Science.gov

Sample records for ferrous archaeological analogues

  1. The Archaeology of Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Smet, T. S.; Holcomb, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Context and chronology are of critical importance in archaeological research. Unfortunately, however, many previously excavated sites lack adequate detail in these aspects. As such, archaeologists are increasingly returning to previously investigated sites in order to reassess the integrity of prior excavations and answer new research questions. Near-surface geophysics can be used to locate and map the extent of prior excavations at these sites. Here, we present two case studies of the use of geophysics to find previously excavated archaeological trenches. At Copper's Ferry (10IH73), in western Idaho, magnetic gradiometry was used to locate a trench excavated by Idaho State University in 1961. This trench yielded cultural materials associated with the Western Stemmed Tradition that potentially date to the Pleistocene. At Goat Springs Pueblo (LA285), New Mexico, electromagnetic induction was used to find UCLA's 1960 excavation trench within a central kiva. Ground-truthing at both sites proved the efficacy of these methods, and allowed for a reexamination of the context and chronology at both sites.

  2. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Semionkin, V. A.; Dubiel, S. M.

    2010-07-13

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Moessbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123... shall meet the specifications given in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), which is incorporated...

  6. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123... shall meet the specifications given in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), which is incorporated...

  7. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123... shall meet the specifications given in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), which is incorporated...

  8. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123... shall meet the specifications given in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), which is incorporated...

  9. 21 CFR 73.160 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ferrous gluconate is the ferrous gluconate defined in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 122-123... shall meet the specifications given in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), which is incorporated...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-yellow powder or granules. It is prepared by reacting hot solutions of barium or calcium gluconate with ferrous sulfate or by heating freshly prepared ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-yellow powder or granules. It is prepared by reacting hot solutions of barium or calcium gluconate with ferrous sulfate or by heating freshly prepared ferrous carbonate with gluconic acid in aqueous...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  15. 46 CFR 148.260 - Ferrous metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ferrous metal. 148.260 Section 148.260 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.260 Ferrous metal. (a... waters of United States. (b) Ferrous metal may not be stowed or transported in bulk unless the...

  16. 46 CFR 148.260 - Ferrous metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ferrous metal. 148.260 Section 148.260 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.260 Ferrous metal. (a... waters of United States. (b) Ferrous metal may not be stowed or transported in bulk unless the...

  17. 46 CFR 148.260 - Ferrous metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ferrous metal. 148.260 Section 148.260 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.260 Ferrous metal. (a... waters of United States. (b) Ferrous metal may not be stowed or transported in bulk unless the...

  18. 46 CFR 148.260 - Ferrous metal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ferrous metal. 148.260 Section 148.260 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.260 Ferrous metal. (a... waters of United States. (b) Ferrous metal may not be stowed or transported in bulk unless the...

  19. Study of Vitamins and Dietary Supplements Containing Ferrous Fumarate and Ferrous Sulfate Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Dubiel, S. M.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    A study of several samples of vitamins and dietary supplements containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. A presence of ferrous and ferric impurities was revealed. Small variations of Mössbauer hyperfine parameters were found for both ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates in the investigated medicines.

  20. The Rules of Ferrous Metallurgy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which the sciences have been delineated and categorized throughout history provide insights into the formation, stabilization, and establishment of scientific systems of knowledge. The Dresdener school’s approach for explaining and categorizing the genesis of the engineering disciplines is still valid, but needs to be complemented by further-reaching methodological and theoretical reflections. Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of social practice is applied to the question of how individual agents succeed in influencing decisively a discipline’s changing object orientation, institutionalisation and self-reproduction. Through the accumulation of social, cultural and economic capital, they succeed in realising their own organisational ideas and scientific programs. Key concepts for the analysis include the struggle for power and resources, monopolies of interpretation, and the degree of autonomy. A case study from the Aachener Technische Hochschule shows that the consolidation of ferrous metallurgy can be conceived as a symbolical struggle between Fritz Wüst, professor for ferrous metallurgy, and the German Iron and Steel Institute, leading to a construction of a system of differences in which scientists accepted being scientists rather than entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs accepted becoming entrepreneurs and renounced science.

  1. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5308 Ferrous gluconate....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5308 Ferrous gluconate....

  3. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  4. State Archaeological Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, William B., Ed.

    The focus of this conference was on programs and experiences in public archaeological education in the Plains states and immediate neighbors. The contents lists the following papers: (1) "Introduction to the Symposium" (William B. Butler); (2) "Archaeological Educational Programs in Colorado" (Kevin D. Black); (3) "Statewide Archaeological…

  5. Digging into Archaeology Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Suggestions are offered for a classroom project of planning and conducting an archaeological dig on or near school property. Principles of archaeological practice such as making drawings of the site and using a grid frame to record locations are explained. Also suggested is a simulation activity in which students pick imbedded "findings" out of…

  6. Ferrous arrowheads and their oil quench hardening: Some early Indian evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dube, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    A wide variety of ferrous arrowheads were in use in ancient India. Several typical chemical analyses of arrowheads found from archaeological excavation carried out at Kaushambi are reported in this paper. The average carbon content of these arrowheads varied from as low as 0.1 wt.% to approximately 0.9 wt.%. Literary evidence for oil quench hardening of ferrous arrowheads, as reported in famous Sanskrit epics—the Rāmāyana and the Mahābhārata—have been discussed in this paper. This type of quench hardening was intentionally adopted as it helped in preventing distortion and formation of quench cracks in arrowheads. The oil quench-hardened arrowheads were rubbed on stones to sharpen them, which also brought about tempering of martensite due to frictional heat.

  7. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  8. Archaeology in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKendrick, Paul

    1979-01-01

    Describes several archaeological sites and Roman art works in which to study ancient Roman history, including Lavinium, Paestum, Cosa, Praeneste, the Augustine temples, Sperlonga, the J. Paul Getty Museum, and the cemetery under St. Peter's. (CK)

  9. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid.... (1996), pp. 154 to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron... to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  11. Efficient and Stereocontrolled Synthesis of 1,2,4-Trioxolanes Useful for Ferrous Iron-Dependent Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferrous iron-promoted reduction of a hindered peroxide bond underlies the antimalarial action of the 1,2,4-trioxane artemisinin and the 1,2,4-trioxolane arterolane. In appropriately designed systems, a 1,2,4-trioxolane ring can serve as a trigger to realize ferrous iron-dependent and parasite-selective drug delivery, both in vitro and in vivo. A stereocontrolled, expeditious (three steps), and efficient (67–71% overall yield) synthesis of 1,2,4-trioxolanes possessing the requisite 3″ substitution pattern that enables ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery is reported. The key synthetic step involves a diastereoselective Griesbaum co-ozonolysis reaction to afford primarily products with a trans relationship between the 3″ substituent and the peroxide bridge, as confirmed by X-ray structural analysis of a 3″-substituted 4-nitrobenzoate analogue. PMID:25331549

  12. Efficient and stereocontrolled synthesis of 1,2,4-trioxolanes useful for ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Shaun D; DiPasquale, Antonio G; Renslo, Adam R

    2014-11-01

    Ferrous iron-promoted reduction of a hindered peroxide bond underlies the antimalarial action of the 1,2,4-trioxane artemisinin and the 1,2,4-trioxolane arterolane. In appropriately designed systems, a 1,2,4-trioxolane ring can serve as a trigger to realize ferrous iron-dependent and parasite-selective drug delivery, both in vitro and in vivo. A stereocontrolled, expeditious (three steps), and efficient (67-71% overall yield) synthesis of 1,2,4-trioxolanes possessing the requisite 3″ substitution pattern that enables ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery is reported. The key synthetic step involves a diastereoselective Griesbaum co-ozonolysis reaction to afford primarily products with a trans relationship between the 3″ substituent and the peroxide bridge, as confirmed by X-ray structural analysis of a 3″-substituted 4-nitrobenzoate analogue. PMID:25331549

  13. Archaeology and cognitive evolution.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    Archaeology can provide two bodies of information relevant to the understanding of the evolution of human cognition--the timing of developments, and the evolutionary context of these developments. The challenge is methodological. Archaeology must document attributes that have direct implications for underlying cognitive mechanisms. One example of such a cognitive archaeology is found in spatial cognition. The archaeological record documents an evolutionary sequence that begins with ape-equivalent spatial abilities 2.5 million years ago and ends with the appearance of modern abilities in the still remote past of 400,000 years ago. The timing of these developments reveals two major episodes in the evolution in spatial ability, one, 1.5 million years ago and the other, one million years later. The two episodes of development in spatial cognition had very different evolutionary contexts. The first was associated with the shift to an open country adaptive niche that occurred early in the time range of Homo erectus. The second was associated with no clear adaptive shift, though it does appear to have coincided with the invasion of more hostile environments and the appearance of systematic hunting of large mammals. Neither, however, occurred in a context of modern hunting and gathering. PMID:12879699

  14. Art and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Jul; Schumacher, Leni

    Organized in eight chapters, this interdisciplinary resource packet highlights the relationship between art and archaeology. Chapter 1 presents the vocabulary and several introductory activities that prepare students to participate in the subsequent chapters. These chapters focus on (2) "Lascaux Cave Paintings"; (3) "Life Along the Nile" (ancient…

  15. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5308 - Ferrous gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous gluconate. 582.5308 Section 582.5308 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Uses and restrictions. Ferrous lactate may...

  3. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Uses and restrictions. Ferrous lactate may...

  4. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must...

  5. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must...

  6. 46 CFR 56.60-3 - Ferrous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ferrous materials. 56.60-3 Section 56.60-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-3 Ferrous materials. (a) Ferrous pipe used for salt water service must...

  7. Nitrosylation of rabbit ferrous heme-hemopexin.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Mauro; Bocedi, Alessio; Mattu, Marco; Coletta, Massimo; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2004-10-01

    Hemopexin (HPX) serves as a trap for toxic plasma heme, ensuring its complete clearance by transportation to the liver. Moreover, HPX-heme has been postulated to play a key role in the homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO). Here, the thermodynamics for NO binding to rabbit ferrous HPX-heme as well as the EPR and optical absorption spectroscopic properties of rabbit ferrous nitrosylated HPX-heme (HPX-heme-NO) are reported. The value of the dissociation equilibrium constant for NO binding to rabbit ferrous HPX-heme (i.e., H) is (1.4+/-0.2)x10(-7) M, at pH 7.0 and 10.0 degrees C; the value of H is unaffected by sodium chloride. At pH 7.0, rabbit ferrous HPX-heme-NO is a six-coordinate heme-iron species, characterized by an X-band EPR spectrum with an axial geometry and by epsilon=146 mM(-1) cm(-1) at 419 nm. At pH 4.0, rabbit ferrous HPX-heme-NO is a five-coordinate heme-iron species, characterized by an X-band EPR spectrum with three-line splitting centered at 334 mT and by epsilon=74 mM(-1) cm(-1) at 387 nm. The p K(a) value of the reversible pH-induced six- to five-coordinate spectroscopic transition is 4.8+/-0.1 in the absence of sodium chloride and 4.3+/-0.1 in the presence of 1.5x10(-1) M sodium chloride. This result is in agreement with the effect of sodium chloride on rabbit HPX-heme stability. The present data have been analyzed in parallel with those of a related heme model compound and heme-protein systems. PMID:15378409

  8. Archaeology in Social Studies: An Integrated Approach. Theme: Archaeology in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Heather

    1989-01-01

    Provides a rationale for integrating archaeology into the social studies classroom, suggesting archaeology topics that satisfy knowledge goals in the curriculum. Describes field trip, excavation, and experimental archaeology activities. Includes lists of archaeological agencies and teacher references. (LS)

  9. Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, C.

    2015-02-01

    Galactic Archeology is a coined term to describe the fact that the Milky Way's history is encoded both in the amounts of various chemical elements seen in the spectra of stellar atmospheres (abundances), and in stellar motions. One of the pillars of Galactic Archaeology is the use of stellar abundance ratios as an indirect age estimator, which although imprecise, has been proved useful in providing relative ages between the different galactic components. The lack of more precise age determination for large samples of field stars is one of the main reasons why different scenarios for the formation of our Galaxy can still be accommodated to current observational constraints, thus preventing a clear picture of the Milky Way's assembling history. Another difficulty is that most of the available information (especially on ages) has been confined to a region close to the Sun. These two main obstacles can now start to be overcome thanks to a) large spectroscopic and photometric surveys covering larger portions of the Milky Way, and b) the combination of the photometric and spectroscopic information with that coming from asteroseismology. The latter promises a breakthrough in the field of Galactic Archaeology, as it brings the opportunity to, for the first time, measure ages for large samples of distant field giant stars, which cover a large age-baseline. When combining this information with that soon available from Gaia, the field of Galactic Archaeology will be shaken and modelers will certainly have less flexibility in finding models that comply to these precious new observational constraints. The goal of these short lectures is to put Asteroseismology in the context of Galactic Archaeology.

  10. Recycling ferrous and nonferrous waste streams with FASTMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, James M.; Metius, Gary E.

    2003-08-01

    In metals processing, residue streams are routinely generated containing recoverable metallic compounds. These metallics represent both valuable materials and potential disposal problems to the producer. Midrex, primarily involved in ferrous conversion for many years, has developed a variety of new processing techniques for ferrous and non-ferrous recovery. The processing technologies involve either shaft or rotary hearth furnaces, and can be both hydrocarbon or coal based. Recent developments have included conversion studies for ferrous and non-ferrous residual streams that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly. The technologies to be presented, predominantly coal based, include FASTMET®, FASTMELT®, and Itmk3®.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) sulfate heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food... nutrient supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heptahydrate, FeSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7782-63-0) is prepared by the action of sulfuric acid on iron. It occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... supplements as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter and as a processing aid as defined in §...

  13. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  14. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  15. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  16. Classroom Archaeology: An Archaeology Activity Guide for Teachers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nancy W.

    This guide describes archaeology activities appropriate for middle school students, but some activities can be used in intermediate and primary grades or high school and college classes. The activities range in length from less than one hour to 15 hours. A sequence of activities may be used together as a unit on archaeology, or individual…

  17. Indigenous Archaeology as Decolonizing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalay, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Archaeological methods of analysis, research directions, and theoretical approaches have changed dramatically since the early days of the discipline, and today archaeological research topics relate to various aspects of cultural heritage, representation, and identity that overlap with fields such as ethnic studies, cultural anthropology, art and…

  18. Archaeology on Film. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides a comprehensive guide to archaeological films and video tapes of archaeological interest. Individual films and film series are listed alphabetically by title. Each entry includes the following information: title, series, date, length, color/black & white, format, purchase and rental prices, distributor/rental source,…

  19. Biomarker in archaeological soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Glaser, Bruno; Schneeweiß, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomarkers in an archaeological context allow deeper insights into the understanding of anthropogenic (dark) earth formation and from an archaeological point of view, a completely new perspective on cultivation practices in the historic past. During an archaeological excavation of a Slavic settlement (10th/11th C. A.D.) in Brünkendorf (Wendland region in Northern Germany), a thick black soil (Nordic Dark Earth) was discovered that resembled the famous terra preta phenomenon. For the humid tropics, terra preta could act as model for sustainable agricultural practices and as example for long-term CO2-sequestration into terrestrial ecosystems. The question was whether this Nordic Dark Earth had similar properties and genesis as the famous Amazonian Dark Earth in order to find a model for sustainable agricultural practices and long term CO2-sequestration in temperate zones. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach was used to characterize the sandy-textured Nordic Dark Earth in comparison to less anthropogenically influenced soils in the adjacent area in respect of ecological conditions (e.g. amino sugar), input materials (faeces) and the presence of stable soil organic matter (black carbon). Amino sugar analyses showed that Nordic Dark Earth contained higher amounts of microbial residues being dominated by soil fungi. Faecal biomarkers such as stanols and bile acids indicated animal manure from omnivores and herbivores but also human excrements. Black carbon content of about 30 Mg ha-1 in the Nordic Dark Earth was about four times higher compared to the adjacent soil and in the same order of magnitude compared to terra preta. Our data strongly suggest parallels to anthropogenic soil formation in Amazonia and in Europe by input of organic wastes, faecal material and charred organic matter. An obvious difference was that in terra preta input of human-derived faecal material dominated while in NDE human-derived faecal material played only a minor role

  20. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    DOEpatents

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  1. Archaeology in Indiana: The Science Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James R., III, Ed.; Johnson, Amy, Ed.; Bennett, Pamela J., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue continues the Indiana Historical Bureau's collaboration with the Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. The articles include "The Science of Archaeology," chronicling the remarkable transformation of the science of archaeology to date; "Archaeology in Indiana," providing a brief…

  2. Chem I Supplement: Archaeological Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph B.

    1983-01-01

    Dating, conservation, prospection, and composition (knowledge of the composition of artifacts of other materials) are four applications of chemistry to archaeology. Examples of the latter application (composition) are discussed, focusing on procedures used and types of information obtained. (JN)

  3. UNESCO, URI, and Archaeology in the Deep Blue Sea: Archaeological Ethics and Archaeological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, William H.; Buxton, Bridget

    2012-12-01

    Multiple groups have interests that intersect within the field of deep submergence (beyond the 50 meter range of SCUBA) archaeology. These groups' differing priorities present challenges for interdisciplinary collaboration, particularly as there are no established guidelines for best practices in such scenarios. Associating the term `archaeology' with projects directed at underwater cultural heritage that are guided by archaeologists poses a real risk to that heritage. Recognizing that the relevant professional organizations, local laws, and conventions currently have little ability to protect pieces of cultural heritage across disciplines and international boundaries, the authors propose institution-specific mechanisms, called Archaeology Review Boards, guided by local and international laws and conventions concerning cultural heritage, as the best means to provide oversight for academically centered archaeological activities at the local level.

  4. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  5. Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W.

    1995-12-31

    Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

  6. The removal of hexavalent chromium from water by ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.J.J.; Vesilind, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    The redox reaction of hexavalent chromium and ferrous sulfate is investigated in his study. Hexavalent chromium, a highly toxic and mobile anion, could exist in raw water used as a public water supply due to the industrial chromium contamination of natural water or due to natural oxidation of trivalent chromium. Ferrous sulfate is one of the widely used coagulants in water treatment plants and has good reducing ability. Because of its reducing capacity, ferrous sulfate can be applied to remove hexavalent chromium from water. The required contact time to reach equilibrium, the effectiveness of Cr(VI) reduction at different initial pH, and the required ferrous sulfate dosage for complete reduction are investigated. The redox reaction can be completed within 10 minutes, allowing 30 mg/L of hexavalent chromium to react with stoichiometric dosage of ferrous sulfate in deionized water, regardless of the initial pH. The pH of the solution is depressed during the progress of the reaction due to the hydrolysis of the produced Fe(III) and Cr(III) ions from the reaction. Dissolved oxygen in water is found to interfere with the redox reaction by consuming ferrous ions when the initial pH of solutions is high. In deionized water, complete Cr(VI) reduction can be achieved by applying excess ferrous sulfate under the condition of this study. It is also achievable when the raw water from Durham Water Treatment Plant is used as the reaction medium, without additional dosage of ferrous sulfate. Based on the results, simultaneous removal of hexavalent chromium in water treatment by applying ferrous sulfate as the coagulant is theoretically feasible.

  7. METHOD OF FORMING A PROTECTIVE COATING ON FERROUS METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Weeks, J.R.; Kammerer, O.F.; Gurinsky, D.H.

    1960-02-23

    A method is described of protecting ferrous metal surfaces from corrosive attack by liquid metals, such as liquid bismuth or lead-bismuth alloys. The nitrogen content of the ferrous metal surface is first reduced by reacting the metal surface with a metal which forms a stable nitride. Thereafter, the surface is contacted with liquid metal containing at least 2 ppm zirconium at a temperature in the range of 550 to 1100 deg C to form an adherent zirconium carbide layer on the ferrous surface.

  8. The Future of GLOSS Sea Level Data Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, S.; Bradshaw, E.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Aarup, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long term climate records are rare, consisting of unique and unrepeatable measurements. However, data do exist in analogue form in archives, libraries and other repositories around the world. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Group of Experts aims to provide advice on locating hidden tide gauge data, scanning and digitising records and quality controlling the resulting data. Long sea level data time series are used in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports and climate studies, in oceanography to study changes in ocean currents, tides and storm surges, in geodesy to establish national datum and in geography and geology to monitor coastal land movement. GLOSS has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, which have mainly involved sending member organisations questionnaires on their repositories. The Group of Experts is now looking at future developments in sea level data archaeology and how new technologies coming on line could be used by member organisations to make data digitisation and transcription more efficient. Analogue tide data comes in two forms charts, which record the continuous measurements made by an instrument, usually via a pen trace on paper ledgers containing written values of observations The GLOSS data archaeology web pages will provide a list of software that member organisations have reported to be suitable for the automatic digitisation of tide gauge charts. Transcribing of ledgers has so far proved more labour intensive and is usually conducted by people entering numbers by hand. GLOSS is exploring using Citizen Science techniques, such as those employed by the Old Weather project, to improve the efficiency of transcribing ledgers. The Group of Experts is also looking at recent advances in Handwritten Text Recognition (HTR) technology, which mainly relies on patterns in the written word, but could be adapted to work with the patterns inherent in sea level data.

  9. Metallic Recovery and Ferrous Melting Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Luis Trueba

    2004-05-30

    The effects of melting atmosphere and charge material type on the metallic and alloy recovery of ferrous charge materials were investigated in two sets of experiments (Tasks 1 and 2). In addition, thermodynamic studies were performed (Task 3) to determine the suitability of ladle treatment for the production of ductile iron using scrap charge materials high in manganese and sulfur. Task 1--In the first set of experiments, the charge materials investigated were thin steel scrap, thick steel scrap, cast iron scrap, and pig iron in the rusty and clean states. Melting atmospheres in this set of experiments were varied by melting with and without a furnace cover. In this study, it was found that neither covered melting nor melting clean (non-rusty) ferrous charge materials improved the metallic recovery over the recovery experienced with uncovered melting or rusty charge materials. However, the silicon and manganese recoveries were greater with covered melting and clean materials. Silicon and manganese in the molten iron react with oxygen dissolved in the iron from uncovered melting and oxidized iron (surface rust). Silica and manganese silicates are formed which float to the slag decreasing recoveries of silicon and manganese. Cast iron and pig iron had higher metallic recoveries than steel scrap. Carbon recovery was affected by the carbon content of the charge materials, and not by the melting conditions. Irons with higher silicon contents had higher silicon recovery than irons with lower silicon contents. Task 2--In the second set of experiments, briquetted turnings and borings were used to evaluate the effects of briquette cleanliness, carbon additions, and melting atmosphere on metallic and alloy recovery. The melting atmosphere in this set of experiments was varied by melting in air and with an argon atmosphere using the SPAL process. In this set of experiments, carbon additions to the briquettes were found to have the greatest effect on metallic and alloy

  10. Archaeology Excavation Simulation: Correcting the Emphasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Museums offering archaeological programs often attempt to use the "sandbox approach" to simulate archaeological excavation work. However, in light of the definition of simulation, and given the realities of actual professional practice in archaeological excavation, the author argues that the activity of troweling for artifacts in loose sand places…

  11. Ferrous iron partitioning in the lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Joshua M. R.; Brodholt, John P.

    2016-08-01

    We used density functional theory (DFT) to examine the partitioning of ferrous iron between periclase and bridgmanite under lower mantle conditions. To study the effects of the three major variables - pressure, temperature and concentration - these have been varied from 0 to 150 GPa, from 1000 to 4000 K and from 0 to 100% total iron content. We find that increasing temperature increases KD, increasing iron concentration decreases KD, while pressure can both increase and decrease KD. We find that KD decreases slowly from about 0.32 to 0.06 with depth under lower mantle conditions. We also find that KD increases sharply to 0.15 in the very lowermost mantle due to the strong temperature increases near the CMB. Spin transitions have a large effect on the activity of ferropericlase which causes KD to vary with pressure in a peak-like fashion. Despite the apparently large changes in KD through the mantle, this actually results in relatively small changes in total iron content in the two phases, with XFefp ranging from about 0.20 to 0.35, before decreasing again to about 0.28 at the CMB, and XFebd has a pretty constant value of about 0.04-0.07 throughout the lower mantle. For the very high Fe concentrations suggested for ULVZs, Fe partitions very strongly into ferropericlase.

  12. Pulsed laser surface hardening of ferrous alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Reed, C. B.; Leong, K. H.; Hunter, B. V.

    1999-09-30

    A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser and special optics were used to produce surface hardening on 1045 steel and gray cast iron by varying the process parameters. Unlike CO{sub 2} lasers, where absorptive coatings are required, the higher absorptivity of ferrous alloys at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength eliminates the necessity of applying a coating before processing. Metallurgical analysis of the treated tracks showed that very fine and hard martensitic microstructure (1045 steel) or inhomogeneous martensite (gray cast iron) were obtained without surface melting, giving maximum hardness of HRC 61 and HRC 40 for 1045 steel and gray cast iron respectively. The corresponding maximum case depths for both alloys at the above hardness are 0.6 mm. Gray cast iron was more difficult to harden without surface melting because of its lower melting temperature and a significantly longer time-at-temperature required to diffuse carbon atoms from the graphite flakes into the austenite matrix during laser heating. The thermal distortion was characterized in term of flatness changes after surface hardening.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Cast Ferrous Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R. R.; Chakrabarti, A. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-02-01

    TiC/SiC reinforced cast ferrous composites have been prepared by smelting red mud—30 pct charcoal briquettes in a 20-kg basic lined, single-phase direct arc furnace. Elements like silicon, aluminum, zirconium, and so on are also reduced from their respective oxides in the red mud and dissolved in the ferrous matrix. TiC/SiC particulates in the composite grow in a typical spiraling fashion.

  14. Introductory Archaeology: The Inexpensive Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a number of student-focused laboratory exercises that are inexpensive, yet show the scientific character of archaeology. Describes the environmental laboratory exercise which includes the following analysis topics: (1) pollen; (2) earth core; (3) microfaunal; and (4) microwear. Describes the ceramic laboratory which involves…

  15. Archaeology for the Seventh Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Sara L.; Modzelewski, Darren; Panich, Lee M.; Schneider, Tsim D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the 2004 summer field program, the Kashaya Pomo Interpretive Trail Project (KPITP), which is an extension of the Fort Ross Archaeological Project (FRAP). Both are collaborative projects involving UC Berkeley, the California Department of Parks and Recreation, and the Kashaya Pomo tribe. The project attempts to integrate the…

  16. Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and…

  17. Ferrous iron sorption by hydrous metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Nano, Genevieve Villaseñor; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2006-05-15

    Ferrous iron is critical to a number of biogeochemical processes that occur in heterogeneous aquatic environments, including the abiotic reductive transformation of subsurface contaminants. The sorption of Fe(II) to ubiquitous soil minerals, particularly iron-free mineral phases, is not well understood. Colloidal TiO2, gamma-AlOOH, and gamma-Al2O2 were used as model hydrous oxides to investigate Fe(II) sorption to iron-free mineral surfaces. Rapid Fe(II) sorption during the first few hours is followed by a much slower uptake process that continues for extended periods (at least 30 days). For equivalent solution conditions, the extent of Fe(II) sorption decreases in the order TiO2 >gamma-Al2O3 >gamma-AlOOH. Short-term equilibrium sorption data measured over a wide range of conditions (pH, ionic strength, Fe(II)-to-sorbent ratio) are well described by the diffuse double layer model. Fe(II) sorption to TiO2 is best described by a single-site model that considers formation of two surface complexes, SOFe+ and SOFeOH0. For gamma-AlOOH and gamma-Al2O3, sorption data are best described by a two-site model that considers formation of SOFe+ complexes at weak- and strong-binding surface sites. Accurate description of sorption data for higher Fe(II) concentrations at alkaline pH conditions requires the inclusion of a Fe(II) surface precipitation reaction in the model formulation. The presence of common groundwater constituents (calcium, sulfate, bicarbonate, or fulvic acid) had no significant effect on Fe(II) sorption. These results demonstrate that iron-free soil minerals can exert a significant influence on Fe(II) sorption and speciation in heterogeneous aquatic systems. PMID:16337955

  18. Ferrous iron content of intravenous iron formulations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Pratt, Raymond D; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2016-06-01

    The observed biological differences in safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron formulations are attributable to physicochemical differences. In addition to differences in carbohydrate shell, polarographic signatures due to ferric iron [Fe(III)] and ferrous iron [Fe(II)] differ among IV iron formulations. Intravenous iron contains Fe(II) and releases labile iron in the circulation. Fe(II) generates toxic free radicals and reactive oxygen species and binds to bacterial siderophores and other in vivo sequestering agents. To evaluate whether differences in Fe(II) content may account for some observed biological differences between IV iron formulations, samples from multiple lots of various IV iron formulations were dissolved in 12 M concentrated HCl to dissociate and release all iron and then diluted with water to achieve 0.1 M HCl concentration. Fe(II) was then directly measured using ferrozine reagent and ultraviolet spectroscopy at 562 nm. Total iron content was measured by adding an excess of ascorbic acid to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), and Fe(II) was then measured by ferrozine assay. The Fe(II) concentration as a proportion of total iron content [Fe(III) + Fe(II)] in different lots of IV iron formulations was as follows: iron gluconate, 1.4 and 1.8 %; ferumoxytol, 0.26 %; ferric carboxymaltose, 1.4 %; iron dextran, 0.8 %; and iron sucrose, 10.2, 15.5, and 11.0 % (average, 12.2 %). The average Fe(II) content in iron sucrose was, therefore, ≥7.5-fold higher than in the other IV iron formulations. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between Fe(II) content and increased risk of oxidative stress and infections with iron sucrose. PMID:26956439

  19. Archaeology as a social science.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Feinman, Gary M; Drennan, Robert D; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-05-15

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  20. Archaeology as a social science

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael E.; Feinman, Gary M.; Drennan, Robert D.; Earle, Timothy; Morris, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in methods and theory, archaeology now addresses issues central to debates in the social sciences in a far more sophisticated manner than ever before. Coupled with methodological innovations, multiscalar archaeological studies around the world have produced a wealth of new data that provide a unique perspective on long-term changes in human societies, as they document variation in human behavior and institutions before the modern era. We illustrate these points with three examples: changes in human settlements, the roles of markets and states in deep history, and changes in standards of living. Alternative pathways toward complexity suggest how common processes may operate under contrasting ecologies, populations, and economic integration. PMID:22547811

  1. Natural analogue studies as supplements to biomineralization research

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Chemical reactions can alter the chemistry and crystal structure of solid objects over archeological or geological times, while preserving external physical shapes. The reactions resulting in these structures offer natural analogues to laboratory experiments in biomineralization and to biologically influenced alteration of nuclear waste packages, and thus, they offer the only available way of validating models that purport waste package behavior over archaeological or geological times. Potential uses of such analogues in the construction and validation of hypothetical mechanisms of microbiological corrosion and biomineralization are reviewed. Evidence from such analogues suggests that biofilms can control materials alteration in ways usually overlooked. The newly hypothesized mechanisms involve control by biofilms of the cation flow near the solid surface and offer plausible mechanisms for the formation of mixed-cation minerals under conditions that would lead to dealloying in abiotic experiments; they also account for the formation of unusual minerals [such as posnjakite, Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6{center_dot}}H{sub 2}O] and mineral morphologies unusual in corrosion [malachite, Cu{sub 2}CO{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}, rarely forms botryoidally under corrosion conditions and its occasional presence on archaeological objects that appear to have undergone microbiological corrosion may be related to biofilm phenomena].

  2. The origin of ferrous zoning in Allende chondrule olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, J. A.; Wood, J. A.

    1987-06-01

    Very similar major and minor element compositions are noted in the ferrous olivine occurring in chondrules at olivine grain boundaries, along cracks in olivine grains, interleaved with enstatite, and in the inner portions of exposed olivine grain surface rims; simultaneous formation by a single process is therefore suggested. The ferrous chondrule olivine probably formed by the reaction of chondrules with very hot nebular vapors over a period of several hours, followed by the condensation of residual metal vapors onto those olivine surfaces that were in direct contact with the gas as the system cooled. The ferrous chondrule olivine that occurs interleaved with enstatite in Allende does not have a composition identical to, and is not the precursor of, matrix olivine.

  3. Iron isotopes in an Archean ocean analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busigny, Vincent; Planavsky, Noah J.; Jézéquel, Didier; Crowe, Sean; Louvat, Pascale; Moureau, Julien; Viollier, Eric; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-05-01

    Iron isotopes have been extensively used to trace the history of microbial metabolisms and the redox evolution of the oceans. Archean sedimentary rocks display greater variability in iron isotope ratios and more markedly negative values than those deposited in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. This increased variability has been linked to changes in either water column iron cycling or the extent of benthic microbial iron reduction through time. We tested these contrasting scenarios through a detailed study of anoxic and ferruginous Lac Pavin (France), which can serve as a modern analogue of the Archean ocean. A depth-profile in the water column of Lac Pavin shows a remarkable increase in dissolved Fe concentration (0.1-1200 μM) and δ56Fe values (-2.14‰ to +0.31‰) across the oxic-anoxic boundary to the lake bottom. The largest Fe isotope variability is found at the redox boundary and is related to partial oxidation of dissolved ferrous iron, leaving the residual Fe enriched in light isotopes. The analysis of four sediment cores collected along a lateral profile (one in the oxic layer, one at the redox boundary, one in the anoxic zone, and one at the bottom of the lake) indicates that bulk sediments, porewaters, and reactive Fe mostly have δ56Fe values near 0.0 ± 0.2‰, similar to detrital iron. In contrast, pyrite δ56Fe values in sub-chemocline cores (60, 65, and 92 m) are highly variable and show significant deviations from the detrital iron isotope composition (δ56Fepyrite between -1.51‰ and +0.09‰; average -0.93‰). Importantly, the pyrite δ56Fe values mirror the δ56Fe of dissolved iron at the redox boundary—where near quantitative sulfate and sulfide drawdown occurs—suggesting limited iron isotope fractionation during iron sulfide formation. This finding has important implications for the Archean environment. Specifically, this work suggests that in a ferruginous system, most of the Fe isotope variability observed in sedimentary pyrites can

  4. Archaeological resource management plan of the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This Archaeological Resource management Plan addresses the future cultural resource management needs of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The archaeological information contained herein is based on prehistoric and historic archaeological syntheses prepared by the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) for the SRS. The syntheses also address future research directions that will facilitate better management of the cultural resources. This document is a prelude to a Programmatic Memorandum of Agreement (PMOA) which, in conjunction with this Archaeological Resource Management Plan, will assure SRS continued compliance with all applicable federal laws and regulations in concert with any DOE plans, policies and directives. 225 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Photogrammetric Archaeological Survey with UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouget, A.; Lucet, G.

    2014-05-01

    This document describes a way to obtain various photogrammetric products from aerial photograph using a drone. The aim of the project was to develop a methodology to obtain information for the study of the architecture of pre-Columbian archaeological sites in Mexico combining the manoeuvrability and low cost of a drone with the accuracy of the results of the open source photogrammetric MicMac software. It presents the UAV and the camera used, explains how to manipulate it to carry out stereoscopic photographs, the flight and camera parameters chosen, the treatments performed to obtain orthophotos and 3D models with a centimetric resolution, and finally outlines the quality of the results.

  6. Cu(II) - Catalyzed Hydrazine Reduction of Ferrous Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a study of catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferrous nitrate. It is apparent that there is a substantial reaction between hydrazine and nitrate ion (or nitric acid) to produce HN3 during both the reduction of Fe(III) and during storage at room temperature.

  7. LIMESTONE AND LIME NEUTRALIZATION OF FERROUS IRON ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a 2-yr study on hydrated lime and rock-dust limestone neutralization of acid mine drainage containing ferrous iron at the EPA Crown Mine Drainage Control Field Site near Rivesville, West Virginia. The study investigated optimizat...

  8. Method for the preparation of ferrous low carbon porous material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Curtis Jack

    2014-05-27

    A method for preparing a porous metal article using a powder metallurgy forming process is provided which eliminates the conventional steps associated with removing residual carbon. The method uses a feedstock that includes a ferrous metal powder and a polycarbonate binder. The polycarbonate binder can be removed by thermal decomposition after the metal article is formed without leaving a carbon residue.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1307c - Ferrous citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous citrate. 184.1307c Section 184.1307c Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1307d - Ferrous fumarate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 120-122, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous fumarate. 184.1307d Section 184.1307d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  11. Decolonizing Indigenous Archaeology: Developments from Down Under

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claire; Jackson, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss recent developments in the decolonization of Australian archaeology. From the viewpoint of Indigenous Australians, much archaeological and anthropological research has been nothing more than a tool of colonial exploitation. For the last twenty years, many have argued for greater control over research and for a…

  12. Archaeology Informs Our Understanding of Ancient Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mull, Kenneth V.

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the importance and utility of archaeology for understanding ancient texts and revealing how they illuminate biblical meaning and history. Presents guidelines showing classroom teachers how to incorporate archaeological knowledge into their lessons. Describes current Middle Eastern excavation sites, using Jerusalem as a case study.…

  13. Orange but not apple juice enhances ferrous fumarate absorption in small children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrous fumarate is a common, inexpensive iron form increasingly used instead of ferrous sulfate as a food iron supplement. However, few data exist as to whether juices enhance iron absorption from ferrous fumarate. We studied 21 children, ages 4.0 to 7.9 years using a randomized crossover design. S...

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE RATES AND PRODUCTS OF FERROUS IRON OXIDATION IN ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED POND WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved ferrous iron and arsenic in the presence of insufficient oxygenated ground water is released into a pond. When the mixing of ferrous iron and oxygenated water within the pond occurs, the ferrous iron is oxidized and precipitated as an iron oxide. Groups of experiments...

  15. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  16. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  17. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  18. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  19. 48 CFR 452.236-73 - Archaeological or Historic Sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Archaeological or Historic... Archaeological or Historic Sites. As prescribed in 436.573, insert the following clause: Archaeological or Historic Sites (FEB 1988) If a previously unidentified archaeological or historic site(s) is...

  20. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12 Section 1104.12 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources...

  1. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  2. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  3. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  4. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  5. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  6. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  7. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  8. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  9. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  10. 22 CFR 1104.12 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1104.12..., UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.12 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  11. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain...

  12. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  13. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13 Section 7.13 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public...

  14. 43 CFR 7.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a... location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager...

  15. Magnetometry and archaeological prospection in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba Pingarron, L.; Laboratorio de Prospeccion Arqueologica

    2013-05-01

    Luis Barba Laboratorio de Prospección Arqueológica Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México The first magnetic survey in archaeological prospection was published in 1958 in the first number of Archaeometry, in Oxford. That article marked the beginning of this applications to archaeology. After that, magnetic field measurements have become one of the most important and popular prospection tools. Its most outstanding characteristic is the speed of survey that allows to cover large areas in short time. As a consequence, it is usually the first approach to study a buried archaeological site. The first attempts in Mexico were carried out in 196. Castillo and Urrutia, among other geophysical techniques, used a magnetometer to study the northern part of the main plaza, zocalo, in Mexico City to locate some stone Aztec sculptures. About the same time Morrison et al. in La Venta pyramid used a magnetometer to measure total magnetic field trying to find a substructure. Some years later Brainer and Coe made a magnetic survey to locate large stone Olmec heads in San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan, Veracruz. Technology development has provided everyday more portable and accurate instruments to measure the magnetic field. The first total magnetic field proton magnetometers were followed by differential magnetometers and more recently gradiometers. Presently, multiple sensor magnetometers are widely used in European archaeology. The trend has been to remove the environmental and modern interference and to make more sensitive the instruments to the superficial anomalies related to most of the archaeological sites. There is a close relationship between the geology of the region and the way magnetometry works in archaeological sites. Archaeological prospection in Europe usually needs very sensitive instruments to detect slight magnetic contrast of ditches in old sediments. In contrast, volcanic conditions in Mexico produce large magnetic contrast

  16. Advancing the Documentation of Buried Archaeological Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, W.; Doneus, M.; Trinks, I.

    2012-07-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology, in collaboration with its nine European partner organisations, is the advancement of the state-of-the-art. This goal will be achieved by focusing on the development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications. Main focus will be placed on novel integrated interpretation approaches combining cutting-edge near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science.

  17. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, Devin A

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  18. Microbial Reduction of Ferrous Arsenate: Biogeochemical Implications for Arsenic Mobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Babechuk, M.; Weisener, C.G.; Fryer, B.; Paktunc, D.; Maunders, C.

    2010-11-12

    In reduced aqueous environments, the presence of As in solution is a function of both biotic and abiotic mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant release of As(III) through the microbial reduction of dissolved and mineral-bound As(V), which raises health concerns when the greater comparative mobility and toxicity of As(III) is considered. These release mechanisms do not operate in isolation but occur in concert with a number of removal processes, including secondary mineralization and sorption to other natural substrates. Thermodynamic and applied experimental studies have shown that ferrous arsenates, such as symplesite [Fe(II){sub 3}(As(V)O{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O], may provide a significant sink for Fe(II) and As(V). In this study, the stability of a representative ferrous arsenate phase in the presence of the arsenate-reducing bacterium Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 is examined. The reduction of ferrous arsenate by ANA-3 results in the release of aqueous As(III) and, subsequently, the progressive nucleation of a biogenic ferrous arsenite phase proximal to the microbial cells. The valence states of secondary solid-phase products were verified using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Electron microscopy reveals that nucleation occurs on cellular exudates which may imply a role of extracellular reduction through c-type cytochromes as investigated in recent literature. These observations provide new insights into the reduction mechanisms of ANA-3 and the biogeochemical cycling of As(III) in natural systems.

  19. Anaerobic ferrous oxidation by heterotrophic denitrifying enriched culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru; Zheng, Ping; Xing, Ya-Juan; Zhang, Meng; Ghulam, Abbas; Zhao, Zhi-Qing; Li, Wei; Wang, Lan

    2014-05-01

    Heterotrophic denitrifying enriched culture (DEC) from a lab-scale high-rate denitrifying reactor was discovered to perform nitrate-dependent anaerobic ferrous oxidation (NAFO). The DEC was systematically investigated to reveal their denitrification activity, their NAFO activity, and the predominant microbial population. The DEC was capable of heterotrophic denitrification with methanol as the electron donor, and autotrophic denitrification with ferrous salt as the electron donor named NAFO. The conversion ratios of ferrous-Fe and nitrate-N were 87.41 and 98.74 %, and the consumption Fe/N ratio was 2.3:1 (mol/mol). The maximum reaction velocity and half saturation constant of Fe were 412.54 mg/(l h) and 8,276.44 mg/l, and the counterparts of N were 20.87 mg/(l h) and 322.58 mg/l, respectively. The predominant bacteria were Hyphomicrobium, Thauera, and Flavobacterium, and the predominant archaea were Methanomethylovorans, Methanohalophilus, and Methanolobus. The discovery of NAFO by heterotrophic DEC is significant for the development of wastewater treatment and the biogeochemical iron cycle and nitrogen cycle. PMID:24619339

  20. The present state of nuclear archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, H.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear archaeology might be construed as subsuming any archaeological measurement that depends on nuclear phenomena. Thus defined, nuclear archaeology would include, for example, radiocarbon dating and potassium-argon dating as well as neutron activation analysis (NAA). In these applications, neutron activation analysis is used to characterize human skeletal and artifactual remains in order to answer questions that presumably are of concern to archaeologists. The characterization of human bone by NAA is intended to contribute to reconstructing the diets of ancient people. Unfortunately, a number of studies show that many trace elements of potential use in dietary reconstruction are dramatically altered by conditions in the burial environment. One step toward ruling out diagenetic sources of chemical variation is to analyze soil from the burial environment.The usefulness of NAA applied to archaeological specimens is briefly discussed.

  1. Tsunamis in the New Zealand archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadgen, B. G.; Goff, J. R.

    2007-08-01

    Historical and geological records both indicate tsunami inundation of New Zealand in the 700 years since the first human settlement. In addition, Maori oral traditions refer to unusual waves that might have been tsunami waves, although the accounts are open to other interpretations. Tsunami evidence has rarely been proposed from archaeological sites, primarily because of a limited understanding of the requisite evidence and environmental context. We list a criteria suggesting possible tsunami inundation of archaeological sites based upon geoarchaeological data, and use them in a case study from the Archaic Maori occupation site at Wairau Bar. The list is possibly incomplete, but indicates that archaeological investigations can gain from assessments of changing environmental conditions through time at any individual site. Our intention is not to prove tsunami inundation; rather, it is to point to archaeological sites as possible sources of information. We highlight the potential of the Wairau Bar site for further investigation.

  2. Application of Spaceborne Remote Sensing to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceborne remote sensing data have been underutilized in archaeology for a variety of seasons that are slowly but surely being overcome. Difficulties have included cost/availability of data, inadequate resolution, and data processing issues.

  3. Use of INAA in archaeology in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Kilikoglou, V.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a very sensitive and accurate multi-element analytical method that is widely applied to the investigation of archaeological problems. Elemental composition of an archaeological material, besides form and decoration style, may give supplementary information of the origin of the material. This paper is a review of provenance studies, based on minor and trace element research, of ancient books, ceramics, obsidian, flint, limestone, marble, and lead by INAA performed at the authors' radioanalytical laboratory.

  4. New Developments in Galactic Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Kenneth C.; HERMES/GALAH Team

    2014-01-01

    The goal of Galactic Archaeology is to unravel observationally the events that occurred during the assembly of the Milky Way. For example, how did the star formation rate and the mass spectrum of the star-forming clusters change with time since the Galaxy began to form, how much did minor mergers and accretion of satellite galaxies contribute to the stellar content of the Galactic components, and how did the chemical properties of the Galaxy evolve? The data for Galactic Archaeology include the phase space coordinates of stars (position and velocity) and the chemical space coordinates (abundances of up to about 30 chemical elements). Although we know that the distribution of individual elements contains important information about the star formation history and chemical evolution of the Galaxy, the available data for large samples of stars has so far restricted the use of chemical space data mainly to the overall metallicity and the alpha-element enhancement. We are entering an era of large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys in which the abundances of many elements from all of the major nucleosynthesis processes will be measured. It will be possible to use chemical tagging techniques to identify the debris of individual dispersed star forming aggregates. In combination with astrometry from the Gaia mission, it will be possible to derive ages for this recovered star formation debris, and build up the star formation history of the regions of the Milky Way accessible to these large surveys. The Galactic thick disk is of particular interest. Because almost all disk galaxies appear to have an old thick disk, thick disks are an important but as yet poorly understood part of the formation process for disk galaxies. Some theories of thick disk formation associate the thick disk with the large star-bursting complexes seen in proto-disk galaxies at high redshift. If the Galactic thick disk was built in this way, from a relatively small number of large aggregates, it will

  5. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  6. Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, George P.

    2006-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, the practice of archaeology has been strongly influenced by issues of First Nations rights and the ways government and industry have chosen to address them. In turn, this situation has affected academic (i.e., research-based) and consulting (i.e., cultural resource management) archaeology, which have had to respond to…

  7. Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

    2001-12-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

  8. Mercury emission and behavior in primary ferrous metal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Naomichi; Takaoka, Masaki; Doumoto, Shingo; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Mizuno, Tadao

    2011-07-01

    Ferrous metal production is thought to be a major mercury emission source because it uses large amounts of coal and iron ore, which contain trace amounts of mercury impurities. However, there is limited information about mercury emissions during the production process. In this study, we focused on the coke-oven process, sintering furnace process, and blast furnace process. We measured the mercury concentration in the raw materials, products, and byproducts to estimate the amount of mercury emitted and to investigate the behavior of mercury during the processes. Average mercury concentrations were 30.8 μg kg -1 in 54 samples of iron ore and 59.9 μg kg -1 in 33 samples of coal. The total mercury used for ferrous metal production in Japan was estimated to be 8.45 tons in 2005, with 4.07 tons from iron ore, 3.76 tons from coal, and 0.478 tons from limestone. Emissions from the sintering process accounted for more than 90% of the total emissions, and mercury in the exhaust gas was reduced using an activated coke tower and desulfurization equipment installed downstream of an electrostatic precipitator. When byproduct gas generated from coke-oven and blast furnace processes were included, mercury emissions estimates based on actual measurements were 4.08 tons y -1 (in 2005). Thus, about 50% of the mercury input in ferrous metal production was emitted to the atmosphere. The emission factor was calculated as 0.0488 g Hg ton -1 for crude steel production. The introduction of activated coke tower or desulfurization equipment in sintering furnace facilities would reduce mercury emissions.

  9. Overview of Lightweight Ferrous Materials: Strategies and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Radhakanta; Lahaye, Chris; Ray, Ranjit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Reducing the density of steels is a novel approach for weight reduction of automobiles to improve fuel efficiency. In this overview article, strategies for the development of lightweight steels are presented with a focus on bulk ferrous alloys. The metallurgical principles of these steels and their mechanical properties of relevance to automotive applications are discussed. Some of the engineering aspects highlighting the possible problems related to mass production of these steels are also considered. Application prospects of these steels vis-à-vis standard automotive steels are shown.

  10. Overview of Lightweight Ferrous Materials: Strategies and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Radhakanta; Lahaye, Chris; Ray, Ranjit Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Reducing the density of steels is a novel approach for weight reduction of automobiles to improve fuel efficiency. In this overview article, strategies for the development of lightweight steels are presented with a focus on bulk ferrous alloys. The metallurgical principles of these steels and their mechanical properties of relevance to automotive applications are discussed. Some of the engineering aspects highlighting the possible problems related to mass production of these steels are also considered. Application prospects of these steels vis-à-vis standard automotive steels are shown.

  11. Archaeological Narratives and Other Ways of Telling.

    PubMed

    Pluciennik

    1999-12-01

    With a few exceptions, archaeologists have been far less concerned with the form of their texts or problems of authorship than have ethnographers. Typically, archaeologies are presented in the form of narratives understood as sequential stories. Approaches to narrative analysis drawn from literary theory, philosophy, and sociology and definitions of characters, events, and plots are examined, together with particular problems these may pose for the discipline of archaeology. It is suggested that neither literary analysis nor the tendency to write and evaluate archaeological and historical narratives in terms of explanatory value takes sufficient account of the often hybrid nature and aims of these texts and the contexts in which they were produced. This argument is illustrated with particular reference to stories of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Europe. It is argued that reconsidering archaeology's positioning across the 19th-century science-humanities divide suggests a broader approach to the idea of what constitutes a narrative which can offer fresh opportunities for useful reflexivity and experimentation in presentation. Further roles and possibilities of narrative and non-narrative ways of writing archaeologies are also considered. PMID:10539944

  12. Structural Analogues of Selfotel.

    PubMed

    Dziuganowska, Zofia A; Ślepokura, Katarzyna; Volle, Jean-Noël; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Kafarski, Paweł

    2016-06-17

    A small library of phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids, analogues of NMDA antagonist selfotel (CGS 19755), was synthesized. First, the series of aromatic esters was obtained via a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction (Hirao coupling) of dialkyl phosphites with bromopyridinecarboxylates, followed by their hydrolysis. Then, hydrogenation of the resulting phosphonopyridylcarboxylic acids over PtO2 yielded the desired phosphonopiperidylcarboxylic acids. NMR studies indicated that the hydrogenation reaction proceeds predominantly by cis addition. Several compounds were obtained as monocrystal structures. Preliminary biological studies performed on cultures of neurons suggest that the obtained compounds possess promising activity toward NMDA receptors. PMID:27187758

  13. Tryptophan-to-heme electron transfer in ferrous myoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Monni, Roberto; Al Haddad, André; van Mourik, Frank; Auböck, Gerald; Chergui, Majed

    2015-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that in ferric myoglobins (Mb) the fluorescence quenching of the photoexcited tryptophan 14 (*Trp14) residue is in part due to an electron transfer to the heme porphyrin (porph), turning it to the ferrous state. However, the invariance of *Trp decay times in ferric and ferrous Mbs raises the question as to whether electron transfer may also be operative in the latter. Using UV pump/visible probe transient absorption, we show that this is indeed the case for deoxy-Mb. We observe that the reduction generates (with a yield of about 30%) a low-valence Fe–porphyrin π [FeII(porph●−)] -anion radical, which we observe for the first time to our knowledge under physiological conditions. We suggest that the pathway for the electron transfer proceeds via the leucine 69 (Leu69) and valine 68 (Val68) residues. The results on ferric Mbs and the present ones highlight the generality of Trp–porphyrin electron transfer in heme proteins. PMID:25902517

  14. Analyzing the International Exergy Flow Network of Ferrous Metal Ores

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Hai; An, Haizhong; Hao, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yanbing

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs an un-weighted and weighted exergy network to study the properties of ferrous metal ores in countries worldwide and their evolution from 2002 to 2012. We find that there are few countries controlling most of the ferrous metal ore exports in terms of exergy and that the entire exergy flow network is becoming more heterogeneous though the addition of new nodes. The increasing of the average clustering coefficient indicates that the formation of an international exergy flow system and regional integration is improving. When we contrast the average out strength of exergy and the average out strength of currency, we find both similarities and differences. Prices are affected largely by human factors; thus, the growth rate of the average out strength of currency has fluctuated acutely in the eleven years from 2002 to 2012. Exergy is defined as the maximum work that can be extracted from a system and can reflect the true cost in the world, and this parameter fluctuates much less. Performing an analysis based on the two aspects of exergy and currency, we find that the network is becoming uneven. PMID:25188407

  15. Lung cancer in ferrous foundry workers: a review.

    PubMed

    Palmer, W G; Scott, W D

    1981-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that an increased incidence of lung cancer may be associated with specific work areas in ferrous foundries. With the exception of crane operators, who were found to have an elevated lung cancer rate in one foundry, the excess lung cancer incidence is generally confined to molders, casters, and cleaning room operators whose lung cancer risk is two- to threefold higher than that of standard populations. These studies reflect conditions that existed in the foundries several decades ago. The lung cancer risk today may differ as a result of the introduction of new foundry practices and the use of new molding materials. Benzo(a)pyrene and certain other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been found in many locations in the foundries. It is not known if tumor promoters, co-carcinogens, or other classes of chemical carcinogens are present. The contribution of tobacco smoke to the lung cancer risk of ferrous foundry workers is also unknown. Current studies are examining the composition and long-term health effects of emissions from molds composed of modern synthetic chemical molding materials as well as those from the more traditional green sand molds. PMID:7013460

  16. Analogue-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analogue Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses circuits for three-bit and four-bit analogue digital converters and digital analogue converters. These circuits feature slow operating speeds that enable the circuitry to be used to demonstrate the mode of operation using oscilloscopes and signal generators. (DDR)

  17. Shoshone Spirituality Archaeological Interpretation in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P. A.; Marler, Clayton Fay

    2001-03-01

    Tribal people in southeast Idaho sincerely desire that archaeologists include Shoshone concepts of spirituality when investigating archaeological materials and sites. However, most archaeologists and resource managers have little understanding about these concepts and this creates difficulties. We examine two important aspects of the Shoshone soul, Mugua’ and Nabushi’aipe, and discuss how understanding these attributes aid in explaining why certain archaeological remains are considered sacred. A greater understanding of Shoshone spirituality will begin to bridge the needs of both tribal people and archaeologists.

  18. UAS imaging for archaeological survey and documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Fallavollita, P.; Melis, M. G.; Balsi, M.; Jankowski, S.

    2013-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are extensively used in diverse fields, wherever inexpensive and easy-to-deploy platforms are required for close-range remote sensing. Applications proposed in archaeology to date include ortho-photography and 3-D modeling. On the other hand, use of image processing and feature detection methods, well developed in other fields is hardly used. After reviewing technologies and methods for UAS-based surveying and surface modeling, we propose feature detection methods (e.g. line detection, texture segmentation) dedicated to extraction of structures in the images that are significant for archaeological survey, planning, and documentation and show results on selected case studies.

  19. Pajarito Plateau archaeological surveys and excavations. II

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, C R

    1982-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its archaeological program of data gathering and salvage excavations. Sites recently added to the archaeological survey are described, as well as the results of five excavations. Among the more interesting and important discoveries are (1) the apparently well-established local use of anhydrous lime, and (2) a late pre-Columbian use of earlier house sites and middens for garden plots. Evidence indicated that the local puebloan population was the result of an expansion of upper Rio Grande peoples, not an influx of migrants.

  20. Oxygen consumption by conserved archaeological wood.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin N; Matthiesen, Henning

    2013-07-01

    Rates of oxygen consumption have been measured over extended time periods for 29 whole samples of conserved, archaeological wood and four samples of fresh, unconserved wood, at 50% relative humidity and room temperature. Samples from the Swedish Warship Vasa and the Danish Skuldelev Viking ships are included. Most rates were close to 1 μg O2 (g wood)(-1) day(-1) and the process persisted for several years at least. Consumption of oxygen is related to change in chemical composition, which is, in turn, related to degradation. It is thus demonstrated that despite conservation, waterlogged archaeological wood continues to degrade in a museum climate. PMID:23715675

  1. Treatment of mild non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia in cancer patients: comparison between oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Paola; Nicolini, Andrea; Manca, Maria Laura; Rossi, Giuseppe; Anselmi, Loretta; Conte, Massimo; Carpi, Angelo; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2012-09-01

    In cancer patients mild-moderate non-chemotherapy-induced iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is usually treated with oral iron salts, mostly ferrous sulfate. In this study, we compare efficacy and toxicity of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate and ferrous sulfate in cancer patients with mild IDA. Twenty-four patients operated on for solid tumors (10 breast, 12 colorectal, 2 gastric), aged 61±10 years (range 45-75), with non-chemotherapy-induced hemoglobin (Hb) values between 10 and 12 g/dL and ferritin lower than 30 ng/mL were randomized to receive oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate, 28 mg per day for 20 days, and then 14 mg per day for 40 days (12 patients) (A group) or oral ferrous sulphate, 105 mg per day for 60 days (12 patients) (B group). Values of hemoglobin and ferritin obtained at diagnosis, 1 and 2 months from the beginning of treatment were compared. Adverse events (AEs) related to the two treatments were recorded. In the 12 patients treated with ferrous bisglycinate chelate, basal hemoglobin and ferritin values (mean±SD) were 11.6±0.8 g/dL and 16.1±8.0 ng/mL. After 2 months of treatment, they were 13.0±1.4 g/dL and 33.8±22.0 ng/mL, respectively (P=0.0003 and P=0.020). In the group treated with ferrous sulphate, hemoglobin and ferritin mean values were 11.3±0.6 g/dL and 19.0±6.4 ng/mL basally, and 12.7±0.70 g/dL and 40.8±28.1 ng/mL (P<0.0001 and P=0.017) after 2 months of treatment. AEs occurred in six cases. In all these six cases, two (17%) treated with ferrous bisglycinate chelate and four (33%) with ferrous sulphate, toxicity was grade 1. In conclusion, these data suggest that ferrous bisglycinate chelate has similar efficacy and likely lower GI toxicity than ferrous sulphate given at the conventional dose of 105 mg per day for the same time. PMID:22795809

  2. Maturing Gracefully? Curriculum Standards for History and Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the similarities and differences between the disciplines of history and archaeology. Examines the standards and principles recently proposed for teaching history and archaeology to determine the areas of difference and commonality. Addresses the issues of historical and archaeological thinking describing each in detail. (CMK)

  3. Transformations of the Past: Teachers' Knowledge of North American Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that archaeology education should be included within the social studies curriculum and addresses various reasons why archaeology has been ignored within the classroom. Presents the findings from a survey that investigated preservice and experienced teachers' knowledge of archaeology. Concludes that there is a need for teacher preparation on…

  4. 32 CFR 229.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 229.13 Section 229.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a)...

  5. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1104.17 Section 1104.17 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information....

  6. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  7. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  8. 22 CFR 1104.17 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.17 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Commissioner shall not make available to the...

  9. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  10. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  11. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  12. Archaeology for Dance: An Approach to Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez y. Royo, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes that existing methodologies for dance studies can be extended through consideration of recently developing methodologies from social archaeology. It is first argued that an archaeological perspective on dance is enriching for archaeology, whose recent interest in dance as a focus of investigation can be seen as an attempt to…

  13. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  14. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  15. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  16. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  17. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  18. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  19. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  20. 36 CFR 296.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... archaeological resource information. 296.18 Section 296.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available...

  1. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource... OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall...

  2. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  3. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  4. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  5. 25 CFR 700.837 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.837 Confidentiality of archaeological resource... nature and location of any archaeological resource, with the following exceptions: (a) The Federal...

  6. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  7. 25 CFR 700.827 - Custody of Archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of Archaeological resources. 700.827 Section 700.827 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.827 Custody of Archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological...

  8. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  9. 43 CFR 7.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 7.13... RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources... resources excavated or removed from Indian lands remain the property of the Indian or Indian tribe...

  10. 36 CFR 296.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... resources. 296.13 Section 296.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.13 Custody of archaeological resources. (a) Archaeological resources excavated or removed from the public lands remain the property...

  11. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Piwonka, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  12. Phosphonate analogues of aminoacyl adenylates.

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, C C; Dixon, H B

    1978-01-01

    Phosphonomethyl analogues of glycyl phosphate and valyl phosphate, i.e. NH2-CHR-CO-CH2-PO(OH)2, were synthesized and esterified with adenosine to give analogues of aminoacyl adenylates. The interaction of these adenylate analogues with valyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli was studied by fluorescence titration. The analogue of valyl phosphate has an affinity for the enzyme comparable with that of valine, but that of valyl adenylate is bound much less tightly than either valyl adenylate or corresponding derivative of valinol. The affinity of the analogue of glycyl adenylate was too low to be measured. We conclude that this enzyme interacts specifically with both the side chain and the anhydride linkage of the adenylate intermediate. PMID:743207

  13. Some archaeologic applications of accelerator radiocarbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, D. J.; Jull, A. J. T.; Linick, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    The method of preparation of archaeologic samples for AMS radiocarbon dating, the precision of such measurements and the conversion of radiocarbon results to calendar ages are presented. The application of the technique to measurements of the ages of bones, textiles (including the Shroud of Turin), cultigens and other achaeologic artifacts is described.

  14. Educational Reconstruction through the Lens of Archaeology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milewski, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the educational reconstruction that was undertaken by the Department of Education in Ontario during the first years of the twentieth century. It draws on Foucault's method of archaeology to identify how schooling reforms comprised a discontinuity in pedagogic knowledge. This mutation created the conditions of possibility for…

  15. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  16. Neutron activation analysis in archaeological chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, G.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has proven to be a convenient way of performing the chemical analysis of archaeologically-excavated artifacts and materials. It is fast and does not require tedious laboratory operations. It is multielement, sensitive, and can be made nondestructive. Neutron activation analysis in its instrumental form, i.e., involving no chemical separation, is ideally suited to automation and conveniently takes the first step in data flow patterns that are appropriate for many taxonomic and statistical operations. The future will doubtless see improvements in the practice of NAA in general, but in connection with archaeological science the greatest change will be the filling, interchange and widespread use of data banks based on compilations of analytical data. Since provenience-oriented data banks deal with materials (obsidian, ceramics, metals, semiprecious stones, building materials and sculptural media) that participated in trade networks, the analytical data is certain to be of interest to a rather broad group of archaeologists. It is to meet the needs of the whole archaeological community that archaeological chemistry must now turn.

  17. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  18. Archaeology for the Science Teacher: Interdisciplinary Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anslinger, C. Michael; Thiel, Daniel P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an example of how archaeologists might conduct a hypothetical research program to illustrate how specific types of data are generated and then used to interpret prehistoric culture systems. A brief review of the historical development of American archaeology is also provided. (JN)

  19. The Development of Cognitive Skills through Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Lois M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Explains methods for structuring student participation in an archaeological expedition to develop the students' self-worth and to increase appreciation for history as it relates to the students' lives. Skills acquired may include: (1) earth science; (2) mathematics; (3) map reading skills; (4) communication skills; (5) writing skills; (6)…

  20. Archaeology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desautels, Almuth, Comp.

    This bibliography lists reference sources for research in archaeology. It is arranged in sections by type of reference source with subsections for general works and works covering specific areas. Categorized are handbooks; directories, biographies, and museums; encyclopedias; dictionaries; atlases; guides, manuals, and surveys; bibliographies; and…

  1. Archaeology and Anthropological Teaching Resources Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography and background paper has been prepared to cover topics most frequently encountered in the field of archaeology and anthropology education: career information, excavation, fieldword opportunities, artifact identification, and preservation. The information included should provide avenues along which topics may be pursued further…

  2. Archaeology: Smithsonian Institution Teacher's Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This archaeology resource packet provides information on frequently asked questions of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution), including the topics of: (1) career information; (2) excavation; (3) fieldwork opportunities; (4) artifact identification; and (5) preservation. The packet is divided into six sections. Section 1…

  3. Archaeology and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Stresses the importance of an introduction to archaeology before studying history. Describes two learning activities, the grid section method of excavation and stratification, in order to introduce students to the techniques, skills, and procedures employed by archaeologists in excavating sites and interpreting evidence. (Author/JK)

  4. NASA/ESMD Analogue Mission Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation exploring Earth and its analogues is shown. The topics include: 1) ESMD Goals for the Use of Earth Analogues; 2) Stakeholders Summary; 3) Issues with Current Analogue Situation; 4) Current state of Analogues; 5) External Implementation Plan (Second Step); 6) Recent Progress in Utilizing Analogues; 7) Website Layout Example-Home Page; 8) Website Layout Example-Analogue Site; 9) Website Layout Example-Analogue Mission; 10) Objectives of ARDIG Analog Initiatives; 11) Future Plans; 12) Example: Cold-Trap Sample Return; 13) Example: Site Characterization Matrix; 14) Integrated Analogue Studies-Prerequisites for Human Exploration; and 15) Rating Scale Definitions.

  5. Bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kupka, Daniel; Rzhepishevska, Olena I; Dopson, Mark; Lindström, E Börje; Karnachuk, Olia V; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2007-08-15

    This study comprises the first report of ferrous iron oxidation by psychrotolerant, acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria capable of growing at 5 degrees C. Samples of mine drainage-impacted surface soils and sediments from the Norilsk mining region (Taimyr, Siberia) and Kristineberg (Skellefte district, Sweden) were inoculated into acidic ferrous sulfate media and incubated at 5 degrees C. Iron oxidation was preceded by an approximately 3-month lag period that was reduced in subsequent cultures. Three enrichment cultures were chosen for further work and one culture designated as isolate SS3 was purified by colony isolation from a Norilsk enrichment culture for determining the kinetics of iron oxidation. The 16S rRNA based phylogeny of SS3 and two other psychrotolerant cultures, SS5 from Norilsk and SK5 from Northern Sweden, was determined. Comparative analysis of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the psychrotolerant cultures aligned within Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate constant of iron oxidation by growing cultures of SS3 was in the range of 0.0162-0.0104 h(-1) depending on the initial pH. The oxidation kinetics followed an exponential pattern, consistent with a first order rate expression. Parallel iron oxidation by a mesophilic reference culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was extremely slow and linear. Precipitates harvested from the 5 degrees C culture were identified by X-ray diffraction as mixtures of schwertmannite (ideal formula Fe(8)O(8)(OH)(6)SO(4)) and jarosite (KFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6)). Jarosite was much more dominant in precipitates produced at 30 degrees C. PMID:17304566

  6. Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J F; Hawkes, K; Lupo, K D; Blurton Jones, N G

    2002-12-01

    Archaeological data are frequently cited in support of the idea that big game hunting drove the evolution of early Homo, mainly through its role in offspring provisioning. This argument has been disputed on two grounds: (1) ethnographic observations on modern foragers show that although hunting may contribute a large fraction of the overall diet, it is an unreliable day-to-day food source, pursued more for status than subsistence; (2) archaeological evidence from the Plio-Pleistocene, coincident with the emergence of Homo can be read to reflect low-yield scavenging, not hunting. Our review of the archaeology yields results consistent with these critiques: (1) early humans acquired large-bodied ungulates primarily by aggressive scavenging, not hunting; (2) meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases, as the hunting hypothesis requires; (3) carcasses were taken at highly variable rates and in varying degrees of completeness, making meat from big game an even less reliable food source than it is among modern foragers. Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays. Even if meat were acquired more reliably than the archaeology indicates, its consumption cannot account for the significant changes in life history now seen to distinguish early humans from ancestral australopiths. The coincidence between the earliest dates for Homo ergaster and an increase in the archaeological visibility of meat eating that many find so provocative instead reflects: (1) changes in the structure of the environment that concentrated scavenging opportunities in space, making evidence of their pursuit more obvious to archaeologists; (2) H. ergaster's larger body size (itself a consequence of other factors), which improved its ability at interference competition. PMID:12473486

  7. Absorption of nitric oxide into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates accompanied by instantaneous reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Demmink, J.F.; Gils, I.C.F. van; Beenackers, A.A.C.M.

    1997-11-01

    The absorption of nitric oxide (NO) into aqueous solutions of ferrous chelates of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was studied in a stirred cell reactor. The absorption leads to stable ferrous NO chelates. Due to the high reaction rate, in combination with the relatively high P{sub NO} applied, the absorption rate is strongly affected by mass transfer limitation only. By applying penetration theory, the ratio of the diffusion coefficients of ferrous chelates and NO was determined. At elevated T, (D{sub Fe(II)chelate}/D{sub NO}){sup 1/2} decreases due to the unusual T-dependency of D{sub NO}. For ferrous NTA, the formation of the ferrous NO chelate is accompanied by pH effects that can be understood from iron chelate chemistry. In the case of ferrous NTA, pH < 5, or an excess of ligand, these effects lead to local pH gradients at the gas-liquid interface, that substantially affect the NO absorption rates. Kinetic data from the literature on the absorption of NO into ferrous chelates were evaluated using the mass transfer parameters determined. These kinetic data are often unreliable.

  8. Applications of MACRO Photogrammetry in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajski, D.; Solter, A.; Gašparovic, M.

    2016-06-01

    Many valuable archaeological artefacts have the size of a few centimetres or less. The production of relevant documentation of such artefacts is mainly limited to subjective interpretation and manual drawing techniques using a magnifier. Most of the laser scanners available for the archaeological purposes cannot reach sufficient space resolution to gather all relevant features of the artefact, such as the shape, the relief, the texture and any damage present. Digital photogrammetric techniques make measuring with high accuracy possible and such techniques can be used to produce the relevant archaeometric documentation with a high level of detail. The approaches for shooting a good macro photograph (in the photogrammetric sense) will be explored and discussed as well as the design of a calibration test-field and the self-calibration methods suitable for macro photogrammetry. Finally, the method will be tested by producing a photorealistic 3D-model of an ancient figurine.

  9. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  10. Overhill Cherokee archaeology at Chota-Tanasee

    SciTech Connect

    Schroedl, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The initial objective of the Tellico Archaeological Project was the study of Overhill Cherokee culture, emphasizing the excavation of Chota-Tanasee. In keeping with contemporary archaeological research, the project goals eventually incorporated a regional perspective of human cultural adaptation for the past 12,000 yrs. Nevertheless, Overhill Cherokee studies remained a prominent project focus, and what began at Chota-Tanasee was expanded to include Citico, Toqua, Tomotley, and Mialoquo. Other sites produced additional Cherokee materials and important excavations were made at contemporary Euro-American settlements including Fort Loudoun and the Tellico Blockhouse. There now exists comprehensive data for the eighteenth century Overhill Cherokee. The Chota-Tanasee studies presented in previous chapters and the comparative synthesis presented here as a result have helped fulfill the goals of Overhill Cherokee studies in the lower Little Tennessee River valley.

  11. Michael Faraday's Contributions to Archaeological Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Moshenska, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of ancient artefacts is a long but largely neglected thread within the histories of archaeology and chemistry. This paper examines Michael Faraday's contributions to this nascent field, drawing on his published correspondence and the works of his antiquarian collaborators, and focusing in particular on his analyses of Romano-British and ancient Egyptian artefacts. Faraday examined the materials used in ancient Egyptian mummification, and provided the first proof of the use of lead glazes on Roman ceramics. Beginning with an assessment of Faraday's personal interests and early work on antiquities with Humphry Davy, this paper critically examines the historiography of archaeological chemistry and attempts to place Faraday's work within its institutional, intellectual, and economic contexts. PMID:26307911

  12. Presentation of Archaeoastronomy in Introductions to Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Victor B.

    In order to gain insights into how archaeoastronomy is presented (if at all) in introductory archaeology courses at universities, a study of introductory textbooks was undertaken in 2004 and again in 2012. In both instances the results were mixed. The quality of future coverage and the reputation of archaeoastronomy may depend upon archaeoastronomers' ability to confine themselves to good exemplars in the next editions of their books.

  13. Skyscape Archaeology: an emerging interdiscipline for archaeoastronomers and archaeologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2016-02-01

    For historical reasons archaeoastronomy and archaeology differ in their approach to prehistoric monuments and this has created a divide between the disciplines which adopt seemingly incompatible methodologies. The reasons behind the impasse will be explored to show how these different approaches gave rise to their respective methods. Archaeology investigations tend to concentrate on single site analysis whereas archaeoastronomical surveys tend to be data driven from the examination of a large number of similar sets. A comparison will be made between traditional archaeoastronomical data gathering and an emerging methodology which looks at sites on a small scale and combines archaeology and astronomy. Silva's recent research in Portugal and this author's survey in Scotland have explored this methodology and termed it skyscape archaeology. This paper argues that this type of phenomenological skyscape archaeology offers an alternative to large scale statistical studies which analyse astronomical data obtained from a large number of superficially similar archaeological sites.

  14. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  15. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  16. Insight into the formation of magnetite mesocrystals from ferrous precursors in ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiaqi; Tang, Jing; Zhang, Chongyu; Yuan, Ruiting; Chen, Kezheng

    2015-11-14

    Uniform magnetite mesocrystals were fabricated by solvothermal treatment of ferrous chloride in ethylene glycol in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The formation mechanism of magnetite mesocrystals in ethylene glycol was deduced by a time-dependent experiment. PMID:26255597

  17. Ferrous Minerals and Impactite Mineralization at Missouri's Crooked Creek and Decaturville Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauford, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    Epigenetic hydrothermal mineralization, subsequent to the Crooked Creek and Decaturville impacts, accompanied Paleozoic dolomitization of carbonates at a regional scale in the Ozarks and produced quantities of ferrous minerals at both locations.

  18. Development of cast ferrous alloys for Stirling engine application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemkey, F. D.

    1982-01-01

    Low cost cast ferrous base alloys that can be used for cylinder and regenerator housing components of the Stirling engine were investigated. The alloys must meet the requirements of high strength and thermal fatigue resistance to approximately 1500 F, compatibility and low permeability with hydrogen, good elevated temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and contain a minimum of strategic elements. The phase constituents of over twenty alloy iterations were examined by X-ray diffraction. These alloy candidates were further screened for their tensile and stress rupture strength and surface stability in air at 1450 and 1600 F, respectively. Two alloys, NASAUT 1G (Fe-10Mn-20Cr-1.5C-1.0Si) and NASAUT 4G (Fe-15Mn-12Cr-3Mo-1.5C-1.0Si-1.0Nb), were chosen for more extensive elevated temperature testing. These alloys were found to exhibit nearly equivalent elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance. Silicon present in these alloys at the 1 w/o level permitted the achievement of oxide scale adherence to 1600 F without loss of strength (or ductility) as was noted for equivalent additions of aluminum.

  19. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  20. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminum oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  1. Isotope archaeology: reading the past in metals, minerals, and bone.

    PubMed

    Stos-Gale, Z A

    1992-01-01

    The latest edition of the Oxford Dictionary (1989) defines archaeology as '... the scientific study of the remains and monuments of the prehistoric period'. It is not surprising, therefore, that modern archaeology draws as much as possible on scientific methods of investigation developed in other fields. In the last ten years the powerful method of quantitative isotope analysis has brought a new dimension to the examination of archaeological finds. PMID:1381675

  2. Prospective of the application of ultrasounds in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a prospective analysis of non destructive testing (NDT) based on ultrasounds in the field of archaeology applications. Classical applications of ultrasounds techniques are reviewed, including ocean exploration to detect wrecks, imaging of archaeological sites, and cleaning archaeological objects. The potential of prospective applications is discussed from the perspective of signal processing, with emphasis on the area of linear time variant models. Thus, the use of ultrasound NDT is proposed for new ceramic cataloguing and restoration methods.

  3. [Hypothyroidism as the result of drug interaction between ferrous sulfate and levothyroxine].

    PubMed

    Fiaux, E; Kadri, K; Levasseur, C; Le Guillou, C; Chassagne, P

    2010-10-01

    We report a case of drug-drug interaction between ferrous sulfate and l-thyroxin. A 95-year-old woman treated successfully with l-thyroxin for many years received ferrous sulfate for anemia. This association led rapidly to recurrence of hypothyroidism with elevated serum than TSH level which completely resolved after withdrawal of iron therapy. Interaction was confirmed after both drugs were daily administrated separately without recurrence of hypothyroidism. PMID:20554088

  4. Point cloud vs drawing on archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alby, E.

    2015-08-01

    Archaeology is a discipline closely related to the representation of objects that are at the center of its concerns. At different times of the archaeological method, representation approach takes different forms. It takes place on the archaeological excavation, during the exploration, or in a second time in the warehouse, object after object. It occurs also in different drawing scales. The use of topographical positioning techniques has found its place for decades in the stratigraphic process. Plans and sections are thus readjusted to each other, on the excavation site. These techniques are available to the archaeologist since a long time. The most of the time, a qualified member of the team performs himself these simple topographical operations. The two issues raised in this article are: three-dimensional acquisition techniques can they, first find their place in the same way on the excavation site, and is it conceivable that it could serve to support the representation? The drawing during the excavations is a very time-consuming phase; has it still its place on site? Currently, the drawing is part of the archaeological stratigraphy method. It helps documenting the different layers, which are gradually destroyed during the exploration. Without systematic documentation, any scientific reasoning cannot be done retrospectively and the conclusions would not be any evidence. Is it possible to imagine another way to document these phases without loss compared to the drawing? Laser scanning and photogrammetry are approved as acquisition techniques. What can they bring more to what is already done for archaeologists? Archaeological practice can be seen as divided into two parts: preventive archeology and classical archeology. The first has largely adopted the techniques that provide point clouds to save valuable time on site. Everything that is not destroyed by the archaeological approach will be destroyed by the building construction that triggered the excavations. The

  5. Training and Maritime Archaeology in a University Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parham, David; Palma, Paola

    2008-12-01

    This paper draws on experience gained by Bournemouth University to consider undergraduate education in maritime archaeology. At Bournemouth maritime archaeology is taught firmly in the context of a broader archaeological education. Archaeological programmes vary with the institutions within which they are taught, each programme thus having an individual character that separates it from that of other institutions and further enriches the subject through the breadth of this education. At Bournemouth the value of teaching archaeology with a high component of practical experience has been long understood. This does not mean that archaeology is taught as a purely practical subject but as one within which experience in the field is seen as a worthwhile focus. Bournemouth’s programme therefore recognises the value of field research projects as learning environments for undergraduates studying maritime archaeology. The programme is subject to a number of constraints, notably the size of the archaeological employment market, levels of pay within that market, questions of ongoing professional development after graduation, and the requirements of other employment markets into which archaeological graduates enter. This paper argues that research project-based learning, and in particular, involvement with amateur groups, provides a way to balance these constraints and supports development of both technical and transferable ‘soft’ skills.

  6. Effect of ferrous metal presence on lead leaching in municipal waste incineration bottom ashes.

    PubMed

    Oehmig, Wesley N; Roessler, Justin G; Zhang, Jianye; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-01-01

    The recovery of ferrous and non-ferrous metals from waste to energy (WTE) ash continues to advance as the sale of removed metals improves the economics of waste combustion. Published literature suggests that Fe and Fe oxides play a role in suppressing Pb leaching in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP); further removal of ferrous metals from WTE ashes may facilitate higher Pb leaching under the TCLP. Eight WTE bottom ash size-fractions, from three facilities, were evaluated to assess the effect of metallic Fe addition and ferrous metal removal on TCLP leaching. Metallic Fe addition was demonstrated to reduce Pb leaching; the removal of ferrous metals by magnet resulted in a decrease in total available Pb (mg/kg) in most ash samples, yet Pb leachability increased in 5 of 6 ash samples. The research points to two chemical mechanisms to explain these results: redox interactions between Pb and Fe and the sorption of soluble Pb onto Fe oxide surfaces, as well as the effect of the leachate pH before and after metals recovery. The findings presented here indicate that generators, processors, and regulators of ash should be aware of the impact ferrous metal removal may have on Pb leaching, as a substantial increase in leaching may have significant implications regarding the management of WTE ashes. PMID:25464288

  7. Mechanism of Ferrous Iron Binding and Oxidation by Ferritin from a Pennate Diatom*

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffen, Stephanie; Abdulqadir, Raz; Le Brun, Nick E.; Murphy, Michael E. P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel ferritin was recently found in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries (PmFTN), a marine pennate diatom that plays a major role in global primary production and carbon sequestration into the deep ocean. Crystals of recombinant PmFTN were soaked in iron and zinc solutions, and the structures were solved to 1.65–2.2-Å resolution. Three distinct iron binding sites were identified as determined from anomalous dispersion data from aerobically grown ferrous soaked crystals. Sites A and B comprise the conserved ferroxidase active site, and site C forms a pathway leading toward the central cavity where iron storage occurs. In contrast, crystal structures derived from anaerobically grown and ferrous soaked crystals revealed only one ferrous iron in the active site occupying site A. In the presence of dioxygen, zinc is observed bound to all three sites. Iron oxidation experiments using stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy revealed an extremely rapid phase corresponding to Fe(II) oxidation at the ferroxidase site, which is saturated after adding 48 ferrous iron to apo-PmFTN (two ferrous iron per subunit), and a much slower phase due to iron core formation. These results suggest an ordered stepwise binding of ferrous iron and dioxygen to the ferroxidase site in preparation for catalysis and a partial mobilization of iron from the site following oxidation. PMID:23548912

  8. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  9. Precise determination of ferrous iron in silicate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Eizo

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a highly precise method for the determination of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) in silicate rocks. Our new method is based on Wilson's procedure (1955) in which surplus V 5+ is used to oxidize Fe 2+ into Fe 3+ while equivalently reducing V 5+ into V 4+. Because V 4+ is more resistant to atmospheric oxidation than Fe 2+, Fe 2+ in the sample can be determined by measuring unreacted V 5+ by adding excess Fe 2+ after sample decomposition and then titrating the unreacted Fe 2+ with Cr 6+. With our method, which involves conditioning the sample solution with 5 M H 2SO 4 in a relatively small beaker (7 mL), the oxidation of Fe 2+ or V 4+ that leads to erroneous results can be completely avoided, even in 100-h sample decompositions at 100°C. We have measured the concentration of FeO in 15 standard silicate rock powders provided by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). Analytical reproducibility was better than 0.5% (1σ) for all but those samples that had small amounts of Fe 2+ (<1.5 wt.% of FeO). Fourteen of these samples gave FeO contents significantly higher than the GSJ reference values. This likely indicates that the GSJ reference values, obtained by compiling previously published data, contain a large number of poor-quality data obtained by methods with lower recovery of Fe 2+ caused by oxidation or insufficient sample decomposition during analyses. To achieve accurate determinations of Fe 2+ in our method, several factors besides the oxidation must be considered, including: (1) long-term variations in the concentration of Fe 2+ solution must be corrected; (2) excess use of the indicator must be avoided; and (3) the formation of inert FeF + complex must be avoided during titration when using boric acid as a masking agent.

  10. Ultrafine Particulate Ferrous Iron and Anthracene Associations with Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Faiola, Celia; Johansen, Anne M.; Rybka, Sara; Nieber, Annika; Thomas-Bradley, Carin; Bryner, Stephanie; Johnston, Justin M.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Owens, Kalyn S.

    2011-04-20

    The ultrafine size fraction of ambient particles (ultrafine particles, UFP, diameter < 100 nm) has been identified as being far more potent in their adverse health effects than their larger counterparts, yet, the detailed mechanisms for why UFP display such distinctive toxicity are not well understood. In the present study, ambient UFP were exposed to mitochondria while monitoring electron transport chain (ETC) activity as a model system for biochemical toxicity. UFP samples were collected in rural (Ellensburg, WA) and urban environments (Seattle, WA) and chemically characterized for total trace metals, ferrous (Fe(II)) and easily reducible ferric (Fe(III)) iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and surface constituents with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Low doses of UFP (8 µg mL-1) caused a decrease in mitochondrial ETC function compared to controls in 94% of the samples after The 20 min of exposure. Significant correlations exist between initial %ETC inhibition (0-10 min) and Fe(II) (R=0.55, P=0.03, N=15), anthracene (R=0.74, P<0.01, N=13), and %C-O surface bonds (R=0.56, P=0.03, N=15), whereby anthracene and %C-O correlate as well (R=0.58, P=0.03, N=14). No significant associations were identified with total Fe and other trace metals. Results from this study indicate that the redox active fraction of Fe as well as the abundance of anthracene-related, C-O containing, surface structures may contribute to the initial detrimental behavior of UFP, thus supporting the idea that the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and certain efficient hydroquinone/quinone redox pairs may play an important role likely due to their potential to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  11. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  12. Recognizing women in the archaeological record

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Primary sexual characteristics are usually absent in the archaeological record. The recovered secondary sex markers in bone morphology or mortuary context reflect the lifelong integrated biocultural experience of the individual man or woman. Internal patterns of variability within and between sexes can be recognized but are too frequently masked by traditional descriptive and univariate analyses. Fortunately, a more detailed picture of life experience is gained by analyzing chemical composition (isotopic and elemental) of hard tissues using an analytical anthropology approach and by examining the variation in novel ways. 7 figs.

  13. Asteroseismology for Galactic archaeology: bridging two fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, Luca; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel; Serenelli, Aldo; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Milone, Antonino; Asplund, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Asteroseismology has the capability of precisely determining stellar properties that would otherwise be inaccessible, such as radii, masses, and thus ages of field stars. When coupling this information with classical determinations of stellar parameters, such as metallicities, effective temperatures, and angular diameters, powerful new diagnostics for Galactic studies can be obtained. An overview of the ongoing Strömgren survey for Asteroseismology and Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) is presented, along with recent results using asteroseismology to investigate the age structure of the Milky Way disc.

  14. Enhancing rescue-archaeology using geomorphological approaches: Archaeological sites in Paredes (Asturias, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; González-Álvarez, I.; Requejo-Pagés, O.; Domínguez-Cuesta, M. J.

    2011-09-01

    Palaeolithic remnants, a Necropolis (Roman villa), and another minor archaeological site were discovered in Paredes (Spain). These sites were the focus of multidisciplinary research during the construction of a large shopping centre in Asturias (NW Spain). The aims of this study are (1) to contribute to archaeological prospection in the sites and (2) to develop evolutionary models of the sites based on geomorphological inferences. Detailed archaeological prospection (103 trenches), geomorphologic mapping, stratigraphic studies (36 logs) and ground penetration radar (GPR) surveys on five profiles indicate that the location of the settlement source of the Necropolis is outside the construction perimeter, farther to the southeast. The Pre-Holocene evolution of the fluvial landscape is marked by the development of two terraces (T1 and T2) that host the Early Palaeolithic remains in the area (ca 128-71 ka). The Holocene evolution of the landscape was marked by the emplacement of the Nora River flood plain, covered by alluvial fans after ca. 9 ka BP (cal BC 8252-7787). Subsequently, Neolithic pebble pits dated ca. 5.3 ka BP (cal BC 4261-3963 and 4372-4051) were constructed on T2, at the area reoccupied as a Necropolis during the Late Roman period, 1590 ± 45 years BP (cal AD 382-576). Coeval human activity during the Late Roman period at 1670 ± 60 years BP (cal AD 320-430) is also recorded by channel infill sediments in a minor site at the margin of an alluvial fan located to the southeast. This work shows that a rescue-archaeological study can be significantly enhanced by the implementation of multidisciplinary scientific studies, in which the holistic view of geomorphologic settings provide key insights into the geometry and evolution of archaeological sites.

  15. Hydrocarbon microseepage detection based on normalized ferric and ferrous indices of Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M.; Xie, H.; Liu, D.; Zhang, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Ferric index (TM 3/1) (Fe3), ferrous index (TM 5/4) (Fe2), and clay and/or carbonate index (TM 5/7) have been successfully applied in mapping hydrothermal-alteration minerals, soil types, organics abundance, and mine waste. However, the ferric/ferrous indices do not work well when they are applied to detect relative oxidation/reduction area in hydrocarbon microseepage regions where the total iron and iron ion types are different in background rocks or soils. For example, there is relative high ferrous in organic-rich sediments and basic igneous rock, such as in coal-bearing beds. Clearly, the high ferrous concentration is not resulted from exotic reduction. Usually, under a homogeneous exotic reduced condition, the higher the total iron in rock or soil, the more the transferred ferrous iron produced. In order to remove the effects of total iron difference in rocks and soils on hydrocarbon microseepage detection, a new method, referred to as normalized ferric and ferrous index, is developed in this study, i.e. the normalized ferric index (NFe3) = Fe3 / (Fe3 + Fe2) and the normalized ferrous index (NFe2) = Fe2 / (Fe3 + Fe2). The NFe3 and NFe2 are successfully applied and tested in two sites for hydrocarbon microseepage detection in oil/gas-bearing Ordos Basin and Eren Basin, China. The NFe3 and NFe2 index images can preserve not only the major information of the ratio 3/1 and 5/4 images, but also remove the effects of total iron in background. Comparing to the mineral composite image (TM 3/1, 5/4, and 5/7 in RGB), the normalized indices color composite image (NFe3, NFe2, and TM5/7 in RGB) shows hydrocarbon microseepage areas clearly in green color. In addition, the composite images of normalized index also remove the vegetation effect to some degree in the test sites.

  16. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not make available to the public,...

  17. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  18. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  19. Geohistorical Archaeology: A Perspective for Considering the Historic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, John R.

    2002-01-01

    The term geohistorical archaeology was adopted to describe the combination of the techniques and concepts of historical geography, historical archaeology, and history. It is suggested that the field offers the potential of enhanced research and instruction as it pertains to the early historical settlement of an area. Particular emphasis is placed…

  20. Application of Structure from Mortion in Japanese Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, A.; Nawabi, Y. A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-08-01

    In Japan, archaeological excavations carry out over fifty thousand times per year. Nowadays, archaeological data is accumulated day by day. To record these documentation about archaeological data, it is desirable to the documentation of their shape in 3-dimensional form. Structure from Motion (SfM) is the one of the cost effective method to record the 3D documentation. This paper introduces application of SfM technology to examine the validity of an archaeological documentation in Japanese archaeology in recent year. Whenever, a complicated form finding has to be recorded at an archaeological excavation. It often requires a long time to create by a traditional manual drawing. For example, a well made of reuse roof tiles, garden stones and stone chamber. By using SfM, the time spent working at the archaeological site was greatly reduced. And many platforms to take an image at the variety of archaeological site's condition, like a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) are tested using for wider area recording. These methods are used in disaster stricken areas in East Japan.

  1. Site Simulation in Teaching Archaeology: A Hands On Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    An indoor simulated archaeology site for use in a college level introductory archaeology course is described. Housed in the basement of a building on campus, the site simulates an eight-layered French rock shelter. Layers contain "remains" of a microband of Neanderthals, a Lower and Upper Aurignacian group, an Upper Perigordian group, Magdalenian…

  2. Teaching Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Susan J., Ed.; Smith, George S., Ed.

    This book was written to offer ideas on how to open archeological education to more students, not just those seeking a Ph.D. Individuals in archaeology provide background and offer suggestions for a movement to provide greater access to the field. The book ponders 21st century archaeology, its possible directions and strategies, and call on those…

  3. ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROSPECTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The entire range of geophysical methods, perhaps excluding only borehole techniques, has found application in the search for archaeological sites unseen or partially known. Pressures by developers, and the public's growing sensitivity toward the preservation of historic and prehistoric cultural artifacts and sites, has led to an accelerating use of high-resolution geophysical methods in the archaeological sciences.

  4. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  5. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  6. 18 CFR 1312.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. 1312.18 Section 1312.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.18 Confidentiality...

  7. 18 CFR 1312.13 - Custody of archaeological resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Custody of archaeological resources. 1312.13 Section 1312.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.13 Custody of...

  8. Using Archaeology To Explore Cultures of North America through Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Mary S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the reasons for introducing archaeology into the elementary classroom focusing on the cultures of North America. Offers wild maize, or corn, as one area of investigation into North American cultures providing books and Internet sites. Lists resources for archaeology education and lesson plans for exploring North American cultures though…

  9. An Illustrated Guide to Measuring Radiocarbon from Archaeological Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Alex; McCormac, Gerry; van der Plicht, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been central to the construction of archaeological chronologies for over 50 years. The archaeological, scientific and (increasingly) statistical methods for interpreting radiocarbon measurements to produce these chronologies have become ever more sophisticated. The accurate measurement of the radiocarbon content of an…

  10. Digging Deep: Teaching Social Studies through the Study of Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Dennie Palmer, Ed.; Balick, Dana, Ed.; Craven, Julie, Ed.

    This book outlines how to combine the skills of archaeology with the exploration of social studies in the classroom and illustrates how a network of teachers transformed their social studies courses into dynamic, multicultural inquiries using the tools and questions of archaeology. It explains how middle school social studies teachers tamed their…

  11. Materials issues in art and archaeology. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vandiver, P.B. ); Druzik, J. ); Wheeler, G.S. )

    1991-01-01

    the purpose of this meeting is to present new and current research which: shares an empirical methodology of observation and measurement; concerns interdisciplinary studies of art, archaeology, architecture, ancient technology, and conservation; and uses the knowledge, methods and tools of materials science and engineering. Druzik introduced the symposium as follows: It is not inaccurate to say that Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology II is a continuing experiment. It is an experiment in the sense that conservation scientists, materials scientists who usually deal with the properties and processing of modern technology, and those who study the materials and processing of ancient cultures seldom have an opportunity to experience each other's unique problems. While the conservation of artistic and cultural properties often involves the very same objects as those studied by students of ancient technology these two specialized species seldom, if ever, attend the same meetings, publish in the same journals, or can even name a paltry subset of the other discipline's more famous characters and controversies. And, what do the Real Material Scientists think of these two odd birds. Well, that's what we really want to find out. Because it's certainly clear to myself and my co-organizers that the MRS has undreamed of potential and wealth to help solve many of the questions we pose about past cultures, their tools, their aesthetic sensibilities and their preservation for future generations were we only imaginative enough to exploit it.

  12. Earliest archaeological evidence of persistent hominin carnivory.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Plummer, Thomas W; Pobiner, Briana L; Oliver, James S; Bishop, Laura C; Braun, David R; Ditchfield, Peter W; Seaman, John W; Binetti, Katie M; Seaman, John W; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ≈ 2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ≈ 1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to 2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence - spanning hundreds to thousands of years - and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  13. Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ∼2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ∼1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ∼2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  14. Native American Archaeological Sites: An Annotated Bibliography Relating to Indian Archaeological Sites in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

    Thirty-six American Indian archaeological sites located in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee are cited. Included are some of the very early sites, some of the larger and better known sites, and some that are being developed as state-owned archaeological parks in Tennessee. Information…

  15. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low. PMID:27229515

  16. Potential for microbial oxidation of ferrous iron in basaltic glass.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Mai Yia; Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Roden, Eric E

    2015-05-01

    Basaltic glass (BG) is an amorphous ferrous iron [Fe(II)]-containing material present in basaltic rocks, which are abundant on rocky planets such as Earth and Mars. Previous research has suggested that Fe(II) in BG can serve as an energy source for chemolithotrophic microbial metabolism, which has important ramifications for potential past and present microbial life on Mars. However, to date there has been no direct demonstration of microbially catalyzed oxidation of Fe(II) in BG. In this study, three different culture systems were used to investigate the potential for microbial oxidation of Fe(II) in BG, including (1) the chemolithoautotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing "Straub culture"; (2) the mixotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing organism Desulfitobacterium frappieri strain G2; and (3) indigenous microorganisms from a streambed Fe seep in Wisconsin. The BG employed consisted of clay and silt-sized particles of freshly quenched lava from the TEB flow in Kilauea, Hawaii. Soluble Fe(II) or chemically reduced NAu-2 smectite (RS) were employed as positive controls to verify Fe(II) oxidation activity in the culture systems. All three systems demonstrated oxidation of soluble Fe(II) and/or structural Fe(II) in RS, whereas no oxidation of Fe(II) in BG material was observed. The inability of the Straub culture to oxidize Fe(II) in BG was particularly surprising, as this culture can oxidize other insoluble Fe(II)-bearing minerals such as biotite, magnetite, and siderite. Although the reason for the resistance of the BG toward enzymatic oxidation remains unknown, it seems possible that the absence of distinct crystal faces or edge sites in the amorphous glass renders the material resistant to such attack. These findings have implications with regard to the idea that Fe(II)-Si-rich phases in basalt rocks could provide a basis for chemolithotrophic microbial life on Mars, specifically in neutral-pH environments where acid-promoted mineral dissolution and

  17. Melting of low-level radioactive non-ferrous metal for release

    SciTech Connect

    Quade, Ulrich; Kluth, Thomas; Kreh, Rainer

    2007-07-01

    Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH has gained lots of experience from melting ferrous metals for recycling in the nuclear cycle as well as for release to general reuse. Due to the fact that the world market prices for non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminium or lead raised up in the past and will remain on a high level, recycling of low-level contaminated or activated metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning becomes more important. Based on the established technology for melting of ferrous metals in a medium frequency induction furnace, different melt treatment procedures for each kind of non-ferrous metals were developed and successfully commercially converted. Beside different procedures also different melting techniques such as crucibles, gas burners, ladles etc. are used. Approximately 340 Mg of aluminium, a large part of it with a uranium contamination, have been molten successfully and have met the release criteria of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The experience in copper and brass melting is based on a total mass of 200 Mg. Lead melting in a special ladle by using a gas heater results in a total of 420 Mg which could be released. The main goal of melting of non-ferrous metals is release for industrial reuse after treatment. Especially for lead, a cooperation with a German lead manufacturer also for recycling of non releasable lead is being planned. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Berber, Ilhami; Diri, Halit; Erkurt, Mehmet Ali; Aydogdu, Ismet; Kaya, Emin; Kuku, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Different ferric and ferrous iron preparations can be used as oral iron supplements. Our aim was to compare the effects of oral ferric and ferrous iron therapies in women with iron deficiency anaemia. Methods. The present study included 104 women diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation. In the evaluations performed to detect the aetiology underlying the iron deficiency anaemia, it was found and treated. After the detection of the iron deficiency anaemia aetiology and treatment of the underlying aetiology, the ferric group consisted of 30 patients treated with oral ferric protein succinylate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day), and the second group consisted of 34 patients treated with oral ferrous glycine sulphate tablets (2 × 40 mg elemental iron/day) for three months. In all patients, the following laboratory evaluations were performed before beginning treatment and after treatment. Results. The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit increases were 0.95 g/dL and 2.62% in the ferric group, while they were 2.25 g/dL and 5.91% in the ferrous group, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups regarding the increase in haemoglobin and haematocrit values (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Data are submitted on the good tolerability, higher efficacy, and lower cost of the ferrous preparation used in our study. PMID:25006339

  19. Detection of 'archaeological features' among reflectance spectra of natural soils and archaeological soils using principal component analysis (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lampel, Johannes; Jordan, David; Fiedler, Sabine; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological terminology 'soil-mark' refers to buried archaeological features being visible on the ground surface. Soil-marks have been identified by archaeologists based on their personal experience and knowledge. This study suggests a quantitative spectral analysis method to detect such archaeological features. This study identifies 'archaeological spectra' (reflectance spectra from surfaces containing archaeological materials) among various soil spectra using PCA (principal component analysis). Based on the results of the PCA, a difference (D) between the original spectrum and modified spectrum, which represents the principal component (PC) values of natural soils, can be determined. If the difference D between the two spectra is small, then the spectrum is similar to the spectral features of natural soils. If not, it identifies that the spectrum is more likely to be non-natural soil, probably an archaeological material. The method is applied on soil spectra from a prehistoric settlement site in Calabria, Italy. For the spectral range between 400 to 700nm, the difference value D for archaeological material ranges from 0.11 to 0.73 (the value varies depending on the number of PCs used). For natural soil, D ranges only from 0.04 to 0.09. The results shows D value is significantly larger for archaeological spectra, which indicates that the method can be applied to identify archaeological material among an unknown group of soil spectra, if a set of samples of natural soils exists. The study will present results of applying this method to various wavelength ranges and spectra from different sites. The major aim is to find optimised settings of the PCA method which can be applied in a universal way for identifying archaeological spectra.

  20. Remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jay K.; Haley, Bryan S.

    2003-04-01

    Cultural resource management archaeology in the United States concerns compliance with legislation set in place to protect archaeological resources from the impact of modern activities. Traditionally, surface collection, shovel testing, test excavation, and mechanical stripping are used in these projects. These methods are expensive, time consuming, and may poorly represent the features within archaeological sites. The use of remote sensing techniques in cultural resource management archaeology may provide an answer to these problems. Near-surface geophysical techniques, including magnetometry, resistivity, electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar, have proven to be particularly successful at efficiently locating archaeological features. Research has also indicated airborne and satellite remote sensing may hold some promise in the future for large-scale archaeological survey, although this is difficult in many areas of the world where ground cover reflect archaeological features in an indirect manner. A cost simulation of a hypothetical data recovery project on a large complex site in Mississippi is presented to illustrate the potential advantages of remote sensing in a cultural resource management setting. The results indicate these techniques can save a substantial amount of time and money for these projects.

  1. Starry messages: Searching for signatures of interstellar archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artifacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the original civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology. The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  2. Starry Messages - Searching for Signatures of Interstellar Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, R. A., Jr.

    Searching for signatures of cosmic-scale archaeological artefacts such as Dyson spheres or Kardashev civilizations is an interesting alternative to conventional SETI. Uncovering such an artifact does not require the intentional transmission of a signal on the part of the originating civilization. This type of search is called interstellar archaeology or sometimes cosmic archaeology . The detection of intelligence elsewhere in the Universe with interstellar archaeology or SETI would have broad implications for science. For example, the constraints of the anthropic principle would have to be loosened if a different type of intelligence was discovered elsewhere. A variety of interstellar archaeology signatures are discussed including non-natural planetary atmospheric constituents, stellar doping with isotopes of nuclear wastes, Dyson spheres, as well as signatures of stellar and galactic-scale engineering. The concept of a Fermi bubble due to interstellar migration is introduced in the discussion of galactic signatures. These potential interstellar archaeological signatures are classified using the Kardashev scale. A modified Drake equation is used to evaluate the relative challenges of finding various sources. With few exceptions interstellar archaeological signatures are clouded and beyond current technological capabilities. However SETI for so-called cultural transmissions and planetary atmosphere signatures are within reach.

  3. Archaeology of fire: Methodological aspects of reconstructing fire history of prehistoric archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alperson-Afil, Nira

    2012-07-01

    Concepts which are common in the reconstruction of fire histories are employed here for the purpose of interpreting fires identified at archaeological sites. When attempting to evaluate the fire history of ancient occupations we are limited by the amount and quality of the available data. Furthermore, the identification of archaeological burned materials, such as stone, wood, and charcoal, is adequate for the general assumption of a "fire history", but the agent responsible - anthropogenic or natural - cannot be inferred from the mere presence of burned items. The large body of scientific data that has accumulated, primarily through efforts to prevent future fire disasters, enables us to reconstruct scenarios of past natural fires. Adopting this line of thought, this paper attempts to evaluate the circumstances in which a natural fire may have ignited and spread at the 0.79 Ma occupation site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (Israel), resulting with burned wood and burned flint within the archaeological layers. At Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, possible remnants of hearths are explored through analyses of the spatial distribution of burned flint-knapping waste products. These occur in dense clusters in each of the archaeological occupations throughout the long stratigraphic sequence. In this study, the combination between the spatial analyses results, paleoenvironmental information, and various factors involved in the complex process of fire ignition, combustion, and behavior, has enabled the firm rejection of recurrent natural fires as the responsible agent for the burned materials. In addition, it suggested that mainly at early sites, where evidence for burning is present yet scarce, data on fire ecology can be particularly useful when it is considered in relation to paleoenvironmental information.

  4. Muscarinic interactions of bisindolylmaleimide analogues.

    PubMed

    Lazareno, S; Popham, A; Birdsall, N J

    1998-11-01

    We have used radioligand binding studies to determine the affinities of seven bisindolylmaleimide analogues, six of which are selective inhibitors of protein kinase C, at human muscarinic M1-M4 receptors. The compounds were most potent at M1 receptors, and Ro-31-8220 was the most potent analogue, with a Kd of 0.6 microM at M1 receptors. The weakest compounds, bisindolylmaleimide IV and bisindolylmaleimide V, had Kd values of 100 microM. If it is necessary to use protein kinase C inhibitors at concentrations of 10 microM or more in studies involving muscarinic receptors then bisindolylmaleimide IV may be the most appropriate inhibitor to use. PMID:9851596

  5. The Pitsch-Petch orientation relationship in ferrous pearlite at small undercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, M.A.; Shiflet, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    The factors behind the occurrence of the Pitsch-Petch pearlitic orientation relationship (OR) in ferrous systems are investigated using a combination of crystallographic information obtained through electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and knowledge of the three-dimensional (3-D) morphology of pearlite from serial sectioning. Both hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid ferrous systems of various compositions providing a variety of morphologies are examined to consider the relationship between pearlite nucleation sites and ferrite-cementite interlamellar ORs. It is shown that the Pitsch-Petch OR occurs when a colony is cementite nucleated and this conclusion is valid for both sides of the eutectoid composition.

  6. Development of an intelligent control system for ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Light, M.D.; Torma, A.E.; Cordes, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    An intelligent control system (ICS) is being developed for ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The ICS provides compterized data acquisition and control of process variables (temperature, Eh, pH, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, and dilution rate) to maintain the ferrous iron oxidation at the highest possible rate. The ICS uses fuzzy logic for analysis of data inputs and implementation of control strategies. This paper provides preliminary information on the development of the ICS and its operation. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Changes of ferrous iron and its transporters after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gaiqing; Shao, Anwen; Hu, Weimin; Xue, Fang; Zhao, Hongping; Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Guanglai; Sun, Zhitang; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Ferrous iron is a major source inducing oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Divalent metal transporter1 (DMT1) is the important and well-known plasma membrane transport protein which was proved to be involved in the transport of free ferrous iron in mammals. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the unique exporter of ferrous iron from mammalian cells. The role of DMT1 and FPN1 in brain after ICH is still not elucidated. Therefore, we measure the expression of DMT1 and FPN1, to explore the correlations between ferrous iron and its specific transporters after ICH. Methods: Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats received intra-striatal infusions of 0.5 U type IV collagenase to establish ICH model. Ferrous iron content in brain was determined using Turnbull’s method. DMT1 and FPN1 expression were examined by immunohistochemical staining and Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With the use of confocal laser microscopy, we determined the colocalization of DMT1 and FPN1 at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after ICH. Results: Ferrous iron deposition was shown in the perihematomal zone as early as 1 day after ICH; it reached a peak after 7 days and was not elevated within 14 days following ICH. The expression of the DMT1 upregulated and reached to peak at day 7 after ICH. FPN1 reached a plateau at 3 days post-ICH. Expression levels of DMT1 and FPN1 were in parallel with ferrous iron deposition. There was a positive correlation between FPN1 and DMT1. DMT1 mainly localized in the cytoplasm of glias and neurons. FPN1 were mostly distributed on the membrane of endothelial cells and glias. Confocal microscope showed that DMT1 colocalized with FPN1. Conclusions: DMT1 and FPN1 are positively influenced by ferrous iron status in brain after ICH. DMT1 and FPN1 attenuate iron overload after ICH via increasing transmembrane iron export. PMID:26617777

  8. Maritime Archaeology in Uruguay: Towards a Manifesto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge Manuel; Buffa, Valerio; Cordero, Alejo; Francia, Gabriel; Adams, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    We report a collaborative maritime archaeological project in Uruguay, one of several Latin American countries where the subject is undergoing review in terms of the ways it is practised and managed. Uruguay is typical of many states where there has been a tension between a heritage-based approach in which the results of investigations are viewed as publicly owned, as opposed to the profit motive in which commercial and personal gain is the underlying ethic. This project was conceived both as a way of assisting the Uruguayan Heritage Commission in promoting the former approach as well as advancing a programme of research into the age of global exploration. This paper sets out the rationale of the initial field season and reflects on subsequent developments.

  9. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  10. Chronometric dating in archaeology: a review.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Henry P

    2002-08-01

    Most archaeological dating methods are based on decay of a naturally occurring radioisotope. (14)C activity of fossil bones and charcoal decreases with age, but must be calibrated for past changes in atmospheric activity. Uranium absorbed by shells and stalagmites is used to date on a 10(5)-year scale by observing the decay of (234)U to (230) Th. Thermoluminescence, optical luminescence, and electron spin resonance detect trapped electronic charges generated by natural radioactivity in burned flint, beach sands, shells, and tooth enamel. Rate of racemization of amino acids in fossil shells is constant at constant T, and age can be tracked from an increase in the D/L ratio. PMID:12186568

  11. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  12. Policy issues in space analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Robin N.; Facktor, Debra D.

    Space mission planning is increasingly focusing on destinations beyond Earth orbit. Advancements in technology will inevitably be required to enable long-duration human spaceflight missions, and breakthroughs in the policy arena will also be needed to achieve success in such missions. By exploring how policy issues have been addressed in analogous extreme environments, policymakers can develop a framework for addressing these issues as they apply to long-term human spaceflight. Policy issues that need to be addressed include: crew selection, training, organization, and activities, medical testing, illness, injury, and death; communication; legal accountability and liability; mission safety and risk management; and environmental contamination. This paper outlines the approach of a study underway by The George Washington University and ANSER to examine how these policy issues have been addressed in several analogues and how the experiences of these analogues can help formulate policies for long-duration human spaceflight missions. Analogues being studied include Antarctic bases, submarine voyages, undersea stations, Biosphere 2, and the U.S. Skylab and Russian Mir space stations.

  13. Phosphonate analogue substrates for enolase.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V E; Cleland, W W

    1990-11-20

    Phosphonate analogues in which the bridge between C-2 and phosphorus is a CH2 group are slow substrates for yeast enolase. The pH variation of the kinetic parameters for the methylene analogue of 2-phosphoglycerate suggests that the substrate binds as a dianion and that Mg2+ can bind subsequently only if a metal ligand and the catalytic base are unprotonated. Primary deuterium isotope effects of 4-8 on V/KMg, but ones of only 1.15-1.32 on V for dehydration, show that proton removal to give the carbanion intermediate largely limits V/KMg and that a slow step follows which largely limits V (presumably carbanion breakdown). Since there is a D2O solvent isotope effect on V for the reverse reaction of 5, but not an appreciable one on the forward reaction, it appears that the slow rates with phosphonate analogues result from the fact that the carbanion intermediate is more stable than that formed from the normal substrates, and its reaction in both directions limits V. Increased stability as a result of replacement of oxygen by carbon at C-2 of the carbanion is the expected chemical behavior. PMID:2271661

  14. Alchemy or Science? Compromising Archaeology in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan

    2007-06-01

    In the torrid debate between archaeology and treasure hunting, compromise is often suggested as the pragmatic solution, especially for archaeology carried out either in deep water or beyond the constraints that commonly regulate such activities in territorial seas. Both the wisdom and the need for such compromise have even been advocated by some archaeologists, particularly in forums such as the internet and conferences. This paper argues that such a compromise is impossible, not in order to fuel confrontation but simply because of the nature of any academic discipline. We can define what archaeology is in terms of its aims, theories, methods and ethics, so combining it with an activity founded on opposing principles must transform it into something else. The way forward for archaeology in the deep sea does not lie in a contradictory realignment of archaeology’s goals but in collaborative research designed to mesh with emerging national and regional research and management plans.

  15. General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the archaeological site showing excavation and revealing the steps leading down into the eighteenth-century burial vault - Harry Buck House, North of Main Street (14800 Governor Oden Bowie Drive), Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  16. 23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Closer perspective view from the southwest. An archaeological pit is located under the center first-floor window. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, Alexis E.

    Recent studies on calcareous stone and plaster consolidation have demonstrated considerable potential by bio-mimicking the growth of hydroxyapatite (HAP), the main mineralogical constituent of teeth and bone matrix. These initial conservation applications, together with significant fundamental research on the precipitation of HAP for bioengineering and biomedical applications, offer great promise in the use of HAP as a consolidating agent for archaeological bone and other similar materials such as archaeological teeth, ivory, and antler. Experimental research via the controlled application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) precursors to bone flour, modern bone samples, and archaeological bones, indicated the in situ formation of HAP with a simultaneous increase in the cohesiveness of friable bone material, while preserving the bone's physiochemical properties. These preliminary results point towards a promising new method in archaeological conservation.

  18. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the FE3/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian nanner. ew method for determining dissolved fer...

  19. Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    M.I. Fal'kov

    2009-07-15

    Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

  20. ANALYSIS OF FERRIC AND FERROUS IONS IN SOIL EXTRACTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method using ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of ferrous (Fe 2+) and ferric (Fe 3+) ions in soil extracts has been developed. This method uses an ion exchange column with detection at 520 nm after post-column derivatization. Selectivity is achieved by using an anionic...

  1. 76 FR 31357 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Ferrous Metals Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Comments On February 22, 2011, we published a Federal Register Notice (76 FR 9810) announcing that we would... Metals Surveys AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of a revision of a... requirements for the Ferrous Metals Surveys. This collection consists of 17 forms. This notice provides...

  2. ELECTRODE MEASUREMENT OF REDOX POTENTIAL IN ANAEROBIC FERRIC/FERROUS CHLORIDE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behaviour of two inert redox electrodes (Pt and wax-impregnated graphite) was investigated in anaerobic ferrous and ferric chloride solutions in order to establish if these electrodes respond to the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple in a Nernstian manner. A new method fo...

  3. Effect of purification pretreatment on the recovery of magnetite from waste ferrous sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wang; Peng, Ying-lin; Zheng, Ya-jie

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the influence of impurities in waste ferrous sulfate on its recovery of magnetite. Ferrous sulfate solution was purified by the addition of NaOH solution to precipitate impurities, and magnetite was recovered from ferrous sulfate solution without and with purification pretreatment. Calcium hydroxide was added to the solution of ferrous sulfate as a precipitator. A mixed product of magnetite and gypsum was subsequently obtained by air oxidation and heating. Wet-milling was performed prior to magnetic separation to recover magnetite from the mixed products. The results show that with the purification pretreatment, the grade of iron in magnetite concentrate increased from 62.05% to 65.58% and the recovery rate of iron decreased from 85.35% to 80.35%. The purification pretreatment reduced the conglutination between magnetite and gypsum, which favors their subsequent magnetic separation. In summary, a higher-grade magnetite with a better crystallinity and a larger particle size of 2.35 μm was obtained with the purification pretreatment.

  4. Ceric and ferrous dosimeters show precision for 50-5000 rad range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.; Henry, V. D.

    1968-01-01

    Ammonium thiocyanate, added to the usual ferrous sulfate dosimeter solution, yielded a very stable, precise and temperature-independent system eight times as sensitive as the classical Fricke system in the 50 to 5000 rad range. The ceric dosimeters, promising for use in mixed radiation fields, respond nearly independently of LET.

  5. Stabilization of Pb and As in soils by applying combined treatment with phosphates and ferrous iron.

    PubMed

    Xenidis, Anthimos; Stouraiti, Christina; Papassiopi, Nymphodora

    2010-05-15

    The chemical immobilization of Pb and As in contaminated soil from Lavrion, Greece, using monocalcium phosphate and ferrous sulfate as stabilizing agents was investigated. Monocalcium phosphate was added to contaminated soil at PO(4) to Pb molar ratios equal to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2.5, whereas ferrous sulfate was added at Fe to As molar ratios equal to 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20. Phosphates addition to contaminated soil decreased Pb leachability, but resulted in significant mobilization of As. Simultaneous immobilization of Pb and As was obtained only when soil was treated with mixtures of phosphates and ferrous sulfate. Arsenic uptake by plants was also seen to increase when soil was treated only with phosphates, but co-addition of ferrous sulfate was efficient in maintaining As phytoaccumulation at low levels. The addition of at least 1.5M/M phosphates and 10M/M iron sulfate to soil reduced the dissolved levels of Pb and As in the water extracts to values in compliance with the EU drinking water standards. However, both additives contributed in the acidification of soil, decreasing pH from 7.8 to values as low as 5.6 and induced the mobilization of pH sensitive elements, such as Zn and Cd. PMID:20116921

  6. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P < 0.0001). The addition of non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear. PMID:22935997

  7. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM FERROUS METALLURGICAL INDUSTRIES: COMPILATION OF EMISSION FACTORS AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a review and analysis of the information and data available in the public domain on organic emissions from the ferrous metallurgy industry, specifically the iron and steel, iron foundry, and ferroalloy industries. Emission sources and information gaps ...

  8. IN SITU CR(VI) TREATMENT USING A FERROUS IRON-BASED REDUCTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a ferrous sulfate/ sodium hydrosulfite (dithionite) reductant blend in treating a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) source area and Cr(VI) dissolved phase plume at a former industrial site in Charleston, South ...

  9. Martian weathering/alteration scenarios from spectral studies of ferric and ferrous minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Adams, John B.; Morris, Richard V.

    1992-01-01

    We review the major aspects of our current knowledge of martian ferric and ferrous mineralogy based on the available ground-based telescopic and spacecraft data. What we know and what we don't know are used to constrain various weathering/alteration models and to identify key future measurements and techniques that can distinguish between these models.

  10. A History of NASA Remote Sensing Contributions to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2010-01-01

    During its long history of developing and deploying remote sensing instruments, NASA has provided a scientific data that have benefitted a variety of scientific applications among them archaeology. Multispectral and hyperspectral instrument mounted on orbiting and suborbital platforms have provided new and important information for the discovery, delineation and analysis of archaeological sites worldwide. Since the early 1970s, several of the ten NASA centers have collaborated with archaeologists to refine and validate the use of active and passive remote sensing for archeological use. The Stennis Space Center (SSC), located in Mississippi USA has been the NASA leader in archeological research. Together with colleagues from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), SSC scientists have provided the archaeological community with useful images and sophisticated processing that have pushed the technological frontiers of archaeological research and applications. Successful projects include identifying prehistoric roads in Chaco canyon, identifying sites from the Lewis and Clark Corps of Discovery exploration and assessing prehistoric settlement patterns in southeast Louisiana. The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) stimulated commercial companies to collect archaeological data. At present, NASA formally solicits "space archaeology" proposals through its Earth Science Directorate and continues to assist archaeologists and cultural resource managers in doing their work more efficiently and effectively. This paper focuses on passive remote sensing and does not consider the significant contributions made by NASA active sensors. Hyperspectral data offers new opportunities for future archeological discoveries.

  11. Archaeological geophysics in Israel: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2010-04-01

    In Israel occur a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. Different kinds of noise complicate geophysical methods employment at archaeological sites. Geodynamical active, multi-layered, and geologically variable surrounding media in many cases damages ancient objects and disturbs their physical properties. This calls to application of different geophysical methods armed by the modern interpretation technology. The main attention is focused on the geophysical methods most frequently applying in Israeli archaeological sites: GPR and high-precise magnetic survey. Other methods (paleomagnetic, resistivity, near-surface seismics, piezoelectric, etc.) are briefly described and reviewed. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing, and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. Several examples illustrate effective application of geophysical methods over some typical archaeological remains. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past (1990), (2) present (1990-2009), and (3) future (2010). The past stage with several archaeoseismic reviews and very limited application of geophysical methods was replaced by the present stage with the violent employment of numerous geophysical techniques. It is supposed that the future stage will be characterized by extensive development of multidiscipline physical-archaeological databases, employment of all possible indicators for 4-D monitoring and ancient sites reconstruction, as well as application of combined geophysical multilevel surveys using remote operated vehicles at low altitudes.

  12. Application of 3D GPR attribute technology in archaeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen-Ke; Tian, Gang; Wang, Bang-Bing; Shi, Zhan-Jie; Lin, Jin-Xin

    2012-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) attribute technology has been applied to many aspects in recent years but there are very few examples in the field of archaeology. Especially how can we extract effective attributes from the two- or three-dimensional radar data so that we can map and describe numerous archaeological targets in a large cultural site? In this paper, we applied GPR attribute technology to investigate the ancient Nanzhao castle-site in Tengchong, Yunnan Province. In order to get better archaeological target (the ancient wall, the ancient kiln site, and the ancient tomb) analysis and description, we collated the GPR data by collected standardization and then put them to the seismic data processing and interpretation workstation. The data was processed, including a variety of GPR attribute extraction, analysis, and optimization and combined with the archaeological drilling data. We choose the RMS Amplitude, Average Peak Amplitude, Instantaneous Phase, and Maximum Peak Time to interpret three archaeological targets. By comparative analysis, we have clarified that we should use different attributes to interpret different archaeological targets and the results of attribute analysis after horizon tracking is much better than the results based on a time slice.

  13. Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Archaeological sites are being compromised or destroyed at a catastrophic rate in most regions of the world. The best solution to this problem is for archaeologists to find and study these sites before they are compromised or destroyed. One way to facilitate the necessary rapid, wide area surveys needed to find these archaeological sites is through the generation of maps of probable archaeological sites from remotely sensed data. We describe an approach for identifying probable locations of archaeological sites over a wide area based on detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover through a statistically based analysis of remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We further developed this approach under a recent NASA ROSES Space Archaeology Program project. Under this project we refined and elaborated this statistical analysis to compensate for potential slight miss-registrations between the remote sensing data sources and the archaeological site location data. We also explored data quantization approaches (required by the statistical analysis approach), and we identified a superior data quantization approached based on a unique image segmentation approach. In our presentation we will summarize our refined approach and demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach with test data from Santa Catalina Island off the southern California coast. Finally, we discuss our future plans for further improving our approach.

  14. Sea Level Data Archaeology for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andy; Rickards, Lesley; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) was set up in 1985 to collect long term tide gauge observations and has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, including sending member organisations questionnaires to report on their repositories. The GLOSS Group of Experts (GLOSS GE) is looking to future developments in sea level data archaeology and will provide its user community with guidance on finding, digitising, quality controlling and distributing historic records. Many records may not be held in organisational archives and may instead by in national libraries, archives and other collections. GLOSS will promote a Citizen Science approach to discovering long term records by providing tools for volunteers to report data. Tide gauge data come in two different formats, charts and hand-written ledgers. Charts are paper analogue records generated by the mechanical instrument driving a pen trace. Several GLOSS members have developed software to automatically digitise these charts and the various methods were reported in a paper on automated techniques for the digitization of archived mareograms, delivered to the GLOSS GE 13th meeting. GLOSS is creating a repository of software for scanning analogue charts. NUNIEAU is the only publically available software for digitising tide gauge charts but other organisations have developed their own tide gauge digitising software that is available internally. There are several other freely available software packages that convert image data to numerical values. GLOSS could coordinate a comparison study of the various different digitising software programs by: Sending the same charts to each organisation and asking everyone to digitise them using their own procedures Comparing the digitised data Providing recommendations to the GLOSS community The other major form of analogue sea level data is handwritten ledgers, which are usually observations of high and low waters, but sometimes contain higher

  15. FUNCTION GENERATOR FOR ANALOGUE COMPUTERS

    DOEpatents

    Skramstad, H.K.; Wright, J.H.; Taback, L.

    1961-12-12

    An improved analogue computer is designed which can be used to determine the final ground position of radioactive fallout particles in an atomic cloud. The computer determines the fallout pattern on the basis of known wind velocity and direction at various altitudes, and intensity of radioactivity in the mushroom cloud as a function of particle size and initial height in the cloud. The output is then displayed on a cathode-ray tube so that the average or total luminance of the tube screen at any point represents the intensity of radioactive fallout at the geographical location represented by that point. (AEC)

  16. Ecstasy analogues found in cacti.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Shulgin, Alexander T

    2008-06-01

    Human interest in psychoactive phenethylamines is known from the use of mescaline-containing cacti and designer drugs such as Ecstasy. From the alkaloid composition of cacti we hypothesized that substances resembling Ecstasy might occur naturally. In this article we show that lophophine, homopiperonylamine and lobivine are new minor constituents of two cactus species, Lophophora williamsii (peyote) and Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro). This is the first report of putatively psychoactive phenethylamines besides mescaline in these cacti. A search for further biosynthetic analogues may provide new insights into the structure-activity relationships of mescaline. An intriguing question is whether the new natural compounds can be called "designer drugs." PMID:18720674

  17. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems. PMID:27003087

  18. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  19. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach.

    PubMed

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-09-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  20. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  1. Descent with modification and the archaeological record

    PubMed Central

    Shennan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen major advances in our understanding of the way in which cultural transmission takes place and the factors that affect it. The theoretical foundations of those advances have been built by postulating the existence of a variety of different processes and deriving their consequences mathematically or by simulation. The operation of these processes in the real world can be studied through experiment and naturalistic observation. In contrast, archaeologists have an ‘inverse problem’. For them the object of study is the residues of different behaviours represented by the archaeological record and the problem is to infer the microscale processes that produced them, a vital task for cultural evolution since this is the only direct record of past cultural patterns. The situation is analogous to that faced by population geneticists scanning large number of genes and looking for evidence of selection as opposed to drift, but more complicated for many reasons, not least the enormous variety of different forces that affect cultural transmission. This paper reviews the progress that has been made in inferring processes from patterns and the role of demography in those processes, together with the problems that have arisen. PMID:21357229

  2. Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Danevich, F. A.; Kobychev, V. V.; Kropivyansky, B. N.; Mokina, V. M.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nikolaiko, A. S.; Poda, D. V.; Tretyak, V. I.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kostezh, A. B.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Voronov, S. A.

    2007-03-28

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low-radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea, near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with {approx}0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe-detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial {alpha}-detectors. Measurements of 40K, Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). If it was found to be radio-clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low-level detectors, and as raw material for growing radio-pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes.

  3. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian H.; Fletcher, Roland J.; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  4. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  5. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  6. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  7. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  8. The Valles natural analogue project

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and {sup 39}Ar/{sup 4O} isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks.

  9. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  10. Close out report for archaeological investigations on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP), South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of South Carolina conducted archaeological investigations under contract AC09-81SR10749 entitled Archaeological Investigations at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant from July 1981 through September 1987. The major emphasis was upon the completion of a 40% stratified sample of the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to identify and preserve archaeological resources. The investigations were conducted to bring the Savannah River Operations Office into compliance with specific laws and regulations pertaining to the identification and preservation of archaeological and historical resources on federally owned and controlled properties. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Photogrammetric Techniques for Promotion of Archaeological Heritage: the Archaeological Museum of Parma (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, E.; Bruno, N.; Bigliardi, G.; Zerbi, A.; Roncella, R.

    2016-06-01

    In a context rich in history and cultural heritage, such as the Italian one, promotion and enhancement of historical evidences are crucial. The paper describes the case study of the Archaeological Museum of Parma, which, for the main part, conserves evidences found in the roman archaeological site of Veleia (Piacenza, Italy). To enhance the comprehension of the past, the project aims to promote the exhibits through new digital contents, in particular 3D models and AR applications, to improve their usability by the public. Projects like this pose some difficulties especially in data acquisition and restitution due to complexity of the objects and their dimension and position that are not always adequate for an easy survey. Furthermore, in this case, it was necessary to find a solution that takes into account, on one hand, the necessity of a high degree of detail to ensure high metric quality and, on the other hand, the need of producing small files, in order to easy load and consult them on the web or smartphone applications. For all these reasons, close-range photogrammetry was considered the most adequate technique to produce the major part of the models. In this paper, particular attention will be dedicated to the description of the survey campaign and data processing, underlining difficulties and adopted solutions, in order to provide a methodological summary of the actions performed.

  12. Archaeological remote sensing application pre-post war situation of Babylon archaeological site—Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo; Invernizzi, Antonio; Parapetti, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The first basic step in obtaining a correct geographical knowledge and initiative for archaeological cartography analysis is an adequately geo-localized representation of natural and semi-natural resources and human activities, present and past. In this context, the correct and contextual evaluation of the resources through the use of integrated techniques of aerial photos, remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) supply the synoptic instrument to the real knowledge of the land geography and for the operational management of any research and project. We will describe, at a synthetic level, the maturity of the land systematic study of Babylon archaeological site using different change detection analysis. Topographic maps of 1920 and 1980 were used, 18 aerial photos (1986) were mosaicked and georeferenced, vector information was digitized and inserted in a GIS system, DTM was build. Object oriented image analysis activity is being carried on and initial results are available through a WebGIS. The use of remote sensing (Quickbird and Ikonos) data allows us to capture the integral mutations due to human interventions. Earth observation data and GIS system were an optimal starting point for generating and updating the cartography. This results will be indispensable for the Iraqi authority and scientific community who care about the future of the territory.

  13. Remote Sensing in Archaeology: Visible Temporal Change of Archaeological Features of the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, James D., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this archaeological research was two-fold; the location of Mayan sites and features in order to learn more of this cultural group, and the (cultural) preservation of these sites and features for the future using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images. Because the rainy season, traditionally at least, lasts about six months (about June to December), the time of year the image is acquired plays an important role in spectral reflectance. Images from 1986, 1995, and 1997 were selected because it was felt they would provide the best opportunity for success in layering different bands from different years together to attempt to see features not completely visible in any one year. False-color composites were created including bands 3, 4, and 5 using a mixture of years and bands. One particular combination that yielded tremendously interesting results included band 5 from 1997, band 4 from 1995, and band 3 from 1986. A number of straight linear features (probably Mayan causeways) run through the bajos that Dr. Sever believes are features previously undiscovered. At this point, early indications are that this will be a successful method for locating "new" Mayan archaeological features in the Peten.

  14. Removal of phosphorus from wastewaters using ferrous salts - a pilot scale membrane bioreactor study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Tng, K Han; Wu, Hao; Leslie, Greg; Waite, T David

    2014-06-15

    A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (3.7 m(3)/day capacity), configured for alternate point ferrous sulphate addition, was evaluated in a fourteen month trial to comply with an effluent discharge requirement of less than 0.15 mg-P/L at the 50(th) percentile and less than 0.30 mg-P/L at the 90th percentile. Ferrous sulphate was added at a molar ratio (Fe(II):PO4) of 2.99 in the filtration chamber for 85 days and 2.60 in the primary anoxic zone for 111 days. Addition of ferrous salts to the anoxic zone achieved a final effluent phosphorous concentration (mg-P/L) of <0.05 (29%), <0.15 (77%) and <0.30 (95%), while addition of ferrous salts in the filtration zone achieved <0.05 (18%), <0.15 (63%) and <0.30 (95%). Analysis of the concentration of iron(II) in the supernatant indicated that phosphorus was mainly removed via adsorption to amorphous iron oxyhydroxides particles in both dosing scenarios. However, analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) data of the reactor indicated that severe short-circuiting from the dosing point to the membrane outlet could occur when the ferrous salts were added to the membrane zone while the reactor behaved close to a completely mixed reactor when dosing to the primary anoxic zone, resulting in improved phosphorus removal. The addition of ferrous salt was also found to delay the onset of severe increase in trans-membrane pressure as a result of the removal of macro-molecules. However, detailed analysis of the form and concentration of iron species in the supernatant and permeate indicated that the presence of fine iron particles resulted in a higher fouling rate when Fe(II) was added to the membrane zone rather than the primary anoxic zone and could cause more severe irreversible fouling in long-term operation. PMID:24709534

  15. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  16. Identifying climate change threats to the arctic archaeological record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Maribeth; Jensen, Anne; Friesen, Max

    2011-05-01

    Global Climate Change and the Polar Archaeological Record; Tromsø, Norway, 15-16 February 2011 ; A workshop was held at the Institute of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Tromsø, in Norway, to catalyze growing concern among polar archaeologists about global climate change and attendant threats to the polar archaeological and paleoecological records. Arctic archaeological sites contain an irreplaceable record of the histories of the many societies that have lived in the region over past millennia. Associated paleoecological deposits provide powerful proxy evidence for paleoclimate and ecosystem structure and function and direct evidence of species diversity, distributions, and genetic variability. Archaeological records can span most of the Holocene (the past ∼12,000 years), depending upon location, and paleoecological records extend even further. Most are largely unstudied, and, although extremely vulnerable to destruction, they are poorly monitored and not well protected. Yet these records are key to understanding how the Arctic has functioned as a system, how humans were integrated into it, and how humans may have shaped it. Such records provide a wide range of data that are not obtainable from sources such as ice and ocean cores; these data are needed for understanding the past, assessing current and projecting future conditions, and adapting to ongoing change.

  17. Hyperspectral MIVIS data to investigate the Lilybaeum (Marsala) Archaeological Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, P.; Allegrini, A.; Bajocco, S.

    2005-10-01

    In the last 20 years air photograph and remote sensing, both from airplane and satellite, allowed to gain, from the analysis of the superficial land unit characteristics, useful information for the location of buried archaeological structures. For this kind of investigation, hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data revealed to be very useful, for example, since 1994, for the purpose CNR-LARA research project, many archaeological studies have been supported by MIVIS data on several italian archaeological sites: Selinunte, Arpi (Foggia), Villa Adriana (Tivoli) and Marsala. Marsala town, the ancient Lilybaeum, lies on the western coastline of Sicily, at about 30 km south of Trapani. Founded by the Phoenicians, it intensely lived during the Punic, Roman, Arab and Norman periods, whose dominations left many important remains. This archaeological area was investigated by means of several techniques, such as excavations, topographic studies based on airborne campaigns, etc. On this site the main archaeological information were provided by the analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral bands and by Thermal Capacity image.

  18. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, H.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.; Carloganu, C.; Niess, V.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-17

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  19. NASA Remote Sensing Research as Applied to Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giardino, Marco J.; Thomas, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of remotely sensed images is not new to archaeology. Ever since balloons and airplanes first flew cameras over archaeological sites, researchers have taken advantage of the elevated observation platforms to understand sites better. When viewed from above, crop marks, soil anomalies and buried features revealed new information that was not readily visible from ground level. Since 1974 and initially under the leadership of Dr. Tom Sever, NASA's Stennis Space Center, located on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, pioneered and expanded the application of remote sensing to archaeological topics, including cultural resource management. Building on remote sensing activities initiated by the National Park Service, archaeologists increasingly used this technology to study the past in greater depth. By the early 1980s, there were sufficient accomplishments in the application of remote sensing to anthropology and archaeology that a chapter on the subject was included in fundamental remote sensing references. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, or nearing deployment, offer significantly finer spatial and spectral resolutions than were previously available. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology may make the direct detection of archaeological sites a realistic goal.

  20. Feasibility study of archaeological structures scanning by muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the main concerns in archaeology is to find of a method to study precisely archaeological structures in the least invasive way possible to avoid damage. The requirement of preserving the structures integrity prevents, in the case of pyramids or tumuli, the study of any internal structure (halls or tombs) which are not reachable by existing corridors. One non-invasive method is the muon tomography. By placing a detector which allows to register the muon direction after the structure, it is possible to have an idea of its composition based on the attenuation of the muon flux, which depends on the material length and density that muons have crossed. This technique, alone or together with other exploration techniques as seismic tomography or electrical resistivity tomography, can provide useful information about the internal structure of the archaeological form that can not be obtained by conventional archaeological methods. In this work, the time measurement necessary to obtain a significant result about the composition of an archaeological structure is estimated. To do that, a Monte Carlo simulation framework based on the MUSIC software, properly tuned for this study, has been developed. The particular case of the Kastas Amfipoli Macedonian tumulus has been considered to perform the simulations.

  1. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer.

    PubMed

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  2. An analogue study of intrusions.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Alden, Lynn E

    2006-07-01

    According to cognitive theorists, intrusive trauma memories have their origin in how information during the event is processed. Two studies investigated functional cognitive strategies during medical crises that might protect against intrusions. In Study 1, interviews with health-care professionals were used to identify cognitive strategies judged to be effective in controlling emotions and dealing with medical crises. Study 2 systematically manipulated the use of those strategies in a trauma analogue film paradigm. Experimental participants reported fewer intrusions, and less fear and avoidance of film-related stimuli during the subsequent week than controls. The manipulation did not affect anxiety during the film or memory disorganization. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusion development are discussed. PMID:16125135

  3. Fully analogue photonic reservoir computer

    PubMed Central

    Duport, François; Smerieri, Anteo; Akrout, Akram; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Introduced a decade ago, reservoir computing is an efficient approach for signal processing. State of the art capabilities have already been demonstrated with both computer simulations and physical implementations. If photonic reservoir computing appears to be promising a solution for ultrafast nontrivial computing, all the implementations presented up to now require digital pre or post processing, which prevents them from exploiting their full potential, in particular in terms of processing speed. We address here the possibility to get rid simultaneously of both digital pre and post processing. The standalone fully analogue reservoir computer resulting from our endeavour is compared to previous experiments and only exhibits rather limited degradation of performances. Our experiment constitutes a proof of concept for standalone physical reservoir computers. PMID:26935166

  4. The industrial archaeology of deep time.

    PubMed

    Bulstrode, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects. This paper explores how Evans drew on the concerns of his industrial culture to make sense of prehistoric artefacts and support his claim to access the past through his own actions. Situated industrial concerns provided the resources for his flint work: from a patent dispute with astronomer and fellow industrialist Warren de la Rue, through his role in the Victorian arms trade, to the struggle to displace skilled manual labour in his factories. Evans is remembered for pioneering the techniques and classificatory system of modern Palaeolithic archaeology and as one of the founders of the re-enactment science of experimental flint knapping. His work played a significant role in helping reconceive the antiquity of man, yet the system of proof for this grand claim was deeply situated in his industrial culture. This paper explores how the industrial resources of a Victorian papermaker made human history. PMID:26879234

  5. Laboratory study of cometary analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Brucato, J.; Mennella, V.; Palumbo, P.

    In situ exploration (e.g., GIOTTO mission) and astronomical observations (e.g., ISO) of comets have provided fundamental information about the structure, chemistry and physical properties of materials present in such primordial bodies of the Solar System. Moreover, it is known that cosmic materials evolve, depending on the efficiency of active processes (e.g., thermal annealing, UV irradiation, ion bombardment, gassolid interactions) in different space environments. Thus, the properties of cometary constituents must be considered in a wider perspective, including cosmic dust formation around cold stars and evolution in the interstellar medium until the formation of proto-planetary nebulae. In this scenario, laboratory experiments provide important hints to clarify the status of cometary compounds. The laboratory work is aimed at both reproducing material properties and at simulating their evolution based on the most effective mechanisms active in space. Several techniques are used to synthesise "analogues" of cometary compounds with controlled chemical and physical characteristics. The study of optical properties, complemented by other analytical techniques, is applied to investigate the products of synthesis in the experiments. The monitoring of the effects produced by processing methods, similar to those active in space, provides information both on the reactivity of materials and on the efficiency of treatments. Such an approach is able to provide quantitative information on chemical and structural modifications produced on organic and refractory materials. The comparison of laboratory results with data coming from space observations and in situ measurements provides a powerful tool to understand the real nature of comets and to place constraints on formation and evolution pathways. The laboratory experiments on analogues gain even more relevance as a sort of training in the future perspective of analysing cometary samples returned to Earth by space missions (e

  6. Analogues as a check of predicted drift stability at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations made by the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project as part of the licensing of a proposed geologic repository in southwestern Nevada for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, predict that emplacement tunnels will remain open with little collapse long after ground support has disintegrated. This conclusion includes the effects of anticipated seismic events. Natural analogues cannot provide a quantitative test of this conclusion, but they can provide a reasonableness test by examining the naturally occuring and anthropogenic examples of stability of subterranean openings. Available data from a variety of sources, combined with limited observations by the author, show that natural underground openings tend to resist collapse for millions of years and that anthropogenic subterranean openings have remained open from before recorded history through today. This stability is true even in seismically active areas. In fact, the archaeological record is heavily skewed toward preservation of underground structures relative to those found at the surface.

  7. A modified ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay for lipoxygenase activity in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Timabud, Tarinee; Sanitchon, Jirawat; Pongdontri, Paweena

    2013-12-01

    Ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay reagent was reformulated by using spectral analysis of ferric-xylenol orange complex to detect low concentrations of lipoxygenase rice grain products. Reducing the levels of ferrous sulphate and xylenol orange in the FOX reagent enabled the detection of low concentrations of hydroperoxy fatty acid derived from lipoxygenase activity in the range of 0.1-1.5 μM. Protein, substrate and time courses of the modified FOX assay were studied to determine lipoxygenase activity in rice grain. The assay was also applicable as a high throughput technique for comparisons of lipoxygenase activity from various rice varieties. This has important implications for rapid screening for low-lipoxygenase containing rice cultivars in rice breeding program and grain quality during storage. PMID:23870974

  8. Pilot-plant study of wastewater sludge decontamination using a ferrous sulfate bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean-François; Chartier, Myriam

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the performance of the ferrous sulfate bioleaching (FSBL) process in a pilot plant for decontamination and stabilization of wastewater sludge. Batch and continuous experiments, conducted with two 4-m3 bioreactors using indigenous iron-oxidizing bacteria (20% v/v of inoculum) with addition of 4.0 g ferrous sulfate heptahydrate per liter of sludge initially acidified to pH 4.0, were sufficient for effective heavy metal (cadmium, copper, manganese, zinc, and lead) removal yields. The average metal removal yields during the FSBL process were as follows: cadmium (69 to 75%), copper (68 to 70%), manganese (72 to 73%), zinc (65 to 66%), and lead (16%). The FSBL process was also found to be effective in removing both fecal and total coliforms (abatement > 5 to 6 log units). The nutrients content (nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium) were also preserved in decontaminated sludge. PMID:17059142

  9. Possible Association of Ferrous Phosphates and Ferric Sulfates in S-rich Soil on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, J.; Schroeder, C.; Haderlein, S.

    2012-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit explored Gusev Crater to look for signs of ancient aqueous activity, assess past environmental conditions and suitability for life. Spirit excavated light-toned, S-rich soils at several locations. These are likely of hydrothermal, possibly fumarolic origin. At a location dubbed Paso Robles the light-toned soil was also rich in P - a signature from surrounding rock. While S is mainly bound in ferric hydrated sulfates [1], the mineralogy of P is ill-constrained [2]. P is a key element for life and its mineralogy constrains its availability. Ferrous phases observed in Paso Robles Mössbauer spectra may represent olivine and pyroxene from surrounding basaltic soil [1] or ferrous phosphate minerals [3]. Phosphate is well-known to complex and stabilize Fe 2+ against oxidation to Fe 3+ . Schröder et al. [3] proposed a formation pathway of ferrous phosphate/ferric sulfate associations: sulfuric acid reacts with basalt containing apatite, forming CaSO4 and phosphoric acid. The phosphoric and/or excess sulfuric acid reacts with olivine, forming Fe2+-phosphate and sulfate. The phosphate is less soluble and precipitates. Ferrous sulfate remains in solution and is oxidized as pH increases. To verify this pathway, we dissolved Fe2+-chloride and Na-phosphate salts in sulfuric acid inside an anoxic glovebox. The solution was titrated to pH 6 by adding NaOH when a first precipitate formed, which was ferrous phosphate according to Mössbauer spectroscopy (MB). At that point the solution was removed from the glovebox and allowed to evaporate in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, leading to the oxidation of Fe2+. The evaporation rate was controlled by keeping the suspensions at different temperatures; pH was monitored during the evaporation process. The final precipitates were analyzed by MB and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), comparable to MER MB and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer instrument datasets, and complementary techniques such as X

  10. Laser beam welding non-ferrous metals. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning techniques and the evaluation of laser beam welding of non-ferrous metals. Welding parameters, such as incident laser power and welding speed, are reviewed in relation to their characterization of weld microstructure. Weld examination techniques are cited, including macrophotography, light and electron microscopy, and microhardness profiling. (Contains a minimum of 170 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Degradation of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene using heat and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Toluene, ethylbenze, and xylene (TEX) are common contaminants in the subsurface. Activated persulfate has shown promise for degrading a wide variety of organic compounds. However, studies of persulfate application for in situ degradation of TEX and effects on the subsequent bioremediation are limited. In this work, degradation studies of TEX in aqueous media and soil are being conducted using heat activated and chelated-ferrous iron activated persulfate oxidation in batch and flow-through column experiments. In the batch experiments, sodium persulfate is being used at different concentrations to provide an initial persulfate to TEX molar ratios between 10:1 and 100:1. Sodium persulfate solutions are being activated at 20, 37, 60, and 80 oC temperatures for the heat activated oxidation. For the chelated-ferrous iron activated oxidation, ferrous iron and citric acid, both are being used at concentration of 5 mM. In the experiments with soil slurry, a soil to water ratio of 1 to 5 is being used. Flow through water saturated column experiments are being conducted with glass columns (45 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter) uniformly packed with soils, and equilibrated with water containing TEX at the target concentrations. Both the heat activation and chelated-ferrous iron activation of persulfate are being employed in the column experiments. Future experiments are planned to determine the suitability of persulfate oxidation of TEX on the subsequent biodegradation using batch microcosms containing TEX degrading microbial cultures. In these experiments, the microbial biomass will be monitored using total phospholipids, and the microbial community will be determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on the extracted DNA. This study is expected to provide suitable operating conditions for in situ chemical oxidation of TEX with activated persulfate followed by bioremediation.

  12. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-06

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  13. A Method for Imaging Steel Bars Behind a Ferrous Steel Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, B.; Miller, G.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.

    2006-03-01

    A system for detecting steel objects behind ferrous steel boundaries is described. It may be used to image steel reinforcing bars in concrete, where a steel sheet exists between the bars and the surface. The sensor comprises a transmitter, receiver and a dummy coil, which cancels cross-talk and enhances the signal from the bars. It is possible to penetrate a 2mm thick sheet at 125 Hz and image 16 mm diameter bars placed underneath.

  14. Separation of non-ferrous metals from ASR by corona electrostatic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-soo; Choi, Jin-Young; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Chul-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR), the residual fraction of approximate 25% obtained after dismantling and shredding from waste car, consists of polymers (plastics and rubber), metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), wood, glass and fluff (textile and fiber). ASR cannot be effectively separated due to its heterogeneous materials and coated or laminated complexes and then largely deposited in land-fill sites as waste. Thus reducing a pollutant release before disposal, techniques that can improve the liberation of coated (or laminated) complexes and the recovery of valuable metals from the shredder residue are needed. ASR may be separated by a series of physical processing operations such as comminution, air, magnetic and electrostatic separations. The work deals with the characterization of the shredder residue coming from an industrial plant in korea and focuses on estimating the optimal conditions of corona electrostatic separation for improving the separation efficiency of valuable non-ferrous metals such as aluminum, copper and etc. From the results of test, the maximum separation achievable for non-ferrous metals using a corona electrostatic separation has been shown to be recovery of 92.5% at a grade of 75.8%. The recommended values of the process variables, particle size, electrode potential, drum speed, splitter position and relative humidity are -6mm, 50 kV, 35rpm, 20° and less 40%, respectively. Acknowledgments This study was supported by the R&D Center for Valuable Recycling (Global-Top R&BD Program) of the Ministry of Environment. (Project No. GT-11-C-01-170-0)

  15. Study of electropolishing of ferrous alloys using rotating-disk electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewich, T.; Muller, R. H.; Tobias, C. W.

    1981-06-01

    Studies were performed on the rotating disk electrode system under controlled electrochemical and hydrodynamic conditions to establish conditions at which the best surface finish, after electropolishing of different types of ferrous alloys, may be achieved. The investigations were made over a wide range of applied current density, mass loss, and current efficiency using pure iron, armco iron, steels 1018, 1028, 1040, 1060, 1080, 4141 and H13 and 01 toolsteels. Characteristics of the finished surfaces are described.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of several high strength ferrous and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of several high strength ferrous and nickel base alloys has been determined in a sodium chloride solution. Results indicate that under these test conditions Multiphase MP35N, Unitemp L605, Inconel 718, Carpenter 20Cb and 20Cb-3 are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking. AISI 410 and 431 stainless steels, 18 Ni maraging steel (250 grade) and AISI 4130 steel are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under some conditions.

  17. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  18. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  19. Identifying military impacts to archaeological resources based on differences in vertical stratification of soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  20. Savannah River Archaeological Research Program: Annual report, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.T.

    1988-08-30

    The past year has witnessed the continuation of the SRARP tradition of scholarly research through contract, grant and volunteer support. Archaeological opportunities have been provided to the professional, student and avocational communities through a range of projects and programs. With the implementation of a new cooperative grant, the scope of SRARP research and public service activities will continue to examine the prehistoric and historic archaeological records of the region and to present objectively these results to professional and avocational audiences. During the forthcoming year (FY 1989) the SRARP will continue to conduct and facilitate archaeological research within the Savannah River valley for the purpose of better understanding the early history and prehistory of the region.

  1. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  2. Compass & Vernier Type Models in Indo Archaeology: Engineering Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Deepak

    2015-09-01

    Two extant, dated, verifiable archaeological members are adduced to have radial type compass features, having scope for fractionation of angles (θ operators) in a constant manner with lookout facilities. The Archaeological Survey of India celebrates their apex achievements in the domain of engineering/survey devices of erstwhile societies. Possible correlation has been drawn between the representatives of the elusive Gola yantra and the Vikhyana yantra (circular instrument & looking device) as referred in Indian history and culture. Dadhi nauti (curd level) has been explained for the first time. Now, all of these are accessible to everyone. This work is the first time report, which relates to historical archaeology of lower date c. 600 AD.

  3. Ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery enables controlled and selective release of therapeutic agents in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Deu, Edgar; Chen, Ingrid T.; Lauterwasser, Erica M. W.; Valderramos, Juan; Li, Hao; Edgington, Laura E.; Renslo, Adam R.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The precise targeting of cytotoxic agents to specific cell types or cellular compartments is of significant interest in medicine, with particular relevance for infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we describe a method to exploit aberrant levels of mobile ferrous iron (FeII) for selective drug delivery in vivo. This approach makes use of a 1,2,4-trioxolane moiety, which serves as an FeII-sensitive “trigger,” making drug release contingent on FeII-promoted trioxolane fragmentation. We demonstrate in vivo validation of this approach with the Plasmodium berghei model of murine malaria. Malaria parasites produce high concentrations of mobile ferrous iron as a consequence of their catabolism of host hemoglobin in the infected erythrocyte. Using activity-based probes, we successfully demonstrate the FeII-dependent and parasite-selective delivery of a potent dipeptidyl aminopeptidase inhibitor. We find that delivery of the compound in its FeII-targeted form leads to more sustained target inhibition with greatly reduced off-target inhibition of mammalian cathepsins. This selective drug delivery translates into improved efficacy and tolerability. These findings demonstrate the utility of a purely chemical means to achieve selective drug targeting in vivo. This approach may find useful application in parasitic infections and more broadly in any disease state characterized by aberrant production of reactive ferrous iron. PMID:24145449

  4. Ferrous iron-dependent drug delivery enables controlled and selective release of therapeutic agents in vivo.

    PubMed

    Deu, Edgar; Chen, Ingrid T; Lauterwasser, Erica M W; Valderramos, Juan; Li, Hao; Edgington, Laura E; Renslo, Adam R; Bogyo, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    The precise targeting of cytotoxic agents to specific cell types or cellular compartments is of significant interest in medicine, with particular relevance for infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we describe a method to exploit aberrant levels of mobile ferrous iron (Fe(II)) for selective drug delivery in vivo. This approach makes use of a 1,2,4-trioxolane moiety, which serves as an Fe(II)-sensitive "trigger," making drug release contingent on Fe(II)-promoted trioxolane fragmentation. We demonstrate in vivo validation of this approach with the Plasmodium berghei model of murine malaria. Malaria parasites produce high concentrations of mobile ferrous iron as a consequence of their catabolism of host hemoglobin in the infected erythrocyte. Using activity-based probes, we successfully demonstrate the Fe(II)-dependent and parasite-selective delivery of a potent dipeptidyl aminopeptidase inhibitor. We find that delivery of the compound in its Fe(II)-targeted form leads to more sustained target inhibition with greatly reduced off-target inhibition of mammalian cathepsins. This selective drug delivery translates into improved efficacy and tolerability. These findings demonstrate the utility of a purely chemical means to achieve selective drug targeting in vivo. This approach may find useful application in parasitic infections and more broadly in any disease state characterized by aberrant production of reactive ferrous iron. PMID:24145449

  5. Dissolution of nickel ferrite in aqueous solutions containing oxalic acid and ferrous salts

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, C.A.; Sileo, E.E.; Morando, P.J.; Blesa, M.A.

    2000-05-15

    The dissolution of nickel ferrite in oxalic acid and in ferrous oxalate-oxalic acid aqueous solution was studied. Nickel ferrite was synthesized by thermal decomposition of a mixed tartrate; the particles were shown to be coated with a thin ferric oxide layer. Dissolution takes place in two stages, the first one corresponding to the dissolution of the ferric oxide outer layer and the second one being the dissolution of Ni{sub 1.06}Fe{sub 1.96}O{sub 4}. The kinetics of dissolution during this first stage is typical of ferric oxides: in oxalic acid, both a ligand-assisted and a redox mechanism operates, whereas in the presence of ferrous ions, redox catalysis leads to a faster dissolution. The rate dependence on both oxalic acid and on ferrous ion is described by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation. In the second stage, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics also describes the dissolution of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite. It may be concluded that oxalic acid operates to dissolve iron, and the ensuing disruption of the solid framework accelerates the release of nickel.

  6. New developments in the processing of the non ferrous metal fraction of car scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmijn, W.L.; Houwelingen, J.A. van

    1995-12-31

    The processing of scrap and scrap cars starts with size reduction by a hammermill, or shredder. After the liberation the magnetic fraction is removed. The remaining nonmagnetic fraction mixed with other materials is screened and each fraction is processed separately. The increased use of plastic has a negative effect on the recovery of metals and waste production. At Huron Valley, Belleville Michigan, USA, the non-ferrous fraction from 5 million obsolete cars per year, containing 200,000 tons of non-ferrous metal, is processed. Aluminium is recovered with a heavy medium separation process and concentrated with eddy current separators. The remaining heavy non-ferrous fraction is concentrated by a new combination of eddy current separation and image processing. After this separation process the zinc fraction is melted and refined and the copper, brass, stainless steel and other high-quality concentrates are sold to the secondary industries. The recycling of car scrap has become an important source of metals and materials for the secondary materials processing industry.

  7. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  8. Stable intermediate-spin ferrous iron in lower-mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.; Kantor, I.; Narygina, O.; Rouquette, J.; Ponkratz, U.; Sergueev, I.; Mezouar, M.; Prakapenka, V.; Dubrovinsky, L.

    2008-11-10

    The lower mantle is dominated by a magnesium- and iron-bearing mineral with the perovskite structure. Iron has the ability to adopt different electronic configurations, and transitions in its spin state in the lower mantle can significantly influence mantle properties and dynamics. However, previous studies aimed at understanding these transitions have provided conflicting results. Here we report the results of high-pressure (up to 110 GPa) and high-temperature (up to 1,000 K) experiments aimed at understanding spin transitions of iron in perovskite at lower-mantle conditions. Our Moessbauer and nuclear forward scattering data for two lower-mantle perovskite compositions demonstrate that the transition of ferrous iron from the high-spin to the intermediate-spin state occurs at approximately 30 GPa, and that high temperatures favour the stability of the intermediate-spin state. We therefore infer that ferrous iron adopts the intermediate-spin state throughout the bulk of the lower mantle. Our X-ray data show significant anisotropic compression of lower-mantle perovskite containing intermediate-spin ferrous iron, which correlates strongly with the spin transition. We predict spin-state heterogeneities in the uppermost part of the lower mantle associated with sinking slabs and regions of upwelling. These may affect local properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity, deformation (viscosity) and chemical behaviour, and thereby affect mantle dynamics.

  9. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ≥ 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  10. PRESERVATION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS RELEVANT TO YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    N. Chapman, A. Dansie, C. McCombie

    2006-02-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate archaeological materials from underground openings or shallow burial in arid environments relevant to Yucca Mountain and to draw conclusions about how their state and their environment of preservation could be of relevance to design and operational aspects of the high-level waste repository. The study has evaluated materials from cultures in the arid regions of the ancient Middle East and compared them with the preservation of ancient materials in dry cave sites in the Great Basin desert area of Nevada. The emphasis has been on materials found in undisturbed underground openings such as caves and un-backfilled tombs. Long-term preservation of such materials in underground openings and the stability of the openings themselves provide useful analogue information that serves as a reference point for considering the operation and evolution of the Yucca Mountain repository. Being able to shed light, by close physical and environmental analogy, on what happens in underground openings over many thousands of years provides valuable underpinning to illustrations of expected system performance and offers pointers towards optimizing repository system and operational design.

  11. Organic geochemical analysis of archaeological medicine pots from Northern Ghana. The multi-functionality of pottery

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Sharon E.; Insoll, Timothy; Thompson, Anu; van Dongen, Bart E.

    2012-01-01

    Sherds from pots found layered under a granite boulder in the Tong Hills of the Upper East Region of Northern Ghana seem, based on their deposition context to have been used for the preparation of medicines. Organic geochemical and isotopic analyses of these sherds and a modern day analogue reveal an n-alkanoic acid composition that is consistent with their being used in the preparation of plant derived substances. Isotopic analyses of the modern medicine pot indicate a contribution of n-alkanoic acids derived from plants that use C4 carbon fixation, most likely maize, sorghum and/or millet suggesting that this pot was used for cooking C4 based plant substances, perhaps, based on current analogy, staple porridge type food. The modern medicine pot could thus have had a prior use. The absence of C4 plant residues in the archaeological sherds suggests that either staple foodstuffs differed radically to today, or, more likely, were not prepared in vessels that were to be used for medicinal purposes. PMID:23565024

  12. Organic geochemical analysis of archaeological medicine pots from Northern Ghana. The multi-functionality of pottery.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Sharon E; Insoll, Timothy; Thompson, Anu; van Dongen, Bart E

    2012-07-01

    Sherds from pots found layered under a granite boulder in the Tong Hills of the Upper East Region of Northern Ghana seem, based on their deposition context to have been used for the preparation of medicines. Organic geochemical and isotopic analyses of these sherds and a modern day analogue reveal an n-alkanoic acid composition that is consistent with their being used in the preparation of plant derived substances. Isotopic analyses of the modern medicine pot indicate a contribution of n-alkanoic acids derived from plants that use C4 carbon fixation, most likely maize, sorghum and/or millet suggesting that this pot was used for cooking C4 based plant substances, perhaps, based on current analogy, staple porridge type food. The modern medicine pot could thus have had a prior use. The absence of C4 plant residues in the archaeological sherds suggests that either staple foodstuffs differed radically to today, or, more likely, were not prepared in vessels that were to be used for medicinal purposes. PMID:23565024

  13. Large Scale Archaeological Satellite Classification and Data Mining Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canham, Kelly

    Archaeological applications routinely use many different forms of remote sensing imagery, the exception being hyperspectral imagery (HSI). HSI tends to be utilized in a similar fashion as multispectral imagery (MSI) or processed to the point that it can be utilized similarly to MSI, thus reducing the benefits of HSI. However, for large scale archaeological surveys, HSI data can be used to differentiate materials more accurately than MSI because of HSI's larger number of spectral bands. HSI also has the ability to identify multiple materials found within a single pixel (sub-pixel material mixing), which is traditionally not possible with MSI. The Zapotec people of Oaxaca, Mexico, lived in an environment that isolates the individual settlements by rugged mountain ranges and dramatically different ecosystems. The rugged mountains of Oaxaca make large scale ground based archaeological surveys expensive in terms of both time and money. The diverse ecosystems of Oaxaca make multispectral satellite imagery inadequate for local material identification. For these reasons hyperspectral imagery was collected over Oaxaca, Mexico. Using HSI, investigations were conducted into how the Zapotec statehood was impacted by the environment, and conversely, how the environment impacted the statehood. Emphasis in this research is placed on identifying the number of pure materials present in the imagery, what these materials are, and identifying archaeological regions of interest using image processing techniques. The HSI processing techniques applied include a new spatially adaptive spectral unmixing approach (LoGlo) to identify pure materials across broad regions of Oaxaca, vegetation indices analysis, and spectral change detection algorithms. Verification of identified archaeological sites is completed using Geospatial Information System (GIS) tools, ground truth data, and high-resolution satellite MSI. GIS tools are also used to analyze spatial trends in lost archaeological sites due

  14. Experimental Investigation and Simulation of Ferrous Biooxidation and Flow Hydrodynamics in a Bubble Column Bioreactor Using CFD Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, S. M.; Jafari, A.; Yaghmaei, S.; Vossoughi, M.; Turunen, I.

    2008-05-01

    In the present attempt a set of experiments and a 3D simulation using a commercially available computational fluid dynamics package (FLUENT) were adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics and ferrous biological oxidation in a gas-liquid bubble column reactor. By combining the hydrodynamics and chemical species transport equations, the velocity field, air volume fraction and ferrous biooxidation rate in the column were simulated. The kinetic model proposed by Nemati and Webb (1998) was used to simulate the biooxidation rate in the column. Gas-liquid interactions were modeled using an Eulerian model in three dimensions. The effects of inlet air velocity and initial substrate (Fe+2) concentration on the velocity field, air volume fraction and biooxidation rate of ferrous iron in the column were investigated. To validate the model, simulation was compared with the experimental data in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in an aerated column where the superficial gas velocity was adjusted between 0 and 0.5 m/s. It was found that the initial ferrous concentration and the inlet air velocity had a pronounced effect on the ferrous biooxidation rate. The results indicated that the maximum biooxidation rate can be obtained at superficial air velocity of 0.1 m/s and initial ferrous concentration of 6.7 g/L.

  15. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  16. Geophysical survey of the Burnum archaeological site (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Federica; Campedelli, Alessandro; Giorgi, Enrico; Lepore, Giuseppe; de Maria, Sandro

    2010-05-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical investigation has been carried out at the site of Burnum (Krka Valley, Croatia) by the University of Bologna, in the context of an international agreement between the University of Zadar, the Civic Museum of Drniš, and the Centre for the Study of the Adriatic Sea Archaeology (Ravenna). The Burnum Project aims at improving our knowledge and preserve the important roman castrum, transformed in a municipium at the beginning of the 2nd century AD. Since 2005, different geophysical techniques have been applied to the site, such as magnetometry, electrical resistivity studies and ground penetrating radar, making the investigated area an interesting case history of a multidisciplinary approach applied to archaeology. After different field works, the geophysical mapping of the southern part of the castrum is almost complete, whereas the northern one will be completed during next planned campaigns. Magnetic data have been collected with the gradient technique, using an Overhauser system and an optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer, configured with a vertical sensor distance of 1.50 m. The resistivity method has been applied using the ARP© (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) and the OhM Mapper systems. GPR surveys have been carried out testing different systems and antennas. During 2009, a special emphasis was given to the acquisition, processing and interpretation of the optically-pumped Potassium magnetometer-gradiometer data. As a result, a clear image of the settlement configuration was obtained, improving our knowledge of the forum-basilica complex and possibly discovering a second auxiliary castrum. Direct exploration by archaeological excavations of selected areas has correctly confirmed the geophysical results and the archaeological interpretation proposed. The features of the building materials, brought to the light and analysed after the excavations, were coherent with the instrumental responses of all the applied

  17. Uas for Archaeology - New Perspectives on Aerial Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallavollita, P.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Melis, M. G.; Milanese, M.; Zappino, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work some Unmanned Aerial Systems applications are discussed and applied to archaeological sites survey and 3D model reconstructions. Interesting results are shown for three important and different aged sites on north Sardinia (Italy). An easy and simplified procedure has proposed permitting the adoption of multi-rotor aircrafts for daily archaeological survey during excavation and documentation, involving state of art in UAS design, flight control systems, high definition sensor cameras and innovative photogrammetric software tools. Very high quality 3D models results are shown and discussed and how they have been simplified the archaeologist work and decisions.

  18. X-ray fluorescence in investigations of archaeological finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechák, T.; Hložek, M.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2007-10-01

    X-ray fluorescence can be successfully used for analysing the elemental composition of the superficial layers of a measured object, especially for investigating surface coatings, deposits of adventitious materials on the surface, etc. An energy dispersive version of X-ray fluorescence analysis is used in our investigations for analysing various historic objects, art works and archaeological finds. Examples of the application of X-ray fluorescence to various archaeological finds from excavations in the Czech Republic are presented - shards of ancient glazed ceramics, moulds for casting metal products, the remains of a human finger with traces of brass, probably from a ring, etc.

  19. Illuminating the past: the neutron as a tool in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelmann, W.; Kirfel, A.; Siano, S.; Frost, C. D.

    2004-03-01

    Neutrons can be produced in nuclear reactions and used as very versatile probes for condensed matter research. Since their introduction in the 1950s neutron scattering techniques have evolved to be very powerful tools for investigating the properties of condensed matter. Here we present the concept of neutron diffraction and how this technique can be used to address problems in archaeology facilitated by accelerator-based neutron sources like ISIS at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire. The great beauty of neutrons for the archaeologist is that they allow non-destructive testing of intact and original archaeological artifacts and museum objects.

  20. Determination of Fe-ligand bond lengths and the Fe-N-O bond angles in soybean ferrous and ferric nitrosylleghemoglobin a using multiple-scattering XAFS analyses.

    PubMed

    Rich, A M; Ellis, P J; Tennant, L; Wright, P E; Armstrong, R S; Lay, P A

    1999-12-14

    The NO adducts of leghemoglobin (Lb) are implicated in biological processes, but only the adduct with ferrous Lb (Lb(II)NO) has been characterized previously. We report the first characterization of ferric nitrosylleghemoglobin (Lb(III)NO) and XAS experiments performed on frozen aqueous solutions of Lb(II)NO and Lb(III)NO at 10 K. The XANES and electronic spectra of the NO adducts are similar in shape and energies to the myoglobin (Mb) analogues. The environment of the Fe atom has been refined using multiple-scattering (MS) analyses of the XAFS data. For Lb(II)NO, the MS analysis resulted in an averaged Fe-N(p)(pyrrole) distance of 2.02 A, an Fe-N(epsilon)(imidazole) distance of 1.98 A, an Fe-N(NO) distance of 1.77 A, and an Fe-N-O angle of 147 degrees. The Fe-N(NO) distance and Fe-N-O angle obtained from the analysis of Lb(II)NO are in good agreement with those determined crystallographically for [Fe(TPP)(NO)] (TPP, tetraphenylporphyrinato), with and without 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm) as the sixth ligand, and the MS XAFS structures reported previously for the myoglobin (Mb(II)NO) analogue and [Fe(TPP)(NO)]. The MS analysis of Lb(III)NO yielded an average Fe-N(p) distance of 2.00 A, an Fe-N(epsilon) distance of 1.89 A, an Fe-N(NO) distance of 1.68 A, and an Fe-N-O angle of 173 degrees. These bond lengths and angles are consistent with those determined previously for the myoglobin analogue (Mb(III)NO) and the crystal structures of the model complexes, [Fe(III)(TPP)(NO)(OH(2))](+) and [Fe(OEP)(NO)](+) (OEP, octaethylporphyrinato). The final XAFS R values were 16.1 and 18.2% for Lb(II)NO and Lb(III)NO, respectively. PMID:10600110

  1. Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  2. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  3. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  4. 77 FR 59968 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Stanford University Archaeology Center... Archaeology Center, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items... affiliated with the cultural items may contact the Stanford University Archaeology Center....

  5. 75 FR 77897 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, that meet the definitions of sacred... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology have determined, pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(3)(C), seven...

  6. Can You Dig It? An Archaeology Unit Can Make Scientific Research Inviting and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Since archaeology is a branch of science that interests so many kids, Alice Robinson based a 10-week lesson for her sixth grade class on the subject. First, she prominently displayed archaeology books in the library, including Ancient Times by Guy Austrian and Archaeology for Kids by Richard Panchyk. After explaining the definition of archaeology…

  7. 76 FR 14047 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definition of unassociated... ornaments was donated to the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology by Mary S. Felton and Dr....

  8. 75 FR 28648 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... remains was made by the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology professional staff in...

  9. Modeling aqueous ferrous iron chemistry at low temperatures with application to Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Kargel, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Major uncertainties exist with respect to the aqueous geochemical evolution of the Martian surface. Considering the prevailing cryogenic climates and the abundance of salts and iron minerals on Mars, any attempt at comprehensive modeling of Martian aqueous chemistry should include iron chemistry and be valid at low temperatures and high solution concentrations. The objectives of this paper were to (1) estimate ferrous iron Pitzer-equation parameters and iron mineral solubility products at low temperatures (from < 0 ??C to 25 ??C), (2) incorporate these parameters and solubility products into the FREZCHEM model, and (3) use the model to simulate the surficial aqueous geochemical evolution of Mars. Ferrous iron Pitzer-equation parameters were derived in this work or taken from the literature. Six new iron minerals [FeCl2??4H2O, FeCl2??6H2O, FeSO4??H2O, FeSO4??7H2O, FeCO3, and Fe(OH)3] were added to the FREZCHEM model bringing the total solid phases to 56. Agreement between model predictions and experimental data are fair to excellent for the ferrous systems: Fe-Cl, Fe-SO4, Fe-HCO3, H-Fe-Cl, and H-Fe-SO4. We quantified a conceptual model for the aqueous geochemical evolution of the Martian surface. The five stages of the conceptual model are: (1) carbonic acid weathering of primary ferromagnesian minerals to form an initial magnesium-iron-bicarbonate-rich solution; (2) evaporation and precipitation of carbonates, including siderite (FeCO3), with evolution of the brine to a concentrated NaCl solution; (3) ferrous/ferric iron oxidation; (4) either evaporation or freezing of the brine to dryness; and (5) surface acidification. What began as a dilute Mg-Fe-HCO3 dominated leachate representing ferromagnesian weathering evolved into an Earth-like seawater composition dominated by NaCl, and finally into a hypersaline Mg-Na-SO4-Cl brine. Weathering appears to have taken place initially under conditions that allowed solution of ferrous iron [low O2(g)], but later caused

  10. Modeling ferrous ferric iron chemistry with application to martian surface geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Giles M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Catling, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Exploration Rover, and Mars Express missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major recent mission findings are the presence of jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt), which requires formation from an acid-sulfate brine, and the occurrence of hematite and goethite on Mars. Recent ferric iron models have largely focused on 25 °C, which is a major limitation for models exploring the geochemical history of cold bodies such as Mars. Until recently, our work on low-temperature iron-bearing brines involved ferrous but not ferric iron, also obviously a limitation. The objectives of this work were to (1) add ferric iron chemistry to an existing ferrous iron model (FREZCHEM), (2) extend this ferrous/ferric iron geochemical model to lower temperatures (<0 °C), and (3) use the reformulated model to explore ferrous/ferric iron chemistries on Mars. The FREZCHEM model is an equilibrium chemical thermodynamic model parameterized for concentrated electrolyte solutions using the Pitzer approach for the temperature range from <-70 to 25 °C and the pressure range from 1 to 1000 bars. Ferric chloride and sulfate mineral parameterizations were based, in part, on experimental data. Ferric oxide/hydroxide mineral parameterizations were based exclusively on Gibbs free energy and enthalpy data. New iron parameterizations added 23 new ferrous/ferric minerals to the model for this Na-K-Mg-Ca-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-H-Cl-SO 4-NO 3-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-H 2O system. The model was used to develop paragenetic sequences for Rio Tinto waters on Earth and a hypothetical Martian brine derived from acid weathering of basaltic minerals. In general, model simulations were in agreement with field evidence on Earth and Mars in predicting precipitation of stable iron minerals such as jarosites, goethite, and hematite. In addition, paragenetic simulations for Mars suggest that other iron minerals such as

  11. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  12. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-09-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mltogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  13. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  14. Antimicrobial activity of resveratrol analogues.

    PubMed

    Chalal, Malik; Klinguer, Agnès; Echairi, Abdelwahad; Meunier, Philippe; Vervandier-Fasseur, Dominique; Adrian, Marielle

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew). Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold). The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups) and antimicrobial activity. PMID:24918540

  15. Space analogue studies in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugg, D.; Shepanek, M.

    1999-01-01

    Medical research has been carried out on the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) for 50 years. As an extension of this program collaborative Australian/United States research on immunology, microbiology, psychology and remote medicine has produced important data and insight on how humans adapt to the stress of extreme isolation, confinement and the harsh environment of Antarctica. An outstanding analogue for the isolation and confinement of space missions (especially planetary outposts), ANARE has been used as an international research platform by Australia and the United States since 1993. Collaborative research has demonstrated a lowered responsiveness of the immune system under the isolation and confinement of Antarctic winter-over; a reduction of almost 50% in T cell proliferation to mitogen phytohaemogglutinin, as well as changes in latent herpesvirus states and the expansion of the polyclonal latent Epstein-Barr virus infected B cell populations. Although no clinically significant disease has been found to result from these immune changes, research is currently assessing the effects of psychological factors on the immune system. This and associated research performed to date and its relevance to both organisations is discussed, and comment made on possible extensions to the program in both medical and other fields.

  16. Heterocyclic chalcone analogues as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Vipin; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Chalcones, aromatic ketones and enones acting as the precursor for flavonoids such as Quercetin, are known for their anticancer effects. Although, parent chalcones consist of two aromatic rings joined by a three-carbon α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system, various synthetic compounds possessing heterocyclic rings like pyrazole, indole etc. are well known and proved to be effective anticancer agents. In addition to their use as anticancer agents in cancer cell lines, heterocyclic analogues are reported to be effective even against resistant cell lines. In this connection, we hereby highlight the potential of various heterocyclic chalcone analogues as anticancer agents with a brief summary about therapeutic potential of chalcones, mechanism of anticancer action of various chalcone analogues, and current and future prospects related to the chalcones-derived anticancer research. Furthermore, some key points regarding chalcone analogues have been reviewed by analyzing their medicinal properties. PMID:22721390

  17. Synthesis and SAR of vinca alkaloid analogues.

    PubMed

    Voss, Matthew E; Ralph, Jeffery M; Xie, Dejian; Manning, David D; Chen, Xinchao; Frank, Anthony J; Leyhane, Andrew J; Liu, Lei; Stevens, Jason M; Budde, Cheryl; Surman, Matthew D; Friedrich, Thomas; Peace, Denise; Scott, Ian L; Wolf, Mark; Johnson, Randall

    2009-02-15

    Versatile intermediates 12'-iodovinblastine, 12'-iodovincristine and 11'-iodovinorelbine were utilized as substrates for transition metal based chemistry which led to the preparation of novel analogues of the vinca alkaloids. The synthesis of key iodo intermediates, their transformation into final products, and the SAR based upon HeLa and MCF-7 cell toxicity assays is presented. Selected analogues 27 and 36 show promising anticancer activity in the P388 murine leukemia model. PMID:19147348

  18. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  19. Teaching the Impact of Globalization through Historical Archaeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Marilyn C.

    Historical archaeology has evolved from an early preoccupation with famous houses and forts to a study of capitalism around the world. Archaeologists study the cultures and interrelationships of the colonizers and the colonized as they negotiated their places in an ever-expanding world system. Recent studies in South Africa, Latin America, and the…

  20. Where Can We Dig to Learn about Archaeology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell-Loudan, Ellis E.

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems caused by untrained persons and excavators at archaeological sites and lists contacts for persons interested in working at sites in New York State. When excavations are merely a part of a minor unit, students lack the broader picture gained by a thorough study of the site. (KC)

  1. Emergency Survey of Remote and Endangered Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassi, F.; Rossi, C.; Mandelli, A.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes the survey activities of the late Roman archaeological site of Umm al-Dabadib (Egypt). The interesting casestudy can be taken as an example in case of emergency surveys, as this method allows the complete 3D acquisition of a vast and complex area in a very short time and with the aid of simple instruments.

  2. Applying Foucault's "Archaeology" to the Education of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenker, Susan S.

    2008-01-01

    Counselor educators can utilize the ideas of philosopher Michel Foucault in preparing preservice school counselors for their work with K-12 students in public schools. The Foucaultian ideas of "governmentality," "technologies of domination," "received truths," "power/knowledge," "discontinuity," and "archaeology" can contribute to students'…

  3. 19. A photograph of the lock during preliminary archaeological work, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. A photograph of the lock during preliminary archaeological work, looking west along the path of the lock, showing the pool, portions of the east forebay and its sills. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  4. Applications of AMS {sup 14}C on Climate and Archaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.

    2007-10-26

    We describe the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique and two distinct applications of its use with {sup 14}C to study environmental problems in Brazil, such as forest fires and climate changes in the Amazon region and archaeological studies on the early settlements in the Southeast Brazilian coast.

  5. Galactic Archaeology with the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Masashi; Cohen, Judith; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2016-08-01

    We present an overview of our Galactic Archaeology (GA) survey program with the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for Subaru. Following successful design reviews, the instrument is now under construction with first light anticipated in 2018. Main characteristics of PFS and the science goals in our PFS/GA program are described.

  6. Texture Attribute Analysis of GPR Data for Archaeological Prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenke; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, Michele

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the applicability and the effectiveness of texture attribute analysis of 2-D and 3-D GPR datasets obtained in different archaeological environments. Textural attributes are successfully used in seismic stratigraphic studies for hydrocarbon exploration to improve the interpretation of complex subsurface structures. We use a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm to compute second-order statistical measures of textural characteristics, such as contrast, energy, entropy, and homogeneity. Textural attributes provide specific information about the data, and can highlight characteristics as uniformity or complexity, which complement the interpretation of amplitude data and integrate the features extracted from conventional attributes. The results from three archaeological case studies demonstrate that the proposed texture analysis can enhance understanding of GPR data by providing clearer images of distribution, volume, and shape of potential archaeological targets and related stratigraphic units, particularly in combination with the conventional GPR attributes. Such strategy improves the interpretability of GPR data, and can be very helpful for archaeological excavation planning and, more generally, for buried cultural heritage assessment.

  7. Finding Out about Archaeology: Parts I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archaeological Inst. of America, Boston, MA.

    This packet of materials presents selected, descriptive bibliographies for children and young adults. Instructional materials for the use of teachers and parents are also included. Focusing on the subject of archaeology, part 1 of the annotated bibliography presents instructional materials coded for appropriate grade level use. Each entry…

  8. Two issues in archaeological phylogenetics: taxon construction and outgroup selection.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Saab, Youssef; Saab, Elias; Darwent, John; Glover, Daniel S

    2002-03-21

    Cladistics is widely used in biology and paleobiology to construct phylogenetic hypotheses, but rarely has it been applied outside those disciplines. There is, however, no reason to suppose that cladistics is not applicable to anything that evolves by cladogenesis and produces a nested hierarchy of taxa. This includes cultural phenomena such as languages and tools recovered from archaeological contexts. Two methodological issues assume primacy in attempts to extend cladistics to archaeological materials: the construction of analytical taxa and the selection of appropriate outgroups. In biology the species is the primary taxonomic unit used, irrespective of the debates that have arisen in phylogenetic theory over the nature of species. Also in biology the phylogenetic history of a group of taxa usually is well enough known that an appropriate taxon can be selected as an outgroup. No analytical unit parallel to the species exists in archaeology, and thus taxa have to be constructed specifically for phylogenetic analysis. One method of constructing taxa is paradigmatic classification, which defines classes (taxa) on the basis of co-occurring, unweighted character states. Once classes have been created, a form of occurrence seriation-an archaeological method based on the theory of cultural transmission and heritability-offers an objective basis for selecting an outgroup. PMID:12051970

  9. Archaeology. Second Teacher Edition. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book includes a student edition by the same name and introduces students to various civilizations and their achievements. The self-directed activities emphasize higher-level thinking skills and activities keyed to "Bloom's Taxonomy." The table of contents lists: (1) "What Is Archaeology?"; (2) "What Is Culture?"; (3) "Where to Dig"; (4)…

  10. Out of the archaeologist's desk drawer: communicating archaeological data online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abate, D.; David, M.

    2015-08-01

    During archaeological field work a huge amount of data is collected, processed and elaborated for further studies and scientific publications. However, access and communication of linked data; associated tools for interrogation, analysis and sharing are often limited at the first stage of the archaeological research, mainly due to issues related to IPR. Information is often released months if not years after the fieldwork. Nowadays great deal of archaeological data is `born digital' in the field or lab. This means databases, pictures and 3D models of finds and excavation contexts could be available for public communication and sharing. Researchers usually restrict access to their data to a small group of people. It follows that data sharing is not so widespread among archaeologists, and dissemination of research is still mostly based on traditional pre-digital means like scientific papers, journal articles and books. This project has implemented a web approach for sharing and communication purposes, exploiting mainly open source technologies which allow a high level of interactivity. The case study presented is the newly Mithraeum excavated in Ostia Antica archaeological site in the framework of the Ostia Marina Project.

  11. The Archaeology Education Handbook: Sharing the Past with Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smardz, Karolyn, Ed.; Smith, Shelley J., Ed.

    This guidebook outlines the culture and structure of schools and shows how archaeologists can work with teachers, curriculum developers, museum professionals, and park rangers to develop useful programs in archaeological education both in the classroom and in informal settings. The essays strive to provide multiple examples of exemplary…

  12. Modelling past land use using archaeological and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzamanbein, Behnaz; Lindström, johan; Poska, Anneli; Gaillard-Lemdahl, Marie-José

    2016-04-01

    Accurate maps of past land use are necessary for studying the impact of anthropogenic land-cover changes on climate and biodiversity. We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to reconstruct the land use using Gaussian Markov random fields. The model uses two observations sets: 1) archaeological data, representing human settlements, urbanization and agricultural findings; and 2) pollen-based land estimates of the three land-cover types Coniferous forest, Broadleaved forest and Unforested/Open land. The pollen based estimates are obtained from the REVEALS model, based on pollen counts from lakes and bogs. Our developed model uses the sparse pollen-based estimations to reconstruct the spatial continuous cover of three land cover types. Using the open-land component and the archaeological data, the extent of land-use is reconstructed. The model is applied on three time periods - centred around 1900 CE, 1000 and, 4000 BCE over Sweden for which both pollen-based estimates and archaeological data are available. To estimate the model parameters and land use, a block updated Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied. Using the MCMC posterior samples uncertainties in land-use predictions are computed. Due to lack of good historic land use data, model results are evaluated by cross-validation. Keywords. Spatial reconstruction, Gaussian Markov random field, Fossil pollen records, Archaeological data, Human land-use, Prediction uncertainty

  13. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniforth, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  14. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  15. 32 CFR 229.18 - Confidentiality of archaeological resource information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 229.18 Confidentiality of archaeological resource information. (a) The Federal land manager shall not... following exceptions: (1) The Federal land manager may make information available, provided that the... located. (2) The Federal land manager shall make information available, when the Governor of any State...

  16. Book Review: Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, J. B.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological investigation in wetland environments has long been recognised as a specialised aspect of the discipline, where the levels of preservation of organic materials and sediments can be so high that cultural horizons and excavated artefacts can be placed into detailed palaeo-environmental, biological and landscape contexts, in contrast to the more limited information of this kind that is available from dryland archaeological sites. Inevitably, the recovery, integration and understanding of these vital additional data require an interdisciplinary approach and an investment in specialist equipment and scientific analyses if their full potential for reconstructing human occupation and site use within their landscape setting is to be fully realised. The mobilisation and integration of such a team of environmental specialists can require major financial resources, meticulous planning and close co-operation between the various disciplines involved. The most extreme example of wetland archaeology is probably integrated excavation and environmental archaeological research in subtidal locations, but modern development of major coastal infrastructure is increasingly making sites available for study from the early to mid-Holocene or even earlier that have been overwhelmed by sea-level rise and which would otherwise be beyond the reach of archaeological investigation. Such very large scale subtidal interdisciplinary research projects are major, expensive and long-term undertakings and are still rare enough to be publication highlights in the discipline of environmental archaeology. Important recent examples of subtidal work in north-west Europe include Pedersen et al. (1997) and elements of Fischer (1995) in south Scandinavia, and investigations off southern England (Allen and Gardiner, 2000; Momber et al., 2011; Sturt et al., 2014). Research on submerged palaeoenvironments and palaeolandscapes has also seen significant advances (Griffiths et al., 2015), with the

  17. Enumeration and Detection of Anaerobic Ferrous Iron-Oxidizing, Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria from Diverse European Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Kristina L.; Buchholz-Cleven, Berit E. E.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of ferrous iron was recently recognized as a new type of metabolism. In order to study the occurrence of three novel groups of ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (represented by strains BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3), 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were developed. In pure-culture experiments, these probes were shown to be suitable for fluorescent in situ hybridization, as well as for hybridization analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns. However, neither enumeration by in situ hybridization nor detection by the DGGE-hybridization approach was feasible with sediment samples. Therefore, the DGGE-hybridization approach was combined with microbiological methods. Freshwater sediment samples from different European locations were used for enrichment cultures and most-probable-number (MPN) determinations. Bacteria with the ability to oxidize ferrous iron under nitrate-reducing conditions were detected in all of the sediment samples investigated. At least one of the previously described types of bacteria was detected in each enrichment culture. MPN studies showed that sediments contained from 1 × 105 to 5 × 108 ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria per g (dry weight) of sediment, which accounted for at most 0.8% of the nitrate-reducing bacteria growing with acetate. Type BrG1, BrG2, and BrG3 bacteria accounted for an even smaller fraction (0.2% or less) of the ferrous iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing community. The DGGE patterns of MPN cultures suggested that more organisms than those isolated thus far are able to oxidize ferrous iron with nitrate. A comparison showed that among the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, organisms that have the ability to oxidize ferrous iron also account for only a minor fraction of the population. PMID:9835573

  18. Space -based monitoring of archaeological looting using multitemporal satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.; Masini, N.

    2012-04-01

    Illegal excavations represent one of the main risk factors which affect the archaeological heritage all over the world, in particular in those countries, from Southern America to Middle East, where the surveillance on site is little effective and time consuming and the aerial surveillance is non practicable due to military or political restrictions. In such contexts satellite remote sensing offers a suitable chance to monitor this phenomenon.. Looting phenomenon is much more dramatic during wars or armed conflicts, as occurred in Iraq during the two Gulf Wars, where "total area looted was many times greater than all the archaeological investigations ever conducted in southern Iraq" (Stone E. 2008). Media reports described the massive looting in broad daylight and destruction of the Iraqi museums and other cultural institutions. Between 2003 and 2004, several buried ancient cities have been completely eaten away by crater-like holes (http://www.savingantiquities.org/feature_page.php?featureID=7), and many other archaeological sites would be pillaged without the valuable activity of the Italian Carabinieri, responsible for guarding archaeological sites in the region of Nassyriah. To contrast and limit this phenomenon a systematic monitoring is required. Up to now, the protection of archaeological heritage from illegal diggings is generally based on a direct or aerial surveillance, which are time consuming, expensive and not suitable for extensive areas. VHR satellite images offer a suitable chance thanks to their global coverage and frequent re-visitation times. In this paper, automatic data processing approaches, based on filtering, geospatial analysis and wavelet, have been applied to enhance spatial and spectral anomaly linked to illegal excavations to make their semiautomatic identification easier. Study areas from Middle east and Southern America have been processed and discussed.

  19. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  20. Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America. Afro-American and Asian American Culture History. Baywood Monographs in Archaeology 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Robert L., Ed.

    This monograph contains fourteen articles dealing with archaeological studies on Black and Asian ethnic groups in the United States. Papers on Afro-American culture history include: (1) "Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations," by John Solomon Otto; (2) "Looking for the 'Afro' in Colono-Indian Pottery," by Leland Ferguson; (3) a study of "Black…

  1. Planetary habitability: lessons learned from terrestrial analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Louisa J.; Dartnell, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial analogue studies underpin almost all planetary missions and their use is essential in the exploration of our Solar system and in assessing the habitability of other worlds. Their value relies on the similarity of the analogue to its target, either in terms of their mineralogical or geochemical context, or current physical or chemical environmental conditions. Such analogue sites offer critical ground-truthing for astrobiological studies on the habitability of different environmental parameter sets, the biological mechanisms for survival in extreme environments and the preservation potential and detectability of biosignatures. The 33 analogue sites discussed in this review have been selected on the basis of their congruence to particular extraterrestrial locations. Terrestrial field sites that have been used most often in the literature, as well as some lesser known ones which require greater study, are incorporated to inform on the astrobiological potential of Venus, Mars, Europa, Enceladus and Titan. For example, the possibility of an aerial habitable zone on Venus has been hypothesized based on studies of life at high-altitudes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We also demonstrate why many different terrestrial analogue sites are required to satisfactorily assess the habitability of the changing environmental conditions throughout Martian history, and recommend particular sites for different epochs or potential niches. Finally, habitable zones within the aqueous environments of the icy moons of Europa and Enceladus and potentially in the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan are discussed and suitable analogue sites proposed. It is clear from this review that a number of terrestrial analogue sites can be applied to multiple planetary bodies, thereby increasing their value for astrobiological exploration. For each analogue site considered here, we summarize the pertinent physiochemical environmental features they offer and critically assess the fidelity with which

  2. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  3. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  4. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose. PMID:22074910

  5. Elucidating the Role of Ferrous Ion Cocatalyst in Enhancing Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Donohoe, B. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Ciesielski, P. N.; Wang, W.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Zeng, Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Tucker, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe{sup 2+} ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  6. Imaging of Buried Archaeological Materials: The Reflection Properties of Archaeological Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, Stephanie H. L.; Dix, Justin K.; Best, Angus I.; Gregory, David J.

    2005-06-01

    Effective marine archaeological site management demands detailed information on not only the spatial distribution of artefacts but also the degradation state of the materials present. Although sonar methods have frequently been used in an attempt to detect buried wooden shipwrecks they are currently unable to indicate their degradation state. To assess the sensitivity of acoustic measurements to changes in the degradation state of such material, and hence the potential for sonars to quantify degradation, laboratory measurements of compressional wave velocity, as well as bulk density for oak and pine samples, in varying states of decay, were undertaken. These data enabled the calculation of theoretical reflection coefficients for such materials buried in various marine sediments. As wood degrades, the reflection coefficients become more negative, resulting in the hypothesis that the more degraded wood becomes, the easier it should be to detect. Typical reflection coefficients of the order of -0.43 and -0.52 for the most degraded oak and pine samples in sand are predicted. Conversely, for wood exposed to seawater the predicted reflection coefficients are large and positive for undegraded material (0.35 for oak, 0.18 for pine) and decrease to zero or slightly below for the most degraded samples. This indicates that exposed timbers, when heavily degraded, can be acoustically transparent and so undetectable by acoustic methods. Corroboration of these experimental results was provided through comparison with high resolution seismic reflection data that has been acquired over two shipwrecks.

  7. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M.

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  8. Clean Ferrous Casting Technology Research. Annual report, September 29, 1993--September 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanescu, D.M.; Lane, A.M.; Giese, S.R.; Pattabhi, R.; El-Kaddah, N.H.; Griffin, J.; Bates, C.E.; Piwonka, T.S.

    1994-10-01

    This annual report covers work performed in the first year of research on Clean Ferrous Casting Technology Research. During this year the causes of penetration of cast iron in sand molds were defined and a program which predicts the occurrence of penetration was written and verified in commercial foundries. Calculations were made to size a reaction chamber to remove inclusions from liquid steel using electromagnetic force and the chamber was built. Finally, significant progress was made in establishing pouring practices which avoid re-oxidation of steel during pouring application of revised pouring practices have led to reduced inclusion levels in commercially poured steel castings.

  9. Hydrocracking with molten zinc chloride catalyst containing 2-12% ferrous chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Bagshaw, Gary H.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. by contacting the feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten zinc chloride catalyst and thereafter separating at least a major portion of the hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten zinc chloride catalyst, an improvement comprising: adjusting the FeCl.sub.2 content of the molten zinc chloride to from about 2 to about 12 mol percent based on the mixture of ferrous chloride and molten zinc chloride.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosize phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupikova, E. N.; Platonov, I. A.; Lykova, T. N.

    2016-04-01

    Research is devoted to reactions of binary complexes containing noble (platinum, palladium) and non-ferrous (cobalt, chrome) metals. Reactions proceed under hydrothermal conditions by the autoclave technique. Initials complexes and products of autoclave thermolysis were characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Comparative catalytic experiments in the test reaction were conducted. The obtained results can form the basis of new methods of nanosize multicomponent phases synthesis under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Friction and surface chemistry of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The friction properties of some ferrous-base metallic glasses were measured both in argon and in vacuum to a temperature of 350 C. The alloy surfaces were also analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to identify the compounds and elements present on the surface. The results of the investigation indicate that even when the surfaces of the amorphous alloys, or metallic glasses, are atomically clean, bulk contaminants such as boric oxide and silicon dioxide diffuse to the surfaces. Friction measurements in both argon and vacuum indicate that the alloys exhibit higher coefficients of friction in the crystalline state than they do in the amorphous state.

  12. Reproducibilty test of ferrous xylenol orange gel dose response with optical cone beam CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.; Battista, J.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies of ferrous xylenol orange gelatin gel have revealed a spatial dependence to the dose response of samples contained in 10 cm diameter cylinders. Dose response is defined as change in optical attenuation coefficient divided by the dose (units cm-1 Gy-1). This set of experiments was conducted to determine the reproducibility of our preparation, irradiation and full 3D optical cone beam CT scanning. The data provided an internal check of a larger storage time-dose response dependence study.

  13. Ferrous Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Elements covered in this review include: aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, boron, calcium, carbon, chromium, cobalt, copper, hydrogen, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, platinum, rare earths, silicons, sulfur, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, and zirconium. Analytical methods…

  14. Glucagonlike Peptide 2 Analogue Teduglutide

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Lakshmi S.; Basson, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Short bowel syndrome occurs when a shortened intestine cannot absorb sufficient nutrients or fluids. Teduglutide is a recombinant analogue of human glucagonlike peptide 2 that reduces dependence on parenteral nutrition in patients with short bowel syndrome by promoting enterocytic proliferation, increasing the absorptive surface area. However, enterocyte function depends not only on the number of cells that are present but also on differentiated features that facilitate nutrient absorption and digestion. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that teduglutide impairs human intestinal epithelial differentiation. DESIGN AND SETTING We investigated the effects of teduglutide in the modulation of proliferation and differentiation in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells at a basic science laboratory. This was an in vitro study using Caco-2 cells, a human-derived intestinal epithelial cell line commonly used to model enterocytic biology. EXPOSURE Cells were exposed to teduglutide or vehicle control. MAINOUTCOMESAND MEASURES We analyzed the cell cycle by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation or propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. We used quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to assay the expression of the enterocytic differentiation markers villin, sucrase-isomaltase, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), as well as that of the putative differentiation signals schlafen 12 (SLFN12) and caudal-related homeobox intestine-specific transcription factor (Cdx2). Villin promoter activity was measured by a luciferase-based assay. RESULTS The MTS assay demonstrated that teduglutide increased cell numbers by a mean (SD) of 10% (2%) over untreated controls at a maximal 500nM (n = 6, P < .05). Teduglutide increased bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells vs untreated controls by a mean (SD

  15. Automatic archaeological feature extraction from satellite VHR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahjah, Munzer; Ulivieri, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Archaeological applications need a methodological approach on a variable scale able to satisfy the intra-site (excavation) and the inter-site (survey, environmental research). The increased availability of high resolution and micro-scale data has substantially favoured archaeological applications and the consequent use of GIS platforms for reconstruction of archaeological landscapes based on remotely sensed data. Feature extraction of multispectral remotely sensing image is an important task before any further processing. High resolution remote sensing data, especially panchromatic, is an important input for the analysis of various types of image characteristics; it plays an important role in the visual systems for recognition and interpretation of given data. The methods proposed rely on an object-oriented approach based on a theory for the analysis of spatial structures called mathematical morphology. The term "morphology" stems from the fact that it aims at analysing object shapes and forms. It is mathematical in the sense that the analysis is based on the set theory, integral geometry, and lattice algebra. Mathematical morphology has proven to be a powerful image analysis technique; two-dimensional grey tone images are seen as three-dimensional sets by associating each image pixel with an elevation proportional to its intensity level. An object of known shape and size, called the structuring element, is then used to investigate the morphology of the input set. This is achieved by positioning the origin of the structuring element to every possible position of the space and testing, for each position, whether the structuring element either is included or has a nonempty intersection with the studied set. The shape and size of the structuring element must be selected according to the morphology of the searched image structures. Other two feature extraction techniques were used, eCognition and ENVI module SW, in order to compare the results. These techniques were

  16. Convergent syntheses of LeX analogues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An; Hendel, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of three Lex derivatives from one common protected trisaccharide is reported. These analogues will be used respectively for competitive binding experiments, conjugation to carrier proteins and immobilization on gold. An N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide acceptor was first glycosylated at O-4 with a galactosyl imidate. This coupling was performed at 40 °C under excess of BF3·OEt2 activation and proceeded best if the acceptor carried a 6-chlorohexyl rather than a 6-azidohexyl aglycon. The 6-chlorohexyl disaccharide was then converted to an acceptor and submitted to fucosylation yielding the corresponding protected 6-chlorohexyl Lex trisaccharide. This protected trisaccharide was used as a precursor to the 6-azidohexyl, 6-acetylthiohexyl and 6-benzylthiohexyl trisaccharide analogues which were obtained in excellent yields (70–95%). In turn, we describe the deprotection of these intermediates in one single step using dissolving metal conditions. Under these conditions, the 6-chlorohexyl and 6-azidohexyl intermediates led respectively to the n-hexyl and 6-aminohexyl trisaccharide targets. Unexpectedly, the 6-acetylthiohexyl analogue underwent desulfurization and gave the n-hexyl glycoside product, whereas the 6-benzylthiohexyl analogue gave the desired disulfide trisaccharide dimer. This study constitutes a particularly efficient and convergent preparation of these three Lex analogues. PMID:20485599

  17. Formation of an oxo-radical of peroxovanadate during reduction of diperoxovanadate with vanadyl sulfate or ferrous sulfate.

    PubMed

    Ramasarma, T; Ravishankar, H N

    2005-02-11

    Formation of oxygen radicals during reduction of H(2)O(2) or diperoxovanadate with vanadyl sulfate or ferrous sulfate was indicated by the 1:2:2:1 electron spin resonance (ESR) signals of the DMPO adduct typical of standard ()OH radical. Signals derived from diperoxovanadate remained unchanged in the presence of ethanol in contrast to those from H(2)O(2). This gave the clue that they represent a different radical, possibly (*)OV(O(2))(2+), formed on breaking a peroxo-bridge of diperoxovanadate complex. The above reaction mixtures evolved dioxygen or, when NADH was present, oxidized it rapidly which was accompanied by consumption of dioxygen. Operation of a cycle of peroxovanadates including this new radical is suggested to explain these redox activities both with vanadyl and ferrous sulfates. It can be triggered by ferrous ions released from cellular stores in the presence of catalytic amounts of peroxovanadates. PMID:15716128

  18. Enhancement of growth and ferrous iron oxidation rates of T. ferrooxidans by electrochemical reduction of ferric iron

    SciTech Connect

    Yunker, S.B.; Radovich, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, the bacterium most widely used in bioleaching or microbial desulfurization of coal, was grown in an electrolytic bioreactor containing a synthetic, ferrous sulfate medium. Passage of current through the medium reduced the bacterially generated ferric iron to the ferrous iron substrate. When used in conjunction with an inoculum that had been adapted to the electrolytic growth conditions, this technique increased the protein (cell) concentration by 3.7 times, increased the protein (cell) production rate by 6.5 times, increased the yield coefficient (cellular efficiency) by 8.0 times, and increased the ferrous iron oxidation rate by 1.5 times at 29/sup 0/C, compared with conventional cultivation techniques. A Monod-type equation with accepted values for the maximum specific growth rate could not account for the increased growth rate under electrolytic conditions.

  19. Kinetics of the ferrous/ferric electrode reaction in the absence of chloride catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, N.C.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-09-01

    The kinetics of the ferrous ferric redox electrode reaction has been investigated by many workers as a simple, uncomplicated charge transfer reaction which seems ideal for testing experimental techniques and charge transfer theories. However, it has only recently been understood that very small traces of chloride can have a considerable effect on the reaction rate. The relation between the chloride content of the solution and the rate constant of the ferrous/ferric reaction on a gold electrode in perchloric acid solutions is confirmed in this work. The chloride effect free apparent standard rate constant is found to be 2.2 x 10/sup -5/ cm s/sup -1/, which is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the rate constants normally reported for this reaction if the chloride content of the solution is not scrupulously controlled. Measurements were carried out by using two different in situ methods for cleaning the working electrode surface rather than employing extensive solution purification. In the first method the measuring electrode was potentiostated at sufficiently negative potentials to desorb the chloride from the surface followed by a potential step to the equilibrium potential and a pulse measurement of the kinetics. In the second method chloride ions were removed from the surface before and during the kinetic measurement by continuous oxidation of chromous ions added in small concentration to the test solution. Good agreement was found among the rate constants determined by these methods and a reported rate constant determined in ultraclean solution.

  20. The photochemical origins of life and photoreaction of ferrous ion in the archaean oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauzerall, David C.

    1990-01-01

    A general argument is made for the photochemical origins of life. A constant flux of free energy is required to maintain the organized state of matter called life. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy probably required to initiate this organization and certainly required for the evolution of life to occur. The completion of this argument will require the experimental determination of suitable photochemical reactions. It is shown that biogenetic porphyrins readily photooxidize substrates and emit hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. These results are consistent with the Granick hypothesis, which relates a biosynthetic pathway to its evolutionary origin. It has been shown that photoexcitation of ferrous ion at neutral pH with near ultraviolet light produces hydrogen with high quantum yield. This same simple system may reduce carbon dioxide to formaldehyde and further products. These reactions offer a solution to the dilemma confronting the Oparin-Urey-Miller model of the chemical origin of life. If carbon dioxide is the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction may provide the reduced carbon necessary for the formation of amino acids and other biogenic molecules. These results suggest that this progenitor of modern photosynthesis may have contributed to the chemical origins of life.

  1. Enzymes hydrolyzing structural components and ferrous ion cause rusty-root symptom on ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chanyong; Kim, Kwang Yup; Lee, Jo-Eun; Kim, Sunghan; Ryu, Dongkul; Choi, Jae-Eul; An, Gilhwan

    2011-02-01

    Microbial induction of rusty-root was proved in this study. The enzymes hydrolyzing plant structural materials, including pectinase, pectolyase, ligninase, and cellulase, caused the rusty-root in ginseng. Pectinase and pectolyase produced the highest rusty-color formation. Ferrous ion (Fe+++) caused the synergistic effect on rusty-root formation in ginseng when it was used with pectinase. The effect of ferric ion (Fe++) on rusty-root formation was slow, compared with Fe+++, probably due to gradual oxidation to Fe+++. Other metal ions including the ferric ion (Fe++) did not affect rusty-root formation. The endophytic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Lysobacter gummosus, Pseudomonas veronii, Pseudomonas marginalis, Rhodococcus erythropolis, and Rhodococcus globerulus, and the rotten-root forming phytophathogenic fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans, caused rusty-root. The polyphenol formation (rusty color) was not significantly different between microorganisms. The rotten-root-forming C. destructans produced large quantities of external cellulase activity (about 2.3 U[micronM/min/mg protein]), which indicated the pathogenecity of the fungus, whereas the bacteria produced 0.1-0.7 U. The fungal external pectinase activities (0.05 U) and rusty-root formation activity were similar to those of the bacteria. In this report, we proved that microbial hydrolyzing enzymes caused rusty-root (Hue value 15 degrees) of ginseng, and ferrous ion worsened the symptom. PMID:21364303

  2. Prospects for Ukrainian ferrous metals in the post-soviet period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levine, R.M.; Bond, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Two specialists on the mineral industries of the countries of the former USSR survey current problems confronting producers of ferrous metals in Ukraine and future prospects for domestic production and exports. A series of observations documenting the importance of ferrous metals production to Ukraine's economy is followed by sections describing investment plans and needs in the sector, and the role played by Ukraine within the iron and steel industry of the Soviet Union. The focus then turns to assessment of the current regional and global competitive position of Ukrainian producers for each of the major commodities of the sector-iron ore, manganese ore, ferroalloys, steel, and the products of the machine manufacturing and metal working industries. In conclusion, the paper discusses a potential regional industrial integration strategy analogous to that employed in the United States' Great Lakes/Midwest region, which possesses similar types of iron ore deposits and similar transport cost advantages and metallurgical and manufacturing industries. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F14, L61, L72. 1 table, 26 references.

  3. Oxidation of elemental sulfur, tetrathionate and ferrous iron by the psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus strain SS3.

    PubMed

    Kupka, Daniel; Liljeqvist, Maria; Nurmi, Pauliina; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Tuovinen, Olli H; Dopson, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Mesophilic iron and sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles are readily found in acid mine drainage sites and bioleaching operations, but relatively little is known about their activities at suboptimal temperatures and in cold environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the oxidation of elemental sulfur (S(0)), tetrathionate (S4O6(2-)) and ferrous iron (Fe2+) by the psychrotolerant Acidithiobacillus strain SS3. The rates of elemental sulfur and tetrathionate oxidation had temperature optima of 20 degrees and 25 degrees C, respectively, determined using a temperature gradient incubator that involved narrow (1.1 degrees C) incremental increases from 5 degrees to 30 degrees C. Activation energies calculated from the Arrhenius plots were 61 and 89 kJ mol(-1) for tetrathionate and 110 kJ mol(-1) for S(0) oxidation. The oxidation of elemental sulfur produced sulfuric acid at 5 degrees C and decreased the pH to approximately 1. The low pH inhibited further oxidation of the substrate. In media with both S(0) and Fe2+, oxidation of elemental sulfur did not commence until all available ferrous iron was oxidized. These data on sequential oxidation of the two substrates are in keeping with upregulation and downregulation of several proteins previously noted in the literature. Ferric iron was reduced to Fe2+ in parallel with elemental sulfur oxidation, indicating the presence of a sulfur:ferric iron reductase system in this bacterium. PMID:19782750

  4. The photochemical origins of life and photoreaction of ferrous ion in the archaean oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, David C.

    1990-05-01

    A general argument is made for the photochemical origins of life. A constant flux of free energy is required to maintain the organized state of matter called life. Solar photons are the unique source of the large amounts of energy probably require to initiate this organization and certainly required for the evolution of life to occur. The completion of this argument will require the experimental determination of suitable photochemical reactions. Our work shows that biogenetic porphyrins readily photooxidize substrates and emit hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. These results are consistent with the Granick hypothesis, which relates a biosynthetic pathway to its evolutionary origin. We have shown that photoexcitation of ferrous ion at neutral pH with near ultraviolet light produces hydrogen with high quantum yield. This same simple system may reduce carbon dioxide to formaldehyde and further products. These reactions offer a solution to the dilemma confronting the Oparin-Urey-Miller model of the chemical origin of life. If carbon dioxide is the main form of carbon on the primitive earth, the ferrous photoreaction may provide the reduced carbon necessary for the formation of amino acids and other biogenic molecules. These results suggest that this progenitor of modern photosynthesis may have contributed to the chemical origins of life.

  5. Efficient near ultraviolet light induced formation of hydrogen by ferrous hydroxide. [in primitive earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowska, Zofia K.; Mauzerall, David C.

    1987-01-01

    A possible origin of early hydrogen by UV-induced photoreduction of ferrous ions was investigated by measuring the rate of H2 formation from irradiated FeSO4 solutions as a function of pH and the range of UV sources. It was found that, in addition to the known reaction in acid solution which decreases in yield with increasing pH and requires far-UV light, there is an efficient reaction occurring between pH 6 and 9 which utilizes near-UV light (of a 200-W mercury arc lamp). This latter reaction is a linear function of both the concentration of Fe(2+) and the light intensity. These results support the suggestion of Braterman et al. (1983) that the near-UV-driven photooxidation of ferrous ions may be responsible for the origin of the banded iron formations on the early earth. The efficient photoreaction could also explain the source of reducing equivalents for CO2 reduction.

  6. A ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton system: toward an increased biodegradability of indigo dyed wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Vedrenne, Michel; Vasquez-Medrano, Ruben; Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A; Hernandez-Esparza, Margarita; de Andrés, Juan Manuel

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the applicability of a ferrous oxalate mediated photo-Fenton pretreatment for indigo-dyed wastewaters as to produce a biodegradable enough effluent, likely of being derived to conventional biological processes. The photochemical treatment was performed with ferrous oxalate and hydrogen peroxide in a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) under batch operation conditions. The reaction was studied at natural pH conditions (5-6) with indigo concentrations in the range of 6.67-33.33 mg L(-1), using a fixed oxalate-to-iron mass ratio (C(2)O(4)(2-)/Fe(2+)=35) and assessing the system's biodegradability at low (257 mg L(-1)) and high (1280 mg L(-1)) H(2)O(2) concentrations. In order to seek the optimal conditions for the treatment of indigo dyed wastewaters, an experimental design consisting in a statistical surface response approach was carried out. This analysis revealed that the best removal efficiencies for Total Organic Carbon (TOC) were obtained for low peroxide doses. In general it was observed that after 20 kJ L(-1), almost every treated effluent increased its biodegradability from a BOD(5)/COD value of 0.4. This increase in the biodegradability was confirmed by the presence of short chain carboxylic acids as intermediate products and by the mineralization of organic nitrogen into nitrate. Finally, an overall decrease in the LC(50) for Artemia salina indicated a successful detoxification of the effluent. PMID:23142056

  7. Ferrous sulfate based low temperature synthesis and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tejabhiram, Y.; Pradeep, R.; Helen, A.T.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Ramasamy, C.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Novel low temperature synthesis of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. • Comparison with two conventional synthesis techniques including hydrothermal method. • XRD results confirm the formation of crystalline nickel ferrites at 110 °C. • Superparamagnetic particles with applications in drug delivery and hyperthermia. • Magnetic properties superior to conventional methods found in new process. - Abstract: We report a simple, low temperature and surfactant free co-precipitation method for the preparation of nickel ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate as the iron precursor. The products obtained from this method were compared for their physical properties with nickel ferrites produced through conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods which used ferric nitrate as the iron precursor. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the synthesis of single phase inverse spinel nanocrystalline nickel ferrites at temperature as low as 110 °C in the low temperature method. Electron microscopy analysis on the samples revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20–30 nm which are comparable to other conventional methods. Vibrating sample magnetometer measurements showed the formation of superparamagnetic particles with high magnetic saturation 41.3 emu/g which corresponds well with conventional synthesis methods. The spontaneous synthesis of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles by the low temperature synthesis method was attributed to the presence of 0.808 kJ mol{sup −1} of excess Gibbs free energy due to ferrous sulfate precursor.

  8. A study on shielding gas contamination in laser welding of non-ferrous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, G.; Ascari, A.; Campana, G.; Fortunato, A.

    2007-12-01

    Laser welding of non-ferrous alloys is a high-productivity and cost-effective joining technology, which gained an undoubted interest especially in aerospace, chemical and medical industry, where high strength and corrosion resistant mechanical parts are required. Unfortunately some of the most used non-ferrous alloys are highly reactive with respect to the components of the environmental atmosphere: oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and humidity. This reactivity leads to the formation of porosities and to oxides and nitrides inclusion, which are responsible for a decrease of ductility and strength in welded joints. According to this a good shielding technique of the weld pool is of primary importance in order to obtain sound beads and reliable manufacturings. This paper deals with the opportunity of simulating the shielding gas behavior by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics software in order to understand the relationship among the outlet position, the shielding gas type and its flow rate. A simulation activity was carried out in order to evaluate the behavior of shielding gas concentration surrounding the weld pool. The simulated welding environment was simplified without considering the presence and the effect of the plasma plume. The main results concern the shielding gas contamination prediction with respect to the distance from the beam-material interaction zone.

  9. The structural basis of cephalosporin formation in a mononuclear ferrous enzyme.

    PubMed

    Valegård, Karin; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C; Dubus, Alain; Ranghino, Graziella; Oster, Linda M; Hajdu, Janos; Andersson, Inger

    2004-01-01

    Deacetoxycephalosporin-C synthase (DAOCS) is a mononuclear ferrous enzyme that transforms penicillins into cephalosporins by inserting a carbon atom into the penicillin nucleus. In the first half-reaction, dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate produce a reactive iron-oxygen species, succinate and CO2. The oxidizing iron species subsequently reacts with penicillin to give cephalosporin and water. Here we describe high-resolution structures for ferrous DAOCS in complex with penicillins, the cephalosporin product, the cosubstrate and the coproduct. Steady-state kinetic data, quantum-chemical calculations and the new structures indicate a reaction sequence in which a 'booby-trapped' oxidizing species is formed. This species is stabilized by the negative charge of succinate on the iron. The binding sites of succinate and penicillin overlap, and when penicillin replaces succinate, it removes the stabilizing charge, eliciting oxidative attack on itself. Requisite groups of penicillin are within 1 A of the expected position of a ferryl oxygen in the enzyme-penicillin complex. PMID:14718929

  10. Chemical Fixation of Trace Elements in Coal Fly Ash using Ferrous Sulfate Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Donahoe, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Coal fired electric power plants produce 50% of the electricity consumed in the US and generate large volumes of fly ash and other coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The majority of the CCB materials are disposed of in surface impoundments and landfills located throughout the US. Fly ash contains trace elements such as As, B, Cr, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr and V which can have a negative impact on the environment due to leaching by acid rain and groundwater with time. The potential release of these toxic trace elements into the environment is a big concern for the US power industry due to the high cost involved in lining the old and existing ash disposal sites. As a result, simple and effective treatment techniques are needed to stabilize the coal combustion by-products produced by power plants in the ash disposal sites and also to increase the use of coal fly ash for beneficial purposes. This paper reports the results of batch experiments designed to chemically treat coal fly ash with ferrous sulfate solution by promoting the formation of insoluble iron oxy- hydroxide phases that immobilize the toxic trace elements. Four fly ash samples, three acidic (HA, HB and MA) and one alkaline (PD), were treated with a ferrous sulfate (FS) solution (322 ppm Fe) and a ferrous sulfate + calcium carbonate (FS+CC) solution (322 ppm Fe and 28 ppm CaCO3) at solid:liquid ratios of 1:3 and 1:30. The effectiveness of this treatment technique was evaluated by the batch sequential leaching of treated and untreated coal fly ash samples using a synthetic acid rain (SAR) solution (USEPA Method 1312B) and also by a 7-step sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP) to understand the mechanism of treatment. The unbuffered FS solution at the 1:30 ratio was highly successful in reducing the mobility of the oxyanionic trace elements As (24-91%), Cr (82-97%), Mo (79-100%), Se (41-87%) and V (55-100%). However, the unbuffered FS treatment failed to reduce the mobility of B, Ni and Sr for the acidic fly

  11. Dolastatin 11 conformations, analogues and pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Ahad; Bates, Robert B; Crane, Zackary D; Dicus, Christopher W; Gramme, Michelle R; Hamel, Ernest; Marcischak, Jacob; Martinez, David S; McClure, Kelly J; Nakkiew, Pichaya; Pettit, George R; Stessman, Chad C; Sufi, Bilal A; Yarick, Gayle V

    2005-07-01

    Twenty analogues of the natural antitumor agent dolastatin 11, including majusculamide C, were synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity against human cancer cells and stimulation of actin polymerization. Only analogues containing the 30-membered ring were active. Molecular modeling and NMR evidence showed the low-energy conformations. The amide bonds are all trans except for the one between the Tyr and Val units, which is cis. Since an analogue restricted to negative 2-3-4-5 angles stimulated actin polymerization but was inactive in cells, the binding conformation (most likely the lowest-energy conformation in water) has a negative 2-3-4-5 angle, whereas a conformation with a positive 2-3-4-5 angle (most likely the lowest energy conformation in chloroform) goes through cell walls. The highly active R alcohol from borohydride reduction of dolastatin 11 is a candidate for conversion to prodrugs. PMID:15878670

  12. Study of archaeological underwater finds: deterioration and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, G. M.; La Russa, M. F.; Macchione, M.; Malagodi, M.; Palermo, A. M.; Ruffolo, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at an assessment of the methodologies, instruments and new applications for underwater archaeology. Research focused on study of the various kinds of degradation affecting underwater finds and stone materials aged in underwater environment, efficiency evaluation of various surface cleaning methods and study and mixing of protective products with consolidating resins and antimicrobial biocides to be applied to restored underwater finds. Transmitted light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface biofilms and the interactions with samples of different stone materials such as brick, marble and granite immersed in the submarine archaeological area of Crotone (South of Italy). Surface cleaning tests were performed with application of ion exchange resins, EDTA, hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound techniques. Capillary water absorption, simulated solar ageing and colourimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate hydrophobic and consolidant properties; to assess biocidal efficacy, heterotrophic micro-organisms ( Aspergillus niger) were inoculated on agar plates and growth inhibition was measured.

  13. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites].

    PubMed

    Jelsma, J

    2016-05-01

    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time. PMID:27166454

  14. The Archaeological Record Speaks: Bridging Anthropology and Linguistics

    PubMed Central

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M.; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them. PMID:21716806

  15. Fusion of Geophysical Images in the Study of Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Petrou, M.; Tsokas, G. N.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents results from different fusion techniques between geophysical images from different modalities in order to combine them into one image with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant image will be useful for the detection and mapping of buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is situated in Kampana site (NE Greece) near the ancient theater of Maronia city. Archaeological excavations revealed an ancient theater, an aristocratic house and the temple of the ancient Greek God Dionysus. Numerous ceramic objects found in the broader area indicated the probability of the existence of buried urban structure. In order to accurately locate and map the latter, geophysical measurements performed with the use of the magnetic method (vertical gradient of the magnetic field) and of the electrical method (apparent resistivity). We performed a semi-stochastic pixel based registration method between the geophysical images in order to fine register them by correcting their local spatial offsets produced by the use of hand held devices. After this procedure we applied to the registered images three different fusion approaches. Image fusion is a relatively new technique that not only allows integration of different information sources, but also takes advantage of the spatial and spectral resolution as well as the orientation characteristics of each image. We have used three different fusion techniques, fusion with mean values, with wavelets by enhancing selected frequency bands and curvelets giving emphasis at specific bands and angles (according the expecting orientation of the relics). In all three cases the fused images gave significantly better results than each of the original geophysical images separately. The comparison of the results of the three different approaches showed that the fusion with the use of curvelets, giving emphasis at the features' orientation, seems to give the best fused image

  16. Multi-frequency, polarimetric SAR analysis for archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Christopher; Lasaponara, Rosa; Schiavon, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity to buried archaeological structures of C- and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in various polarisations. In particular, single and dual polarised data from the Phased Array type L-band SAR (PALSAR) sensor on-board the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) is used, together with quadruple polarised (quad pol) data from the SAR sensor on Radarsat-2. The study region includes an isolated area of open fields in the eastern outskirts of Rome where buried structures are documented to exist. Processing of the SAR data involved multitemporal averaging, analysis of target decompositions, study of the polarimetric signatures over areas of suspected buried structures and changes of the polarimetric bases in an attempt to enhance their visibility. Various ancillary datasets were obtained for the analysis, including geological and lithological charts, meteorological data, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), optical imagery and an archaeological chart. For the Radarsat-2 data analysis, results show that the technique of identifying the polarimetric bases that yield greatest backscatter over anomaly features, and subsequently changing the polarimetric bases of the time series, succeeded in highlighting features of interest in the study area. It appeared possible that some of the features could correspond with structures documented on the reference archaeological chart, but there was not a clear match between the chart and the results of the Radarsat-2 analysis. A similar conclusion was reached for the PALSAR data analysis. For the PALSAR data, the volcanic nature of the soil may have hindered the visibility of traces of buried features. Given the limitations of the accuracy of the archaeological chart and the spatial resolution of both the SAR datasets, further validation would be required to draw any precise conclusions on the sensitivity of the SAR data to buried structures. Such a validation could include geophysical

  17. The archaeological record speaks: bridging anthropology and linguistics.

    PubMed

    Balari, Sergio; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Camps, Marta; Longa, Víctor M; Lorenzo, Guillermo; Uriagereka, Juan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of language, as treated within Evolutionary Anthropology, under the light offered by a biolinguistic approach. This perspective is presented first. Next we discuss how genetic, anatomical, and archaeological data, which are traditionally taken as evidence for the presence of language, are circumstantial as such from this perspective. We conclude by discussing ways in which to address these central issues, in an attempt to develop a collaborative approach to them. PMID:21716806

  18. Polaroid imaging at an archaeological site in Peru.

    PubMed

    Conlogue, G; Nelson, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the use of Polaroid photography as an adjunct to conventional radiography at a remote archaeological site in northern Peru. The Polaroid system provided several important benefits, including the ability to produce images in 90 seconds without a darkroom or wet processing. This enabled researchers to examine specimens ad hoc, test exposures in the field and determine the most appropriate position to demonstrate internal structures. PMID:10451715

  19. Botany meets archaeology: people and plants in the past.

    PubMed

    Day, Jo

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the close links between botany and archaeology, using case studies from the ancient Mediterranean. It explains the kinds of palaeobotanical remains that archaeologists can recover and the methods used to analyse them. The importance of iconographic and textual evidence is also underlined. Examples of key research areas that focus on ancient plants are discussed: diet and palaeoeconomy; medicines, poisons, and psychotropics; perfumes, cosmetics, and dyes; and prestige. PMID:23669575

  20. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  1. Full-scale implementation of the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment process. Final report, October 1987-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, J.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; McAtee, R.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.; Suciu, D.F.

    1989-09-01

    In Phase I, jar and dynamic testing showed that the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process was a viable method for reducing hexavalent chromium and removing heavy metals from the Tinker AFB industrial wastewater with a significant decrease in sludge production and treatment costs. In Phase II pilot-plant field verification studies were conducted to evaluate the chemical and physical parameters of the chromium reduction process, the precipitation and clarification process, and the activated sludge system. Sludge production was evaluated and compared to the sulfuric acid/sulfur dioxide/lime process. The impact of and procedure for change-over to the sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate process were also investigated.

  2. Dose response of ferrous-xylenol orange gels: the effects of gel substrate, gelation time and dose fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, K.; Battista, J.

    2004-01-01

    Investigations of the dose dependent change in optical transmission, dose response, for radiochromic ferrous-xylenol orange-gelatin gels (FXG) 3D optical CT scanning has revealed that gelation time, temperature, and dose fractionation affect the dose response (Δμ/Δdose). Correction for these factors is important for developing a reproducible dosimeter that can be reliably calibrated and used clinically. The purpose of this report is to examine trends in dose response changes for the following parameters: gelation time-temperature, concentrations of ferrous ion and xylenol orange (XO), dose range and dose fractionation.

  3. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  4. Classical Simulated Annealing Using Quantum Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cour, Brian R.; Troupe, James E.; Mark, Hans M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the use of certain classical analogues to quantum tunneling behavior to improve the performance of simulated annealing on a discrete spin system of the general Ising form. Specifically, we consider the use of multiple simultaneous spin flips at each annealing step as an analogue to quantum spin coherence as well as modifications of the Boltzmann acceptance probability to mimic quantum tunneling. We find that the use of multiple spin flips can indeed be advantageous under certain annealing schedules, but only for long anneal times.

  5. The empirical case against the 'demographic turn' in Palaeolithic archaeology.

    PubMed

    Collard, Mark; Vaesen, Krist; Cosgrove, Richard; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has become commonplace to interpret major transitions and other patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record in terms of population size. Increases in cultural complexity are claimed to result from increases in population size; decreases in cultural complexity are suggested to be due to decreases in population size; and periods of no change are attributed to low numbers or frequent extirpation. In this paper, we argue that this approach is not defensible. We show that the available empirical evidence does not support the idea that cultural complexity in hunter-gatherers is governed by population size. Instead, ethnographic and archaeological data suggest that hunter-gatherer cultural complexity is most strongly influenced by environmental factors. Because all hominins were hunter-gatherers until the Holocene, this means using population size to interpret patterns in the Palaeolithic archaeological record is problematic. In future, the population size hypothesis should be viewed as one of several competing hypotheses and its predictions formally tested alongside those of its competitors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298472

  6. Adaptation of Industrial Hyperspectral Line Scanner for Archaeological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljković, V.; Gajski, D.

    2016-06-01

    The spectral characteristic of the visible light reflected from any of archaeological artefact is the result of the interaction of its surface illuminated by incident light. Every particular surface depends on what material it is made of and/or which layers put on it has its spectral signature. Recent archaeometry recognises this information as very valuable data to extend present documentation of artefacts and as a new source for scientific exploration. However, the problem is having an appropriate hyperspectral imaging system available and adopted for applications in archaeology. In this paper, we present the new construction of the hyperspectral imaging system, made of industrial hyperspectral line scanner ImSpector V9 and CCD-sensor PixelView. The hyperspectral line scanner is calibrated geometrically, and hyperspectral data are geocoded and converted to the hyperspectral cube. The system abilities are evaluated for various archaeological artefacts made of different materials. Our experience in applications, visualisations, and interpretations of collected hyperspectral data are explored and presented.

  7. Biometric identification of capillariid eggs from archaeological sites in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Taglioretti, V; Fugassa, M H; Beltrame, M O; Sardella, N H

    2014-06-01

    Numerous eggs of capillariid nematodes have been found in coprolites from a wide range of hosts and in raptor pellets in archaeological samples from Patagonia. The structure and sculpture of the eggshell of these nematodes and their biometry are commonly used for identification. The aim of this study was to determine whether eggs of the genus Calodium with similar morphology, found in different archaeological samples from Patagonia, belong to the same species. For this purpose, capillariid eggs (N= 843) with thick walls and radial striations were studied by permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Eggs exhibiting similar shape and structure also showed similar biometry, regardless of the zoological origin of coprolites (P= 0.84), host diet (P= 0.19), character of the archaeological sites (P= 0.67) and chronology (P= 0.66). Thus, they were attributed to the same species. We suggest that an unidentified zoonotic species of the genus Calodium occurred in the digestive tract of a wide range of hosts in Patagonia during the Holocene and that both human and animal populations were exposed to this parasite during the Holocene in the study area. PMID:23388621

  8. archAR: an archaeological augmented reality experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Bridgette; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2015-03-01

    We present an application for Android phones or tablets called "archAR" that uses augmented reality as an alternative, portable way of viewing archaeological information from UCSD's Levantine Archaeology Laboratory. archAR provides a unique experience of flying through an archaeological dig site in the Levantine area and exploring the artifacts uncovered there. Using a Google Nexus tablet and Qualcomm's Vuforia API, we use an image target as a map and overlay a three-dimensional model of the dig site onto it, augmenting reality such that we are able to interact with the plotted artifacts. The user can physically move the Android device around the image target and see the dig site model from any perspective. The user can also move the device closer to the model in order to "zoom" into the view of a particular section of the model and its associated artifacts. This is especially useful, as the dig site model and the collection of artifacts are very detailed. The artifacts are plotted as points, colored by type. The user can touch the virtual points to trigger a popup information window that contains details of the artifact, such as photographs, material descriptions, and more.

  9. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  10. Archaeological and genetic insights into the origins of domesticated rice

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Briana L.; Zhao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal grains in the world today and serves as a staple food source for more than half of the world’s population. Research into when, where, and how rice was brought into cultivation and eventually domesticated, along with its development into a staple food source, is thus essential. These questions have been a point of nearly continuous research in both archaeology and genetics, and new information has continually come to light as theory, data acquisition, and analytical techniques have advanced over time. Here, we review the broad history of our scientific understanding of the rice domestication process from both an archaeological and genetic perspective and examine in detail the information that has come to light in both of these fields in the last 10 y. Current findings from genetics and archaeology are consistent with the domestication of O. sativa japonica in the Yangtze River valley of southern China. Interestingly, although it appears rice was cultivated in the area by as early 8000 BP, the key domestication trait of nonshattering was not fixed for another 1,000 y or perhaps longer. Rice was also cultivated in India as early as 5000 BP, but the domesticated indica subspecies currently appears to be a product of the introgression of favorable alleles from japonica. These findings are reshaping our understanding of rice domestication and also have implications for understanding the complex evolutionary process of plant domestication. PMID:24753573

  11. TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE USING A MIXED REDUCTANT SOLUTION OF FERROUS SULFATE AND SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a method for disseminating ferrous iron in the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a chromite ore processing solid waste derived from the production of ferrochrome alloy. The method utilizes ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) in combinati...

  12. FERROUS METALS RECOVERY AT RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS: PERFORMANCE OF THE MODIFIED SYSTEM. TEST NO. 4.05 AND TEST NO. 4.09, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents two series of samplings and the monitoring of enery consumption and shredder hammer wear of the upgraded ferrous recovery system that produces a light ferrous product from the processing of municipal refuse at the New Orleans resource recovery project. A ser...

  13. Archaeological Geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2009-04-01

    Israel is a country with diverse and rapidly changeable environments where is localized a giant number of archaeological objects of various age, origin and size. The archaeological remains occur in a complex (multi-layered and variable) geological-archaeological media. It is obvious that direct archaeological excavations cannot be employed at all localized and supposed sites taking into account the financial, organizational, ecological and other reasons. Therefore, for delineation of buried archaeological objects, determination their physical-geometrical characteristics and classification, different geophysical methods are widely applied. The number of employed geophysical methodologies is constantly increasing and now Israeli territory may be considered as a peculiar polygon for various geophysical methods testing. The geophysical investigations at archaeological sites in Israel could be tentatively divided on three stages: (1) past [- 1990] (e.g., Batey, 1987; Ben-Menahem, 1979; Dolphin, 1981; Ginzburg and Levanon, 1977; Karcz et al., 1977; Karcz and Kafri, 1978; Tanzi et al., 1983; Shalem, 1949; Willis, 1928), (2) present [1991 - 2008] (e.g., Bauman et al., 2005; Ben-Dor et al., 1999; Ben-Yosef et al., 2008; Berkovitch et al., 2000; Borradaile, 2003; Boyce et al., 2004; Bruins et al., 2003; Daniels et al., 2003; Ellenblum et al., 1998; Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000a, 2000b, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008b; Eppelbaum and Ben-Avraham, 2002; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2000, 2001; 2003, 2009; Eppelbaum et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2003b, 2004a, 2004b; 2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2006d, 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Ezersky et al., 2000; Frumkin et al., 2003; Itkis and Eppelbaum, 1998; Itkis, 2003; Itkis et al., 2002, 2003, 2008; Jol et al., 2003, 2008; Kamai and Hatzor, 2007; Khesin et al., 1996; Korjenkov and Mazor, 1999; Laukin et al., 2001; McDermott et al., 1993; Marco, 2008; Marco et al., 2003; Nahas et al., 2006; Neishtadt et al., 2006; Nur and Ron, 1997; Paparo, 1991; Porat

  14. Prediction of selected mechanical properties of ferrous alloys through computational modeling of solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinqing

    During the last decade, the casting solidification simulation that includes the evolution of microstructure has gained significant attention. A more recent goal is the development of a predictive tool which quantitatively links the processing parameters to the microstructure and finally to the properties of castings. With the continuous improvements in the computational abilities of computers, as well as because of the rapid development of numerical methods, the prediction of microstructure of ferrous casting has become feasible. Consequently, the problem of predicting the mechanical properties of the ferrous castings becomes a problem of establishing the quantitative relationships between the mechanical properties and the microstructures of the castings. The purpose of this study is to provide a fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of Fe-C alloys for a rather broad range of compositions and microstructures. Microstructure-properties relationships have been developed and implemented into a computer solidification model to improve the design and production of castings. In the mechanical properties model of gray iron presented in this dissertation, the main factors controlling the tensile strength and hardness are addressed. They include graphite flake length, pearlite content and interlamellar spacing. The influence of the microstructural features of ductile iron, including graphite nodule count, nodularity, fraction of graphite, fraction of ferrite, and fraction of pearlite, on the fracture mechanism and the mechanical properties are discussed in the model for ductile iron. In the case of carbon steel, the ferrite grain size, the fraction of ferrite, and the fraction of pearlite have been found to be the significant factors controlling the properties. It is noted that the formulae used in all of the models are based on physical metallurgical principles and the coefficients for the models are obtained through multiple regression on commercial

  15. D-luciferin analogues: a multicolor toolbox for bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Qiang; Liu, Jing; Wang, Pi; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Wei

    2012-08-20

    Colorful mixture: Three types of luciferin analogues, that is, alkylaminoluciferins, aminoselenoluciferin, and luciferins with a benzimidazole scaffold, have been reported. These analogues show excellent bioluminescent properties and great potential in bioluminescence imaging. PMID:22807027

  16. Synthesis and Cytoxicity of Sempervirine and Analogues.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaohong; Yang, Chunying; Cleveland, John L; Bannister, Thomas D

    2016-03-01

    Sempervirine and analogues were synthesized using a route featuring Sonogashira and Larock Pd-catalyzed reactions. Structure-activity relationships were investigated using three human cancer cell lines. 10-Fluorosempervirine is the most potently cytotoxic member of the family yet described. PMID:26828413

  17. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  18. New cytotoxic analogues of annonaceous acetogenins.

    PubMed

    Rodier, S; Le Huerou, Y; Renoux, B; Doyon, J; Renard, P; Pierré, A; Gesson, J P; Grée, R

    2001-01-01

    A series of new acetogenin analogues incorporating a central catechol moiety instead of the tetrahydrofuran ring(s) have been prepared and tested against L1210 leukemia cells. Although less potent than bullatacinone, which has the same terminal lactone, these compounds display interesting cell cycle effects. PMID:11962508

  19. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-03-01

    Project overview provides background on carbonic anhydrase transport mechanism for CO2 in the human body and proposed approach for ARPA-E project to create a synthetic enzyme analogue and utilize it in a membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas.

  20. Synthesis of lipid II phosphonate analogues.

    PubMed

    Borbás, Anikó; Herczegh, Pál

    2011-09-01

    Simple analogues of lipid II were synthesized from 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-β-D-glucopyranose using conjugate addition onto ethylidene bisphosphonate and subsequent Wadsworth-Horner-Emmons reaction with long chain aliphatic aldehydes. PMID:21600568

  1. The arsonomethyl analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, S R; Sparkes, M J; Dixon, H B

    1983-01-01

    4-Arsono-2-hydroxybutanoic acid, the analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate in which -CH2-AsO3H2 replaces -O-PO3H2, was synthesized. It proved to be a substrate for phosphoglycerate kinase. Its Michaelis constant was only slightly higher than that of the natural substrate, but its catalytic constant was about 1300 times smaller. PMID:6615422

  2. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine. PMID:11003150

  3. The Use of Neutron Technology in Archaeological and Cultural HeritageResearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creagh, Dudley

    Nations define themselves by their history and their customs. Their history is determined by both archaeological and archival evidence. The continuing development of a national culture is essential for the formation of a national identity. Both archaeological sites and cultural heritage artifacts are important to many nations because of income earned through tourism. This chapter discusses the use of neutron technology, one of a number of possible technologies, in the study of archaeological and cultural heritage artifacts. In particular descriptions of Neutron Activation Analysis, Neutron Diffraction, and Neutron Imaging Techniques will be given, and selected applications of these techniques to archaeology and cultural heritage artifacts will be given.

  4. In with the new, out with the old? Auto-extraction for remote sensing archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, David C.

    2012-09-01

    This paper explores aspects of the inter-relationships between traditional archaeological interpretation of remote sensed data (principally visual examination of aerial photographs/satellite) and those drawing on automated feature extraction and processing. Established approaches to archaeological interpretation of aerial photographs are heavily reliant on individual observation (eye/brain) in an experience and knowledge-based process. Increasingly, however, much more complex and extensive datasets are becoming available to archaeology and these require critical reflection on analytical and interpretative processes. Archaeological applications of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) are becoming increasingly routine, and as the spatial resolution of hyper-spectral data improves, its potentially massive implications for archaeological site detection may prove to be a sea-change. These complex datasets demand new approaches, as traditional methods based on direct observation by an archaeological interpreter will never do more than scratch the surface, and will fail to fully extend the boundaries of knowledge. Inevitably, changing analytical and interpretative processes can create tensions, especially, as has been the case in archaeology, when the innovations in data and analysis come from outside the discipline. These tensions often centre on the character of the information produced, and a lack of clarity on the place of archaeological interpretation in the workflow. This is especially true for ALS data and autoextraction techniques, and carries implications for all forms of remote sensed archaeological datasets, including hyperspectral data and aerial photographs.

  5. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  6. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    PubMed

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential. PMID:21810036

  7. [Dmt(1)]DALDA analogues modified with tyrosine analogues at position 1.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunxin; Lu, Dandan; Chen, Zhen; Ding, Yi; Chung, Nga N; Li, Tingyou; Schiller, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    Analogues of [Dmt(1)]DALDA (H-Dmt-d-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt=2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), a potent μ opioid agonist peptide with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant activity were prepared by replacing Dmt with various 2',6'-dialkylated Tyr analogues, including 2',4',6'-trimethyltyrosine (Tmt), 2'-ethyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Emt), 2'-isopropyl-6'-methyltyrosine (Imt) and 2',6'-diethyltyrosine (Det). All compounds were selective μ opioid agonists and the Tmt(1)-, Emt(1) and Det(1)-analogues showed subnanomolar μ opioid receptor binding affinities. The Tmt(1)- and Emt(1)-analogues showed improved antioxidant activity compared to the Dmt(1)-parent peptide in the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity assay, and thus are of interest as drug candidates for neuropathic pain treatment. PMID:27301366

  8. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  9. Viewing the Valence Electronic Structure of Ferric and Ferrous Hexacyanide in Solution from the Fe and Cyanide Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kunnus, Kristjan; Zhang, Wenkai; Delcey, Mickaël G; Pinjari, Rahul V; Miedema, Piter S; Schreck, Simon; Quevedo, Wilson; Schröder, Henning; Föhlisch, Alexander; Gaffney, Kelly J; Lundberg, Marcus; Odelius, Michael; Wernet, Philippe

    2016-07-28

    The valence-excited states of ferric and ferrous hexacyanide ions in aqueous solution were mapped by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Fe L2,3 and N K edges. Probing of both the central Fe and the ligand N atoms enabled identification of the metal- and ligand-centered excited states, as well as ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excited states. Ab initio calculations utilizing the RASPT2 method were used to simulate the Fe L2,3-edge RIXS spectra and enabled quantification of the covalencies of both occupied and empty orbitals of π and σ symmetry. We found that π back-donation in the ferric complex is smaller than that in the ferrous complex. This is evidenced by the relative amounts of Fe 3d character in the nominally 2π CN(-) molecular orbital of 7% and 9% in ferric and ferrous hexacyanide, respectively. Utilizing the direct sensitivity of Fe L3-edge RIXS to the Fe 3d character in the occupied molecular orbitals, we also found that the donation interactions are dominated by σ bonding. The latter was found to be stronger in the ferric complex, with an Fe 3d contribution to the nominally 5σ CN(-) molecular orbitals of 29% compared to 20% in the ferrous complex. These results are consistent with the notion that a higher charge at the central metal atom increases donation and decreases back-donation. PMID:27380541

  10. In vitro studies of the mechanism of inhibition of rat liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity by ferrous iron under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, S K; Pimstone, N R

    1986-02-01

    Human porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is an unusual consequence of common hepatic disorders such as alcoholic liver disease and iron overload, where hepatic iron plays a key role in the expression of the metabolic lesion, i.e., defective hepatic decarboxylation of porphyrinogens. In this investigation, kinetic studies on a partially purified rat liver uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase have been conducted under controlled conditions to determine how iron perturbs porphyrinogen decarboxylation in vitro. The enzyme, assayed strictly under anaerobic conditions in the dark, was inhibited progressively by ferrous iron. Approximately 0.45 mM ferrous ammonium sulfate was required to observe about 50% inhibition of enzyme activity measured with uroporphyrinogen I as substrate. We showed that (a) all the steps of enzymatic decarboxylation (octa-, hepta-, hexa-, and pentacarboxylic porphyrinogen of isomer I series) were inhibited by ferrous iron. The inhibition was competitive with respect to uroporphyrinogen I and III substrates; (b) the cations, e.g., Fe3+ and Mg2+, had no effect, whereas sulfhydryl group specific cations and compounds such as Hg2+, Zn2+, p-mercuribenzoate, and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) all inhibited the enzyme; (c) the enzyme could be protected from inhibition by Fe2+ and p-mercuribenzoate by preincubation with pentacarboxylic porphyrinogen, a natural substrate and competitive inhibitor. These data suggest for the first time a direct interaction of ferrous iron with cysteinyl residue(s) located at the active site(s) of the enzyme. PMID:3947082

  11. Iron Kinetics and Evolution of Microbial Populations in Low-pH, Ferrous Iron-Oxidizing Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rose M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-08-01

    Iron-rich, acidic wastewaters are commonplace pollutants associated with metal and coal mining. Continuous-flow bioreactors were commissioned and tested for their capacities to oxidize ferrous iron in synthetic and actual acid mine drainage waters using (initially) pure cultures of the recently described acidophilic, iron-oxidizing heterotrophic bacterium Acidithrix ferrooxidans grown in the presence of glucose and yeast extract. The bioreactors became rapidly colonized by this bacterium, which formed macroscopic streamer growths in the flowing waters. Over 97% of ferrous iron in pH 2.0-2.2 synthetic mine water was oxidized (at up to 225 mg L(-1) h(-1)) at dilution rates (D) of 0.6 h(-1). Rates of iron oxidation decreased with pH but were still significant, with influent liquors as low as pH 1.37. When fed with actual mine water, >90% of ferrous iron was oxidized at D values of 0.4 h(-1), and microbial communities within the bioreactors changed over time, with Atx. ferrooxidans becoming increasingly displaced by the autotrophic iron-oxidizing acidophiles Ferrovum myxofaciens, Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans (which were all indigenous to the mine water), although this did not have a negative impact on net ferrous-iron oxidation. The results confirmed the potential of using a heterotrophic acidophile to facilitate the rapid commissioning of iron-oxidizing bioreactors and illustrated how microbial communities within them can evolve without compromising the performances of the bioreactors. PMID:27377871

  12. The Bacillus subtilis EfeUOB transporter is essential for high-affinity acquisition of ferrous and ferric iron.

    PubMed

    Miethke, Marcus; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Marahiel, Mohamed A; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2013-10-01

    Efficient uptake of iron is of critical importance for growth and viability of microbial cells. Nevertheless, several mechanisms for iron uptake are not yet clearly defined. Here we report that the widely conserved transporter EfeUOB employs an unprecedented dual-mode mechanism for acquisition of ferrous (Fe[II]) and ferric (Fe[III]) iron in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We show that the binding protein EfeO and the permease EfeU form a minimal complex for ferric iron uptake. The third component EfeB is a hemoprotein that oxidizes ferrous iron to ferric iron for uptake by EfeUO. Accordingly, EfeB promotes growth under microaerobic conditions where ferrous iron is more abundant. Notably, EfeB also fulfills a vital role in cell envelope stress protection by eliminating reactive oxygen species that accumulate in the presence of ferrous iron. In conclusion, the EfeUOB system contributes to the high-affinity uptake of iron that is available in two different oxidation states. PMID:23764491

  13. Oxidation of sulphide minerals--I: determination of ferrous and ferric iron in samples of pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Steger, H F

    1977-04-01

    A method has been developed for determining small amounts of both ferrous and ferric iron in oxidized samples of pyrrhotite, pyrite and chalcopyrite. The oxidized iron is selectively dissolved in 10M phosphoric acid under reflux and can be determined with the accuracy generally accepted in chemical phase analysis. PMID:18962075

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF MAGNETICALLY SEPARATED FERROUS CONCENTRATE BY SHREDDING: A PERFORMANCE TEST. TEST NO. 4.07, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of test runs in which ferrous product magnetically recovered from municipal waste was further shredded in a small (50 hp) hammermill to free attached or entrapped contaminant. A belt magnet was then used to separate metal from the liberated contamin...

  15. Use of a Ferrous Sulfate - Sodium Dithionite Blend to Treat a Dissolved Phase Cr(VI) Plume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of a combination of sodium dithionite and ferrous sulfate in creating an in situ redox zone for treatment of a dissolved phase Cr(VI) plume at a former industrial site. The reductant blend was injected into the path of a dissolved ...

  16. INJECTION OF A FERROUS SULFATE/SODIUM DITHIONITE REDUCTANT FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in situ pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a ferrous iron-based reductant solution in treating hexavalent chromium within a saturated zone source area at a former industrial site in Charleston, South Carolina (USA). The hexavalent source area, consisting...

  17. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens by heated combinations of nitrite, sulfur, and ferrous or ferric ions.

    PubMed Central

    Asan, T; Solberg, M

    1976-01-01

    Heating mixtures of sodium nitrite, cysteine, and either ferrous sulfate or ferric chloride at 121 C for 20 min at pH 6.5 or 6.3 produced a potent inhibitor of Clostridium perfringens vegetative cells and spores when added to previously heat-sterilized fluid thioglycolate medium. When the mixtures containing FeSO4 at pH 5.2 or FeCl3 at pH 2.7 were heated, the inhibitory effect was not produced. These responses seem to eliminate the possibility that cysteine nitrosothiol is the agent responsible for the heated-nitrite inhibition known as the Perigo effect. The variable pH responses also cast doubt upon the role of the black Roussin salt as the agent of the Perigo effect. PMID:8004

  18. Rapid and selective chelatometric titration of zinc in non-ferrous alloys.

    PubMed

    Nan, Z; Zhi-Ren, L; Yuan-Xiang, G

    1983-11-01

    A rapid titrimetric method for the determination of Zn (5%) in zinc, aluminium and copper alloys is proposed. It is based on the chelation of Zn(II) with HEDTA as titrant in an ethanolic aqueous medium. The end-point is detected with hydrazidazol, a new indicator developed in China. Up to at least 6% Mn in the alloy does not interfere. Direct determination of Zn(II) is rendered possible by using a combination of masking agents. A separation is needed only if nickel is also present. A decided advantage of this method is its high selectivity. The standard deviation was found to be 0.07 mg and the coefficient of variation to vary from 0.2 to 0.5%. The method has been successfully used to determine Zn in different kinds of non-ferrous alloys, especially those containing Mn. PMID:18963480

  19. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  20. Iron metabolism in aerobes: managing ferric iron hydrolysis and ferrous iron autoxidation

    PubMed Central

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Aerobes and anaerobes alike express a plethora of essential iron enzymes; in the resting state, the iron atom(s) in these proteins are in the ferrous state. For aerobes, ferric iron is the predominant environmental valence form which, given ferric iron’s aqueous chemistry, occurs as ‘rust’, insoluble, bio-inert polymeric ferric oxide that results from the hydrolysis of [Fe(H2O)6]3+. Mobilizing this iron requires bio-ferrireduction which in turn requires managing the rapid autoxidation of the resulting FeII which occurs at pH > 6. This review examines the aqueous redox chemistry of iron and the mechanisms evolved in aerobes to suppress the ‘rusting out’ of FeIII and the ROS-generating autoxidation of FeII so as to make this metal ion available as the most ubiquitous prosthetic group in metallobiology. PMID:23264695

  1. Relationship between fractional porosity and tensile strength for high-porosity sintered ferrous powder compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.P.; Wawner, F.E.; Wert, J.A.

    1998-07-03

    The current study examines the mechanical properties of pressed and sintered ferrous powder metallurgy compacts with low relative densities, between 0.6 and 0.8. Three different powder particle compositions were investigated: eutectoid steel, stainless steel, and stainless tool steel compacts. To obtain information concerning the tensile properties of these low-density compacts, simple tensile tests were performed. In addition, Vickers microhardness tests were performed on metallographic sections of the tensile bars. The results from these tests are used to compare the measured relative strength values with estimates generated by previously published models. Also, the fracture surfaces of selected compacts were examined in the scanning electron microscope to obtain information concerning the fracture process.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-independent generation of superoxide catalyzed by soybean peroxidase in response to ferrous ion

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Makoto; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that extracellular alkalization occurs in plants under the challenges by pathogenic microbes. This may eventually induce the pH-dependent extracellular peroxidase-mediated oxidative burst at the site of microbial challenges. By employing the purified proteins of horseradish peroxidase as a model, we have recently proposed a likely role for free Fe2+ in reduction of ferric enzyme of plant peroxidases into ferrous intermediate and oxygen-bound form of enzyme known as Compound III which may eventually releases superoxide anion radical (O2•−), especially under alkaline condition, possibly contributing to the plant defense mechanism. In the present study, we employed the purified protein of soybean peroxidase (SBP) as an additional model, and examined the changes in the redox status of enzyme accompanying the generation of O2•− in response to Fe2+ under alkaline condition. PMID:26417938

  3. Optimization of hydrous ferrous sulfate dehydration by microwave heating using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Tao; Liu, Bing-Guo; Chen, Guo; Peng, Jin-Hui; Srinivasakannan, C

    2012-01-01

    The work relates to assessing the ability of the microwave for dehydration of large amount of waste hydrous ferrous sulfate generated from the titanium pigment process industry. The popular process optimization tool of response surface methodology with central composite design was adopted to estimate the effect of dehydration. The process variables were chosen to be power input, duration of heating and the bed thickness, while the response variable being the weight loss. An increase in all the three process variables were found to significantly increase the weight loss, while the effect of interaction among the parameters were found to be insignificant. The optimized process conditions that contribute to the maximum weight loss were identified to be a power input of 960 W, duration of heating of 14 min and bed thickness of 5 cm, resulting in a weight loss of 31.44%. The validity of the optimization process was tested with the repeat runs at optimized conditions. PMID:24432588

  4. Iron oxide and hydroxide precipitation from ferrous solutions and its relevance to Martian surface mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posey-Dowty, J.; Moskowitz, B.; Crerar, D.; Hargraves, R.; Tanenbaum, L.; Dowty, E.

    1986-04-01

    Experiments were performed to examine if the ubiquitousness of a weak magnetic component in all Martian surface fines tested with the Viking Landers can be attributed to ferric iron precipitation in aqueous solution under oxidizing conditions at neutral pH. Ferrous solutions were mixed in deionized water and various minerals were added to separate liquid samples. The iron-bearing additives included hematite, goethite, magnetite, maghemite, lepidocrocite and potassium bromide blank at varying concentrations. IR spectroscopic scans were made to identify any precipitates resulting from bubbling oxygen throughout the solutions; the magnetic properties of the precipitates were also examined. The data indicated that the lepidocrocite may have been preferentially precipitated, then aged to maghemite. The process would account for the presumed thin residue of maghemite on the present Martian surface, long after abundant liquid water on the Martian surface vanished.

  5. Tribological Behavior of Ferrous-Based APS Coatings Under Dry Sliding Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vencl, Aleksandar

    2015-04-01

    The use of Al-alloys for engine blocks production, instead of e.g., gray cast iron, results with weight savings and lower fuel consumption and therefore, reduces pollution. Possible solution for overcoming poor tribological properties of Al-alloys is the application of thermal spray coatings. In this paper, the tribological properties of two ferrous-based coatings were analyzed and compared with gray cast iron as a standard material for engine blocks. The process used for coating deposition on an Al-Si alloy substrate was atmospheric plasma spraying. In order to investigate the tribological behavior of these coatings under dominant adhesive and abrasive wear regime, two tests were applied with different test equipments and conditions. Both tribological tests showed that, for the investigated conditions, both coatings had improved wear resistance and lower coefficient of friction compared with gray cast iron.

  6. Ferrous iron and α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases in the biosynthesis of microbial natural products.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long-Fei; Meng, Song; Tang, Gong-Li

    2016-05-01

    Apart from its vital role as the terminal electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation in nature, dioxygen also serves as a universal agent which diversifies natural products by oxidative transformations. Ferrous iron and α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent dioxygenases (αKGDs) are versatile enzymes that use dioxygen as an oxidant to catalyse various reactions via CH bond activation, including hydroxylation, dealkylation, desaturation, epoxidation, epimerisation, halogenation, cyclisation, peroxide formation, and ring expansion/contraction reactions. This review updates the reported αKGDs that catalyse reactions related to microbial natural product biosynthesis in the past 10 years. We hope that the versatility of αKGDs shown here can serve as an inspiration for future engineering and catalyst design, which could provide alternative methods to meet the on-going demand for fine chemicals and pharmaceutics. PMID:26845569

  7. Magnetic hyperthermia heating of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by low temperature ferrous sulfate based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadavalli, Tejabhiram; Jain, Hardik; Chandrasekharan, Gopalakrishnan; Chennakesavulu, Ramasamy

    2016-05-01

    A facile low temperature co-precipitation method for the synthesis of crystalline cobalt ferrite nanostructures using ferrous sulfate salt as the precursor has been discussed. The prepared samples were compared with nanoparticles prepared by conventional co-precipitation and hydrothermal methods using ferric nitrate as the precursor. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of cubic spinel cobalt ferrites when dried at 110 °C as opposed to conventional methods which required higher temperatures/pressure for the formation of the same. Field emission scanning electron microscope studies of these powders revealed the formation of nearly spherical nanostructures in the size range of 20-30 nm which were comparable to those prepared by conventional methods. Magnetic measurements confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the cobalt ferrites with low magnetic remanance. Further magnetic hyperthermia studies of nanostructures prepared by low temperature method showed a rise in temperature to 50 °C in 600 s.

  8. Recent advances in topoisomerase I-targeting agents, camptothecin analogues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Lee, Namkyu

    2002-12-01

    The present review concentrates on camptothecin (CPT) analogues, the most extensively studied topoisomerase I (topo I) inhibitors, and provides concise information on the structural features of human topo I enzyme, mechanisms of interaction of CPT with topo I, structure-activity relationship study of CPT analogues including the influence of lactone stability on antitumor activity, and recent updates of valuable CPT analogues. PMID:12370044

  9. Aeolian Transport of Ferrous Minerals in the North Polar Region of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Briony H.; Bell, J. F., III; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2008-09-01

    The north polar region of Mars contains two areally extensive, dark aeolian deposits: (1) the north polar sand seas that encircle the polar cap, and (2) the north polar veneers that drape over the polar cap itself. Both deposits have been previously identified as containing hydrated minerals, and exhibit spectral features consistent with gypsum, a hydrated calcium sulfate. However, it remains unclear whether or not the deposits have exchanged material in the past, and whether any portion of either deposit is active today. In this study, we are investigating the distribution of ferrous minerals in the north polar region using near-infrared spectral data from the Mars Express OMEGA imaging spectrometer. Ferrous minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, are most readily identified by the presence of a wide absorption band around 1 micron. Observations of changes in the position, depth, and shape of the 1 micron absorption band may be used to track changes in composition. We have identified the presence of a strong 1 micron band in the veneers, the sand sea, and the surrounding plains. Initial results from study regions in Chasma Boreale and Olympia Planum suggest that the position, depth, and shape of the band do vary within the veneers and sand seas. These spectral differences may reflect: (1) compositional variations between the sources of the deposits, (2) the degree of modern activity of the deposits, or (3) changes in mineralogy due to breakdown of softer minerals during aeolian transport over long distances. By extending our observations of these spectral changes to the entire north polar region, we may be able to help identify sources of aeolian material, transport pathways, and the most active regions of modern aeolian activity.

  10. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. PMID:25966327

  11. Functional characterization of LIT1, the Leishmania amazonensis ferrous iron transporter

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Ismaele; Andrews, Norma W.; Huynh, Chau

    2010-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis LIT1 was identified based on homology with IRT1, a ferrous iron transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Δlit1 Leishmania amazonensis are defective in intracellular replication and lesion formation in vivo, a virulence phenotype attributed to defective intracellular iron acquisition. Here we functionally characterize LIT1, directly demonstrating that it functions as a ferrous iron membrane transporter from the ZIP family. Conserved residues in the predicted transmembrane domains II, IV, V and VII of LIT1 are essential for iron transport in yeast, including histidines that were proposed to function as metal ligands in ZIP transporters. LIT1 also contains two regions within the predicted intracellular loop that are not found in Arabidopsis IRT1. Deletion of region I inhibited LIT1 expression on the surface of Leishmania promastigotes. Deletion of region II did not interfere with LIT1 trafficking to the surface, but abolished its iron transport capacity when expressed in yeast. Mutagenesis revealed two motifs within region II, HGHQH and TPPRDM, that are independently required for iron transport by LIT1. D263 was identified as a key residue required for iron transport within the TPPRDM motif, while P260 and P261 were dispensable. Deletion of proline-rich regions within region I and between regions I and II did not affect iron transport in yeast, but in Leishmania amazonensis were not able to rescue the intracellular growth of Δlit1 parasites, or their ability to form lesions in mice. These results are consistent with a potential role of the unique intracellular loop of LIT1 in intracellular regulation by Leishmania-specific factors. PMID:20025906

  12. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization using process dynamics: acidophilic ferrous iron oxidation by Leptospirillum ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2008-05-01

    Kinetic and stoichiometric properties of acidophilic aerobic ferrous iron oxidation by growing and non-growing Leptospirillum ferrooxidans cultures were investigated. The use of a continuous stirred tank reactor operated at a variable dilution rate and equipped with on-line measurement of the electron donor, acceptor and anabolic substrate uptake rate enabled detailed kinetic characterization from a single experiment. It was demonstrated that substrate conversion and microbial growth are tightly coupled processes in L. ferrooxidans, and uncoupling occurs only due to the minor impact of substrate conversion for growth-independent maintenance purposes. The tight stoichiometric coupling implies bioenergetic uncoupling of the catabolism and anabolism because the Gibbs energy change for ferrous iron oxidation as a function of the actual growth rate of the culture ranges from -45 to -25 kJ mol-FeII(-1). Bioenergetic description of the process could only be achieved by introduction of a growth rate dependent Gibbs energy dissipation term. Removal of carbon dioxide from the influent gas stopped biomass growth, but the biomass specific respiration rate was unaffected or slightly stimulated. The uncoupling of the catabolism and anabolism is suggested to induce instantaneously an energy dissipation pathway. Also dosage of a low concentration propionic acid resulted in complete inhibition of the anabolism. Propionic acid served as an uncoupler of the membrane potential and all catabolic energy is required for the increased maintenance requirements. Recovery of the anabolism after reestablishment of the normal cultivation conditions was obtained only after 1-2 days. The results obtained provide additional constraints on cultivation of L. ferrooxidans for biotechnological application. PMID:18080344

  13. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

  14. Effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on anemia of hemodialysis patients and relevant biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Xu, X F; Hu, J P; Cheng, X; Yu, G J; Luo, F; Zhang, G S; Yang, N; Shen, P

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effects of sodium ferrous chlorophyll treatment on the anemia of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, as well as the relevant biochemical parameters. We selected 72 patients who had received regular MHD treatment two or three times a week for more than 3 months in the Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Zhengzhou City of Henan Province from March 2014 to March 2016. They were equally divided into a treatment group and a control group. Haemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HCT) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p < 0.01), but less in the control group (p < 0.05); Also serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin saturation (TAST) of the treatment group increased significantly after treatment (p < 0.01); SF of the control group also increased significantly (p < 0.01) and TAST of the control group increased (p < 0.05) but less than in the treatment group. No obvious changes of serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), C-reactive protein (CRP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found in either groups after treatment (p>0.05). Albumin (ALB) dosage of the treatment group increased after treatment (p < 0.05) while hemopoietin (EPO) decreased significantly (p < 0.01). ALB and EPO of the control group had no obvious changes after treatment (p>0.05). ALB level of the treatment group increased more significantly than in the control group (p < 0.05), while EPO dosage decreased more significantly than in the control group (p <0.05). Therefore, the combination of conventional western medicine and sodium ferrous chlorophyll can effectively improve anemia conditions of MHD patients and their quality of life. PMID:27049084

  15. Ferrous Sulfate Supplementation Causes Significant Gastrointestinal Side-Effects in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P.; Pereira, Dora I. A.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Objective Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (IV) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Results Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of IV iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74–3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus IV iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus IV iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%). Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028) showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Conclusions Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose. PMID:25700159

  16. Remote sensing for archaeological site reconnaissance : the role of edge detection and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Lasaponara, R.

    2012-04-01

    The reconnaissance of features of archaeological interest represents one of the most intriguing challenges of remote sensing applied to cultural heritage. The rate of success of site discovery depends on several factors such as: i) the availability of a rich data set from archaeological record to remotely sensed image; ii) the capability of sensors; iii) the knowledge of physical and chemical phenomenology linked to the presence of archaeological deposits; iv) the selection and the use of effective edge detection and extraction methods. The latter is the focus of this work which aims at assessing different image processing methods for the enhancement, detection and extraction of edges of archaeological features, such as convolution, image fusion, wavelet, local spatial autocorrelation. The test sites cover different surface characteristics (from bare to vegetated soil), archaeological features (buried, shallow and surface archaeological features) and markers(crop and soil marks, microrelief) Reference Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2007, Detection of archaeological crop marks by using satellite QuickBird, Journal of Archaeological Science, 34, pp. 214-221 doi: 10.1016/j.jas.2006.04.014 Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2007, Investigating the spectral capability of QuickBird data to detect archaeological remains buried under vegetated and not vegetated areas , Journal of Cultural Heritage, 8 (1), pp. 53-60, Doi : 10.1016/j.culher.2006.06.006 Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2011, Satellite Remote Sensing in Archaeology : past, present and future, Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(9), 1995-2002, doi:10.1016/j.jas.2011.02.002

  17. Optimal Spectral Domain Selection for Maximizing Archaeological Signatures: Italy Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Pascucci, Simone; Pignatti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Different landscape elements, including archaeological remains, can be automatically classified when their spectral characteristics are different, but major difficulties occur when extracting and classifying archaeological spectral features, as archaeological remains do not have unique shape or spectral characteristics. The spectral anomaly characteristics due to buried remains depend strongly on vegetation cover and/or soil types, which can make feature extraction more complicated. For crop areas, such as the test sites selected for this study, soil and moisture changes within near-surface archaeological deposits can influence surface vegetation patterns creating spectral anomalies of various kinds. In this context, this paper analyzes the usefulness of hyperspectral imagery, in the 0.4 to 12.8 μm spectral region, to identify the optimal spectral range for archaeological prospection as a function of the dominant land cover. MIVIS airborne hyperspectral imagery acquired in five different archaeological areas located in Italy has been used. Within these archaeological areas, 97 test sites with homogenous land cover and characterized by a statistically significant number of pixels related to the buried remains have been selected. The archaeological detection potential for all MIVIS bands has been assessed by applying a Separability Index on each spectral anomaly-background system of the test sites. A scatterplot analysis of the SI values vs. the dominant land cover fractional abundances, as retrieved by spectral mixture analysis, was performed to derive the optimal spectral ranges maximizing the archaeological detection. This work demonstrates that whenever we know the dominant land cover fractional abundances in archaeological sites, we can a priori select the optimal spectral range to improve the efficiency of archaeological observations performed by remote sensing data. PMID:22573985

  18. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  19. Assessment of Deep Water Archaeological Sites with Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, B. P.; Ferrini, V. L.; Bingham, B. S.; Camilli, R.; Delaporta, K.; Kourkoumelis, D.

    2006-12-01

    Deep submergence vehicle technology has recently enabled significant advances in the rapid assessment of marine archaeological sites. Precisely navigated vehicles equipped with high resolution digital cameras and high-frequency multibeam sonar systems can be used to assess not only the distribution of wreckage, but to quantify the size, distribution, and condition of individual artifacts contained within the wreck. This information is critical to deriving new knowledge of ancient civilizations based on shipwreck sites. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in collaboration with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research is conducting an ongoing program to document ancient shipwrecks and refine underwater archaeological survey methods. The first project took place in 2005 near the Aegean island, Chios, when the team deployed an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle to investigate a 4th century BC wreck in 70 m water depth. Multiple low speed (20 cm/sec) digital imaging and acoustic mapping surveys were conducted at an altitude of 2.5 m yielded 200+% coverage of the wreck. Multibeam data provide centimeter resolution of the site's bathymetry, and a subset of 6000+ overlapping digital images were used to generate a continuous photomosaic of the entire wreck at sub-centimeter resolution. The full survey of the 20 m x 7 m wreck took approximately 18 hours. The second season in 2006 resulted in the survey of a historic period warship. The combination of digital imagery and sonar data reveal information about these wrecks that would otherwise be difficult to quantify. For instance, the orientation, location, number, and preservation state of amphora cargo elements observed in high-resolution imagery can be used to determine the vessel's origin and order of lading. Additionally, first-order archaeological questions can be answered: age of the wreck, cultural origin of the vessel, dimensions of the site, computation of three-dimensional cargo

  20. Action cameras and low-cost aerial vehicles in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.

    2015-05-01

    This research is focused on the analysis of the potential of a close range aerial photogrammetry system, which is accessible both in economic terms and in terms of simplicity of use. In particular the Go Pro Hero3 Black Edition and the Parrot Ar. Drone 2.0 were studied. There are essentially two limitations to the system and they were found for both the instruments used. Indeed, the frames captured by the Go Pro are subject to great distortion and consequently pose numerous calibration problems. On the other hand, the limitation of the system lies in the difficulty of maintaining a flight configuration suitable for photogrammetric purposes in unfavourable environmental conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse how far the limitations highlighted can influence the precision of the survey and consequent quality of the results obtained. To this end, the integrated GoPro and Parrot system was used during a survey campaign on the Altilia archaeological site, in Molise. The data obtained was compared with that gathered by more traditional methods, such as the laser scanner. The system was employed in the field of archaeology because here the question of cost often has a considerable importance and the metric aspect is frequently subordinate to the qualitative and interpretative aspects. Herein one of the products of these systems; the orthophoto will be analysed, which is particularly useful in archaeology, especially in situations such as this dig in which there aren't many structures in elevation present. The system proposed has proven to be an accessible solution for producing an aerial documentation, which adds the excellent quality of the result to metric data for which the precision is known.

  1. [Insulin analogues: modifications in the structure, molecular and metabolic consequences].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Romero, E

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has provided insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, with an efficacy and safety that has improved the treatment of this disease. We briefly review the principal characteristics of the insulin analogues currently available. Both rapid-acting (lispro, aspart and glulisine) and long acting (glargine and determir) insulin analogues are included in this review. We describe the pharmacology of each insulin analogue, their differences with the human insulin, the administration, indication, efficacy and safety. In addition we discussed the main controversies of the use of these insulin analogues. In particular, those related with the risk of cancer and retinopathy, and their use in pregnant women. PMID:23517895

  2. Satellite SAR data assessment for Silk Road archaeological prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fulong; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Yang, Ruixia

    2015-04-01

    The development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, favored the application of this technology also in archaeology [1]. Different approaches based on both single and multitemporal data analysis, exploiting the backscattering and the penetration of radar data, have been used for a number of archaeological sites and landscapes [2-5]. Nevertheless, the capability of this technology in archaeological applications has so far not been fully assessed. It lacks a contribution aimed at evaluating the potential of SAR technology for the same study area by using different bands, spatial resolutions and data processing solutions. In the framework of the Chinese-Italian bilateral project "Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and China: Earth Observation and pilot projects", we addressed some pioneering investigations to assess multi-mode (multi-band, temporal, resolution) satellite SAR data (including X-band TerraSAR, C-band Envisat and L-band ALOS PALSAR) in archaeological prospection of the Silk road [6]. The Silk Road, a series of trade and cultural transmission routes connecting China to Europe, is the witness of civilization and friendship between the East and West dated back to 2000 years ago, that left us various relics (e.g. lost cities) to be uncovered and investigated.. In particular, the assessment has been performed in the Xinjiang and Gansu section pf the Silk Road focusing on : i) the subsurface penetration capability of SAR data in the arid and semi-arid region ii) and sensitivity of SAR imaging geometry for the detection of relics As regards the point i) , apart from the soil moisture, the penetration is seriously restricted by the soil porosity. For instance, negligible penetration signs were detected in Yumen Frontier Pass either using X- or L-band SAR data due to the occurrence of Yardang landscape. As regards the point ii), the flight path of SAR images in parallel with the

  3. Eimeriid oocysts from archaeological samples in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fugassa, M H; Sardella, N H; Taglioretti, V; Reinhard, K; Araújo, A

    2008-12-01

    Oocysts attributable to E. macusaniensis Guerrero et al. 1971, were found in coprolites and in archaeological sediments dating to the Holocene of Patagonia, Argentina. By means of a non-parametric regression using a generalized additive model, a significant relationship was found between the size of the oocysts and their antiquity. Specifically, a reduction in oocyst size over time was discovered, probably due to a parasite response to host replacement, to an extinct eimeriid species common during the Pliestocene-Holocene transition, or to environmental changes known for the Holocene. Explanations regarding coevolution between parasites, hosts and paleoenvironmental conditions are discussed herein. PMID:18576839

  4. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  5. k0-INAA of Archaeological and Industrial Venezuelan Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Pino, F.; Sneyers, L.; Vermaecker, P.; Barros, H.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Mackowiak de Antczak, Ma. M.; Antczak, A.; Greaves, E.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-01

    Archaeological and industrial Venezuelan samples were analyzed by k0-INAA to provide new data on the provenance study of the figurines found in Los Roques Archipelago and on recycling of industrial by-products. Los Roques and Valencia Lake Basin figurines are similar. Bottom Oil Ashes have 10 times the concentration of V, Mg, Ni, Fe, Na compared to ICP-AES and TXRF results. Red Mud samples have Thnat and Unat from four to ten times higher concentrations than those recommended for building materials.

  6. Probing Luminescence Dating Of Archaeologically Significant Carved Rock Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Kitis, George; Galloway, Robert B.; Vafiadou, Asimina; Tsirliganis, Nestoras C.; Polymeris, George S.

    The thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating of crystalline materials, first applied to calcites (limestone buildings), has been extended to carved megalithic monuments made of granites, basalt and sandstones derived from archaeological sites. Various applied criteria for potential dating included pulsed blue light stimulation, different preheating and solar simulator bleaching, while the single (and multiple) aliquot regeneration and additive dose procedures were used for equivalent dose determination. The decay curves of signal loss follow a power law, n-p; for blue stimulation the signal loss of quartz and feldspar is better approached by an exponential law, 1-aln(n).

  7. Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Evidence Relating to Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    The sky is a link between us and our remote ancestors. When we look at the sky, we are aware that our human ancestors were watching our sun, our moon, our planets, and our stars. Evidence of the peoples' different relations with the sky in the past, today, is found by historians and archaeologists. Archaeologists, who keep track of the earliest human history, infer the past lives of human societies from the physical remains of the past found in the soil. Archaeoastronomy holds that from the same archaeological record, we can get insights into the significance of celestial objects and events for the human life in the remote past.

  8. Use of ground-penetrating radar techniques in archaeological investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, James A.; Miller, W. Frank

    1991-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) techniques are increasingly being used to aid reconnaissance and pre-excavation surveys at many archaeological sites. As a 'remote sensing' tool, GPR provides a high resolution graphic profile of the subsurface. Radar profiles are used to detect, identify, and locate buried artifacts. Ground-penetrating radar provides a rapid, cost effective, and nondestructive method for identification and location analyses. The GPR can be used to facilitate excavation strategies, provide greater areal coverage per unit time and cost, minimize the number of unsuccessful exploratory excavations, and reduce unnecessary or unproductive expenditures of time and effort.

  9. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.

    1991-01-01

    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  10. Magnetic mapping and interpretation of an archaeological site in Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khatib alkontar, Rozan AL; Munschy, Marc; Castel, Corinne; Quenet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the subsurface methods of exploration that have been developed to meet the new requirements of archaeological research, geophysical methods offer a very wide range of applications in the study of buried deposits. In their latest developments, the prospecting method based on the measurement of the magnetic field is particularly effective at very different types of sites, ranging from prehistoric times to the most recent. The measured magnetic field observed at a place and at a time, results from the vector sum of the main regional field, the effect of subsurface structures, local disturbances such as power lines, buildings, fences, and the diurnal variation (solar influence). The principle of the magnetic method is, from magnetic measurements on a flat plane above the prospected surface, to study the three-dimensional variations of magnetization producing the magnetic anomalies. The use of magnetic surveys for archaeological prospecting is a well-established and versatile technique, and wide ranges of data processing routines are often applied to further enhance acquired data or derive source parameters. The main purpose of this work was to acquire new magnetic data on the field and to propose quantitative interpretations of magnetic maps obtained on three archaeological sites of Bronze Age in Syria (Badiyah ANR program). More precisely, some results are presented concerning one of the three sites, the Tell Al-Rawda-site which corresponds to a circular city of Early Bronze Age with a radius of about 200 m. Several profiles are used to characterize magnetizations. A large portion of archaeological geophysical data are concerned primarily with identifying the location and spatial extent of buried remains, although the data collected are likely to contain further information relating to the depth and geometry of anomalous features. A simple magnetic model corresponding to rectangular structures uniformly magnetized associated to walls cannot explain the magnetic

  11. Identifying military impacts on archaeology deposits based on differences in soil organic carbon and chemical elements at soil horizon interfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Historic Preservation Act requires land-managing agencies to identify and account for their impacts on archaeological resources. Regulatory agencies that oversee compliance with historic preservation legislation frequently assume military training adversely affects archaeological resou...

  12. Effect of neutralized solid waste generated in lime neutralization on the ferrous ion bio-oxidation process during acid mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Ming

    2015-12-15

    Bio-oxidation of ferrous ions prior to lime neutralization exhibits great potential for acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment, while slow ferrous ion bio-oxidation or total iron precipitation is a bottleneck in this process. In this study, neutralized solid waste (NSW) harvested in an AMD lime neutralization procedure was added as a crystal seed in AMD for iron oxyhydroxysulfate bio-synthesis. The effect of this waste on ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield during ferrous ion bio-oxidation by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was investigated. Ferrous ion oxidation efficiency was greatly improved by adding NSW. After 72 h incubation, total iron precipitation efficiency in treatment with 24 g/L of NSW was 1.74-1.03 times higher than in treatment with 0-12 g/L of NSW. Compared with the conventional treatment system without added NSW, the iron oxyhydroxysulfate minerals yield was increased by approximately 21.2-80.9% when 3-24 g/L of NSW were added. Aside from NSW, jarosite and schwertmannite were the main precipitates during ferrous ion bio-oxidation with NSW addition. NSW can thus serve as the crystal seed for iron oxyhydroxysulfate mineral bio-synthesis in AMD, and improve ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation efficiency significantly. PMID:26150283

  13. Design and synthesis of new fluconazole analogues.

    PubMed

    Pore, Vandana S; Agalave, Sandip G; Singh, Pratiksha; Shukla, Praveen K; Kumar, Vikash; Siddiqi, Mohammad I

    2015-06-21

    We have synthesized new fluconazole analogues containing two different 1,2,3-triazole units in the side chain. The synthesis of new amide analogues using a variety of acids is also described. All the compounds showed very good antifungal activity. A hemolysis study of the most active compounds 6e and 13j showed that both compounds did not cause any hemolysis at the dilutions tested. These compounds did not exhibit any toxicity to L929 cells at MIC and lower concentrations. In the docking study, the overall binding mode of 6e and 13j appeared to be reasonable and provided a good insight into the structural basis of inhibition of Candida albicans Cyp51 by these compounds. PMID:25975803

  14. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy to Analyze Archaeological Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Adam D.; Lehman, Ann H.; Parr, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    A course linking chemistry and archaeology was designed to introduce scientific principles and applications to students with little or no science background. The course could provide students an opportunity to explore the role of the sciences in archaeology and to discover the relationship between materials and the culture that produce them.

  15. 75 FR 9428 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and... Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, that meet the definitions of ``sacred objects...; museum records; consultation evidence; and expert opinion. Officials of the Peabody Museum of...

  16. Archaeological Survey of 56 Preselected Parcels on the AridLands Ecology Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Sharpe.

    1999-04-22

    An archaeological survey of 56 preselected parcels on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve was undertaken in support of compensatory mitigation for the construction of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) cells 3 and 4 on the Hanford Site. This report presents the findings of the archaeological survey.

  17. Excavating the Nation: Archaeology and Control of the Past and Present in Republican Sichuan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyong-McClain, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation considers whether or not archaeology was an effective tool for nation-building elites in Republican China (1912-1949), by looking at the discipline's fortunes in the off-center locale of Sichuan province. Through consideration of the multiplicity of agents and motives involved in archaeological enterprise in Republican Sichuan,…

  18. 77 FR 48533 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips Academy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology, Phillips.... Peabody Museum of Archaeology has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Robert S. Peabody Museum of...

  19. Digging for History: Archaeological Fieldwork and the Adult Student 1943-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speight, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with participants in extramural archaeology in British universities reveal growth in field-based involvement of adult students from 1943-1975. Since the 1970s, archaeology has been increasingly professionalized, leading to its decline in extramural adult education. (Contains 55 references.) (SK)

  20. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…