocity curves appear as the result of a compression wave that reflects from the star's center. At the head of the outward going compression wave, shocks form in the atmosphere. Comparisons between the hydrodynamic motions in W Virginis and classical Cepheids are made. The strong shocks in W Virginis do not penetrate into the interior as do the compression waves formed in classical Cepheids. The shocks formed in W Virginis stars cause emission lines, while in classical Cepheids the shocks are weaker.
Hydrodynamics, resurgence, and transasymptotics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.
2015-12-01
The second order hydrodynamical description of a homogeneous conformal plasma that undergoes a boost-invariant expansion is given by a single nonlinear ordinary differential equation, whose resurgent asymptotic properties we study, developing further the recent work of Heller and Spalinski [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 072501 (2015)]. Resurgence clearly identifies the nonhydrodynamic modes that are exponentially suppressed at late times, analogous to the quasinormal modes in gravitational language, organizing these modes in terms of a trans-series expansion. These modes are analogs of instantons in semiclassical expansions, where the damping rate plays the role of the instanton action. We show that this system displays the generic features of resurgence, with explicit quantitative relations between the fluctuations about different orders of these nonhydrodynamic modes. The imaginary part of the trans-series parameter is identified with the Stokes constant, and the real part with the freedom associated with initial conditions.
Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Athanassiadis, Athanasios; Hart, Douglas
2014-11-01
A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies. In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion, focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system. We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system.
Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.
Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-10-01
The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth
2008-03-01
Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.
Avdeev, M V; Aksenov, V L; Balasoiu, M; Garamus, V M; Schreyer, A; Török, Gy; Rosta, L; Bica, D; Vékás, L
2006-03-01
Results of experiments on small-angle neutron scattering from ferrofluids on polar carriers (pentanol, water, methyl-ethyl-ketone), with double-layer sterical stabilization of magnetic nanoparticles, are reported. Several types of spatial structural organization are observed. The structure of highly stable pentanol-based samples is similar to that of stable ferrofluids based on organic non-polar carriers (e.g., benzene) with mono-layer covered magnetic nanoparticles. At the same time, the effect of the interparticle interaction on the scattering is stronger in polar ferrofluids because of the structural difference in the surfactant shell. The structure of the studied methyl-ethyl-ketone- and water-based ferrofluids essentially different from the previous case. The formation of large (>100 nm in size) elongated or fractal aggregates, respectively, is detected even in the absence of external magnetic field, which corresponds to weaker stability of these types of ferrofluids. The structure of the fractal aggregates in water-based ferrofluids does not depend on the particle concentration, but it is sensitive to temperature. A temperature increase results in a decrease in their fractal dimension reflecting destruction of the aggregates. In addition, in water-based ferrofluids these aggregates consist of small (radius approximately 10 nm) and temperature-stable primary aggregates. PMID:16102775
Moridis, G.J.; Borglin, S.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Becker, A.
1998-03-01
Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles in various carrier liquids with high saturation magnetizations, which can be manipulated in virtually any fashion, defying gravitational or viscous forces in response to external magnetic fields. In this report, the authors review the results of their investigation of the potential of ferrofluids (1) to accurately and effectively guide reactants (for in-situ treatment) or barrier liquids (low-viscosity permeation grouts) to contaminated target zones in the subsurface using electromagnetic forces, and (2) to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They investigate the use of ferrofluids to enhance the efficiency of in-situ treatment and waste containment through (a) accurate guidance and delivery of reagent liquids to the desired subsurface contamination targets and/or (b) effective sweeping of the contaminated zone as ferrofluids move from the application point to an attracting magnet/collection point. They also investigate exploiting the strong magnetic signature of ferrofluids to develop a method for monitoring of liquid movement and position during injection using electromagnetic methods. The authors demonstrated the ability to induce ferrofluid movement in response to a magnetic field, and measured the corresponding magnetopressure. They demonstrated the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of various shapes containing ferrofluids for tracing liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs showed a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.
Contribution of particle inertial effects to resonance in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fannin, P. C.; Coffey, W. T.
1995-12-01
The effect of the moment of inertia of single domain ferromagnetic particles on the frequency-dependent complex susceptibility χ(ω)=χ'(ω)-iχ''(ω) of ferrofluids is reported. It is demonstrated that particle inertial effects that arise from rotational Brownian motion can give rise to a resonant behavior, which is indicated by the real component χ'(ω) becoming negative at a frequency substantially lower than the Larmor frequency. This provides a possible explanation for previously published data that display such an effect in the 10 to 100 MHz region. The Langevin treatment of Brownian motion is used to incorporate thermal agitation into a model which represents, for the purpose of analysis, a typical ferroparticle, P, as a composite particle comprising a magnetic particle, Pm (assumed to be spherical), which may rotate inside and in contact with a concentric rigid sphere, Ps, representing the surfactant, so that Pm and Ps may have different angular velocities about a common center. This leads to a three-dimensional form of the itinerant oscillator model in the small oscillation approximation. The model predicts inertia corrected Debye relaxation in the form of the Rocard equation that arises for Pm and Ps rotating as a unit, and resonance behavior arising from the relative motion of Pm and Ps. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
Stable ferrofluids of magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophobic ionic liquids.
Mestrom, Luuk; Lenders, Jos J M; de Groot, Rick; Hooghoudt, Tonnis; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Artigas, Marcel Vilaplana
2015-07-17
Ferrofluids (FFs) of metal oxide nanoparticles in ionic liquids (ILs) are a potentially useful class of magnetic materials for many applications because of their properties related to temperature/pressure stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity and recyclability. In this work, the screening of several designer surfactants for their stabilizing capabilities has resulted in the synthesis of stable FFs of superparamagnetic 7 ± 2 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the hydrophobic IL 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C(R)MIM][NTf2]). The designed and synthesized 1-butyl-3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide (ILC10-COOH) surfactant that combines the same imidazole moiety as the IL with a long alkyl chain ensured compatibility with the IL and increased the steric repulsion between the magnetite nanoparticles sufficiently such that stable dispersions of up to 50 wt% magnetite were obtained according to stability tests in the presence of a magnetic field (0.5-1 Tesla). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of the IL-based FFs allowed direct visualization of the surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles in the ILs and the native, hardly aggregated state of their dispersion. PMID:26118409
Stable ferrofluids of magnetite nanoparticles in hydrophobic ionic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mestrom, Luuk; Lenders, Jos J. M.; de Groot, Rick; Hooghoudt, Tonnis; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Vilaplana Artigas, Marcel
2015-07-01
Ferrofluids (FFs) of metal oxide nanoparticles in ionic liquids (ILs) are a potentially useful class of magnetic materials for many applications because of their properties related to temperature/pressure stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity and recyclability. In this work, the screening of several designer surfactants for their stabilizing capabilities has resulted in the synthesis of stable FFs of superparamagnetic 7 ± 2 nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the hydrophobic IL 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([CRMIM][NTf2]). The designed and synthesized 1-butyl-3-(10-carboxydecyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide (ILC10-COOH) surfactant that combines the same imidazole moiety as the IL with a long alkyl chain ensured compatibility with the IL and increased the steric repulsion between the magnetite nanoparticles sufficiently such that stable dispersions of up to 50 wt% magnetite were obtained according to stability tests in the presence of a magnetic field (0.5-1 Tesla). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) of the IL-based FFs allowed direct visualization of the surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles in the ILs and the native, hardly aggregated state of their dispersion.
Natural convection of ferrofluids in partially heated square enclosures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selimefendigil, Fatih; Öztop, Hakan F.; Al-Salem, Khaled
2014-12-01
In this study, natural convection of ferrofluid in a partially heated square cavity is numerically investigated. The heater is located to the left vertical wall and the right vertical wall is kept at constant temperature lower than that of the heater. Other walls of the square enclosure are assumed to be adiabatic. Finite element method is utilized to solve the governing equations. The influence of the Rayleigh number (104≤Ra≤5×105), heater location (0.25H≤yh≤0.75H), strength of the magnetic dipole (0≤γ≤2), horizontal and vertical location of the magnetic dipole (-2H≤a≤-0.5H, 0.2H≤b≤0.8H) on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are investigated. It is observed that different velocity components within the square cavity are sensitive to the magnetic dipole source strength and its position. The length and size of the recirculation zones adjacent to the heater can be controlled with magnetic dipole strength. Averaged heat transfer increases with decreasing values of horizontal position of the magnetic dipole source. Averaged heat transfer value increases from middle towards both ends of the vertical wall when the vertical location of the dipole source is varied. When the heater location is changed, a symmetrical behavior in the averaged heat transfer plot is observed and the minimum value of the averaged heat transfer is attained when the heater is located at the mid of vertical wall.
Magnetic field tunability of optical microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid.
Miao, Yinping; Wu, Jixuan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Kailiang; Yuan, Yujie; Song, Binbin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Yao, Jianquan
2013-12-01
Optical microfiber taper has unique propagation properties, which provides versatile waveguide structure to design the tunable photonic devices. In this paper, the S-tapered microfiber is fabricated by using simple fusion spicing. The spectral characteristics of microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid under different magnetic-field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum are both found to become highly magnetic-field-dependent. The results indicate the transmission and wavelength of the dips are adjustable by changing magnetic field intensity. The response of this device to the magnetic field intensity exhibits a Langvin function. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the transmission loss and magnetic field intensity for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 to 200Oe, and the sensitivities as high as 0.13056dB/Oe and 0.056nm/Oe have been achieved, respectively. This suggests a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber photonic device, such as magneto-optic modulator, filter, and sensing element. PMID:24514542
Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish
2016-07-01
A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.
Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution
Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael
2009-04-15
We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.
Observations of ferrofluid flow under a uniform rotating magnetic field in a spherical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Rinaldi, Carlos; Khushrushahi, Shahriar; Zahn, Markus
2012-04-01
Flow of a ferrofluid in spherical and cylindrical geometries were measured under the influence of a uniform rotating magnetic field produced by two perpendicular spherical coils, a so-called fluxball, excited by quadrature currents. Using an ultrasound velocity profile technique and a commercial oil based ferrofluid (EFH1, Ferrotec) we observed rotational flow around the z-axis. In comparison, the radial component of the flow was found to be negligible. Results show that the magnitude of the azimuthal velocity profile increases as the applied magnetic field amplitude increases. This behavior is also observed for ferrofluid in a cylindrical container placed inside the fluxball cavity and inside a two-pole stator winding. These results indicate that inhomogeneities in the magnetic field produced by slots and finite height of the stator winding used in prior experiments are not the source of previously observed flows produced by a two pole stator winding. The experiments reported here either point to the existence of non-uniform demagnetizing magnetic fields due to the finite height of the cylindrical container, the existence of couple stresses and spin viscosity in ferrofluids, or to the need to develop alternate governing and constitutive equations capable of describing the experimental observations.
Nonmonotonic field-dependent magnetic permeability of a paramagnetic ferrofluid emulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Alexey O.; Kuznetsova, Olga B.
2012-04-01
The ferrofluid emulsion, made of kerosene-based ferrofluid droplets suspended in nonmiscible aviation oil, demonstrates experimentally the nonmonotonic dependence of the effective magnetic permeability as a function of the uniform static magnetic field. In weak fields the emulsion permeability rapidly grows; it reaches its maximum at fields on the order of 1 kA/m; after that, it decays to zero. The theoretical explanation of the effect, as we show here, could be based on the following idea: In a weak magnetic field the growth of the induced droplet magnetic moment is faster than the linear one due to the droplet elongation accompanied by the reduction of the demagnetizing field. Further increase of the external magnetic field strength cannot lead to a significant decrease of the demagnetizing field, as the droplets are already highly elongated. On the other hand, the magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid reduces with the field strength. Thus, the effective magnetic permeability of the ferrofluid suspension starts decreasing. The developed theoretical model describes well the experimental observations.
Applications of ferrofluids in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and micropumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, V. K.; Pant, R. P.; Vinod Kumar, .
2008-12-01
The micro-pump is one of the most promising micro-flow devices. At micro-level electronically controlled pumping of any fluid by a mechanical pump is not so easy and reliable. In the realm of nano-tech materials, ferrofluids have unique properties in both liquids and solids and have potential applications for MEMS/NEMS devices. This paper presents two new types of concepts, a micro-flowmeter based on a micro-turbine made using MEMS technology and the other is a micro-pump based on ferrofluidic actuation. In our first device an optical photovoltaic sensor has also been integrated with this device, and the micro-turbine rotates with a speed of 50000 rpm. We have fabricated a ferrofluid-based glass micro-pump of size 20 × 20 × 10 mm^{3}, in which micro actuation is electrically controlled by NdFeB (N50) permanent magnets (diameter 5 × 3 mm, B_{r} = 1400 mT, coercive field H_c=840 ,kA/m) with a ferrofluid bearing. The device is able to pump the fluid at the rate of 10 μ L/actuation. Figs 3, Refs 19.
Magnetization and stability study of a cobalt-ferrite-based ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamali, Saeed; Pouryazdan, Mohsen; Ghafari, Mohammad; Itou, Masayoshi; Rahman, Masoud; Stroeve, Pieter; Hahn, Horst; Sakurai, Yoshiharu
2016-04-01
In this study the structural and magnetization properties of a CoFe2O4-based ferrofluid was investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic Compton scattering (MCS) measurements. The XRD diagram indicates that the nanoparticles in the ferrofluid are inverse spinel and TEM graph shows that the ferrofluid consists of spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 18± 1 nm, in good agreement with the size, 19.4 nm, extracted from line broadening of the XRD peaks. According to EDS measurements the composition of the nanoparticles is CoFe2O4. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the cation distributions are (Co0.38Fe0.62)[Co0.62Fe1.38]O4. The MCS measurement, performed at 10 K, indicates that the magnetization of the nanoparticles is similar to magnetization of maghemite and magnetite. While the magnetization of the inverse spinels are in [111] direction, interestingly, the magnetization deduced from MCS is in [100] direction. The CoFe2O4-based ferrofluid is found to be stable at ambient conditions, which is important for applications.
Optimization of ferrofluid motion on solid substrate and its application to micro-mirror device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Seonuk; Kim, Dongil; Cho, Il-Joo; Yun, Kwang-Seok
2015-06-01
This paper presents and demonstrates the optimization of an oil-based ferrofluid droplet on a solid surface and its application to a micro-mirror device with a fast switching time. The motion of the ferrofluid droplet on a hydrophilic surface was examined at various surfactant concentrations for both rotational and linear reciprocating actuations. A maximum moving speed of 0.733 m/s was measured at a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) concentration of 0.1 wt % during the rotational motion of the ferrofluid droplet. In addition, a fast reciprocating motion was successfully demonstrated during the linear operation experiment without droplet separation or surface contamination. A maximum acceleration and deceleration of 28 m/s2 was measured at a PVA concentration of 0.1 wt %. As an application of the fast motion of the ferrofluid, a current-driven micro-mirror was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Switching times of 25 and 18 ms were measured for the closing and opening phases of the mirror, respectively.
Characterization of a ferrofluid-based thermomagnetic pump for microfluidic applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Souvik; Datta, Amitava; Sen, Swarnendu; Mukhopdhyay, Achintya; Bandopadhyay, Kallol; Ganguly, Ranjan
2011-11-01
We experimentally characterize the performance of a miniature thermomagnetic pump, where suitably imposed temperature and magnetic field gradients are used to drive ferrofluid in a 2 mm diameter glass capillary tube, without application of any external pressure gradient. Such a pump can operate in a hermetically sealed micro electromechanical system configuration without any moving part, and is thus capable of handling microfluidic samples with little risk of contamination. In the experiment, the ferrofluid in the capillary is exposed to a magnetic field using a solenoid; a small resistive heater wrapped on the tube wall is used to create temperature gradient in such a way that the Kelvin body force in the medium produces a net unbalanced axial component. This causes a thermomagnetic pumping action, transporting the ferrofluid in the capillary tube from the colder end to the warmer end. Performance of the thermomagnetic pump is investigated experimentally to characterize the pump pressure head and discharge under different working conditions, namely, the magnetic field strength, heating power, and ferrofluid properties. A comparison with two other field actuation pumps at comparable length scales is also presented. The pump produces higher output at lower power supplies and magnetic field compared to the other two pumps.
Nonmonotonic field-dependent magnetic permeability of a paramagnetic ferrofluid emulsion.
Ivanov, Alexey O; Kuznetsova, Olga B
2012-04-01
The ferrofluid emulsion, made of kerosene-based ferrofluid droplets suspended in nonmiscible aviation oil, demonstrates experimentally the nonmonotonic dependence of the effective magnetic permeability as a function of the uniform static magnetic field. In weak fields the emulsion permeability rapidly grows; it reaches its maximum at fields on the order of 1 kA/m; after that, it decays to zero. The theoretical explanation of the effect, as we show here, could be based on the following idea: In a weak magnetic field the growth of the induced droplet magnetic moment is faster than the linear one due to the droplet elongation accompanied by the reduction of the demagnetizing field. Further increase of the external magnetic field strength cannot lead to a significant decrease of the demagnetizing field, as the droplets are already highly elongated. On the other hand, the magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid reduces with the field strength. Thus, the effective magnetic permeability of the ferrofluid suspension starts decreasing. The developed theoretical model describes well the experimental observations. PMID:22680473
Preparation and properties of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer stabilized superparamagnetic ferrofluid.
Lin, Chia-Lung; Lee, Chia-Fen; Chiu, Wen-Yen
2005-11-15
Ferrofluids, which are stable dispersions of magnetic particles, behave as liquids that have strong magnetic properties. Nanoparticles of magnetite with a mean diameter of 10-15 nm, which are in the range of superparamagnetism, are usually prepared by the traditional method of co-precipitation from ferrous and ferric electrolyte solution. When diluted, the ferrofluid dispersions are not stable if anionic or cationic surfactants are used as the stabilizer. This work presents an efficient way to prepare a stable aqueous nanomagnetite dispersion. A stable ferrofluid containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles was synthesized via co-precipitation in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer. The mechanism, microstructure, and properties of the ferrofluid were investigated. The results indicate that the PAA oligomers promoted the nucleation and inhibited the growth of the magnetic iron oxide, and the average diameter of each individual Fe3O4 particle was smaller than 10 nm. In addition, the PAA oligomers provided both electrostatic and steric repulsion against particle aggregation, and the stability of dispersions could be controlled by adjusting the pH value of solution. A small amount of Fe2O3 was found in the nanoparticles but the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles was not affected. PMID:16009367
Study of polydiethylsiloxane-based ferrofluid with excellent frost resistance property
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Y. X.; Zhuang, L.; Shen, H.; Zhang, W.; Shao, Z. J.
2009-03-01
The polydiethylsiloxane-based ferrofluid was prepared by dispersing finely divided magnetic Fe 3O 4 particles which are modified with oleoyl sarcosine and lauroyl sarcosine. The optimized experiment parameters including molar ratio of surfactant to Fe 3O 4 (1:5), temperature (80 °C), stirring rate (300 RPM), the surfactant content of lauroyl sarcosine (0 to 33 mol%) and the modification time (25 min) were obtained by the orthogonal test. The magnetic liquid was characterized by a transmission electron microscope (TEM), infrared (IR) spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is indicated that the surfactant is mainly bonded to the surface of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles through covalent bond between carboxylate (COO -) and Fe atom. The modified magnetic particles are equally dispersed into the carrier and remain stable below -12 °C over 4 months. The ferrofluids exhibit excellent frost resistance property and distinctly reduced temperature coefficient of viscosity compared with polydimethylsiloxane-based ferrofluids and hydrocarbon-based ferrofluids, respectively. The saturation magnetization could reach up to 27.7 emu/g.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslov, Sergey A.; Rahman, Habibur; Bozhko, Aleksandra A.
2014-11-01
Magnetite-based ferrofluids are manufactured magneto-polarisable nanofluids that magnetize in an external magnetic field in a similar way to natural paramagnetic fluids(e.g. oxygen), however to a much higher degree. Paramagnetic and ferrofluid flows are described by similar equations and it is expected that they would exhibit a similar behaviour. Indeed we show that in both type of fluids the most prominent instability structures align with the in-layer field component and the onset of magnetoconvection is delayed by the field inclination. However we find that in contrast to paramagnetic fluids the instabilities arising in differentially heated ferrofluids placed in a uniform external oblique magnetic field are oscillatory. This is traced back to the nonlinearity of the magnetic field distribution induced inside the ferrofluid layer that arises whenever the direction of the applied magnetic field is not normal. Given that the magnetic field inclination with respect to the plane of the layer is inevitable near its edges the obtained stability results shed light on the possible reasons for the existnce of unsteady patterns that have been detected in the normal field experiments we reported previously.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velásquez, A. A.; Urquijo, J. P.
2016-01-01
This work presents the design, assembly and automation of a Faraday experiment for use in characterization of the magneto-optical response of fluids and ferrofluids. The magneto-optical Faraday experiment was automated using programmable equipment, controlled through the IEEE-488 port via Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments executed from a graphical interface developed in LabVIEW software. To calibrate the system the Verdet constants of distilled water and isopropyl alcohol were measured, obtaining an error percentage less than 2% for both fluids. Subsequently we used the system for measuring the Verdet constant of a ferrofluid of iron oxide nanoparticles diluted in distilled water, which was synthesized and, before its dilution, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. We found that the Verdet constant of the diluted ferrofluid was smaller than that of distilled water, indicating opposite contributions of the effects of the diamagnetic and paramagnetic phases present in the ferrofluid to the magneto-optical effect. Details of the assembly, control of the experiment and development of the measurements are presented in this paper.
Fractal Structures on Fe3O4 Ferrofluid: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seong, Baek Seok; Shin, Eunjoo; Ikram, Abarrul; Ani, Sistin Ari; Darminto
2010-10-01
A small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) which is a powerful technique to reveal the large scale structures was applied to investigate the fractal structures of water-based Fe3O4ferrofluid, magnetic fluid. The natural magnetite Fe3O4 from iron sand of several rivers in East Java Province of Indonesia was extracted and purified using magnetic separator. Four different ferrofluid concentrations, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 Molar (M) were synthesized through a co-precipitation method and then dispersed in tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) as surfactant. The fractal aggregates in ferrofluid samples were observed from their SANS scattering distributions confirming the correlations to their concentrations. The mass fractal dimension changed from about 3 to 2 as ferrofluid concentration increased showing a deviation slope at intermediate scattering vector q range. The size of primary magnetic particle as a building block was determined by fitting the scattering profiles with a log-normal sphere model calculation. The mean average size of those magnetic particles is about 60 - 100 Å in diameter with a particle size distribution σ = 0.5.
Ferrofluide - ihre Grundlagen und Anwendungen: Magnetische Flüssigkeiten kontrollieren
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odenbach, Stefan
Strömung und Eigenschaften von Suspensionen kleiner magnetischer Teilchen, so genannten Ferrofluiden, lassen sich durch laborübliche Magnetfelder wesentlich beeinflussen. Dies ergibt neue Möglichkeiten in der Grundlagenforschung und erlaubt die Entwicklung interessanter technischer Anwendungen. So werden Ferrofluide beispielsweise im Dämpfungs- und Dichtungsbereich, in jüngerer Zeit auch im biomedizinischen Bereich eingesetzt.
Hydrodynamics of micropipette aspiration.
Drury, J L; Dembo, M
1999-01-01
The dynamics of human neutrophils during micropipette aspiration are frequently analyzed by approximating these cells as simple slippery droplets of viscous fluid. Here, we present computations that reveal the detailed predictions of the simplest and most idealized case of such a scheme; namely, the case where the fluid of the droplet is homogeneous and Newtonian, and the surface tension of the droplet is constant. We have investigated the behavior of this model as a function of surface tension, droplet radius, viscosity, aspiration pressure, and pipette radius. In addition, we have tabulated a dimensionless factor, M, which can be utilized to calculate the apparent viscosity of the slippery droplet. Computations were carried out using a low Reynolds number hydrodynamics transport code based on the finite-element method. Although idealized and simplistic, we find that the slippery droplet model predicts many observed features of neutrophil aspiration. However, there are certain features that are not observed in neutrophils. In particular, the model predicts dilation of the membrane past the point of being continuous, as well as a reentrant jet at high aspiration pressures. PMID:9876128
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, R.; Matsuo, M.; Ono, M.; Harii, K.; Chudo, H.; Okayasu, S.; Ieda, J.; Takahashi, S.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.
2016-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic generation is the conversion of fluid kinetic energy into electricity. Such conversion, which has been applied to various types of electric power generation, is driven by the Lorentz force acting on charged particles and thus a magnetic field is necessary. On the other hand, recent studies of spintronics have revealed the similarity between the function of a magnetic field and that of spin-orbit interactions in condensed matter. This suggests the existence of an undiscovered route to realize the conversion of fluid dynamics into electricity without using magnetic fields. Here we show electric voltage generation from fluid dynamics free from magnetic fields; we excited liquid-metal flows in a narrow channel and observed longitudinal voltage generation in the liquid. This voltage has nothing to do with electrification or thermoelectric effects, but turned out to follow a universal scaling rule based on a spin-mediated scenario. The result shows that the observed voltage is caused by spin-current generation from a fluid motion: spin hydrodynamic generation. The observed phenomenon allows us to make mechanical spin-current and electric generators, opening a door to fluid spintronics.
Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids
Mousavi, N. S. Susan; Khapli, Sachin D.; Kumar, Sunil
2015-03-14
Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05–0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.
Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids
Mousavi, N. S. Susan
2015-01-01
Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05–0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity. PMID:25829566
Direct observations of field-induced assemblies in magnetite ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, N. S. Susan; Khapli, Sachin D.; Kumar, Sunil
2015-03-01
Evolution of microstructures in magnetite-based ferrofluids with weak dipolar moments (particle size ≤ 10 nm) is studied with an emphasis on examining the effects of particle concentration (ϕ) and magnetic field strength (H) on the structures. Nanoparticles are dispersed in water at three different concentrations, ϕ = 0.15%, 0.48%, and 0.59% (w/v) [g/ml%] and exposed to uniform magnetic fields in the range of H = 0.05-0.42 T. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy is employed to provide in-situ observations of the field-induced assemblies in such systems. As the magnetic field increases, the Brownian colloids are observed to form randomly distributed chains aligned in the field direction, followed by head-to-tail chain aggregation and then lateral aggregation of chains termed as zippering. By increasing the field in low concentration samples, the number of chains increases, though their length does not change dramatically. Increasing concentration increases the length of the linear particle assemblies in the presence of a fixed external magnetic field. Thickening of the chains due to zippering is observed at relatively high fields. Through a systematic variation of concentration and magnetic field strength, this study shows that both magnetic field strength and change in concentration can strongly influence formation of microstructures even in weak dipolar systems. Additionally, the results of two commonly used support films on electron microscopy grids, continuous carbon and holey carbon films, are compared. Holey carbon film allows us to create local regions of high concentrations that further assist the development of field-induced assemblies. The experimental observations provide a validation of the zippering effect and can be utilized in the development of models for thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity.
Multifunctional nano manganese ferrite ferrofluid for efficient theranostic application.
Beeran, Ansar Ereath; Fernandez, Francis Boniface; Nazeer, Shaiju S; Jayasree, Ramapurath S; John, Annie; Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz A; Varma, P R Harikrishna
2015-12-01
Ferrofluid-based manganese (Mn(2+)) substituted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by surface coating with trisodium citrate (MnIOTCs) were synthesized for enhanced hyperthermic activity and use as negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media intended for applications in theranostics. The synthesized MnIOTC materials were characterized based on their physicochemical and biological features. The crystal size and the particle size at the nano level were studied using XRD and TEM. The presence of citrate molecules on the crystal surface of the iron oxide was established by FTIR, TGA, DLS and zeta potential measurements. The superparamagnetic property of MnIOTCs was measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Superparamagnetic iron oxide substituted with Mn(2+) with a 3:1 molar concentration of Mn(2+) to Fe(2+) and surface modified with trisodium citrate (MnIO75TC) that exhibited a high T2 relaxivity of 184.6mM(-1)s(-1) and showed excellent signal intensity variation in vitro. Hyperthermia via application of an alternating magnetic field to MnIO75TC in a HeLa cell population induced apoptosis, which was further confirmed by FACS and cLSM observations. The morphological features of the cells were highly disrupted after the hyperthermia experiment, as evidenced from E-SEM images. Biocompatibility evaluation was performed using an alamar blue assay and hemolysis studies, and the results indicated good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility for the synthesized particles. In the current study, the potential of MnIO75TC as a negative MRI contrast agent and a hyperthermia agent was demonstrated to confirm its utility in the burgeoning field of theranostics. PMID:26595389
Soto-Aquino, D; Rosso, D; Rinaldi, C
2011-11-01
Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles that exhibit normal liquid behavior in the absence of magnetic fields but respond to imposed magnetic fields by changing their viscosity without loss of fluidity. The response of ferrofluids to constant shear and magnetic fields has received a lot of attention, but the response of ferrofluids to oscillatory shear remains largely unexplored. In the present work we used rotational Brownian dynamics to study the dynamic properties of ferrofluids with thermally blocked nanoparticles under oscillatory shear and constant magnetic fields. Comparisons between simulations and modeling using the ferrohydrodynamics equations were also made. Simulation results show that, for small rotational Péclet number, the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the complex viscosity depend on the magnitude of the magnetic field and frequency of the shear, following a Maxwell-like model with field-dependent viscosity and characteristic time equal to the field-dependent transverse magnetic relaxation time of the nanoparticles. Comparison between simulations and the numerical solution of the ferrohydrodynamic equations shows that the oscillatory rotational magnetoviscosity for an oscillating shear field obtained using the kinetic magnetization relaxation equation quantitatively agrees with simulations for a wide range of Péclet number and Langevin parameter but has quantitative deviations from the simulations at high values of the Langevin parameter. These predictions indicate an apparent elastic character to the rheology of these suspensions, even though we are considering the infinitely dilute limit in which there are negligible particle-particle interactions and, as such, chains do not form. Additionally, an asymptotic analytical solution of the ferrohydrodynamics equations, valid for Pe<2, was used to demonstrate that the Cox-Merz rule applies for dilute ferrofluids under conditions of small shear rates. At higher shear
Relativistic hydrodynamics on graphic cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhard, Jochen; Lindenstruth, Volker; Bleicher, Marcus
2013-02-01
We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.
Reciprocal relations in dissipationless hydrodynamics
Melnikovsky, L. A.
2014-12-15
Hidden symmetry in dissipationless terms of arbitrary hydrodynamics equations is recognized. We demonstrate that all fluxes are generated by a single function and derive conventional Euler equations using the proposed formalism.
Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamic fluctuations.
Colangeli, Matteo; Kröger, Martin; Ottinger, Hans Christian
2009-11-01
We apply the method of invariant manifolds to derive equations of generalized hydrodynamics from the linearized Boltzmann equation and determine exact transport coefficients, obeying Green-Kubo formulas. Numerical calculations are performed in the special case of Maxwell molecules. We investigate, through the comparison with experimental data and former approaches, the spectrum of density fluctuations and address the regime of finite Knudsen numbers and finite frequencies hydrodynamics. PMID:20364972
Eightfold Classification of Hydrodynamic Dissipation.
Haehl, Felix M; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund
2015-05-22
We provide a complete characterization of hydrodynamic transport consistent with the second law of thermodynamics at arbitrary orders in the gradient expansion. A key ingredient in facilitating this analysis is the notion of adiabatic hydrodynamics, which enables isolation of the genuinely dissipative parts of transport. We demonstrate that most transport is adiabatic. Furthermore, in the dissipative part, only terms at the leading order in gradient expansion are constrained to be sign definite by the second law (as has been derived before). PMID:26047219
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2011-09-01
This paper demonstrates the use of magnetically controlled microfluidic devices to produce monodispersed ferrofluid emulsions. By applying a uniform magnetic field on flow-focusing and T-junction configurations, the size of the ferrofluid emulsions can be actively controlled. The influences of the flow rates, the orientation, and the polarity of the magnetic field on the size of ferrofluid emulsions produced in both flow-focusing and T-junction configurations are compared and discussed.
Hemodynamics of a hydrodynamic injection
Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Yokoo, Takeshi; Suda, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Kenya; Liu, Dexi
2014-01-01
The hemodynamics during a hydrodynamic injection were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fluoroscopic imaging. The impacts of hydrodynamic (5 seconds) and slow (60 seconds) injections into the tail veins of mice were compared using 9% body weight of a phase-contrast medium. Hydrodynamically injected solution traveled to the heart and drew back to the hepatic veins (HV), which led to liver expansion and a trace amount of spillover into the portal vein (PV). The liver volumes peaked at 165.6 ± 13.3% and 165.5 ± 11.9% of the original liver volumes in the hydrodynamic and slow injections, respectively. Judging by the intensity of the CBCT images at the PV, HV, right atrium, liver parenchyma (LP), and the inferior vena cava (IVC) distal to the HV conjunction, the slow injection resulted in the higher intensity at PV than at LP. In contrast, a significantly higher intensity was observed in LP after hydrodynamic injection in comparison with that of PV, suggesting that the liver took up the iodine from the blood flow. These results suggest that the enlargement speed of the liver, rather than the expanded volume, primarily determines the efficiency of hydrodynamic delivery to the liver. PMID:26015971
A hybrid Godunov method for radiation hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekora, Michael D.; Stone, James M.
2010-09-01
From a mathematical perspective, radiation hydrodynamics can be thought of as a system of hyperbolic balance laws with dual multiscale behavior (multiscale behavior associated with the hyperbolic wave speeds as well as multiscale behavior associated with source term relaxation). With this outlook in mind, this paper presents a hybrid Godunov method for one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics that is uniformly well behaved from the photon free streaming (hyperbolic) limit through the weak equilibrium diffusion (parabolic) limit and to the strong equilibrium diffusion (hyperbolic) limit. Moreover, one finds that the technique preserves certain asymptotic limits. The method incorporates a backward Euler upwinding scheme for the radiation energy density Er and flux Fr as well as a modified Godunov scheme for the material density ρ, momentum density m, and energy density E. The backward Euler upwinding scheme is first-order accurate and uses an implicit HLLE flux function to temporally advance the radiation components according to the material flow scale. The modified Godunov scheme is second-order accurate and directly couples stiff source term effects to the hyperbolic structure of the system of balance laws. This Godunov technique is composed of a predictor step that is based on Duhamel's principle and a corrector step that is based on Picard iteration. The Godunov scheme is explicit on the material flow scale but is unsplit and fully couples matter and radiation without invoking a diffusion-type approximation for radiation hydrodynamics. This technique derives from earlier work by Miniati and Colella (2007) [41]. Numerical tests demonstrate that the method is stable, robust, and accurate across various parameter regimes.
Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rados, Novica
Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, O.; Benson, P. M.; Vinciguerra, S.; Meredith, P. G.
2005-12-01
Most crustal rocks are anisotropic. In volcanic areas, anisotropy primarily results due to preferred directions of microcracks as magma cools. This effect is, in turn, enhanced due to local stress fields during deposition. The combined effects of these processes may thus give rise to a complex anisotropic fabric. Such fabrics can play crucial roles when enhancing the formation of slip surfaces which can lead to sector collapses of volcanic edifices, as is the case of Stromboli volcano (Italy) which experienced 4 sector collapses in the past 13ka. However, the rapid analysis of anisotropic microcrack fabrics (in terms of magnitude and principal direction) remains non-trivial. Current methods range from time consuming microcrack analysis of thin sections to the preparation of oriented cores for elastic-wave velocity measurement. To further our understanding of how microcrack fabrics influence the bulk properties of volcanic basalt, we employ a novel method which rapidly evaluates the 3-D microcrack orientation using technique of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). First, we determine the rock matrix AMS (mAMS) using standard methods (via a Agico KLY-4 Kappabridge). Samples are then saturated with a magnetic ferrofluid, filling the microcrack network with a magnetically susceptible suspension of microscopic (10nm) magnetite particles. The AMS is then re-measured, with the matrix susceptibility values subtracted from these readings to yield the average 3-D pore space shape, size and orientation (pAMS). We describe the use of this method using basalt from Stromboli and comparing to a granite (Takidani) from the Japanese Alps in order to verify the technique and to investigate the relationship between the basalt microcrack geometry and field scale observation. For Takidani granite we find the structural anisotropy formed by the void space, as measured by pAMS, is well described by elastic wave velocity measurement; exhibiting anisotropy values of 19.1% and 7
Felicia, Leona J; Philip, John
2015-03-24
For many technological applications of ferrofluids, the magnetorheological properties require being precisely controlled. We study the effect of hydrophilic silica on the magnetorheology of an oil-based ferrofluid containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles of size ∼10 nm. We observe that the presence of silica nanoparticles lowers the yield stresses, viscoelastic moduli, and shear thinning behavior of the ferrofluid because of the weakening of dipolar interactions, which was evident from the observed lower yield stresses exponent (<2). The ferrofluid containing silica exhibits a dominant elastic behavior, a reduced hysteresis during the forward and reverse magnetic field sweeps, and a longer linear viscoelastic regime under nonlinear deformation. The Mason number plots at low shear rates and magnetic fields show deviations from the master curve in the presence of silica. The magnetic field induced microstructures, visualized using opto-magnetorheometer, showed columnar aggregate structures along the field directions, which are reoriented along the shear flow direction at high shear rates. The image analysis shows that the average thickness of the columnar aggregates in pure ferrofluid is much larger than that of the mixed system, which suggests that the intervening silica matrix hampers the zippering transition of columns at higher magnetic field and shear rates. Our results suggest that optimization of rheological properties of ferrofluids is possible by carefully adding suitable silica nanoparticles, which may find practical applications such as dynamic seals, heat transfer, sensors, and opto-fluidic devices, etc. PMID:25734232
Vegetation Hydrodynamics - Recent Developments and Future Challenges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepf, H. M.
2014-12-01
For over a century vegetation has been removed from channels and coastal zones to facilitate navigation and development. In recent decades, however, we have recognized the ecologic and economic benefits of aquatic vegetation. It buffers against coastal eutrophication, damps waves and coastal storm surge, provides habitat, inhibits bank erosion, and provides significant carbon storage. The management of watersheds and coastal zones has turned from vegetation removal to restoration. In the past 20 years, the study of vegetation hydrodynamics has accelerated to meet the need to understand feedbacks between vegetation, flow and sediment transport. This presentation will describe key features of vegetation hydrodynamics, first at the meadow scale and then at the scale of individual patches, examining how vegetation density and meadow (or patch) morphology impact flow, with subsequent implications for sediment fate. Finally, the talk highlights differences in turbulence generation between bare and vegetated beds that may limit the transfer of open channel sediment transport models to vegetated channels, creating the future challenge of defining sediment transport models appropriate for vegetated regions.
Multiscale temporal integrators for fluctuating hydrodynamics.
Delong, Steven; Sun, Yifei; Griffith, Boyce E; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Donev, Aleksandar
2014-12-01
Following on our previous work [S. Delong, B. E. Griffith, E. Vanden-Eijnden, and A. Donev, Phys. Rev. E 87, 033302 (2013)], we develop temporal integrators for solving Langevin stochastic differential equations that arise in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Our simple predictor-corrector schemes add fluctuations to standard second-order deterministic solvers in a way that maintains second-order weak accuracy for linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics. We construct a general class of schemes and recommend two specific schemes: an explicit midpoint method and an implicit trapezoidal method. We also construct predictor-corrector methods for integrating the overdamped limit of systems of equations with a fast and slow variable in the limit of infinite separation of the fast and slow time scales. We propose using random finite differences to approximate some of the stochastic drift terms that arise because of the kinetic multiplicative noise in the limiting dynamics. We illustrate our integrators on two applications involving the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids. We first study the development of giant fluctuations in recent experiments performed in microgravity using an overdamped integrator. We then include the effects of gravity and find that we also need to include the effects of fluid inertia, which affects the dynamics of the concentration fluctuations greatly at small wave numbers. PMID:25615227
Polarized seismic and solitary waves run-up at the sea bed
Dennis, L. C.C.; Zainal, A. A.; Faisal, S. Y.
2012-09-26
The polarization effects in hydrodynamics are studied. Hydrodynamic equation for the nonlinear wave is used along with the polarized solitary waves and seismic waves act as initial waves. The model is then solved by Fourier spectral and Runge-Kutta 4 methods, and the surface plot is drawn. The output demonstrates the inundation behaviors. Consequently, the polarized seismic waves along with the polarized solitary waves tend to generate dissimilar inundation which is more disastrous.
The hydrodynamics of water strider locomotion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, David L.; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.
2003-08-01
Water striders Gerridae are insects of characteristic length 1cm and weight 10 dynes that reside on the surface of ponds, rivers, and the open ocean. Their weight is supported by the surface tension force generated by curvature of the free surface, and they propel themselves by driving their central pair of hydrophobic legs in a sculling motion. Previous investigators have assumed that the hydrodynamic propulsion of the water strider relies on momentum transfer by surface waves. This assumption leads to Denny's paradox: infant water striders, whose legs are too slow to generate waves, should be incapable of propelling themselves along the surface. We here resolve this paradox through reporting the results of high-speed video and particle-tracking studies. Experiments reveal that the strider transfers momentum to the underlying fluid not primarily through capillary waves, but rather through hemispherical vortices shed by its driving legs. This insight guided us in constructing a self-contained mechanical water strider whose means of propulsion is analogous to that of its natural counterpart.
A new hydrodynamic analysis of double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hora, Heinrich
1987-01-01
A genuine two-fluid model of plasmas with collisions permits the calculation of dynamic (not necessarily static) electric fields and double layers inside of plasmas including oscillations and damping. For the first time a macroscopic model for coupling of electromagnetic and Langmuir waves was achieved with realistic damping. Starting points were laser-produced plasmas showing very high dynamic electric fields in nonlinear force-produced cavitous and inverted double layers in agreement with experiments. Applications for any inhomogeneous plasma as in laboratory or in astrophysical plasmas can then be followed up by a transparent hydrodynamic description. Results are the rotation of plasmas in magnetic fields and a new second harmonic resonance, explanation of the measured inverted double layers, explanation of the observed density-independent, second harmonics emission from laser-produced plasmas, and a laser acceleration scheme by the very high fields of the double layers.
Hydrodynamic modelling of small upland lakes under strong wind forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.
2012-04-01
Small lakes (Area < 1 km2) represent 46.3% of the total lake surface globally and constitute an important source of water supply. Lakes also provide an important sedimentary archive of environmental and climate changes and ecosystem function. Hydrodynamic controls on the transport and distribution of lake sediments, and also seasonal variations in thermal structure due to solar radiation, precipitation, evaporation and mixing and the complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind are not very well understood. The work presented here analyses hydrodynamic motions present in small upland lakes due to circulation and internal scale waves, and their linkages with the distribution of bottom sediment accumulation in the lake. For purpose, a 3D hydrodynamic is calibrated and implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. The model, based around the FVCOM open source community model code, resolves the Navier-Stokes equations using a 3D unstructured mesh and a finite volume scheme. The model is forced by meteorological boundary conditions. Improvements made to the FVCOM code include a new graphical user interface to pre- and post process the model input and results respectively, and a JONSWAT wave model to include the effects of wind-wave induced bottom stresses on lake sediment dynamics. Modelled internal scale waves are validated against summer temperature measurements acquired from a thermistor chain deployed at the deepest part of the lake. Seiche motions were validated using data recorded by high-frequency level sensors around the lake margins, and the velocity field and the circulation patterns were validated using the data recorded by an ADCP and GPS drifters. The model is shown to reproduce the lake hydrodynamics and reveals well-developed seiches at different frequencies superimposed on wind-driven circulation patterns that appear to control the distribution of bottom sediments in this small
Analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics
Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Kenneth
2014-12-17
To help guide our intuition, summarize important features, and point out essential elements, we review the analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics and exhibit the full evolution of the dynamics from the very beginning to subsequent times. Special emphasis is placed on the matching and the interplay between the Khalatnikov solution and the Riemann simple wave solution at the earliest times and in the edge regions at later times.
Analytical Solutions of Landau (1+1)-Dimensional Hydrodynamics
Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read, Jr, Kenneth F
2014-01-01
To help guide our intuition, summarize important features, and point out essential elements, we review the analytical solutions of Landau (1+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics and exhibit the full evolution of the dynamics from the very beginning to subsequent times. Special emphasis is placed on the matching and the interplay between the Khalatnikov solution and the Riemann simple wave solution at the earliest times and in the edge regions at later times.
Investigation of Hydrodynamic Behavior in Cyclone Separators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Wen-Hsin
This work concerns the investigation of hydrodynamic instability and instability induced wave formation in a cyclone. The existence of instability and the nature of the wave motion have been studied by a combined use of various experimental methods--such as flow visualization, pressure drop measurement, and flow spectral analysis- -over a range of Reynolds number. The flow visualization revealed a radial oscillatory vortex along the circular fluid motion with wave numbers of 4 at Re equal to 500. The pressure drop data across a cyclone measured by a pressure transducer shows two distinctive characteristics which correspond to two different flow patterns. The transition regime of these two patterns showed the dual pressure drop state with random alternation. The flow spectral analysis, by using hot-wire anemometry and FFT analyzer, confirmed that these two states correspond to the wave motion (periodic in time domain) and transition to turbulence (non-periodic with broad band spectrum), respectively. Experimental results indicate that the cyclone flow experiences four flow regimes, namely: stationary flow (0 < Re < 200), periodic motion with specific frequencies (200 < 1000), dual pressure drop state (1000 < Re < 2000), and non-periodic pre-turbulence flow (Re > 2000). The theoretical analysis of the onset of instability induced wave motion is studied by linear theory. The criterion of destabilization of the flow involves the pressure profile, angular velocity profile in a cyclone, and Reynolds number as well. This theory has a good agreement with the experimental observations. The effect of the wave components on the particle collection in a cyclone is then evaluated by a numerical method. For particles with 8 micron in diameter, the collection efficiency can be improved up to 30% in the wave motion compared with that of pure circular motion. The mechanism of the dual state, which is the transition from the wave motion to non-periodic motion, is similar to that of
Hydrodynamics of coalescing binary neutron stars: Ellipsoidal treatment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lai, Dong; Shapiro, Stuart L.
1995-01-01
We employ an approximate treatment of dissipative hydrodynamics in three dimensions to study the coalescence of binary neutron stars driven by the emission of gravitational waves. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids obeying a polytropic equation of state; all internal fluid velocities are assumed to be linear functions of the coordinates. The hydrodynamics equations then reduce to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes of the ellipsoids, the internal velocity parameters, and the binary orbital parameters. Gravitational radiation reaction and viscous dissipation are both incorporated. We set up exact initial binary equilibrium configurations and follow the transition from the quasi-static, secular decay of the orbit at large separation to the rapid dynamical evolution of the configurations just prior to contact. A hydrodynamical instability resulting from tidal interactions significantly accelerates the coalescence at small separation, leading to appreciable radial infall velocity and tidal lag angles near contact. This behavior is reflected in the gravitational waveforms and may be observable by gravitational wave detectors under construction. In cases where the neutron stars have spins which are not aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the spin-induced quadrupole moment can lead to precession of the orbital plane and therefore modulation of the gravitational wave amplitude even at large orbital radius. However, the amplitude of the modulation is small for typical neutron star binaries with spins much smaller than the orbital angular momentum.
Hydrodynamic Stability of Liquid-Propellant Combustion: Landau's Problem Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margolis, S. B.
2001-01-01
Hydrodynamic, or Landau, instability in combustion is typically associated with the onset of wrinkling of a flame surface, corresponding to the formation of steady cellular structures as the stability threshold is crossed. As its name suggests, it stems from hydrodynamic effects connected with thermal expansion across the reaction region. In the context of liquid-propellant combustion, the classical models that originally predicted this phenomenon have been extended to include the important effects that arise from a dynamic dependence of the burning rate on the local pressure and temperature fields. Thus, the onset of Landau instability has now been shown to occur for sufficiently small negative values of the pressure sensitivity of the burning rate, significantly generalizing previous classical results for this problem that assumed a constant normal burning rate. It has also been shown that the onset of instability occurs for decreasing values of the disturbance wave number as the gravitational-acceleration parameter decreases. Consequently, in an appropriate weak-gravity limit, Landau instability becomes a long-wave phenomena associated with the formation of large cells on the liquid-propellant surface. Additionally, a pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability has been shown to occur as well, corresponding to the onset of temporal oscillations in the location of the liquid/gas interface. This instability occurs for sufficiently large negative values of the pressure sensitivity, and is enhanced by increasing values of the burning-rate temperature sensitivity. It is further shown that for sufficiently small values of this parameter, there exists a stable range of pressure sensitivities for steady, planar burning such that the classical cellular form of hydrodynamic instability and the more recent pulsating form of hydrodynamic instability can each occur as the corresponding stability threshold is crossed. For larger thermal sensitivities, however, the pulsating
Effect of Second-Order Hydrodynamics on a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine
Roald, L.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.
2014-05-01
The design of offshore floating wind turbines uses design codes that can simulate the entire coupled system behavior. At the present, most codes include only first-order hydrodynamics, which induce forces and motions varying with the same frequency as the incident waves. Effects due to second- and higher-order hydrodynamics are often ignored in the offshore industry, because the forces induced typically are smaller than the first-order forces. In this report, first- and second-order hydrodynamic analysis used in the offshore oil and gas industry is applied to two different wind turbine concepts--a spar and a tension leg platform.
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Hydrodynamic interactions in protein folding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon
2009-03-01
We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HIs facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HIs make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HIs are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations around the native state.
Hydrodynamic interactions in protein folding.
Cieplak, Marek; Niewieczerzał, Szymon
2009-03-28
We incorporate hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) in a coarse-grained and structure-based model of proteins by employing the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic tensor. We study several small proteins and demonstrate that HIs facilitate folding. We also study HIV-1 protease and show that HIs make the flap closing dynamics faster. The HIs are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state even though they have no impact on same time characteristics of the structure fluctuations around the native state. PMID:19334888
Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazilevs, Y.; Akkerman, I.; Benson, D. J.; Scovazzi, G.; Shashkov, M. J.
2013-06-01
Isogeometric analysis of Lagrangian shock hydrodynamics is proposed. The Euler equations of compressible hydrodynamics in the weak form are discretized using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in space. The discretization has all the advantages of a higher-order method, with the additional benefits of exact symmetry preservation and better per-degree-of-freedom accuracy. An explicit, second-order accurate time integration procedure, which conserves total energy, is developed and employed to advance the equations in time. The performance of the method is examined on a set of standard 2D and 3D benchmark examples, where good quality of the computational results is attained.
Transient magneto-optic effects in ferrofluid-filled microstructured fibers in pulsed magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agruzov, Petr M.; Pleshakov, Ivan V.; Bibik, Efim E.; Stepanov, Serguei I.; Shamrai, Alexander V.
2015-09-01
Transient magneto-optic effects in ferrofluid-filled microstructured optical fibers are considered. Magneto-optic responses of two types, i.e., an even and an odd one, were observed in the longitudinal geometry of an applied pulsed magnetic field for the kerosene-based Fe3O4 ferrofluid with ∼8 \\text{nm} nanoparticles. For the first time a submicrosecond response time limited by the rise time of the applied field pulse (∼0.35 μ \\text{s}) was demonstrated for the odd magneto-optic effect in an all-fiber system, and responses of the even and odd magneto-optic effects were separated. A strong influence of the pulse width on the relaxation time of the even response is attributed to the formation of particle aggregates.
Temperature Dependence of Particle Size Distribution in Transformer Oil-Based Ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Józefczak, Arkadiusz; Hornowski, Tomasz; Skumiel, Andrzej
2011-04-01
The temperature dependence of the particle size distribution (PSD) of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid was studied using an ultrasound method. The measurements of the ultrasound velocity and attenuation were carried out in the absence of an external magnetic field as a function of the volume concentration of magnetite particles at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 80 °C. The experimental results of ultrasound measurements were analyzed within the framework of the Vinogradov-Isakovich theory which takes into account contributions to acoustical parameters due to friction and heat exchange between magnetic particles and the surrounding carrier liquid. From the best fit of the experimental results and theoretical predictions, the parameters characterizing the PSD at different temperatures were determined. In order to analyze ultrasonic data, the density and viscosity of ferrofluid samples and the transformer oil were also measured.
Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel.
Gul, Aaiza; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Arshad
2015-01-01
This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work. PMID:26550837
Ejection of ferrofluid grains using nonlinear acoustic impulses[emdash] A particle dynamical study
Sen, S.; Manciu, M.; Manciu, F.S. )
1999-09-01
We consider a model dilute ferrofluid with the grains suspended in water (e.g.,[gamma]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and subject the system to a strong, homogeneous magnetic field directed perpendicular to the surface such that there is chain formation along the field direction. We show that an appropriate impulse initiated at the base of the container might travel as a nondispersive soliton pulse with sufficient energy to overcome surface tension and eject the ferrofluid grain nearest to the liquid[endash]air interface. The proposed mechanism, if successfully realized in the laboratory, could help design a nozzle-free, ink-jet printer of unparalleled resolution. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Single-mode instability of a ferrofluid-mercury interface under a nonuniform magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chamkor; Das, Arup K.; Das, Prasanta K.
2016-07-01
This work reports an experimental and a numerical study of the interfacial instability in a mercury-ferrofluid system caused by a spatially nonuniform magnetic field against the action of gravity and interfacial tension. The interface evolution is observed to be continuous till its movement is hindered by a physical boundary. In contrast to the behavior of the ferrofluid interface under uniform field, we noted the instability growth to be monotonic under a field gradient. A steepness in the growth curve is noticed during the later stages of the instability, indicating a high magnitude of the growth velocities. Some unique phenomena, such as similarity of the growth at the initial stage, a slope transition in the growth curve at a later stage, and wrapping and pinning of the interface are observed, both in experiments and simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasoiu, Maria; Kuklin, Alexander
2012-03-01
Separate determination of the nuclear and magnetic contributions to the scattering intensity by means of a contrast variation method applied in a small angle neutron scattering experiment of nonpolarized neutrons in ferrofluids in early 90 's at the MURN instrument is reviewed. The nuclear scattering contribution gives the features of the colloidal particle dimensions, surfactant shell structure and the solvent degree penetration to the macromolecular layer. The magnetic scattering part is compatible to the models where is supposed that the particle surface has a nonmagnetic layer. Details on experimental "Grabcev method" in obtaining separate nuclear and magnetic contributions to the small angle neutron scattering intensity of unpolarized neutrons are emphasized for the case of a high quality ultrastabile benzene-based ferrofluid with magnetite nanoparticles.
Width of a ferrofluid finger: hysteresis and a double energy minimum.
Hillier, Narelle J; Jackson, David P
2007-03-01
We study a ferrofluid in a horizontal Hele-Shaw geometry subjected to a vertical magnetic field. Specifically, we calculate the energy of a single ferrofluid finger using an idealized model for the finger. By minimizing this energy, we find the preferred finger width as a function of the applied field. Our model predicts a first order transition as the fluid abruptly transforms from a circular drop to a finite finger. This behavior arises because of a double energy minimum that yields two different stable configurations for the system. Interestingly, this system exhibits hysteresis as the circle-to-finger (increasing field) transition occurs at a different applied field than the finger-to-circle (decreasing field) transition. We carry out a simple experiment and observe good overall agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:17500798
The magnetic assembly of polymer colloids in a ferrofluid and its display applications.
Liu, Jing; Mao, Yiwu; Ge, Jianping
2012-03-01
Nonmagnetic polymer colloids have been assembled into colloidal photonic crystals in a ferrofluid by applying an external magnetic field based on the dipole-dipole interactions of "magnetic holes". The photonic crystal disassembles immediately when the magnetic field is removed. The mechanism of assembly can be explained by two simultaneous processes: phase separation and colloidal assembly. In this work, increasing the size of the building blocks still produces colorful photonic crystals due to their 2nd order diffraction. With a larger building block, the magnetic response between the polymer colloids is greatly enhanced so that an instant and reversible assembly/disassembly can be realized in a much weaker magnetic field and lower ferrofluid concentration. Based on these investigations, a magnetically controlled photonic display unit has been fabricated, which works in a weak magnetic field, has stable reflection signals and possesses fast and reversible on/off switching of reflections. PMID:22297654
Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Karim; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa
2014-11-01
Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.
Field induced transmission of light in ionic ferrofluids of tunable viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian; Liu, Xiaodong; Lin, Yueqiang; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Ma, Xiaojuan; Huang, Yan
2004-12-01
The transmission of light through ionic ferrofluids, in which the viscosity of the carrier liquid can be modulated, is measured under an applied magnetic field. The experimental results show that the transmission intensity would not vary monotonously with time when an external magnetic field is applied. The intensity can get to a stable value if the duration for which the magnetic field applied is long enough. The relaxation time of the variation of the light intensity with time is proportional to the viscosity of the carrier liquid and inversely proportional to the strength of the field. The character of the transmitted light is explained according to a model of microstructured transition relaxing in ferrofluids under an applied magnetic field.
Active surfaces: Ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces for active manipulation of droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, Karim S.; Mahmoudi, Seyed Reza; Abu-dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K.
2014-07-01
Droplet manipulation and mobility on non-wetting surfaces is of practical importance for diverse applications ranging from micro-fluidic devices, anti-icing, dropwise condensation, and biomedical devices. The use of active external fields has been explored via electric, acoustic, and vibrational, yet moving highly conductive and viscous fluids remains a challenge. Magnetic fields have been used for droplet manipulation; however, usually, the fluid is functionalized to be magnetic, and requires enormous fields of superconducting magnets when transitioning to diamagnetic materials such as water. Here we present a class of active surfaces by stably impregnating active fluids such as ferrofluids into a textured surface. Droplets on such ferrofluid-impregnated surfaces have extremely low hysteresis and high mobility such that they can be propelled by applying relatively low magnetic fields. Our surface is able to manipulate a variety of materials including diamagnetic, conductive and highly viscous fluids, and additionally solid particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherief, Wahid; Avenas, Yvan; Ferrouillat, Sébastien; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Jossic, Laurent; Berard, Jean; Petit, Mickael
2015-07-01
Applying a magnetic field on a ferrofluid flow induces a large increase of the convective heat transfer coefficient. In this paper, the thermal-hydraulic behaviors of two commercial ferrofluids are compared. The variations of both the pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficient due to the magnetic field are measured in the following conditions: square duct, laminar flow and uniform wall heat flux. The square section with two insulated walls allows for the characterization of the effect of the magnetic field direction. The experimental results show that the heat transfer is better enhanced when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. In the best case, the local heat transfer coefficient increase is about 75%. On the contrary, another experimental setup shows no enhancement of thermal conductivity when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the heat flux. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek
Rheological investigations on the theoretical predicted “Poisoning” effect in bidisperse ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siebert, E.; Dupuis, V.; Neveu, S.; Odenbach, S.
2015-01-01
Interparticle interactions in ferrofluids especially the influence of small particles on the agglomeration behaviour of large particles were the topic of numerous theoretical predictions and simulations as well as of experimental investigations. In this context the "Poisoning" effect describes the decrease of the magnetoviscous effect in the presence of small particles in a bidisperse model fluid. In order to examine this effect rheological experiments have been carried out by means of a specially designed rheometer, which allows measurements under the influence of an applied magnetic field. We were able to synthesize ferrofluids with a narrow particle size distribution containing only small or large cobalt ferrite nanoparticles, which were mixed to receive various bidisperse fluid samples. With these fluids changes of the viscous behaviour in a magnetic field have been measured and compared according to their individual compositions.
Modeling of retardance in ferrofluid with Taguchi-based multiple regression analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jing-Fung; Wu, Jyh-Shyang; Sheu, Jer-Jia
2015-03-01
The citric acid (CA) coated Fe3O4 ferrofluids are prepared by a co-precipitation method and the magneto-optical retardance property is measured by a Stokes polarimeter. Optimization and multiple regression of retardance in ferrofluids are executed by combining Taguchi method and Excel. From the nine tests for four parameters, including pH of suspension, molar ratio of CA to Fe3O4, volume of CA, and coating temperature, influence sequence and excellent program are found. Multiple regression analysis and F-test on the significance of regression equation are performed. It is found that the model F value is much larger than Fcritical and significance level P <0.0001. So it can be concluded that the regression model has statistically significant predictive ability. Substituting excellent program into equation, retardance is obtained as 32.703°, higher than the highest value in tests by 11.4%.
Ferrofluid-based Diamagnetic Particle Separation in U-shaped Microchannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yilong; Xuan, Xiangchun
We demonstrate in this talk a continuous-flow sheath-free separation method of diamagnetic particles in ferrofluids through U-shaped microchannels. Due to the action of a size-dependent magnetic force, diamagnetic particles are focused into a single stream in the inlet branch of the U-turn and then continuously separated into two streams in its outlet branch. We also develop a 3D numerical model to predict and understand the diamagnetic particle transport during the separation process. The numerical predictions are found to agree well with the experimental observations in a systematic study of multiple parameter effects including ferrofluid flow rate, concentration and magnet-channel distance. This work was supported by NSF.
Ferrofluid-based optofluidic switch using femtosecond laser-micromachined waveguides.
Gu, Yu; Bragheri, Francesca; Valentino, Gianna; Morris, Karl; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto
2015-02-20
We present a portable optofluidic switch using a ferrofluid plug in a commercially produced microfluidic chip with waveguides added via femtosecond laser micromachining (FLM). FLM enabled the one-step fabrication of highly reproducible, perfectly aligned integrated waveguides orthogonally crossing an existing microfluidic channel. In the "ON" state for each output, the ferrofluid plug is outside the intersection and input light arrives at the output with relatively small loss. In the "OFF" state, the plug is inside the intersection and the input light is absorbed. The same plug is used to turn ON and OFF several parallel waveguides with contrast ratios of 22 dB or better. In addition, the plug is driven periodically using an electromagnet combined with a permanent magnet for frequency-dependent characterization. Photodiode data show high contrast up to 50 Hz and linear frequency response up to 1 KHz. PMID:25968208
Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel
Gul, Aaiza; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan; Khalid, Asma; Khan, Arshad
2015-01-01
This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3) aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work. PMID:26550837
Single-mode instability of a ferrofluid-mercury interface under a nonuniform magnetic field.
Singh, Chamkor; Das, Arup K; Das, Prasanta K
2016-07-01
This work reports an experimental and a numerical study of the interfacial instability in a mercury-ferrofluid system caused by a spatially nonuniform magnetic field against the action of gravity and interfacial tension. The interface evolution is observed to be continuous till its movement is hindered by a physical boundary. In contrast to the behavior of the ferrofluid interface under uniform field, we noted the instability growth to be monotonic under a field gradient. A steepness in the growth curve is noticed during the later stages of the instability, indicating a high magnitude of the growth velocities. Some unique phenomena, such as similarity of the growth at the initial stage, a slope transition in the growth curve at a later stage, and wrapping and pinning of the interface are observed, both in experiments and simulations. PMID:27575198
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pramana, A. A.; Abdassah, D.; Rachmat, S.; Mikrajuddin, A.
2010-10-01
Nano-ferrofluid and graphite-fluid are proposed to be used as stimulants for heavy oil recovery processes using electromagnetic induction. The heat generation in the stimulants will be used for reducing the viscosity of heavy oil. The temperature increase of the stimulants are observed with the presence of electromagnetic induction. These increments are better compared to those of the varying concentration of salt water (brine) usually exist in the oil reservoir.
Gerth-Noritzsch, M; Borin, D Yu; Odenbach, S
2011-08-31
The aim of this work has been the investigation of the anisotropy of the viscosity of a ferrofluid with magnetically interacting particles which are able to form structures in an applied magnetic field. The results of the experiments show a significant deviation from the case of a fluid without strong dipolar interactions. Furthermore, we have determined the dependence of the ratio of the viscosity coefficients on shear rate providing an insight into the microstructural reasons for the observed effects. PMID:21841240
Bruners, Philipp; Hodenius, Michael; Baumann, Martin; Oversohl, Jessica; Günther, Rolf W; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique. PMID:18592306
Ferrofluidity in a Two-Component Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate
Saito, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Ueda, Masahito
2009-06-12
It is shown that the interface in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with a dipole-dipole interaction spontaneously develops patterns similar to those formed in a ferrofluid. Hexagonal, labyrinthine, solitonlike structures, and hysteretic behavior are numerically demonstrated. Superflow is found to circulate around the hexagonal pattern at rest, offering evidence of supersolidity. The system sustains persistent current with a vortex line pinned by the hexagonal pattern. These phenomena may be realized using a {sup 52}Cr BEC.
Bruners, Philipp Hodenius, Michael Baumann, Martin Oversohl, Jessica; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.
2008-11-15
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique.
Mandel, K; Straßer, M; Granath, T; Dembski, S; Sextl, G
2015-02-18
A process is reported to obtain a nanoparticle sol from co-precipitated iron oxide particles without using any surfactant. The sol - a true ferrofluid - is not only stable over a wide range of pH but also in physiological solutions. This is a decisive step towards biomedical applications where nanoparticle agglomeration could so far only be prevented by using unwanted surfactants. PMID:25580829
What Controls the Hydrodynamics of the Central Congo River?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Loughlin, F.; Bates, P. D.
2014-12-01
Despite being the second largest river basin in the world, with a drainage area greater than 3.7 million square kilometres, little is known about the hydraulics of the Congo River. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to a mixture of conflicts and the difficulty of accessing existing data. We present results of studies which have focused primarily on the middle reach of the Congo River, located between Kisangani and Kinshasa, and its six main tributaries (Kasai, Ubangai, Sangha, Ruki, Lulonga and Lomami rivers). Through a combination of remotely sensed datasets and a hydrodynamic model we investigated what factors control the hydrodynamics of the middle reach. From the analysis of the remotely sensed datasets, we discover that variability in river width of the middle reach of the Congo is large and cannot be represented by empirical equations which relate channel geometry to basin area and discharge. Water surface slopes vary from 3.5 cm/km to 9 cm/km, which is far more than previous studies suggest. The remote datasets indicate that there exist 5 large constrictions in the river width which may result in backwater affecting between 11 and 33 percent of middle reach at low and high water respectively. These results were corroborated by the hydrodynamic model. In fact, when all constrictions caused by a narrowing in width of 1 km or more are considered, water levels along 43 percent of the middle reach change by at least 0.5 m. Using the hydrodynamic model we also investigated the importance of the wetlands to the attenuation of the flood wave through the system. Initial results suggest that for the Congo River, floodplains have far more impact on the peak magnitude than the timing of the flood wave. When the model was run with no floodplain interactions an increase in the magnitude of flood peak was observed, with the timing of the waves being consistent with observed measurements.
A method for measuring the Néel relaxation time in a frozen ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tackett, Ronald J.; Thakur, Jagdish; Mosher, Nathaniel; Perkins-Harbin, Emily; Kumon, Ronald E.; Wang, Lihua; Rablau, Corneliu; Vaishnava, Prem P.
2015-08-01
We report a novel method of determining the average Néel relaxation time and its temperature dependence by calculating derivatives of the measured time dependence of temperature for a frozen ferrofluid exposed to an alternating magnetic field. The ferrofluid, composed of dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (diameter 13.7 nm ± 4.7 nm), was synthesized via wet chemical precipitation and characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. An alternating magnetic field of constant amplitude ( H 0 = 20 kA/m) driven at frequencies of 171 kHz, 232 kHz, and 343 kHz was used to determine the temperature dependent magnetic energy absorption rate in the temperature range from 160 K to 210 K. We found that the specific absorption rate of the ferrofluid decreased monotonically with temperature over this range at the given frequencies. From these measured data, we determined the temperature dependence of the Néel relaxation time and estimate a room-temperature magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant of 40 kJ/m3, in agreement with previously published results.
Zohrabi, Parvin; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Mahdi; Hashemi, Beshare
2016-11-01
A liquid-phase microextraction based on application of supramolecular solvent as a carrier for ferrofluid has been developed for the extraction and determination of three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). The ferrofluid was produced from combination of oleic acid coated magnetic particles and supramolecular solvent as the extractant solvent. Ferrofluid can be attracted by a magnet, and no centrifugation step was needed for phase separation. A response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used for efficient optimization of the main variables in the extraction procedure. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curves found to be linear in the range of 0.5-400µgL(-1) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9967 to 0.9984. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) for 100 and 200µgL(-1) of each pesticides were in the range of 2.0-5.3% and 2.6-5.7%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3), ranged from 0.1 to 0.35μgL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in water and fruit juice samples. PMID:27591622
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexiou, Ch.; Schmid, R.; Jurgons, R.; Bergemann, Ch.; Arnold, W.; Parak, F.G.
The difference between success or failure of chemotherapy depends not only on the drug itself but also on how it is delivered to its target. Biocompatible ferrofluids (FF) are paramagnetic nanoparticles, that may be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents in locoregional tumor therapy, called "magnetic drug targeting". Bound to medical drugs, such magnetic nanoparticles can be enriched in a desired body compartment (tumor) using an external magnetic field, which is focused on the area of the tumor. Through this form of target directed drug application, one attempts to concentrate a pharmacological agent at its site of action in order to minimize unwanted side effects in the organism and to increase its locoregional effectiveness. Tumor bearing rabbits (VX2 squamous cell carcinoma) in the area of the hind limb, were treated by a single intra-arterial injection (A. femoralis) of mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids (FF-MTX), while focusing an external magnetic field (1.7 Tesla) onto the tumor for 60 minutes. Complete tumor remissions could be achieved in these animals in a dose related manner (20% and 50% of the systemic dose of mitoxantrone), without any negative side effects, like e.g. leucocytopenia, alopecia or gastrointestinal disorders. The strong and specific therapeutic efficacy in tumor treatment with mitoxantrone bound ferrofluids may indicate that this system could be used as a delivery system for anticancer agents, like radionuclids, cancer-specific antibodies, anti-angiogenetic factors, genes etc.
A novel accelerometer based on the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jie; Chen, Yibiao; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Tianqi; Li, Decai
2016-09-01
In this paper, a novel accelerometer exploiting the first kind of ferrofluid levitation principle is presented. The device consists of a piston-shaped container filled with ferrofluid surrounding a nonmagnetic insulating rod, which has the same shape as the container and is regarded as an inertial mass. Two annular magnets outside the container are used to create a non-uniform magnetic field which generates a powerful restoring force acting on the nonmagnetic rod. Under the influence of the external acceleration, two coils can detect the change of the volume distribution of the ferrofluid and transmit the voltage signal, which is proportional to the displacement of the nonmagnetic rod. The determination of the working range, linearity and sensitivity depends on the restoring force, thus these factors affecting the restoring force are sufficiently investigated by calculation and experiment. Furthermore, the comparison between numerical calculations and experimental measurements shows a good agreement. The static characteristics of the accelerometer are obtained by using an optimized structure.
Ferrofluid-based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yang; Yuan, Lei; Hua, Liwei; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Jincheng; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hai
2016-02-01
Optofluid system has been more and more attractive in optical sensing applications such as chemical and biological analysis as it incorporates the unique features from both integrated optics and microfluidics. In recent years, various optofluid based structures have been investigated in/on an optical fiber platform which is referred to as "lab in/on a fiber". Among those integrated structures, femto-second laser micromaching technique plays an important role due to its high precision fabrication, flexible design, 3D capability, and compatible with other methods. Here we present a ferrofluid based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation .With the help of fs laser micromaching technique, a micro-reservoir made by capillary tube assembled in a single mode optical fiber could be fabricated. The micro-reservoir functions as a fiber inline Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity which is filled by ferrofluid liquid. The refractive index of the ferrofluid varies as the surrounding magnetic field strength changes, which can be optically probed by the FP interferometer. A fringe visibility of up to 30 dB can be achieved with a detection limit of around 0.4 Gausses. Due to the fabrication, micro-reservoirs can be assembled with optical fiber and distinguished through a microwave-photonic interrogation system. A quasi-distributed magnetic field sensing application has been demonstrated with a high spatial resolution of around 10 cm.
Thermal Marangoni instability and magnetic pressure for a thin ferrofluid layer.
Hennenberg, Marcel; Slavtchev, Slavtcho; Weyssow, Boris
2009-04-01
We study the linear coupling between the Marangoni and Cowley-Rosensweig instabilities for a thin layer of ferrofluid subjected to a temperature gradient and a magnetic field. Both are perpendicular to the reference horizontal boundaries, one of which is a rigid plate, while the other is a free surface remaining flat as long as the magnetic field is smaller than the critical value of the onset of the static isothermal Cowley-Rosensweig instability. Our study considers at first a ferrofluid layer resting on the rigid border. In the stationary case, when heating is directed from the rigid side, a magnetic field, smaller than the Cowley-Rosensweig critical one, can induce a new pattern: the critical Marangoni number is much lower than in the nonmagnetic undeformable case, for a dimensionless wavenumber of O(square root Bo) less than 1.992, its Newtonian classical value. When heating from the gaseous phase, an oscillatory marginal case exists theoretically, but for unphysical conditions. We consider also the case when the ferrofluid is hanging down from the rigid side. Only the wavelength critical value of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that separates a stable region from an unstable one changes. PMID:19426330
Mériguet, G; Jardat, M; Turq, P
2004-09-22
We present Brownian dynamics simulations of real charge-stabilized ferrofluids, which are stable colloidal dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles, with and without the presence of an external magnetic field. The colloidal suspensions are treated as collections of monodisperse spherical particles, bearing point dipoles at their centers and undergoing translational and rotational Brownian motions. The overall repulsive isotropic interactions between particles, governed by electrostatic repulsions, are taken into account by a one-component effective pair interaction potential. The potential parameters are fitted in order that computed structure factors are close to the experimental ones. Two samples of ferrofluid differing by the particle diameter and consequently by the intensity of the magnetic interaction are considered here. The magnetization and birefringence curves are computed: a deviation from the ideal Langevin behaviors is observed if the dipolar moment of particles is sufficiently large. Structure factors are also computed from simulations with and without an applied magnetic field H: the microstructure of the repulsive ferrofluid becomes anisotropic under H. Even our simple modeling of the suspension allows us to account for the main experimental features: an increase of the peak intensity is observed in the direction perpendicular to the field whereas the peak intensity decreases in the direction parallel to the field. PMID:15367036
Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun
2015-01-01
Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles. PMID:26221197
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prodanovic, M.; Soares, F.; Huh, C.
2014-12-01
Ferrofluid is a stable dispersion of paramagnetic nanosize particles in a liquid carrier which are magnetized in the presence of magnetic field. Functionalized coating and small size of nanoparticles allows them to flow through porous media without significantly compromising permeability and with little retention. We numerically and experimentally investigate the potential of ferrofluid in mobilizing trapped non-wetting phase. Numerical method is based on a coupled level set model for two-phase flow and an immersed interface method for finding magnetic field strength, and provides the equilibrium configuration of an oleic (non-wetting) phase inside some pore geometry in the presence of dispersed excitable nanoparticles in surrounding water phase. The magnetic pressures near fluid-fluid interface depend locally on the magnetic field intensity and direction, which in turn depend on the fluid configuration. Interfaces represent magnetic permeability discontinuities and hence cause disturbances in the spatial distribution of the magnetic field. Experiments are conducted in micromodels with high pore-to-throat aspect size ratio. Both numerical and experimental results show that stresses produced by the magnetization of ferrofluids can help overcome strong capillary pressures and displace trapped ganglia in the presence of additional mobilizing force such as increased fluid flux or surfactant injection.
Low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids: The influence of polydispersity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, Alexey O.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.
2015-01-01
In this paper we address the question of theoretical explanation of extremely high low-temperature initial magnetic susceptibility of concentrated ferrofluids. These laboratory synthesized samples [A.F. Pshenichnikov, A.V. Lebedev, J. Chem. Phys. 121(11) (2004) 5455; Colloid J. 67(2) (2005) 189] demonstrated the record-breaking values χ ~ 120 - 150 at temperatures ~ 230-240 K. The existing models predict such high susceptibility only under the assumption of unreasonably large dipolar coupling constant, which is out of the range of applicability. Here we calculate the second virial contribution to susceptibility for polydisperse ferrofluid, modeled by the dipolar hard sphere fluid. In the resulting expression there exists the parameter, which plays a part of dipolar coupling constant and which is defined in a form of double averaging of high powers of particle sizes over the granulometric distribution. For real particle size distribution this effective parameter at least twice exceeds the commonly defined polydisperse dipolar coupling constant. We show that the low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of the record-breaking ferrofluids could be explained theoretically on the basis of the first terms of the polydisperse second virial contribution in combination with the second-order modified mean field model.
Theory and simulation of anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields.
Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O; Camp, Philip J
2012-05-21
Anisotropic pair correlations in ferrofluids exposed to magnetic fields are studied using a combination of statistical-mechanical theory and computer simulations. A simple dipolar hard-sphere model of the magnetic colloidal particles is studied in detail. A virial-expansion theory is constructed for the pair distribution function (PDF) which depends not only on the length of the pair separation vector, but also on its orientation with respect to the field. A detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and accurate simulation data, and it is found that the theory works well for realistic values of the dipolar coupling constant (λ = 1), volume fraction (φ ≤ 0.1), and magnetic field strength. The structure factor is computed for wavevectors either parallel or perpendicular to the field. The comparison between theory and simulation is generally very good with realistic ferrofluid parameters. For both the PDF and the structure factor, there are some deviations between theory and simulation at uncommonly high dipolar coupling constants, and with very strong magnetic fields. In particular, the theory is less successful at predicting the behavior of the structure factors at very low wavevectors, and perpendicular Gaussian density fluctuations arising from strongly correlated pairs of magnetic particles. Overall, though, the theory provides reliable predictions for the nature and degree of pair correlations in ferrofluids in magnetic fields, and hence should be of use in the design of functional magnetic materials. PMID:22612098
Zhou, Yilong; Kumar, Dhileep Thanjavur; Lu, Xinyu; Kale, Akshay; DuBose, John; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing; Xuan, Xiangchun
2015-07-01
Trapping and preconcentrating particles and cells for enhanced detection and analysis are often essential in many chemical and biological applications. Existing methods for diamagnetic particle trapping require the placement of one or multiple pairs of magnets nearby the particle flowing channel. The strong attractive or repulsive force between the magnets makes it difficult to align and place them close enough to the channel, which not only complicates the device fabrication but also restricts the particle trapping performance. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a single permanent magnet to simultaneously trap diamagnetic and magnetic particles in ferrofluid flows through a T-shaped microchannel. The two types of particles are preconcentrated to distinct locations of the T-junction due to the induced negative and positive magnetophoretic motions, respectively. Moreover, they can be sequentially released from their respective trapping spots by simply increasing the ferrofluid flow rate. In addition, a three-dimensional numerical model is developed, which predicts with a reasonable agreement the trajectories of diamagnetic and magnetic particles as well as the buildup of ferrofluid nanoparticles. PMID:26221197
Deformation of ferrofluid marbles in the presence of a permanent magnet.
Nguyen, Nam-Trung
2013-11-12
This paper investigates the deformation of ferrofluid marbles in the presence of a permanent magnet. Ferrofluid marbles are formed using a water-based ferrofluid and 1 μm hydrophobic polytetrafluoride particles. A marble placed on a Teflon coated glass plate deforms under gravity. In the presence of a permanent magnet, the marble is further deformed with a larger contact area. The geometric parameters are normalized by the radius of an undistorted spherical marble. The paper first discusses a scaling relationship between the dimensionless radius of the contact area as well as the dimensionless height and the magnetic Bond number. The dimensionless contact radius is proportional to the fourth root of the magnetic bond number. The dimensionless height scales with the inverse square root of the magnetic Bond number. In the case of a moving marble dragged by a permanent magnet, the deformation is evaluated as the difference between advancing and receding curvatures of the top view. The dimensionless height and the contact diameter of the marble do not significantly depend on the speed or the capillary number. The scaling analysis and experimental data show that the deformation is proportional to the capillary number. PMID:24164113
Hydrodynamic slip in silicon nanochannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.
2016-03-01
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were performed to better understand the hydrodynamic behavior of water flowing through silicon nanochannels. The water-silicon interaction potential was calibrated by means of size-independent molecular dynamics simulations of silicon wettability. The wettability of silicon was found to be dependent on the strength of the water-silicon interaction and the structure of the underlying surface. As a result, the anisotropy was found to be an important factor in the wettability of these types of crystalline solids. Using this premise as a fundamental starting point, the hydrodynamic slip in nanoconfined water was characterized using both equilibrium and nonequilibrium calculations of the slip length under low shear rate operating conditions. As was the case for the wettability analysis, the hydrodynamic slip was found to be dependent on the wetted solid surface atomic structure. Additionally, the interfacial water liquid structure was the most significant parameter to describe the hydrodynamic boundary condition. The calibration of the water-silicon interaction potential performed by matching the experimental contact angle of silicon led to the verification of the no-slip condition, experimentally reported for silicon nanochannels at low shear rates.
Meat Products, Hydrodynamic Pressure Processing
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The hydrodynamic pressure process (HDP) has been shown to be very effective at improving meat tenderness in a variety of meat cuts. When compared to conventional aging for tenderization, HDP was more effective. The HDP process may offer the meat industry a new alternative for tenderizing meat in add...
Effective hydrodynamic field theory and condensation picture of topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, AtMa P. O.; Kvorning, Thomas; Ryu, Shinsei; Fradkin, Eduardo
2016-04-01
While many features of topological band insulators are commonly discussed at the level of single-particle electron wave functions, such as the gapless Dirac boundary spectrum, it remains elusive to develop a hydrodynamic or collective description of fermionic topological band insulators in 3+1 dimensions. As the Chern-Simons theory for the 2+1-dimensional quantum Hall effect, such a hydrodynamic effective field theory provides a universal description of topological band insulators, even in the presence of interactions, and that of putative fractional topological insulators. In this paper, we undertake this task by using the functional bosonization. The effective field theory in the functional bosonization is written in terms of a two-form gauge field, which couples to a U (1 ) gauge field that arises by gauging the continuous symmetry of the target system [the U (1 ) particle number conservation]. Integrating over the U (1 ) gauge field by using the electromagnetic duality, the resulting theory describes topological band insulators as a condensation phase of the U (1 ) gauge theory (or as a monopole condensation phase of the dual gauge field). The hydrodynamic description of the surface of topological insulators and the implication of its duality are also discussed. We also touch upon the hydrodynamic theory of fractional topological insulators by using the parton construction.
Hydrodynamic analysis of time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suciu, N.; Vamos, C.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.
2003-04-01
It was proved that balance equations for systems with corpuscular structure can be derived if a kinematic description by piece-wise analytic functions is available [1]. For example, the hydrodynamic equations for one-dimensional systems of inelastic particles, derived in [2], were used to prove the inconsistency of the Fourier law of heat with the microscopic structure of the system. The hydrodynamic description is also possible for single particle systems. In this case, averages of physical quantities associated with the particle, over a space-time window, generalizing the usual ``moving averages'' which are performed on time intervals only, were shown to be almost everywhere continuous space-time functions. Moreover, they obey balance partial differential equations (continuity equation for the 'concentration', Navier-Stokes equation, a. s. o.) [3]. Time series can be interpreted as trajectories in the space of the recorded parameter. Their hydrodynamic interpretation is expected to enable deterministic predictions, when closure relations can be obtained for the balance equations. For the time being, a first result is the estimation of the probability density for the occurrence of a given parameter value, by the normalized concentration field from the hydrodynamic description. The method is illustrated by hydrodynamic analysis of three types of time series: white noise, stock prices from financial markets and groundwater levels recorded at Krauthausen experimental field of Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany). [1] C. Vamoş, A. Georgescu, N. Suciu, I. Turcu, Physica A 227, 81-92, 1996. [2] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, A. Georgescu, Phys. Rev E 55, 5, 6277-6280, 1997. [3] C. Vamoş, N. Suciu, W. Blaj, Physica A, 287, 461-467, 2000.
Altmeyer, S; Do, Younghae; Lopez, J M
2012-06-01
The influence of a magnetic field on the dynamics of the flow of a ferrofluid in the gap between two concentric, independently rotating cylinders is investigated numerically. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a hybrid finite difference and Galerkin method. We show that the frequently used assumption that the internal magnetic field within a ferrofluid is equal to the external applied field is only a leading-order approximation. By accounting for the ferrofluid's magnetic susceptibility, we show that a uniform externally imposed magnetic field is modified by the presence of the ferrofluid within the annulus. The modification to the magnetic field has an r(-2) radial dependence and a magnitude that scales with the susceptibility. For ferrofluids typically used in laboratory experiments of the type simulated in this paper, the modification to the imposed magnetic field can be substantial. This has significant consequences on the structure and stability of the basic states, as well as on the bifurcating solutions. PMID:23005213
Interactions between Fragmented Seagrass Canopies and the Local Hydrodynamics
El Allaoui, Nazha; Colomer, Jordi; Soler, Marianna; Casamitjana, Xavier; Oldham, Carolyn
2016-01-01
The systematic creation of gaps within canopies results in fragmentation and the architecture of fragmented canopies differs substantially from non-fragmented canopies. Canopy fragmentation leads to spatial heterogeneity in hydrodynamics and therefore heterogeneity in the sheltering of canopy communities. Identifying the level of instability due to canopy fragmentation is important for canopies in coastal areas impacted by human activities and indeed, climate change. The gap orientation relative to the wave direction is expected to play an important role in determining wave attenuation and sheltering. Initially we investigated the effect of a single transversal gap within a canopy (i.e. a gap oriented perpendicular to the wave direction) on hydrodynamics, which was compared to fully vegetated canopies (i.e. no gaps) and also to bare sediment. The wave velocity increased with gap width for the two canopy densities studied (2.5% and 10% solid plant fraction) reaching wave velocities found over bare sediments. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the gap also increased, but was more attenuated by the adjacent vegetation than the wave velocity. As expected, denser canopies produced a greater attenuation of both the wave velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy within an adjacent gap, compared to sparse canopies. Using non-dimensional analysis and our experimental data, a parameterization for predicting TKE in a canopy gap was formulated, as a function of easily measured variables. Based on the experimental results, a fragmented canopy model was then developed to determine the overall mixing level in such canopies. The model revealed that canopies with large gaps present more mixing than canopies with small gaps despite having the same total gap area in the canopy. Furthermore, for the same total gap area, dense fragmented canopies provide more shelter than sparse fragmented canopies. PMID:27227321
Interactions between Fragmented Seagrass Canopies and the Local Hydrodynamics.
El Allaoui, Nazha; Serra, Teresa; Colomer, Jordi; Soler, Marianna; Casamitjana, Xavier; Oldham, Carolyn
2016-01-01
The systematic creation of gaps within canopies results in fragmentation and the architecture of fragmented canopies differs substantially from non-fragmented canopies. Canopy fragmentation leads to spatial heterogeneity in hydrodynamics and therefore heterogeneity in the sheltering of canopy communities. Identifying the level of instability due to canopy fragmentation is important for canopies in coastal areas impacted by human activities and indeed, climate change. The gap orientation relative to the wave direction is expected to play an important role in determining wave attenuation and sheltering. Initially we investigated the effect of a single transversal gap within a canopy (i.e. a gap oriented perpendicular to the wave direction) on hydrodynamics, which was compared to fully vegetated canopies (i.e. no gaps) and also to bare sediment. The wave velocity increased with gap width for the two canopy densities studied (2.5% and 10% solid plant fraction) reaching wave velocities found over bare sediments. The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the gap also increased, but was more attenuated by the adjacent vegetation than the wave velocity. As expected, denser canopies produced a greater attenuation of both the wave velocity and the turbulent kinetic energy within an adjacent gap, compared to sparse canopies. Using non-dimensional analysis and our experimental data, a parameterization for predicting TKE in a canopy gap was formulated, as a function of easily measured variables. Based on the experimental results, a fragmented canopy model was then developed to determine the overall mixing level in such canopies. The model revealed that canopies with large gaps present more mixing than canopies with small gaps despite having the same total gap area in the canopy. Furthermore, for the same total gap area, dense fragmented canopies provide more shelter than sparse fragmented canopies. PMID:27227321
Numerical relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haywood, Joe R.
Developments in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics over the past thirty years, along with the advent of high speed computers, have made problems needing general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics tractable. One such problem is the relativistic evolution of neutron stars, either in a head on collision or in binary orbit. Also of current interest is the detection of gravitational radiation from binary neutron stars, black-hole neutron star binaries, binary black holes, etc. Such systems expected to emit gravitational radiation with amplitude large enough to be detected on Earth by such groups as LIGO and VIRGO. Unfortunately, the expected signal strength is below the current noise level. However, signal processing techniques have been developed which should eventually find a signal, if a good theoretical template can be found. In the cases above it is not possible to obtain an analytic solution to the Einstein equations and a numerical approximation is therefore most necessary. In this thesis the Einstein equations are written using the formalism of Arnowitt, Desser and Misner and a conformally flat metric is assumed. Numerical simulations of colliding neutron stars, having either a realistic or Gamma = 2 polytropic equation of state (EOS), are presented which confirm the rise in central density seen by [51, 89] for the softer EOS. For the binary calculation, the results of Wilson et al. [89] are confirmed, which show that the neutron stars can collapse to black holes before colliding when the EOS is realistic and we also confirm results of Miller [56] and others that there is essentially no compression, the central density does not increase, when the stiffer equation of state is used. Finally, a template for the gravitational radiation emitted from the binary is calculated and we show that the frequency of the emitted gravitational waves changes more slowly for the [89] EOS, which may result in a stronger signal in the 50-100 Hz band of LIGO.
Hydrodynamics of maneuvering bodies: LDRD final report
Kempka, S.N.; Strickland, J.H.
1994-01-01
The objective of the ``Hydrodynamics of Maneuvering Bodies`` LDRD project was to develop a Lagrangian, vorticity-based numerical simulation of the fluid dynamics associated with a maneuvering submarine. Three major tasks were completed. First, a vortex model to simulate the wake behind a maneuvering submarine was completed, assuming the flow to be inviscid and of constant density. Several simulations were performed for a dive maneuver, each requiring less than 20 cpu seconds on a workstation. The technical details of the model and the simulations are described in a separate document, but are reviewed herein. Second, a gridless method to simulate diffusion processes was developed that has significant advantages over previous Lagrangian diffusion models. In this model, viscous diffusion of vorticity is represented by moving vortices at a diffusion velocity, and expanding the vortices as specified by the kinematics for a compressible velocity field. This work has also been documented previously, and is only reviewed herein. The third major task completed was the development of a vortex model to describe inviscid internal wave phenomena, and is the focus of this document. Internal wave phenomena in the stratified ocean can affect an evolving wake, and thus must be considered for naval applications. The vortex model for internal wave phenomena includes a new formulation for the generation of vorticity due to fluid density variations, and a vortex adoption algorithm that allows solutions to be carried to much longer times than previous investigations. Since many practical problems require long-time solutions, this new adoption algorithm is a significant step toward making vortex methods applicable to practical problems. Several simulations are described and compared with previous results to validate and show the advantages of the new model. An overview of this project is also included.
Hydrodynamic simulations of microjetting from shock-loaded grooves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roland, Caroline; de Resseguier, Thibaut; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Soulard, Laurent; Loison, Didier
2015-06-01
The interaction of a shock wave with a free surface presenting geometrical defects, such as cavities or grooves, may lead to the ejection of micrometric debris at velocities of km/s order. This process can be involved in many applications, like pyrotechnics or industrial safety. Laser shock experiments reported in this conference (T. de Resseguier, C. Roland et al., abstract ref.000066) provide insight into jet formation and peak velocities for various groove angles and shock pressures. Here, we present hydrodynamic simulations of these experiments, in both 2D and 3D geometries, using both finite element method and smoothed particles hydrodynamics. Numerical results are compared to several theoretical predictions including the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. The role of the elastic-plastic behavior on jet formation is investigated. Finally, the possibility to simulate the late stages of jet expansion and fragmentation is explored, to evaluate the mass distribution of the ejecta and their ballistic properties, still essentially unknown in the experiments.
Hyperbolic self-gravity solver for large scale hydrodynamical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirai, Ryosuke; Nagakura, Hiroki; Okawa, Hirotada; Fujisawa, Kotaro
2016-04-01
A new computationally efficient method has been introduced to treat self-gravity in Eulerian hydrodynamical simulations. It is applied simply by modifying the Poisson equation into an inhomogeneous wave equation. This roughly corresponds to the weak field limit of the Einstein equations in general relativity, and as long as the gravitation propagation speed is taken to be larger than the hydrodynamical characteristic speed, the results agree with solutions for the Poisson equation. The solutions almost perfectly agree if the domain is taken large enough, or appropriate boundary conditions are given. Our new method cannot only significantly reduce the computational time compared with existent methods, but is also fully compatible with massive parallel computation, nested grids, and adaptive mesh refinement techniques, all of which can accelerate the progress in computational astrophysics and cosmology.
Low torque hydrodynamic lip geometry for rotary seals
Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.
2015-07-21
A hydrodynamically lubricating geometry for the generally circular dynamic sealing lip of rotary seals that are employed to partition a lubricant from an environment. The dynamic sealing lip is provided for establishing compressed sealing engagement with a relatively rotatable surface, and for wedging a film of lubricating fluid into the interface between the dynamic sealing lip and the relatively rotatable surface in response to relative rotation that may occur in the clockwise or the counter-clockwise direction. A wave form incorporating an elongated dimple provides the gradual convergence, efficient impingement angle, and gradual interfacial contact pressure rise that are conducive to efficient hydrodynamic wedging. Skewed elevated contact pressure zones produced by compression edge effects provide for controlled lubricant movement within the dynamic sealing interface between the seal and the relatively rotatable surface, producing enhanced lubrication and low running torque.
A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin
2016-03-01
We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the T\\bar{T} irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing this approach further, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law t -1/2, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to t 1/3.
Hydrodynamic simulations with the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murante, G.; Borgani, S.; Brunino, R.; Cha, S.-H.
2011-10-01
We present results based on an implementation of the Godunov smoothed particle hydrodynamics (GSPH), originally developed by Inutsuka, in the GADGET-3 hydrodynamic code. We first review the derivation of the GSPH discretization of the equations of moment and energy conservation, starting from the convolution of these equations with the interpolating kernel. The two most important aspects of the numerical implementation of these equations are (a) the appearance of fluid velocity and pressure obtained from the solution of the Riemann problem between each pair of particles, and (b) the absence of an artificial viscosity term. We carry out three different controlled hydrodynamical three-dimensional tests, namely the Sod shock tube, the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a shear-flow test and the 'blob' test describing the evolution of a cold cloud moving against a hot wind. The results of our tests confirm and extend in a number of aspects those recently obtained by Cha, Inutsuka & Nayakshin: (i) GSPH provides a much improved description of contact discontinuities, with respect to smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), thus avoiding the appearance of spurious pressure forces; (ii) GSPH is able to follow the development of gas-dynamical instabilities, such as the Kevin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor ones; (iii) as a result, GSPH describes the development of curl structures in the shear-flow test and the dissolution of the cold cloud in the 'blob' test. Besides comparing the results of GSPH with those from standard SPH implementations, we also discuss in detail the effect on the performances of GSPH of changing different aspects of its implementation: choice of the number of neighbours, accuracy of the interpolation procedure to locate the interface between two fluid elements (particles) for the solution of the Riemann problem, order of the reconstruction for the assignment of variables at the interface, choice of the limiter to prevent oscillations of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sunil; Mahajan, Amit
2009-09-01
A rigorous nonlinear stability result is derived by introducing a suitable generalized energy functional for a magnetized ferrofluid layer heated and soluted from below with magnetic field-dependent (MFD) viscosity, for stress-free boundaries. The mathematical emphasis is on how to control the nonlinear terms caused by magnetic body and inertia forces. For ferrofluids, we find that there is possibility of existence of subcritical instabilities, however, it is noted that in case of non-ferrofluid, global nonlinear stability Rayleigh number is exactly the same as that for linear instability. For lower values of magnetic parameters, this coincidence is immediately lost. The effects of magnetic parameter, M3, solute gradient, S1 and MFD viscosity parameter, δ, on the subcritical instability region have also been analyzed.
Hydrodynamic interactions between rotating helices.
Kim, MunJu; Powers, Thomas R
2004-06-01
Escherichia coli bacteria use rotating helical flagella to swim. At this scale, viscous effects dominate inertia, and there are significant hydrodynamic interactions between nearby helices. These interactions cause the flagella to bundle during the "runs" of bacterial chemotaxis. Here we use slender-body theory to solve for the flow fields generated by rigid helices rotated by stationary motors. We determine how the hydrodynamic forces and torques depend on phase and phase difference, show that rigid helices driven at constant torque do not synchronize, and solve for the flows. We also use symmetry arguments based on kinematic reversibility to show that for two rigid helices rotating with zero phase difference, there is no time-averaged attractive or repulsive force between the helices. PMID:15244620
Hydrodynamic damage to animal cells.
Chisti, Y
2001-01-01
Animal cells are affected by hydrodynamic forces that occur in culture vessel, transfer piping, and recovery operations such as microfiltration. Depending on the type, intensity, and duration of the force, and the specifics of the cell, the force may induce various kinds of responses in the subject cells. Both biochemical and physiological responses are observed, including apoptosis and purely mechanical destruction of the cell. This review examines the kinds of hydrodynamic forces encountered in bioprocessing equipment and the impact of those forces on cells. Methods are given for quantifying the magnitude of the specific forces, and the response thresholds are noted for the common types of cells cultured in free suspension, supported on microcarriers, and anchored to stationary surfaces. PMID:11451047
Brain vascular and hydrodynamic physiology
Tasker, Robert C.
2013-01-01
Protecting the brain in vulnerable infants undergoing surgery is a central aspect of perioperative care. Understanding the link between blood flow, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption leads to a more informed approach to bedside care. In some cases, we need to consider how high can we let the partial pressure of carbon dioxide go before we have concerns about risk of increased cerebral blood volume and change in intracranial hydrodynamics? Alternatively, in almost all such cases, we have to address the question of how low can we let the blood pressure drop before we should be concerned about brain perfusion? This review, provides a basic understanding of brain bioenergetics, hemodynamics, hydrodynamics, autoregulation and vascular homeostasis to changes in blood gases that is fundamental to our thinking about bedside care and monitoring. PMID:24331089
Generic Conditions for Hydrodynamic Synchronization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uchida, Nariya; Golestanian, Ramin
2011-02-01
Synchronization of actively oscillating organelles such as cilia and flagella facilitates self-propulsion of cells and pumping fluid in low Reynolds number environments. To understand the key mechanism behind synchronization induced by hydrodynamic interaction, we study a model of rigid-body rotors making fixed trajectories of arbitrary shape under driving forces that are arbitrary functions of the phase. For a wide class of geometries, we obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for synchronization of a pair of rotors. We also find a novel synchronized pattern with an oscillating phase shift. Our results shed light on the role of hydrodynamic interactions in biological systems, and could help in developing efficient mixing and transport strategies in microfluidic devices.
Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions
Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2015-01-01
We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2
Microscopic derivation of discrete hydrodynamics.
Español, Pep; Anero, Jesús G; Zúñiga, Ignacio
2009-12-28
By using the standard theory of coarse graining based on Zwanzig's projection operator, we derive the dynamic equations for discrete hydrodynamic variables. These hydrodynamic variables are defined in terms of the Delaunay triangulation. The resulting microscopically derived equations can be understood, a posteriori, as a discretization on an arbitrary irregular grid of the Navier-Stokes equations. The microscopic derivation provides a set of discrete equations that exactly conserves mass, momentum, and energy and the dissipative part of the dynamics produces strict entropy increase. In addition, the microscopic derivation provides a practical implementation of thermal fluctuations in a way that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is satisfied exactly. This paper points toward a close connection between coarse-graining procedures from microscopic dynamics and discretization schemes for partial differential equations. PMID:20059064
Jonkman, J. M.; Sclavounos, P. D.
2006-01-01
Aeroelastic simulation tools are routinely used to design and analyze onshore wind turbines, in order to obtain cost effective machines that achieve favorable performance while maintaining structural integrity. These tools employ sophisticated models of wind-inflow; aerodynamic, gravitational, and inertial loading of the rotor, nacelle, and tower; elastic effects within and between components; and mechanical actuation and electrical responses of the generator and of control and protection systems. For offshore wind turbines, additional models of the hydrodynamic loading in regular and irregular seas, the dynamic coupling between the support platform motions and wind turbine motions, and the dynamic characterization of mooring systems for compliant floating platforms are also important. Hydrodynamic loading includes contributions from hydrostatics, wave radiation, and wave scattering, including free surface memory effects. The integration of all of these models into comprehensive simulation tools, capable of modeling the fully coupled aeroelastic and hydrodynamic responses of floating offshore wind turbines, is presented.
Quantum positron acoustic waves
Metref, Hassina; Tribeche, Mouloud
2014-12-15
Nonlinear quantum positron-acoustic (QPA) waves are investigated for the first time, within the theoretical framework of the quantum hydrodynamic model. In the small but finite amplitude limit, both deformed Korteweg-de Vries and generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations governing, respectively, the dynamics of QPA solitary waves and double-layers are derived. Moreover, a full finite amplitude analysis is undertaken, and a numerical integration of the obtained highly nonlinear equations is carried out. The results complement our previously published results on this problem.
Extinction of polarized light in ferrofluids with different magnetic particle concentrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Socoliuc, V.; Popescu, L. B.
2012-01-01
The magnetic field intensity and nanoparticle concentration dependence of the polarized light extinction in a ferrofluid made of magnetite particles stabilized with technical grade oleic acid dispersed in transformer oil was experimentally investigated. The magnetically induced optical anisotropy, i.e. the dichroism divided by concentration, was found to decrease with increasing sample concentration from 2% to 8%. The magnetically induced change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° with respect to the magnetic field direction was found to be positive for the less concentrated sample (2%) and negative for the samples with 4% and 8% magnetic nanoparticle concentrations, the more negative the higher the concentration and field intensity. Based on the theoretically proven fact [11] that the particle orientation mechanism has no effect on the extinction of light polarized at 54.74° with respect to the field direction, we analyzed the experimental findings in the frames of the agglomeration and long-range pair correlations theories for the magnetically induced optical anisotropy in ferrofluids. We developed a theoretical model in the approximation of single scattering for the optical extinction coefficient of a ferrofluid with magnetically induced particle agglomeration. The model predicts the existence of a polarization independent component of the optical extinction coefficient that is experimentally measurable at 54.74° polarization angle. The change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° is positive if only the formation of straight n-particle chains is considered and may become negative in the hypothesis that the longer chains degenerate to more isotropic structures (polymer-like coils, globules or bundles of chains). The model for the influence on the light absorption of the long-range pair correlations, published elsewhere, predicts that the change in the optical extinction of light polarized at 54.74° is always negative, the
Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sindt, Julien O.; Camp, Philip J.; Kantorovich, Sofia S.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.
2016-06-01
The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016), 10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χL. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χL≲1 .
Influence of dipolar interactions on the magnetic susceptibility spectra of ferrofluids.
Sindt, Julien O; Camp, Philip J; Kantorovich, Sofia S; Elfimova, Ekaterina A; Ivanov, Alexey O
2016-06-01
The frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility of a ferrofluid is calculated under the assumption that the constituent particles undergo Brownian relaxation only. Brownian-dynamics simulations are carried out in order to test the predictions of a recent theory [A. O. Ivanov, V. S. Zverev, and S. S. Kantorovich, Soft Matter 12, 3507 (2016)1744-683X10.1039/C5SM02679B] that includes the effects of interparticle dipole-dipole interactions. The theory is based on the so-called modified mean-field approach and possesses the following important characteristics: in the low-concentration, noninteracting regime, it gives the correct single-particle Debye-theory results; it yields the exact leading-order results in the zero-frequency limit; it includes particle polydispersity correctly from the outset; and it is based on firm theoretical foundations allowing, in principle, systematic extensions to treat stronger interactions and/or higher concentrations. The theory and simulations are compared in the case of a model monodisperse ferrofluid, where the effects of interactions are predicted to be more pronounced than in a polydisperse ferrofluid. The susceptibility spectra are analyzed in detail in terms of the low-frequency behavior, the position of the peak in the imaginary (out-of-phase) part, and the characteristic decay time of the magnetization autocorrelation function. It is demonstrated that the theory correctly predicts the trends in all of these properties with increasing concentration and dipolar coupling constant, the product of which is proportional to the Langevin susceptibility χ_{L}. The theory is in quantitative agreement with the simulation results as long as χ_{L}≲1. PMID:27415368
Linear response and hydrodynamics for granular fluids.
Dufty, James; Baskaran, Aparna; Brey, J Javier
2008-03-01
A formal derivation of linear hydrodynamics for a granular fluid is given. The linear response to small spatial perturbations of a homogeneous reference state is studied in detail, using methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. A transport matrix for macroscopic excitations in the fluid is defined in terms of the response functions. An expansion in the wave vector to second order allows identification of all phenomenological susceptibilities and transport coefficients through Navier-Stokes order in terms of appropriate time correlation functions. The transport coefficients in this representation are the generalization to granular fluids of the familiar Helfand and Green-Kubo relations for normal fluids. The analysis applies to a variety of collision rules. Important differences in both the analysis and results from those for normal fluids are identified and discussed. A scaling limit is described corresponding to the conditions under which idealized inelastic hard sphere models can apply. Further details and interpretation are provided in the paper following this one, by specialization to the case of smooth, inelastic hard spheres with constant coefficient of restitution. PMID:18517373
Hydrodynamic instability in eccentric astrophysical discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, A. J.; Ogilvie, G. I.
2014-12-01
Eccentric Keplerian discs are believed to be unstable to three-dimensional hydrodynamical instabilities driven by the time-dependence of fluid properties around an orbit. These instabilities could lead to small-scale turbulence, and ultimately modify the global disc properties. We use a local model of an eccentric disc, derived in a companion paper, to compute the non-linear vertical (`breathing mode') oscillations of the disc. We then analyse their linear stability to locally axisymmetric disturbances for any disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient using a numerical Floquet method. In the limit of small departures from a circular reference orbit, the instability of an isothermal disc is explained analytically. We also study analytically the small-scale instability of an eccentric neutrally stratified polytropic disc with any polytropic index using a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We find that eccentric discs are generically unstable to the parametric excitation of small-scale inertial waves. The non-linear evolution of these instabilities should be studied in numerical simulations, where we expect them to lead to a decay of the disc eccentricity and eccentricity gradient as well as to induce additional transport and mixing. Our results highlight that it is essential to consider the three-dimensional structure of eccentric discs, and their resulting vertical oscillatory flows, in order to correctly capture their evolution.
3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Relativistic Jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, P. A.; Miller, M. A.; Duncan, G. C.; Swift, C. M.
1998-12-01
We present the results of validation runs and the first extragalactic jet simulations performed with a 3D relativistic numerical hydrodynamic code employing a solver of the RHLLE type and using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR; Duncan & Hughes, 1994, Ap. J., 436, L119). Test problems include the shock tube, blast wave and spherical shock reflection (implosion). Trials with the code show that as a consequence of AMR it is viable to perform exploratory runs on workstation class machines (with no more than 128Mb of memory) prior to production runs. In the former case we achieve a resolution not much less than that normally regarded as the minimum needed to capture the essential physics of a problem, which means that such runs can provide valuable guidance allowing the optimum use of supercomputer resources. We present initial results from a program to explore the 3D stability properties of flows previously studied using a 2D axisymmetric code, and our first attempt to explore the structure and morphology of a relativistic jet encountering an ambient density gradient that mimics an ambient inhomogeneity or cloud.
Large and negative Goos-Hänchen shift with magneto-controllability based on a ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Mengshi; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Jipeng; Dai, Xiaoyu; Xiang, Yuanjiang
2013-03-01
We report on the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of a beam reflected from ferrofluids composed of Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with Ag, based on the stationary-phase method. We found that both the magneto and structural approaches can effectively control the GH shift. In particular, a larger negative GH shift can be obtained by changing the external magnetic field and the volume factor. The magneto-controllable GH shift provides a possibility for obtaining a desirable GH shift in a fixed configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruder, Warren C.; Hsu, Chia-Pei D.; Edelman, Brent D.; Schwartz, Russell; LeDuc, Philip R.
2012-08-01
We have studied the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles in ferrofluids consisting of single-domain, biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) isolated from Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1). Although dipolar chains form in magnetic colloids in zero applied field, when dried upon substrates, the solvent front disorders nanoparticle aggregation. Using avidin-biotin functionalization of the particles and substrate, we generated self-assembled, linear chain motifs that resist solvent front disruption in zero-field. The engineered self-assembly process we describe here provides an approach for the creation of ordered magnetic structures that could impact fields ranging from micro-electro-mechanical systems development to magnetic imaging of biological structures.