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Sample records for fertilization in vitro

  1. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  2. Antisperm antibodies and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Janssen, H J; Bastiaans, B A; Goverde, H J; Hollanders, H M; Wetzels, A A; Schellekens, L A

    1992-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm antibodies in the male, the female, or both partners on the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment. The results in terms of ongoing pregnancies in the male and female antibody-positive group were the same as in the antibody-negative group. In the double antibody-positive group two of the three patients became pregnant. When high levels of antisperm antibodies were present on the spermatozoa, the fertilization rate was significantly reduced. In the female positive group no clear relationship between the antibody titer and the fertilization percentage could be detected. Abnormal semen quality was responsible for a much lower fertilization rate than the presence of antibodies. The conclusion of this study is that in vitro fertilization provides an equal change of conception in couples with antisperm antibodies in comparison with couples with no antibodies if the other semen parameters are normal. PMID:1472812

  3. Luteal phase support in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yanushpolsky, Elena H

    2015-03-01

    It has been well demonstrated that luteal phase physiology is disrupted in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles conducted with either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or antagonists, and that supplementation of the luteal phase with either exogenous progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is necessary to optimize IVF cycle outcomes. Though both progesterone and hCG supplementation resulted in comparable pregnancy rates, hCG supplementation was associated with increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). For that reason progesterone has been used for luteal support by most IVF programs around the world. Vaginal progesterone preparations have been shown definitively to be equally efficacious and better tolerated by patients than intramuscular progesterone injections, but new data on the subcutaneous and oral progesterone are also emerging. New evidence has been accumulating on the benefits of low-dose luteal hCG supplementation in GnRH-antagonist cycles where GnRH agonists are used for the final maturation trigger. New approaches to luteal phase support as well as new formulations of progesterone have been developed since the last comprehensive review was published in 2011. In this article, we examine current evidence for efficacy, dosing, and timing of progesterone preparations as well as the role of hCG for luteal support in IVF cycles triggered with GnRH agonists. We also discuss the data on the role of estrogen supplementation in the luteal phase, optimal duration of progesterone support in early pregnancy, and progesterone replacement in frozen embryo transfer cycles and donor egg recipient cycles. PMID:25734349

  4. In-vitro fertilization: the ethics.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, G R

    1986-01-01

    This paper is addressed to practitioners. It seeks to acquaint them with 'ethical' arguments against their work which, because they are simple and plausible, persuade many people. These arguments are briefly rehearsed and as briefly examined. A more positive ethics of in-vitro fertilization is presented which seeks to respect (a) what is known in the relevant science and done in developing practice; (b) the inseparability of research from clinical application; (c) a moral tradition of long-standing which relates the protection of fetal life pari passu with its own morphological growth towards maturity; (d) the moral sense of properly informed persons whose judgements we trust in other areas of life. Practitioners themselves are to be defended as the proper moral agents (that is, to be entrusted with decisions) provided that they are careful (a) to keep public confidence by means of a corporate self-discipline; (b) to keep faith with patients and research subjects; (c) to maintain mutual trust between research scientists and clinical practitioners; (d) to safeguard the liberty of disciplined enquiry, of purposeful curiosity, as being inherent in the notion of a science, necessary to therapeutic advance, and proper to the nature of man. The author writes from within the theological tradition of the Church of England. PMID:3455419

  5. Cell adhesion molecules and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Simopoulou, Maria; Nikolopoulou, Elena; Dimakakos, Andreas; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This review addresses issues regarding the need in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) field for further predictive markers enhancing the standing embryo selection criteria. It aims to serve as a source of defining information for an audience interested in factors related to the wide range of multiple roles played by cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in several aspects of IVF ultimately associated with the success of an IVF cycle. We begin by stressing the importance of enriching the standing embryo selection criteria available aiming for the golden standard: "extract as much information as possible focusing on non-invasive techniques" so as to guide us towards selecting the embryo with the highest implantation potential. We briefly describe the latest trends on how to best select the right embryo, moving closer towards elective single embryo transfer. These trends are: frozen embryo transfer for all, preimplantation genetic screening, non-invasive selection criteria, and time-lapse imaging. The main part of this review is dedicated to categorizing and presenting published research studies focused on the involvement of CAMs in IVF and its final outcome. Specifically, we discuss the association of CAMs with conditions and complications that arise from performing assisted reproductive techniques, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the state of the endometrium, and tubal pregnancies, as well as the levels of CAMs in biological materials available in the IVF laboratory such as follicular fluid, trophectoderm, ovarian granulosa cells, oocytes, and embryos. To conclude, since CAMs have been successfully employed as a diagnostic tool in several pathologies in routine clinical work, we suggest that their multi-faceted nature could serve as a prognostic marker in assisted reproduction, aiming to enrich the list of non-invasive selection and predictive criteria in the IVF setting. We propose that in light of the well-documented involvement of CAMs in the developmental

  6. Semen predictors of in vitro fertilization and embryo cleavage.

    PubMed

    Daya, S; Gunby, J; Kohut, J

    1989-11-01

    In vitro fertilization treatment for male infertility is not very successful because fertilization is known to be affected by semen quality. Information on fertilizing ability may provide prognostic information for couples contemplating such treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify semen variables that would predict fertilization and embryo cleavage. Sperm was prepared by the swim-up method before insemination of oocytes obtained by laparoscopy after ovulation induction. Routine semen analysis and the hypoosmotic swelling test for assessment of sperm membrane integrity were performed on aliquots of prepared sperm. Logistic regression and receiver-operator characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the overall best-fitting model and discriminatory level of variables that would predict cleavage. The results indicate that after the swim-up procedure, at least 10 million sperm/ml, capable of undergoing swelling in hypoosmotic medium, are necessary to increase the likelihood of in vitro fertilization and cleavage. PMID:2589452

  7. In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Kidder, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the germline is important for reproductive success of mammals. Misregulation of genes whose expression is correlated with reproductive success may result in subfertility or infertility. To study epigenetic events that occur during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development, it is important to generate large numbers of ovarian follicles and embryos. Oocyte maturation can be modeled using in vitro maturation (IVM), which is a system of maturing ovarian follicles in a culture dish. In addition, fertilization and early embryogenesis can be modeled using in vitro fertilization (IVF), which involves the fertilization of mature oocytes with capacitated sperm in a culture dish. Here, we describe protocols for in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryo culture. These protocols are suitable for the study of oocyte and embryo biology and the production of embryonic mice. PMID:24743999

  8. In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a brief overview.

    PubMed Central

    DeCherney, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro fertilization process breaks down into three essential components: induction of ovulation, fertilization of the oocyte, and development of embryos that are transferred into the uterus. Problems may arise resulting in failure at any one of these junctions. In 1984, the World Congress on In Vitro Fertilization was held, looking at 9,641 laparoscopies yielding 1,101 clinical pregnancies, with an overall pregnancy rate of 11 percent--clearly indicating that in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) was an idea whose time had come. Ovulation induction is monitored by both the use of ultrasound and daily estradiol levels, ultrasound indicating the number of oocytes that will be available for capture, and estradiol indicating in an indirect way the quality of those oocytes. It is a major aim in each patient to obtain at least four embryos, since this optimizes success rates. Ovulation induction at Yale is carried out with a high-dose human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) regimen. This regimen has insured us a success rate of 17 percent clinical pregnancies per laparoscopy. In the future, modification will occur in the process with cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, and gamete manipulation. The modifications will be effected primarily to increase pregnancy rates. Research will continue mainly to delineate better biochemical markers for oocyte quality, but also to further explain the mystery of implantation. PMID:3532577

  9. In Vitro Fertilization with Isolated, Single Gametes Results in Zygotic Embryogenesis and Fertile Maize Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, E; Lorz, H

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate here the possibility of regenerating phenotypically normal, fertile maize plants via in vitro fertilization of isolated, single sperm and egg cells mediated by electrofusion. The technique leads to the highly efficient formation of polar zygotes, globular structures, proembryos, and transition-phase embryos and to the formation of plants from individually cultured fusion products. Regeneration of plants occurs via embryogenesis and occasionally by polyembryony and organogenesis. Flowering plants can be obtained within 100 days of gamete fusion. Regenerated plants were studied by karyological and morphological analyses, and the segregation of kernel color was determined. The hybrid nature of the plants was confirmed. PMID:12271084

  10. Follicular correlates with in-vitro fertilization in cattle.

    PubMed

    Greve, T; Callesen, H; Hyttel, P

    1989-01-01

    The follicular microenvironment may affect the quality and the fertilizability of an oocyte in vivo as well as in vitro. Determination of the concentrations of certain follicular fluid compounds upon aspiration could therefore be used as important clinical measures to predict the developmental ability of an oocyte submitted to in-vitro fertilization. In cattle gonadotrophin stimulation (superovulation) frequently leads to perturbed follicular steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation, and fertilization rates in vivo as well as in vitro may be reduced. These abnormal changes are monitored in the peripheral profiles of LH, progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta during the periovulatory period, and measurements of these hormones may be used to discriminate between good and poor oocyte donors. Concurrent measurements of progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta in the aspirated follicular fluids and determination of the cytogenetic features of the oocytes will reflect these deviations but, because the variation between follicles within an animal is so large, it is not possible to rely on single hormone determinations; if attempted they should be interpreted with caution. Presently, no non-invasive method such as steroid measurement and flow cytometry accurately reflects oocyte quality and function in cattle and it is seriously questioned whether such clinically applicable methods are valid. It is suggested that evaluation of oocyte quality is done on three levels: (1) the animal (peripheral hormones), (2) the ovary (stimulation, premature ovulation, follicular appearance); and (3) the follicle (cumulus oophorus complex, steroids). PMID:2677342

  11. Microrobots for in vitro fertilization applications.

    PubMed

    Boukallel, M; Gauthier, M; Piat, E; Abadie, J; Roux, C

    2004-05-01

    The Micromanipulation and Micro-actuation Research Group at the LAB has activities related to biological and surgical applications. Concerning cells micromanipulation, our laboratory works in collaboration with the research team "Genetic and Reproduction" of the Besançon's hospital (France). The global final objective is the development of an automatic intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) device in order to improve performances and ergonomics of current devices. In the future this new device will contain various modules: module for removal of cumulus cells, modules for characterization of oocytes, microinjection module, cells transport system. The first subsystem developed is a new single cell transport system. It consists in a so-called micropusher which pushes single cells without having contact with the external environment. This micropusher is a ferromagnetic particle (from 400 x 400 x 20 microm3 to 100 x 100 x 5 microm3) which follows the movement of a permanent magnet located under the biological medium. A 2D micro-positioning table moves this magnet under the glass slide. The pusher and cells positions are measured through an optical microscope with a CCD camera located above the biological medium. The second subsystem is developed to measure oocytes mechanical stiffness in order to sort them. We have then developed a micro/nano-force sensor based on the diamagnetic levitation principle: a glass tip end-effector (with 20 microm in diameter) is fixed on the equipment which is in levitation (0.5 mm in diameter, 100 mm in length). When a force is applied to the levitated glass tip, it moves to a new equilibrium position. Thanks to themeasurement of this displacement, the applied force can be measured. Since there is no contact and friction between the levitated tip and the fixed part, the resolution of this sensor is very high (10 nN). PMID:15209347

  12. Risks of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... method of assisted reproduction in which a man’s sperm and a woman’s eggs are combined outside of ... remains under debate and study. However, when intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is done along with IVF, there ...

  13. Low-cost in vitro fertilization: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Pek Joo; Maheshwari, Abha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) more than 30 years ago, the cost of treatment remains high. Furthermore, over the years, more sophisticated technologies and expensive medications have been introduced, making IVF increasingly inaccessible despite the increasing need. Globally, the option to undergo IVF is only available to a privileged few. In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring strategies to reduce the cost of IVF treatment, which would allow the service to be provided in low-resource settings. In this review, we explore the various ways in which the cost of this treatment can be reduced. PMID:25187741

  14. Conservative multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong Yun; Won, Hye-Sung; Lee, Pil Ryang; Kim, Ahm

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an extremely rare and the most severe form of placental invasion, that is associated with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a case of nulliparous woman who underwent 10 cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) without any known risk factors. We conserved her uterus by spontaneous vaginal delivery, leaving the placenta in situ, pelvic arterial embolization, and primary resection of the remaining placental tissues. This case demonstrates that repetitive IVF is a possible risk factor for placental invasion, and that conservation of the uterus can be achieved in such cases using a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24328001

  15. Fertility comparison between wild type and transgenic mice by in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Kuzhalini; Raber, James

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic mice are increasingly used as animal models for studies of gene function and regulation of mammalian genes. Although there has been continuous and remarkable progress in the development of transgenic technology over several decades, many aspects of the resulting transgenic model’s phenotype cannot be completely predicted. For example, it is well known that as a consequence of the random insertion of the injected DNA construct, several founder mice of the new line need to be analyzed for possible differences in phenotype secondary to different insertion sites. The Knock out technique for transgenic production disrupts a specific gene by insertion or homologous recombination creating a null expression or replacement of the gene with a marker to localize it expression. This modification could result in pleiotropic phenotype if the gene is also expressed in tissues other than the target organs. Although the future breeding performance of the newly created model is critical to many studies, it is rarely anticipated that the new integrations could modify the reproductive profile of the new transgenic line. To date, few studies have demonstrated the difference between the parent strain’s reproductive performance and the newly developed transgenic model. This study was designed to determine whether a genetic modification, knock out (KO) or transgenics, not anticipated to affect reproductive performance could affect the resulting reproductive profile of the newly developed transgenic mouse. More specifically, this study is designed to study the impact of the genetic modification on the ability of gametes to be fertilized in vitro. We analyzed the reproductive performance of mice with different background strains: FVB/N, C57BL/6 (129Sv/J × C57Bl/6)F1 and outbred CD1® and compared them to mice of the same strain carrying a transgene or KO which was not anticipated to affect fertility. In vitro Fertilization was used to analyze the fertility of the mice

  16. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Wright, Diane L; Afeiche, Myriam C; Ehrlich, Shelley; Smith, Kristen; Williams, Paige L; Chavarro, Jorge E; Batsis, Maria; Toth, Thomas L; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Total hair mercury (Hg) was measured among 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and the association with prospectively collected IVF outcomes (229 IVF cycles) was evaluated. Hair Hg levels (median=0.62ppm, range: 0.03-5.66ppm) correlated with fish intake (r=0.59), and exceeded the recommended EPA reference of 1ppm in 33% of women. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-woman correlations across treatment cycles were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg with IVF outcomes adjusted for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, and protocol type. Hair Hg levels were not related to ovarian stimulation outcomes (peak estradiol levels, total and mature oocyte yields) or to fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. PMID:25601638

  17. Hair mercury concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Smith, Kristen; Williams, Paige L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Batsis, Maria; Toth, Thomas L.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Total hair mercury (Hg) was measured among 205 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and the association with prospectively collected IVF outcomes (229 IVF cycles) was evaluated. Hair Hg levels (median=0.62 ppm, range: 0.03-5.66 ppm) correlated with fish intake (r=0.59), and exceeded the recommended EPA reference of 1ppm in 33% of women. Generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts accounting for within-woman correlations across treatment cycles were used to evaluate the association of hair Hg with IVF outcomes adjusted for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, infertility diagnosis, and protocol type. Hair Hg levels were not related to ovarian stimulation outcomes (peak estradiol levels, total and mature oocyte yields) or to fertilization rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. PMID:25601638

  18. Maturation, fertilization, and development of marmoset monkey oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, R B; Nayudu, P L; Hodges, J K

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate 1) the capacity of in vitro-matured (IVM) marmoset oocytes to be fertilized and to support embryonic development in vitro and 2) oocyte meiotic maturation in relation to in vivo FSH administration, follicle size, and oocyte-cumulus cell status. Pairs of ovaries were collected on Day 4 of the follicular phase from adult females receiving either 1) human FSH (3 IU; n = 5) or 2) control (saline; n = 5) daily for 4 days. Antral follicles were excised from ovaries and separated into classes according to size: class 1 (660-840 microm), class 2 (> 840-1000 microm), class 3 (> 1000-1400 microm), and class 4 (> 1400 microm). A total of 823 partially naked and cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEOs) were released from follicles and cultured in vitro. Cumulus cells remaining after 22 h were removed, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were inseminated with epididymal sperm, and resulting embryos were cultured until developmental arrest. Fluorescence microscopy was used to assess oocyte meiotic and embryo developmental progression. Oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB)- and MII-competencies increased significantly with follicular size (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively), although they were independent of oocyte-cumulus cell associations. After 24 and 32 h in vitro, 69% and 93%, respectively, of CEOs with MII competence had completed meiotic maturation, and the rate of nuclear maturation increased progressively with follicle size (p < 0.01) and with the association of cumulus cells (p < 0.01). In vivo FSH priming slightly improved oocyte GVB- and MII-competencies (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and decreased the time required to achieve MII (p < 0.01). IVM oocytes from all follicle sizes fertilized (78-92%) in vitro, with 27% developing to morula- and 4% to blastocyst-stage embryos. This study demonstrates for the first time that IVM New World primate oocytes are able to support advanced preimplantation embryonic development in vitro. Oocyte

  19. Sperm midpiece apoptotic markers: impact on fertilizing potential in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Talarczyk-Desole, Joanna; Kotwicka, Małgorzata; Jendraszak, Magdalena; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Murawski, Marek; Jędrzejczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoptotic markers present in human spermatozoa, namely phosphatidylserine translocation (PST) from the inner to the outer layer of the cytomembrane and the active form of caspase-3 (c3) versus the fertilizing potential of male gametes in conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) models. A total of 116 male patients treated with their partners for infertility underwent basic semen analysis and an assessment of the presence of PST and the active c3 in sperm using flow cytometry. Forty patients underwent IVF, group A, while 76 patients underwent ICSI, group B. The fertilizing potential of the gametes was measured as the percentage of oocytes with pronuclei present after either procedure. PST and active c3 were identified in vital gametes, mainly in the midpiece area. Concentration, motility, morphology, and viability of spermatozoa strongly negatively correlated with both markers. In group A, a negative correlation between both markers and the success rate of conventional IVF was observed (r = -0.4, p = 0.04 for PST; r = -0.4, p = 0.02 for active c3, respectively). In group B, the success rate of ICSI did not correlate with either marker (r = -0.2, p = 0.85 for PST and r = 0.1, p = 0.51 for active c3). The two apoptotic markers localized in the sperm midpiece area may affect their function not only by decreasing basic andrologic parameters but also by reducing the probability of conception. Therefore, analysis of PST and active c3 in the sperm of patients undergoing infertility treatment should be recommended. PMID:26791536

  20. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC’s) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  1. A comparative study of parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured caprine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kouamo, J; Kharche, S D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of in vitro matured caprine oocytes. A total of 881 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC's) were collected from 243 ovaries. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 medium containing eCG (20 IU/ml), hCG (20 IUµg/ml), oestradiol-17β (1 µg/ml), BSA embryo tested (3 mg/ml) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in an incubator under humidified air for 27 h. Based on cumulus expansion, the maturation rate was 86.86%. Morphological matured oocytes (n=749) were selected, denuded and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 (n=223) in vitro matured oocytes activated with 5 µm calcium ionophore for 5 min and cultured in mCR2aa medium containing 5 mM DMAP for 4 h. After 4 h of DMAP treatment, the presumptive zygotes were washed and cultured in the embryo culture medium. Group 2 (n=526) in vitro matured oocytes processed for IVF in mTALP using fresh semen of a fertile pure bred adult Sirohi buck and in vitro culture in mCR2aa medium. Development of putative zygotes was observed every 24 h till day 9 post activation or fertilization under inverted phase contrast microscope. The cleavage rate, morula and blastocyst percentage in groups 1 and 2 were 67.36%, 23.07% and 9.23%, and 30.99%, 19.63% and 9.82%, respectively. The results indicated that the cleavage rate was comparatively higher following parthenogenetic activation with ionomycin/6-DMAP than IVF. PMID:27175145

  2. [In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: current medical aspects].

    PubMed

    Kentenich, H; Sibold, C; Tandler-Schneider, A

    2013-12-01

    Since the delivery of the first baby conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) in 1978, IVF has become a standard procedure in sterility treatment. In Germany, 78,000 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles are performed annually with a delivery rate per embryo transfer of about 20 %. The cumulative delivery rate after three trials is more than 50 %. The main medical problems are the high rates of multiple pregnancies of more than 20 %, which carry an increased risk for mothers (preeclampsia) and children (preterm delivery, lung immaturity, brain problems). Also singleton babies after IVF are more often too small (small for gestational age, SGA) and delivered preterm. As a result, proper counselling is necessary. New laboratory methods have increased the success rate. Cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification are standard for freezing oocytes, pronuclear-stage oocytes and embryos if they are not needed during the current treatment cycle. Continuous observation of embryos by time-lapse imaging helps to identify the best embryos for transfer. The current legislation in the German embryo protection act (Embryonenschutzgesetz) is the main problem. It is unclear how many fertilized oocytes can be cultured to achieve a transfer of one to three embryos. The prohibition of oocyte donation and surrogacy are not comprehensible from a medical, psychological, and ethical point of view. Reimbursement of publicly insured patients is restricted in comparison with other European countries. Married couples receive half of the payment for three IVF/ICSI cycles; non-married couples receive no payment at all. PMID:24337127

  3. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  4. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues. PMID:3367072

  5. Bovine in vitro fertilization: in vitro oocyte maturation and sperm capacitation with heparin.

    PubMed

    Parrish, John J

    2014-01-01

    As a result of research in the 1980s on in vitro maturation, sperm capacitation, and in vitro fertilization, the bovine is now one of the important models for development. Further, the current production of bovine embryos in vitro rivals that of in vivo embryo production for commercial applications. Researchers of today may be unaware of why decisions were made in the procedures. This review addresses the state of the art at the time of the work by Parrish et al. (Bovine in vitro fertilization with frozen thawed semen. Theriogenology 1986;25:591-600), and how later work would explain success or failure of competing procedures. Important was the use of frozen semen and heparin capacitation, because this allowed future researchers/practitioners to change sperm numbers and capacitation conditions to adjust for variations among bulls. The large numbers of citation of the original work stand the testament of time in the repeatability and success of the procedures. The work was done within the environment of the N.L. First laboratory and the unique interactions with a large number of talented graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and technicians. PMID:24274411

  6. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  7. Simulated Microgravity Influences Bovine Oocyte In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Embryo Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in vitro fertilization and preimplantation embryos exposed to a simulated microgravity environment in vitro would improve, or be deleterious to, their fertilization and embryonic development. A Rotating Cell Culture System™ (RCCS) bioreactor with a Hi...

  8. The fertilization ability and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MAKITA, Miho; UEDA, Mayuko; MIYANO, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro growth culture systems for oocytes are being developed in several mammalian species. In these growth culture systems, in vitro grown oocytes usually have lower blastocyst formation than in vivo grown oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Furthermore, there have been a few reports that investigated the fertilization ability of in vitro grown oocytes in large animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fertilization process and developmental competence of bovine oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes collected from bovine early antral follicles (0.4−0.7 mm in diameter) were cultured for growth with 17β-estradiol and androstenedione for 14 days and matured in vitro. These oocytes were then inseminated for 6 or 12 h, and further cultured for development up to 8 days in vitro. After growth culture, oocytes grew from 95 µm to around 120 µm and acquired maturation competence (79%). Although fertilization rates of in vitro grown oocytes were low after 6 h of insemination, 34% of in vitro grown oocytes fertilized normally after 12 h of insemination, having two polar bodies and two pronuclei with a sperm tail, and 22% of these oocytes developed into blastocysts after 8 days of culture. The fertilization and blastocyst formation rates were similar to those of in vivo grown oocytes. In addition, blastocyst cell numbers were also similar between in vitro and in vivo grown oocytes. In conclusion, in vitro grown bovine oocytes are similar to in vivo grown oocytes in fertilization ability and can develop into blastocysts. PMID:27151093

  9. Post-thaw motility of frozen boar sperm does not predict success with in vitro fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using cryopreserved boar sperm rather than liquid semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) allows improved IVF consistency. However, cryopreservation of boar sperm results in reduced post-thaw motility, fertilization and embryo development. Boars are often screened on an individual basis prior to use ...

  10. In vitro fertilization and development of bovine oocytes matured in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Saeki, K; Hoshi, M; Leibfried-Rutledge, M L; First, N L

    1991-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of serum (fetal calf serum), gonadotropins (LH, FSH, prolactin) and estradiol-17 beta (E2) to culture medium during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes on subsequent fertilization and development to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Serum supplementation during bovine oocyte maturation was not required but hormonal supplementation, gonadotropins (LH + FSH) and E2, enhanced the fertilizability and developmental ability of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. The addition of prolactin to maturation medium containing LH, FSH, and E2 did not further enhance frequencies of fertilization and development. PMID:2009327

  11. Acupuncture and In Vitro Fertilization: A Retrospective Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Opsahl, Michael S.; Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Ackerman, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives In 2007, Craig et al. reported the results of a randomized controlled trial in which a standardized acupuncture protocol performed on the day of embryo transfer (ET) resulted in lower pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Between 2005 and 2007, the Craig protocol was used by one of the authors (LHR) at an infertility clinic unaffiliated with the Craig et al. trial. The objective was to retrospectively review clinic records to evaluate the effect of the Craig protocol in both donor and nondonor IVF cycles on four outcomes: (1) live births; (2) biochemical pregnancies; (3) adverse outcomes; and (4) live births in nondonor cycles across age groups established by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Design The study design was a retrospective chart review. Setting The study was conducted at a private infertility clinic. Patient(s) Patients underwent fresh, donor (N=70) or nondonor (N=402) IVF-ET. Intervention(s) The Craig protocol included the following points before ET: GV-20, CV-6, ST-29, SP-8, PC-6, LV-3; Shenmen and Brain on the left ear; and Uterus and Endocrine on the right ear. After transfer the points were LI-4, SP-10, ST-36, SP-6, KI-3; Uterus and Endocrine on the left ear; and Shenmen and Brain on the right ear. Main outcome measure(s) Live births (LB) beyond 24 weeks' gestation was the main outcome measure. Result(s) In nondonor IVF cycles, there were no differences in LB across age groups (odds ratio [OR]=1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68–1.57), biochemical pregnancies (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.27–1.33), or adverse outcomes (OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.31–1.26). In donor cycles, LB were higher in the acupuncture group (relative risk=1.31, 95% CI 1.02–1.71). Conclusions In this observational study, the Craig protocol was not found to lower IVF LB. In fact, the Craig protocol was associated with higher LB in donor cycles. These findings should be considered cautiously because more adequately powered, randomized

  12. Perinatal outcome after in-vitro fertilization-surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J; Tran, C; Tan, T; Nelson, J; Batzofin, J; Serafini, P

    1999-03-01

    The perinatal outcome of pregnancies (both single and multiple) established after in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-surrogacy was evaluated and compared to the outcome of pregnancies that resulted from standard IVF. Analysis of medical records and a telephone interview with physicians, IVF-surrogates, and commissioning mothers were conducted to assess prenatal follow up and delivery care in several hospitals. 95 IVF-surrogates delivered 128 liveborn (65 singletons, 27 sets of twins and two sets of triplets). The commissioning mothers and the IVF-surrogates average ages were 37.7 +/- 5.0 and 30.4 +/- 4.7 years old respectively. IVF-surrogates carrying twin and triplet gestations delivered substantially earlier than those who gestated singleton pregnancies (36.2 +/- 0.4 versus 35.5 versus 38.7 +/- 0.3 weeks gestation respectively; P < 0.001). Twin newborns were significantly lighter than singleton infants born through IVF-surrogacy (2.7 +/- 0.06 versus 3.5 +/- 0.07 kg; P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight infants rose from 3.3% in the single births to 29.6% (P < 0.01) in the twins and to 33.3% in the triplets born through IVF-surrogacy. The incidence of prematurity was significantly greater in both twins delivered by IVF-surrogates (20.4%) and infertile IVF patients (58%). The occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and bleeding in the third trimester was four to five times lower in the IVF-surrogates, independently of whether they were carrying multiples. The incidence of Caesarean section was 21.3% for singleton gestations, while two times higher in the IVF-surrogates carrying multiples (56.3%). Postpartum complications occurred in 6.3% of patients and the incidence of malformation was similar to those reported for the general population. The results provide general reassurance regarding perinatal outcome to couples who wish to pursue IVF-surrogacy. PMID:10221693

  13. Usefulness of partial dissection of the zona pellucida in a human in-vitro fertilization programme.

    PubMed

    Vanderzwalmen, P; Barlow, P; Nijs, M; Bertin, G; Leroy, F; Schoysman, R

    1992-04-01

    The influence of partial zona dissection (PZD) on the fertilization rate was studied in 34 couples with a history of fertilization failure and/or severe sperm deficiency. Overall, PZD improved the rate of monospermic fertilization compared to controls (41/254 versus 6/111: P less than 0.001) and fertilization was achieved in 50% of cases. However, the results differed according to the seminal characteristics. In 10 couples with at least two in-vitro fertilization (IVF) trials entailing total fertilization failure and with semen defined as normal, PZD did not significantly improve the monospermic fertilization rate (6/44 in the PZD group versus 2/39 among controls). A benefit related to PZD was evident in 33 attempts with severe sperm deficiency. In this group, only four of 72 unmanipulated control oocytes were fertilized but the monospermic fertilization rate was 14.6% for PZD oocytes. The rates of polyspermy were 40% and 14.6% in the groups with normal and abnormal semen parameters respectively. Of 33 trials with defective spermatozoa, 20 reached the stage of embryo transfer and three pregnancies were obtained, of which one aborted at 9 weeks. PMID:1522199

  14. Heat stress during in vitro fertilization decreases fertilization success by disrupting anti-polyspermy systems of the oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Miki; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Balboula, Ahmed Z; Takenouchi, Naoki; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Low pregnancy rates during the summer are due, in part, to reduced fertilization. Given that elevated temperature is associated with this season, we investigated the effect of heat stress during fertilization using an in vitro model. Three experiments were performed to determine the mechanism by which exposure to elevated temperature disrupts fertilization. Oocytes were fertilized for 6 hr at 38.5°C or 41.0°C or 40.0°C with non-pre-incubated sperm, or for 6 hr at 38.5°C with sperm that had been pre-incubated at 38.5°C or 41.0°C for 4 hr. In each experiment, zygotes were cultured at 38.5°C in 5% CO(2) and 5% O(2). Rates of cleavage and blasocyst formation were reduced when fertilization occurs at elevated temperatures. The percent of sperm classified as alive, using fluorescein diacetate labeling, was decreased by pre-incubation and fertilization at 40.0°C. Although no difference was observed in sperm penetration rate, polyspermy tended to be increased by heat stress during fertilization. The zona pellucidae of zygotes formed following fertilization at 40.0°C for 6 hr were more sensitive to digestion with pronase. Furthermore, these zygotes exhibited higher hydrogen peroxide levels, measured by 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein diacetate staining, and showed increased transcript abundance for HSPA1A, a gene involved in the heat-shock response, but decreased transcript abundance for UCHL1, a gene involved in preventing polyspermy. Results indicate that heat stress during fertilization is lethal to sperm, and causes oxidative stress, altered transcript abundance, and a defective block to polyspermy in the zygote. Thus, an increase in polyspermy is likely one cause of the reduced competency of zygotes fertilized under elevated temperatures to develop to the blastocyst stage. PMID:25462627

  15. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories. PMID:17614128

  16. Sperm functional changes and fertilization in vitro in co-culture with human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wetzels, A M; Van der Auwera, I; Bastiaans, B A; Goverde, H J; Hollanders, H M; Hamilton, C J

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of human skin fibroblast monolayers on human sperm function and fertilization in vitro. Sperm function was evaluated using the hamster oocyte penetration assay (HOPA) and zona binding assay (ZBA) in medium alone and in co-culture with human skin fibroblast monolayers and suspensions. The ZBA was also studied in fibroblast conditioned medium and in bovine oviduct cell monolayers and suspensions. Fertilization was measured both in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) couples with a normal semen analysis (first study; randomized) and in IVF couples with subnormal semen analysis (second study; each patient served as its own control). The HOPA results were not significantly different with or without fibroblasts. In all co-culture situations and in conditioned medium the ZBA scored significantly lower than medium alone. No significant differences with respect to IVF were observed between the co-culture and the control group in either study. The mean fertilization rate per patient was approximately 60% in the group with normal semen analysis and approximately 25% in the group with abnormal semen analysis. From this study we conclude that although co-culture with human skin fibroblasts and epithelial cells influences the results of some sperm function tests, it does not influence fertilization in vitro. PMID:7745043

  17. Successful fertilization and pregnancy outcome in in-vitro fertilization using cryopreserved/thawed spermatozoa from patients with malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, E; Oehninger, S; Acosta, A A; Morshedi, M; Veeck, L; Bryzyski, R G; Muasher, S J

    1992-01-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa before treatment is the only proven effective method available to circumvent the sterilizing effect of therapy in some patients with malignant diseases. Because of impaired sperm quality after freezing and thawing in-vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) was indicated in 10 patients (12 cycles) during 1986-1990. The patient's mean age was 33.4 +/- 1.6 years. The following diagnoses were made: seminoma (1), testicular carcinoma (3), leiomyosarcoma of the prostate (1), Wegener's granulomatosis (1), non-Hodgkin's (1) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (3). When motile spermatozoa could be recovered after thawing, the total fraction of motile spermatozoa after swim-up separation ranged from 0.2 to 4.2 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml (eight patients, nine cycles). In all these cases, insemination was performed with multiple oocytes per dish. Fertilization was achieved when swim-up recovered a mean of 1.8 +/- 0.5 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml and when insemination was performed with at least a calculated concentration of motile spermatozoa of 1 x 10(5) spermatozoa/oocyte. The fertilization rate of preovulatory oocytes was 60%. Four patients achieved a pregnancy: two of them delivered a single healthy baby, one delivered triplet healthy babies and one had a preclinical abortion. In two patients (three cycles), no motile spermatozoa were recovered after thawing, and micromanipulation of oocytes for assisted fertilization was performed. Although fertilized oocytes were transferred, those couples did not achieve a pregnancy. Patients with lymphopathies had the best results, whilst those with testicular neoplasms had the poorest outcome, thus suggesting a poor gametogenic function in the non-affected testis. These results give hope to some patients with malignant diseases to maintain their reproductive capacity through sperm banking and IVF/ET. PMID:1551943

  18. Successful pregnancy after missing HCG injection in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, C H; Chang, S P; Yuan, C C

    2001-03-01

    We reported a rare case of successful pregnancy and delivery of healthy twins after salvage injection of the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) for empty follicular syndrome because of missing scheduled HCG injection in the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer cycle. PMID:11458624

  19. Effects of Unilateral Iatrogenic Vas Deferens Trauma on Fertility: An Experimental In Vitro Fertilization Mice Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Mohammad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Behfar, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine bilateral effects of unilateral iatrogenic vas deferens trauma (UIT) on epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity in an experimental mouse model. Methods: Experiments were performed on three equal groups each comprising six adult male mice. Following anaesthesia, UIT was induced by clamping left vas deferens with a mosquito clamp in fully locked fashion for 2 minutes in UIT group. Control-sham mice only had exposure of the left vas deferens through a groin incision. Control animals only received ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg) intraperitoneally at the day of experimental UIT induction. Ipsilateral and contralateral epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: UIT significantly decreased sperm concentration, motility and viability as well as fertilization, two-cell embryos, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts rates. Moreover, incidence of DNA damage and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly higher in UIT group. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a non-recognized iatrogenic vas deferens trauma may have detrimental effects on spermatozoa leading to infertility. PMID:27162916

  20. Acid ceramidase improves the quality of oocytes and embryos and the outcome of in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Efrat; Shtraizent, Nataly; Martinuzzi, Kurt; Barritt, Jason; He, Xingxuan; Wei, Hong; Chaubal, Sanjeev; Copperman, Alan B; Schuchman, Edward H

    2010-04-01

    A major challenge of assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) is to mimic the natural environment required to sustain oocyte and embryo survival. Herein, we show that the ceramide-metabolizing enzyme, acid ceramidase (AC), is expressed in human cumulus cells and follicular fluid, essential components of this environment, and that the levels of this enzyme are positively correlated with the quality of human embryos formed in vitro. These observations led us to develop a new approach for oocyte and embryo culture that markedly improved the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The addition of recombinant AC (rAC) to human and mouse oocyte culture medium maintained their healthy morphology in vitro. Following fertilization, the number of mouse embryos formed in the presence of rAC also was improved (from approximately 40 to 88%), leading to approximately 5-fold more healthy births. To confirm these observations, immature bovine oocytes were matured in vitro and subjected to IVF in the presence of rAC. Significantly more high-grade blastocysts were formed, and the number of morphologically intact, hatched embryos was increased from approximately 24 to 70%. Overall, these data identify AC as an important component of the in vivo oocyte and embryo environment, and provide a novel technology for enhancing the outcome of assisted fertilization. Eliyahu, E., Shtraizent, N., Martinuzzi, K., Barritt, J., He, X., Wei, H., Chaubal, S., Copperman, A. B., Schuchman, E. H. Acid ceramidase improves the quality of oocytes and embryos and the outcome of in vitro fertilization. PMID:20007509

  1. In vitro fertilization in Japan — Early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology —

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world’s first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe.1) In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine.2,3) IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient’s uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  2. In vitro fertilization in Japan - early days of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and future prospects for assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakuni

    2014-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) has been essential in the treatment of infertility. The world's first IVF-ET baby was born in 1978 based on the technique developed by Dr. Robert Edwards and Dr. Patrick Steptoe. In Japan, the first IVF-ET birth was reported in 1983 by Prof. Masakuni Suzuki at Tohoku University School of Medicine. IVF-ET is a procedure used to achieve pregnancy that consists of extracting oocytes from an infertile woman, fertilizing them in vitro, and transferring fertilized eggs into the patient's uterine cavity (Fig. 1). Since the first report of successful IVF-ET, numerous techniques related to ART, such as cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and microinsemination, have been developed and refined (Table 1). Herein we describe the history of basic research in IVF-ET that led to human applications, how the birth of the first IVF-ET baby was achieved in Japan, the current status of ART in Japan, issues related to ART, and future prospects for ART. PMID:24814992

  3. Diminished Utilization of In Vitro Fertilization Following Ovarian Transposition in Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Sana. M.; Albayrak, Samet; Seo, Songwon; Stewart, Sarah L.; Bradley, Kristen; Kushner, David. M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ovarian transposition (OT) is offered to reproductive age women with cervical cancer (CC) to preserve fertility prior to pelvic radiation. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent utilization of fertility treatment in these patients. STUDY DESIGN This is a case series of 216 cervical cancer patients seen in a comprehensive cancer center. 16 patients underwent OT for fertility preservation prior to pelvic radiation. Patients were assessed for utilization of fertility treatment, FSH levels as a measure of ovarian reserve, and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-cervix cancer (FACT-CX) to assess quality of life after OT. RESULTS 94% of patients maintained regular menstrual cycles three years after OT surgery (15/16). When measured (n=5) serum FSH was normal at baseline, and showed a transient elevation at three months following chemoradiation, with a return to normal levels at six months (Means 6.33±2.94, 48.44±18.63, 12.52±8.25, mIU/ML respectively). Only one patient in this series attempted fertility treatment (in vitro fertilization) following OT, and did not become pregnant. FACT-CX indicated that quality of life did not change significantly over the six months’ duration following OT and chemoradiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS OT preserves menstrual cycle regularity without negatively impacting patients’ quality of life. The utility of OT as an effective fertility preservation option is hampered by the low utilization rate of in vitro fertilization and lack of ovarian reserve assessment following OT. PMID:26380495

  4. Single layer centrifugation-selected boar spermatozoa are capable of fertilization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Good quality spermatozoa are important to achieve fertilization, viable embryos and offspring. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) through a colloid (Androcoll-P) selects good quality spermatozoa. However, it has not been established previously whether porcine spermatozoa selected by this method maintain their fertility. Methods The semen was prepared either by SLC or by standard centrifugation (control) and used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) at oocyte:spermatozoa ratios of 1:50; 1:100 and 1:300 (or 4 x 103, 8 x 103 and 24 x 103 spermatozoa/ml) to evaluate their subsequent ability to generate blastocysts. In addition, sperm motility was assessed by computer assisted sperm motility analysis. Results Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in sperm samples prepared by SLC compared to uncentrifuged samples. Sperm binding ability, polyspermy, cleavage and blastocyst rates were affected by the oocyte:sperm ratio, but not by sperm treatment. Conclusion The use of SLC does not adversely affect the in vitro fertilizing and embryo-generating ability of the selected spermatozoa compared to their unselected counterparts, but further modifications in the IVF conditions would be needed to improve the monospermy in IVF systems. Since SLC did not appear to have a negative effect on sperm fertilizing ability, and may in fact select for spermatozoa with a greater potential for fertilization, an in vivo trial to determine the usefulness of this sperm preparation technique prior to artificial insemination is warranted. PMID:23497680

  5. Phosphatidylcholine-supplemented Extender Improves the Fertility of Turkey Semen Stored In Vitro for 24 Hours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been long recognized that the ability to store turkey semen for 24h in vitro without a significant loss in fertility upon insemination would benefit the commercial turkey industry. We investigated a novel approach to circumvent the loss of phospholipids from the turkey sperm membrane in the ...

  6. Adoption Actions and Attitudes of Couples Seeking In Vitro Fertilization: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adoption actions and attitudes of 16 childless women, and husbands of 14 of the women, who applied for or underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Found that IVF and adoption were sought concurrently by most and that wives were more in favor of adoption than were husbands. (Author/NB)

  7. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving in vitro fertilization (IVF) consistency by eliminating inter-ejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF...

  8. Aspiration of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Horne, R; Bishop, C J; Reeves, G; Wood, C; Kovacs, G T

    1996-01-01

    An aspiration system, incorporating a regulated vacuum pump, was used to examine, in vitro, some factors that may affect oocyte collection. In an open aspiration system, as the length of the needle was increased, or the internal diameter decreased, the velocity (and flow rate) of aspirated fluid decreased. There was a difference, however, between experimental flows and those predicted by Hagen-Poiseuille's Law. Upon application of vacuum to a closed aspiration system, employing isolated bovine ovaries, there was an initial rapid increase in the collection tube vacuum to 85% of the selected pump vacuum followed by a more gradual rise to 100%. The vacuum within the needle similarly rose rapidly to approximately half the selected vacuum, while the vacuum at the needle tip was approximately 5% of selected vacuum. The vacuums throughout the system briefly equilibrated as maximum flow/velocity was reached. Flow/velocity slowed dramatically as the follicle collapsed, and stopped as the needle tip was blocked. If vacuum was maintained during the withdrawal of the needle from the follicle, there was a dramatic forward flow of fluid toward the collection tube. The morphological appearance of bovine cumulus after in-vitro aspiration was generally unaltered by vacuums commonly utilized in oocyte collection, providing the cumulus was regular, compact and refractile. The cumulus was less resistant to aspiration if it was damaged or had degenerated. These results suggest that an intact cumulus may offer protection during oocyte collection. PMID:9079405

  9. In vitro pollination of maize (Zea mays L.) - Proof of double fertilization.

    PubMed

    Havel, L; Novák, F J

    1981-08-01

    Isolated ovules from the maize homozygous recessive brown midrib (bm3) were in vitro pollinated by pollen carrying the dominant allele - and the purple embryo marker (PEM). The colour characters of the embryos and kernels corresponded to the results of control pollination and confirmed the process of double fertilization. The question whether the method is useful for obtaining haploids is discussed. PMID:24258750

  10. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  11. Development of embryos from in vitro ovulated and fertilized oocytes of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Olszańska, Bozenna; Stepińska, Urszula; Perry, Margaret M

    2002-05-01

    The development of quail embryos obtained after in vitro fertilization of oocytes ovulated in vitro was investigated. About 40% of the specimens, after 18-20 hr of incubation, had undergone cleavage to reach stages IV-VI when viewed under a stereo microscope. However, only 36% of these embryos contained normal, DAPI-stained nuclei when observed under a fluorescent microscope; the other 64% showing a morphologically normal cleavage pattern did not contain nuclei. Control unfertilized oocytes, ovulated in vitro and cultured for the same time, also sometimes attained the morphologically correct stages IV-VI but their "blastomeres" were always devoid of nuclei. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor early avian embryos for the presence of nuclei when assessing development in culture. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that cytoplasmic segmentation can occur in the absence of nuclear divisions in the germinal disc of the quail and show the existence and significance of ooplasmic maternal information in birds. This phenomenon is also known for sea urchin and frogs. It is indicative of the role of maternal information in early development. The in vitro method presented here links the steps of ovulation and fertilization with the early cleavage stages under in vitro conditions and may be useful in studying mechanisms of fertilization and differentiation in birds as well as in obtaining transgenic birds by DNA injection or application of foreign, DNA-carrying sperm. PMID:12115941

  12. Varicocele management in the era of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Piyush; Chandrashekar, Aravind; Hakky, Tariq S; Pastuszak, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is the most common surgically treatable cause of male infertility, and often results in alterations in semen parameters, sperm DNA damage, and changes to the seminal milieu. Varicocele repair can result in improvement in these parameters in the majority of men with clinical varicocele; data supporting repair in men with subclinical varicocele are less definitive. In couples seeking fertility using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), varicocele repair may offer improvement in semen parameters and sperm health that can increase the likelihood of successful fertilization using techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or may decrease the level of ART needed to achieve successful pregnancy. Male infertility is an indicator of general male health, and evaluation of the infertile male with an eye toward future health can facilitate optimal screening and treatment of these men. Furthermore, varicocele may represent a progressive lesion, offering an argument for its repair, although this is currently unclear. PMID:27030086

  13. In vitro fertilization of mouse ova by spermatozoa exposed isothermally to radio-frequency radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, S.F.; Liu, L.M.; Graham, R.; East, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mouse spermatozoa were exposed in vitro for 1 h to 27- or 2,450-MHz CW RF radiation at SARs of 0 to 90 W/kg under isothermal (37 +/- 0.2 degrees C) conditions. Exposure at either frequency to RF radiation at SARs of 50 W/kg or greater resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the ability of irradiated sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro (P less than .05). Over the range of SARs there was no apparent difference in the effects of 27- vs. 2,450-MHz RF radiation. There were no readily detectable exposure effects on spermatozoan morphology, ultrastructure, or capacitation. The reduction of in vitro fertilization is attributed to a direct effect of RF radiation on spermatozoa rather than to heating.

  14. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  15. Effect of freezing rate of ram spermatozoa on subsequent fertility in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Byrne, G P; Lonergan, P; Wade, M; Duffy, P; Donovan, A; Hanrahan, J P; Boland, M P

    2000-09-01

    Ram spermatozoa are most susceptible to damage during freezing between the temperatures of -10 degrees C and -25 degrees C. The objectives of the present study were to examine how freezing rate through this critical temperature zone affected the fertility of spermatozoa as assessed in vivo and in vitro. Semen from six adult rams was frozen at two different rates ("fast": 5 degrees C/min from +5 to -25 degrees C; "slow": 0.5 degrees C/min from +5 to -25 degrees C). In Experiment 1, semen from the fast and slow treatments was used to fertilize ovine oocytes that had been matured in vitro. Semen from the fast treatment yielded a higher cleavage rate (57% vs. 26%; P<0.001) and more blastocysts per oocyte (28% vs. 13%, P<0. 001) than slow-frozen. No correlation was found between fertilizing ability and viability as assessed by fluorescent probes. Experiment 2 was designed to establish the conception rates following both cervical and intrauterine insemination of frozen-thawed semen from the same bank of semen as used in Experiment 1. Ewes were superovulated with FSH and inseminated by laparoscopy with frozen semen. A significant difference was found in the number of fertilized ova following embryo recovery (81.4% vs. 39.3%; P<0.001). In a further study, 119 mature cull ewes were inseminated following a 12-day synchronization treatment with frozen semen by either intrauterine (laparoscopic) or cervical insemination. Insemination with fast-frozen semen resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate (P<0.05) irrespective of method of insemination. The data show that freezing rate affects the proportion of spermatozoa that retain their fertilizing ability post-thawing. However, once fertilization has occurred, development to the blastocyst stage is independent of freezing rate. PMID:10924829

  16. The effect of glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    González, Raquel; Ruiz-León, Yolanda; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

    2010-02-01

    Increased glucocorticoid levels, due to medical therapy or stress-related, may affect reproduction via the hypothalamus-pituitary-axis or directly at the oocyte level. We examined the effects of natural (corticosterone) or synthetic (dexamethasone) glucocorticoids on mouse oocyte maturation and underlying changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation patterns. Fertilization and progression up to the blastocyst stage were also evaluated. Oocytes were exposed to corticosterone or dexamethasone (0, 0.25, 2.5, 25 or 250microM) for 17h during in vitro maturation. After maturation, ERK-1/2 activation in oocytes was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in vitro. Corticosterone exposure during oocyte maturation significantly decreased progression to metaphase II, fertilization and embryo development at the highest concentration. Corticosterone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation, with the highest concentration resulting in considerable inhibition of oocyte ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and no blastocyst development. In contrast, dexamethasone had no effect on maturation, fertilization and cleavage, and no effect was seen on ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these in vitro findings, high glucocorticoid levels may have consequences for subsequent development, although a short exposure to physiologic or stress-related glucocorticoid levels may not represent a hazard to meiosis progression of the oocyte. PMID:19733225

  17. In vitro assessment of sperm from bulls of high and low field fertility.

    PubMed

    Al Naib, A; Hanrahan, J P; Lonergan, P; Fair, S

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for differences in field fertility of bulls following insemination with frozen-thawed semen. The study was carried out in two separate parts over two years and comparisons were made between 5 high and 4 low fertility Holstein Friesian bulls as determined by their either 90 day non-return rate (Year 1) or calving rate (Year 2). Two high fertility Limousin bulls were included in Year 1 for comparative purposes. The ability of sperm from each bull to penetrate artificial mucus was assessed (Year 1 = 7 replicates; Year 2 = 5 replicates). Glass capillary tubes (2 per bull per replicate) were filled with artificial mucus and incubated with sperm stained in 1% Hoechst 33342 for 30 min at 37 °C. The number of sperm were subsequently counted at 10 mm intervals along the tube between 40 and 80 mm markers. Sperm mitochondrial activity of each bull was assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay (4 replicates in each year). Sperm were incubated with MTT for 1 h at 37 °C following which the absorbance of formazan was read using a spectrophotometer. Sperm viability after thawing was assessed for each bull using a live/dead sperm viability kit (Year 1 = 3 replicates; Year 2 = 4 replicates). A minimum of 250 cells were assessed per bull in each replicate and classified as either live or dead. Finally, the ability of sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro and their ability to develop to blastocyst stage embryos were assessed (5 replicates in each year involving 220 to 306 oocytes per bull). Data transformation to normalize residuals was required for mucus sperm penetration (square root) and IVF (cleavage and blastocyst rate) results (arcsin). The mean number of sperm counted at each 10 mm mark between 40 and 80 mm was higher in the high fertility (56.0; 95% CI 39.5 to 75.3) compared to the low fertility (42.9; 95% CI 29.3 to 59.1) Holstein Friesian bulls but the difference did not

  18. Effects of lead on the male mouse as investigated by in vitro fertilization and blastocyst culture

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Sjoeblom, P.; Wide, M.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term exposure of male mice to inorganic lead (lead chloride, 1 g/liter) in the drinking water reduces their fertility. The cause of this reduction, expressed as a decrease in the number of mated females showing inplantations, was investigated, using an in vivo fertilization method. It was found that spermatozoa from lead-exposed males had a significantly lower ability to fertilize mouse eggs than those from unexposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males, were examined. No morphologically abnormal embryos were found. However, when cultured in vitro over the implantation period, blastocysts of the group mated with lead-exposed males showed an increased frequency of delayed hatching from the zona pellucida or an inability to hatch. Among blastocysts from this group a decreased frequency of inner cell mass development was also found.

  19. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Jennifer B.; Sylvester, Skylar R.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Lambo, Colleen; Flanders, James A.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.; Songsasen, Nucharin; Travis, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies—an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4–5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146). Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species. PMID:26650234

  20. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  1. In vitro fertilization and artificial activation of eggs of the direct-developing anuran Eleutherodactylus coqui

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Michael, Scott F

    2004-01-01

    Although much is known about the reproductive biology of pond-breeding frogs, there is comparatively little information about terrestrial-breeding anurans, a highly successful and diverse group. This study investigates the activation and in vitro fertilization of eggs of the Puerto Rican coqui frog obtained by hormonally induced ovulation. We report that spontaneous activation occurs in 34% of eggs, probably in response to mechanical stress during oviposition. Artificial activation, as evidenced by the slow block to polyspermy and the onset of zygote division, was elicited both by mechanical stimulation and calcium ionophore exposure in 64% and 83% of the cases, respectively. Finally, one in vitro fertilization protocol showed a 27% success rate, despite the fact that about one third of all unfertilized eggs obtained by hormone injection auto-activate. We expect these findings to aid in the conservation effort of Eleutherodactylus frogs, the largest vertebrate genus. PMID:15296510

  2. Lasers in the in-vitro fertilization laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Neev, Joseph; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Laser beams are routinely used in the clinical practice of assisted reproduction. The main applications are in laparoscopic and hysteroscopic surgery. The potential applications of laser microbeams as a tool for gamete manipulations are studied and basic concepts are discussed.

  3. Fertilization of Mouse Gametes in Vitro Using a Digital Microfluidic System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Yuan; Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Chen; Hsu, Chia-Hsien; Fan, Shih-Kang; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrated in vitro fertilization (IVF) using a digital microfluidic (DMF) system, so-called electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The DMF device was proved to be biocompatible and the DMF manipulation of a droplet was harmless to the embryos. This DMF platform was then used for the fertilization of mouse gametes in vitro and for embryo dynamic culture based on a dispersed droplet form. Development of the embryos was instantaneously recorded by a time-lapse microscope in an incubator. Our results indicated that increasing the number of sperms for IVF would raise the rate of fertilization. However, the excess of sperms in the 10 μL culture medium would more easily make the embryo dead during cell culture. Dynamic culture powered with EWOD can manipulate a single droplet containing mouse embryos and culture to the eight-cell stage. The fertilization rate of IVF demonstrated by DMF system was 34.8%, and about 25% inseminated embryos dynamically cultured on a DMF chip developed into an eight-cell stage. The results indicate that the DMF system has the potential for application in assisted reproductive technology. PMID:26529769

  4. [Gamete donation in an in vitro fertilization program].

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Z

    1993-12-01

    Two cases of gamete donation in an IVF program were reported in this paper. In the first case the wife with recurrent abortions was found to have chromosomal abnormality, her karyotype was 45,XX,-14,-14 + rob (14 Q 14 Q). She became pregnant after IVF-ET with donated ova, and was delivered of a normal male baby on June 12, 1992. The baby's karyotype was normal. The blood group of both the husband and wife was O, while that of the baby was B. The baby suffered from icterus neonatorum as a result of ABO incompatibility but recovered quickly after treatment. Further DNA finger print analysis of the husband, wife and baby, combined with the history of egg donation IVF, proved the relationship of the parents with the baby. In the second case the husband's karyotype was 46,XY, t(4; 9) (4Q+; 9Q-). The wife had also history of recurrent abortions. Since 1989, the wife received sperm donation IUI 5 times in another hospital without success. IVF-ET with donated sperms was performed in November 1991 resulting in clinical pregnancy. She was delivered of a pair of twins, one male and one female on July 20, 1992. The possibilities of different types of gamete formation during meiosis in carriers of chromosomal balanced translocation were briefly discussed. Donation of oocytes could be realized only in an IVF program, which is also the only way to propagate for the family. However, IVF with donated sperms is indicated in women with blocked tubes besides the male factor or after repeated failures of other assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:8137642

  5. Correlation of Post Swim-Up Acrosome Index with in-vitro Fertilization Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Evirgen, Oya; Oral, Baha

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A prospective study was planned to determine the relationship between post swim-up acrosome index (AI) evaluation and fertilization outcomes in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program. Materials and Methods Infertile couples who have applied to IVF were admitted into this study when the male partner's sperm concentration was > 20×106/mL and motility > 30%. Pre- and post swim-up semen quality parameters including concentration, motility, sperm morphology and AI were evaluated in a prospective, randomized and blinded fashion. The couples were divided prospectively into 2 groups. In group I (25 couples) 50 000 sperm per oocyte were used for insemination considering post swim-up acrosome index, and in group II (25 couples) 50 000 sperm per oocyte were used for insemination without considering post swim-up acrosome index. Results Pre- and post swim-up AI were 30.8 ± 3.4 and 17.8 ± 4.5 in group I, and 31.4 ± 3.6 and 16.3 ± 4.7 in group II (p > 0.05) respectively. The significant improvement in morphology and motility after double wash swim-up procedure has been observed. However, double wash swim-up procedure could not eliminate head and especially acrosomal defects which would directly effect fertilization capacity in conventional IVF program. In group I, 85.3% of oocytes were fertilized, with a 48% pregnancy rate; in group II, 71.0% of oocytes were fertilized, with a pregnancy rate of 20%. Fertilization and pregnancy rates were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion We have concluded that it could be useful to consider post swim-up AI of sperm inseminated in conventional IVF cycles, which correlates with high fertilization and pregnancy rates. PMID:19568596

  6. An Antioxidant Davallialactone from Phellinus baumii Enhances Sperm Penetration on In Vitro Fertilization of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2016-03-01

    Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA. The rate of normal fertilization was higher in the presence of 1 µM DAVA (65.1%) than were those of other concentrations or controls (45.4~59.4%), and the highest total fertilization rate (mono- and polyspermic oocytes) was observed at 1 µM DAVA (83%). In conclusion, addition of DAVA to fertilization medium improved sperm motility, and reduced ROS level so as to potentially improve sperm-oocyte binding in IVF, suggesting the potential of a compound isolated from mushrooms in assisted reproductive technology for humans and animals. PMID:27103855

  7. An Antioxidant Davallialactone from Phellinus baumii Enhances Sperm Penetration on In Vitro Fertilization of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Davallialactone (DAVA) is a hispidin analogue derived from the medicinal fungus Phellinus baumii. We examined the effect of DAVA on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of pigs. Boar spermatozoa were incubated in fertilization medium with varying concentrations of DAVA, then sperm motility and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were evaluated. Higher sperm motility was found following the addition of 0.5 or 1 µM DAVA after incubation than addition of other concentrations or controls. ROS level decreased significantly with the addition of DAVA. The rate of normal fertilization was higher in the presence of 1 µM DAVA (65.1%) than were those of other concentrations or controls (45.4~59.4%), and the highest total fertilization rate (mono- and polyspermic oocytes) was observed at 1 µM DAVA (83%). In conclusion, addition of DAVA to fertilization medium improved sperm motility, and reduced ROS level so as to potentially improve sperm-oocyte binding in IVF, suggesting the potential of a compound isolated from mushrooms in assisted reproductive technology for humans and animals. PMID:27103855

  8. Effects of prolonging administration gonadotropin on unexpectedly poor ovarian responders undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are still some patients who show poor response to ovarian stimulation prior to evidence of normal ovarian reserve in vitro fertilization. However, there are few studies about how to treat the unexpectedly ovarian poor responder in vitro fertilization. The main aim of this study evaluate the effect of prolonging administration follicle-stimulating hormone in woman with the unexpectedly ovarian poor responder in vitro fertilization on implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Methods 922 patients subjected to IVF were divided into two groups according to the predicted criterion of ovarian poor response. 116 patients predicted poor response received the short protocol (group C). The others received the long protocol, among the latter, there were 149 patients undergoing unexpectedly ovarian poor response (group B) and 657 patients exhibited normal ovarian response (group A). The doses of gonadotropin, duration of administration, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were recorded among three groups. Results The implantation rate of embryo, clinic pregnancy rate and delivery rate are similar between the group A and group B, while there are significant differences between the doses of gonadotropins (35.1 +/- 8.9 ampules vs.53.0 +/- 15.9 ampules) and the duration of administration (15.3 +/- 3.6D vs. 9.8 +/- 2.6D) of these two groups. There are no significant differences about clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate between group B and group C. Conclusion Prolonging administration gonadotropin on the unexpectedly poor ovarian responders does not lower live birth rate in vitro fertilization. PMID:20236519

  9. Development of an in vitro index to characterize fertilizing capacity of boar ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ruediger, K; Mueller, K; Jung, M; Well, C; Reissmann, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this research was the selection of spermatozoa parameters related to boar fertility performance and their combination into an in vitro index. A first set (data set 1) of 36 Pietrain boars with 138 ejaculates from two seasons with 5083 single-sire inseminations from 34 farms was used to determine correlations between in vitro sperm quality parameters and fertility performance. 2970 ejaculates representing a second set (data set 2) served calculation of seasonal and age effects on semen quality. Morphological spermatozoa parameters were estimated manually with a phase contrast microscope on the day of semen collection, whereas mitochondrial activity and viability were analyzed by double-staining with rhodamine123/propidium iodide on day 2 of semen storage using flow cytometry. Sperm motility was tested on day 7 by thermoresistance (TRT) after 30min (TRT1) and 300min (TRT2) incubation at 38̊C using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA). Correlations revealed four independent sperm quality parameters qualifying as relevant predictors of boar fertility: (i) percentage of spermatozoa with proximal cytoplasmic droplets, (ii) percentage of spermatozoa with active mitochondria, (iii) beat cross frequency of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT1, and (iv) oscillation measure of the actual path of progressively motile spermatozoa in TRT2. There were no significant effects of sperm concentration, ejaculate volume, and total number of sperm cells per ejaculate on litter size (LS) and on pregnancy rate (PR). Our findings suggest the usefulness of sperm quality parameters based on adjusted range of methods and enable the construction of an in vitro index as a means to predicting boar fertility. PMID:23773327

  10. Two activators of in vitro fertilization in mice from licorice.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nguyen Huu; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Wada, Morimasa; Tanaka, Hiromitsu

    2015-11-13

    Systems for artificial insemination have been established in some animals. However, due to limited availability of sperm and oocytes, more effective treatment methodologies are required. Recently, it was demonstrated that the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in mice was improved by adding a water extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), but not glycyrrhizic acid, to the artificial insemination culture medium. In this study, we examined licorice extract for active compounds using bioassay-guided separation. The results indicated that isoliquiritigenin and formononetin were the active molecules in licorice that contributed to the improved rate of IVF. PMID:26392313

  11. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Inhibition during Porcine In Vitro Maturation Modifies Oocyte Protein S-Nitrosylation and In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aguirregomezcorta, Jon; Santa, Ángela Patricia; García-Vázquez, Francisco Alberto; Coy, Pilar; Matás, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule involved in many reproductive processes. Its importance during oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) has been demonstrated in various species although sometimes with contradictory results. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of NO during IVM of cumulus oocyte complexes and its subsequent impact on gamete interaction in porcine species. For this purpose, IVM media were supplemented with three NOS inhibitors: NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and aminoguanidine (AG). A NO donor, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), was also used. The effects on the cumulus cell expansion, meiotic resumption, zona pellucida digestion time (ZPdt) and, finally, on in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters were evaluated. The oocyte S-nitrosoproteins were also studied by in situ nitrosylation. The results showed that after 42 h of IVM, AG, L-NAME and L-NMMA had an inhibitory effect on cumulus cell expansion. Meiotic resumption was suppressed only when AG was added, with 78.7% of the oocytes arrested at the germinal vesicle state (P<0.05). Supplementation of the IVM medium with NOS inhibitors or NO donor did not enhance the efficiency of IVF, but revealed the importance of NO in maturation and subsequent fertilization. Furthermore, protein S-nitrosylation is reported for the first time as a pathway through which NO exerts its effect on porcine IVM; therefore, it would be important to determine which proteins are nitrosylated in the oocyte and their functions, in order to throw light on the mechanism of action of NO in oocyte maturation and subsequent fertilization. PMID:25542028

  12. Sperm Freezing and In Vitro Fertilization in Three Substrains of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Nutter, Lauryl M J; Law, Napoleon; McKerlie, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Traditional protocols for sperm recovery, cryopreservation, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been considerably less efficient for inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6, than for hybrid and outbred strains. We report here that 3 changes to published and widely used protocols markedly improved fertilization rates for both fresh and frozen–thawed sperm in 3 substrains of C57BL/6 mice (C57BL/6J, C57BL/6NCrl, and C57BL/6NTac). First, the traditional cyroprotective agent was modified by adding amino acids. Second, preincubation of sperm in a preincubation medium containing methyl-β-cyclodextrin and polyvinyl alcohol enabled collection of progressively motile sperm for IVF. Third, we evaluated 3 media for IVF: human tubal fluid (HTF), modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate medium (TYH), and minimal essential medium (MEM). HTF and TYH were modified by adding minimal essential amino acids. The methodology reported here increased the IVF rate of both fresh and frozen–thawed sperm and enabled efficient isolation of capacitated viable sperm. Fertilization rates greater than 65% and 40% were obtained with the 3 tested substrains when fresh and frozen–thawed sperm, respectively, were used for IVF. Higher fertilization rates were seen with frozen–thawed sperm from C57BL/6NCrl and C57BL/6NTac mice than from C57BL/6J mice. Among all strains, fresh sperm from C57BL/6NTac mice gave the highest fertilization rate. Of 190 two-cell embryos, 63 (33.2%) developed to term after transfer to pseudopregnant recipient mice. The protocol we detail here provides reliable cryopreservation and recovery of live mice in 3 substrains of C57BL/6, making sperm cryopreservation and IVF a viable choice for preservation and distribution of mouse lines. PMID:19245749

  13. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  14. In vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo development after ultrarapid freezing of immature human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Zhang, L; Wang, X

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development of ultrarapidly frozen immature oocytes (immature cumulus-oocyte complexes; COCs) obtained from antral follicles in ovaries of patients with chocolate ovarian cysts. The COCs were cryopreserved by a vitrification method using 5.5 mol ethylene glycol l (-1) plus 1.0 mol sucrose l (-1) in Dulbecco's PBS (DPBS). The survival, maturation and fertilization rates, and the percentage of embryos developing to the two-cell stage were 59, 64, 70 and 71%, respectively. No significant differences were noted in the rates of maturation, fertilization and embryo development between control and cryopreserved oocytes. Two embryos that developed from cryopreserved oocytes of the oocyte donor programme were selected for transfer into the uterus of a recipient with premature ovarian failure, after the recipient had received steroid replacement. A biochemical pregnancy occurred in the recipient after embryo transfer. These results indicate that immature oocytes can survive after cryopreservation and subsequently can be cultured to mature oocytes that are capable of undergoing fertilization in vitro and developing into embryos. PMID:11226064

  15. Evolution of in vitro fertilization at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Everett-Keane, D; McKenzie, C

    2012-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) provides hope for many couples who believed that they could not have children. This paper tracks the development of IVF treatment at The University of the West Indies (UWI), Mona, from its genesis in 2000. It highlights changes over the years in the population seeking IVF at UWI, Mona, and describes clinical services offered to clients, comparing success rates of services internationally. It also reports on seminal research emerging out of UWI, Mona, in the field of assisted reproductive health. The Hugh Wynter Fertility Management Unit (HWFMU), UWI, Mona, leads the way in shaping how society views those challenged with infertility and in its use of assisted reproductive technologies that improve the quality of life for many locally, within the Caribbean and the Diaspora. PMID:23240486

  16. Quality management systems for your in vitro fertilization clinic's laboratory: Why bother?

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jan I; Banker, Manish R; Sjoblom, Late Peter

    2013-01-01

    Several countries have in recent years introduced prescribed requirements for treatment and monitoring of outcomes, as well as a licensing or accreditation requirement for in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics and their laboratories. It is commonplace for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) laboratories to be required to have a quality control system. However, more effective Total Quality Management systems are now being implemented by an increasing number of ART clinics. In India, it is now a requirement to have a quality management system in order to be accredited and to help meet customer demand for improved delivery of ART services. This review contains the proceedings a quality management session at the Indian Fertility Experts Meet (IFEM) 2010 and focuses on the creation of a patient-oriented best-in-class IVF laboratory. PMID:23869142

  17. The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuehui; Fu, Yiman; Han, Fengjuan; Kuang, Hongying; Hu, Min; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-01-01

    About 10–15% of couples have difficulty conceiving at some point in their reproductive lives and thus have to seek specialist fertility care. One of the most commonly used treatment options is in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its related expansions. Despite many recent technological advances, the average IVF live birth rate per single initiated cycle is still only 30%. Consequently, there is a need to find new therapies to promote the efficiency of the procedure. Many patients have turned to complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatments as an adjuvant therapy to improve their chances of success when they undergo IVF treatment. At present, several CAM methods have been used in infertile couples with IVF, which has achieved obvious effects. However, biologically plausible mechanisms of the action of CAM for IVF have not been systematically reviewed. This review briefly summarizes the current progress of the impact of CAM on the outcomes of IVF and introduces the mechanisms. PMID:24527047

  18. Scheduling cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in in vitro fertilization: Is there a scope in batch in vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Gutgutia, Rohit; Rao, Sameer; Garcia-Velasco, Juan; Basu, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    In India, a practice of "Batch in vitro fertilization (IVF)" has evolved in many infertility centers in an effort to align infertility management with logistics. A "Batch IVF" is an approach where the menstrual cycles of multiple women are programmed, such that they can undergo all the processes; from stimulation until embryo transfer about the same time. In "Batch IVF", the day for initiating stimulation is calculated retrospectively from the day the visiting embryologist is available at the clinic (day of ovum pick-up). Aligning the cycles of multiple women with steroids followed by down regulation with long gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) is one of the currently employed methods for batching. There is sufficient evidence on scheduling cycles with steroids in GnRH-An protocol without compromising on the outcome. The objective of this paper is to provide evidence-based clinical concept on scheduling cycles in "Batch IVF" setup with GnRH-An protocol through literature review. PMID:25624658

  19. Light irradiation of mouse spermatozoa: stimulation of in vitro fertilization and calcium signals.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N; Lubart, R; Rubinstein, S; Breitbart, H

    1998-09-01

    Irradiation of mouse spermatozoa by 630 nm He-Ne laser was found to enhance the intracellular calcium levels and fertilizing potential of these cells. The effect of light on calcium transport and on fertilization rate was abrogated in the absence of Ca2+ during the irradiation time, indicating that the effect of light is Ca2+ dependent. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca2+ uptake was abolished in the presence of a voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel inhibitor nifedipine, indicating the involvement of a plasma membrane voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of light was completely inhibited by the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP, indicating that laser irradiation might affect the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms. A causal association between laser irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and sperm function was indicated by studies with ROS scavengers, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and exogenous hydrogen peroxide. The SOD treatment, which enhanced H2O2 production, resulted in increased Ca2+ uptake and enhanced fertilization rate. On the other hand, catalase, which decomposes H2O2, impaired the light-induced stimulation in Ca2+ uptake and the fertilization rate. Taken together, the data suggest that H2O2 might be involved in the irradiation effects, and indeed laser irradiation enhances the production of H2O2 by spermatozoa. These results indicate that the effect of 630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation is mediated through the generation of H2O2 by the spermatozoa and that this effect plays a significant role in the augmentation of the sperm cells' capability to fertilize metaphase II-arrested eggs in vitro. PMID:9747596

  20. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells. PMID:27457928

  1. Complete in vitro generation of fertile oocytes from mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Morohaku, Kanako; Tanimoto, Ren; Sasaki, Keisuke; Kawahara-Miki, Ryouka; Kono, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Katsuhiko; Hirao, Yuji; Obata, Yayoi

    2016-08-01

    Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells. PMID:27457928

  2. Autophagy induction by sera from women undergoing an in vitro fertilization cycle varies with subsequent outcome.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Giovanni; Kanninen, Tomi T; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Witkin, Steven S; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy maintains intracellular homeostasis during placental development and embryogenesis. We evaluated if differences in the autophagy-inducing capacity of sera from women undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle predicted subsequent pregnancy outcome. In this retrospective study, sera collected from 94 women at the time of intrauterine embryo implantation were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors. The PBMCs were lysed and autophagy induction measured by determination of the p62 concentration. A reduced capacity for autophagy induction was associated with defective implantation while an elevated level of autophagy was associated with ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27343871

  3. In vitro fertilization (IVF): a review of 3 decades of clinical innovation and technological advancement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Sauer, Mark V

    2006-01-01

    In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, has captured the attention of the public since its sensational introduction in 1978. Today assisted reproductive technology is available throughout most of the civilized world, and the practice is largely different from that used during the early days. Refinements in laboratory technology and clinical practice have allowed IVF to evolve into a medical procedure that is efficient, safe, readily accessible, and relatively affordable. More than 2 million IVF children have been born to date, and it is likely that continued enhancements will widen its appeal and applicability. PMID:18360648

  4. The technology, law, and ethics of in vitro fertilization, gamete donation, and surrogate motherhood.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Wachbroit, R

    1992-09-01

    This article examines some of the legal, ethical, and policy issues raised by the development and use of technologies for noncoital reproduction: gamete transfer and manipulation, in vitro fertilization, and zygote transfer and manipulation. After briefly describing these technologies, this article examines three closely related concerns raised by their introduction: (1) the effect of new technologies on the social understanding of parenthood and the legal regulation of the family; (2) the impact on women and children of a market in the material and services for producing children; and (3) the rights and interests involved in conflicts over the control and disposition of extrauterine embryos. PMID:1521422

  5. In vitro culture and in vitro fertilization techniques for prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Horie, Kengo; Hidema, Shizu; Hirayama, Takashi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a highly social animal and is a commonly used animal model for neuropsychopharmacological and psychiatric studies. To date, only a few reports on the development of transgenic prairie voles which was primarily due to the suboptimal development of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in prairie voles. Limitations in ART further hinder the development of genetically modified prairie voles such as the application of conventional gene targeting technologies using embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to generate chimeric prairie voles. Moreover, recent advancement in genome-editing tools such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas technology provide an unprecedented opportunity to create gene targeting animal model and the development of ART in prairie voles is necessary for future development of novel transgenic prairie vole model. We have established efficient method for in vitro embryo culture and sperm cryopreservation with high fertilization rate. In G-1 PLUS and G-2 PLUS sequential culture condition, 81.0% (# of Blastocysts/total n) of one-cell embryos developed to blastocysts. In contrary, no embryos were developed to blastocyst stage in KSOM medium (0/total # of embryos in culture). In vitro fertilization rate using fresh and frozen-thawed sperm was 32.6% and 29.3%, respectively. This is the first report of IVF using cryopreserved prairie vole sperm. We employed mouse IVF methods in prairie voles and optimize culture conditions using human G-1/G-2 PLUS sequential culture method that resulted in high embryonic development rate. The development in vole reproductive technology will facilitate the generation of transgenic voles in the future. PMID:26071353

  6. Drug-Induced Thrombocytopenia following a Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval for In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Ioanna A.; Longmire, Michelle; Aster, Richard H.; Milki, Amin A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia has been associated with hundreds of medications and can lead to devastating consequences for the patient. We present a case of a healthy 33-year-old female undergoing in vitro fertilization who developed a severe drug-induced thrombocytopenia, petechiae, and a large hemoperitoneum after receiving Cefazolin antibiotic prophylaxis for a transvaginal oocyte retrieval. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for resuscitation with blood products. The presence of drug-dependent platelet antibodies to Cefazolin was confirmed serologically. PMID:25810935

  7. First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals.

    PubMed

    Trasorras, V; Baca Castex, C; Alonso, A; Giuliano, S; Santa Cruz, R; Arraztoa, C; Chaves, G; Rodríguez, D; Neild, D; Miragaya, M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the developmental competence and pregnancy rate of llama hatched blastocysts produced in vitro using gametes from live animals and two different culture conditions. Fifteen adult females were superstimulated with 1500 IU of eCG, eleven (73%) responded to the treatment and were used as oocyte donors. Follicular aspiration was conducted by flank laparotomy. Semen collections were performed under general anesthesia by electroejaculation of the male. Sixty-six COCs were recovered from 77 aspirated follicles (86% recovery) and were randomly placed in Fertil-TALP microdroplets with the sperm suspension (20 × 10(6)live spermatozoa/ml). After 24 h, they were placed in SOFaa medium supplemented with FCS and randomly assigned to one of two culture conditions. Culture condition 1 (CC1) consisted of 6 days of culture (n=28) and culture condition 2 (CC2) consisted of renewing the culture medium every 48 h (n=35). In CC1, the blastocyst rate was 36% (10/28) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 28% (8/28) whereas in CC2, the blastocyst rate was 34% (12/35) and the hatched blastocyst rate was 20% (7/35) (p>0.05). No pregnancies were obtained after embryo transfer (ET) of CC1 blastocysts (0/8) while one pregnancy was obtained (1/7) after transferring a hatched blastocyst from CC2. Forty-two days after the ET, the pregnancy was lost. This study represents the first report of a pregnancy in the llama after intrauterine transfer of embryos produced by in vitro fertilization using gametes from live animals. PMID:24933287

  8. In Vitro Fertilization, Levels of Pro-Inflammatory Factors and Lipid Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yildizfer, Ferdag; Donma, Orkide; Yen, Mustafa; Ekmekci, Ozlem; Karatas Kul, Zubeyde Asli; Keser, Zafer; Esat Imal, Ahmet; Cagil, Emin; Mengi, Murat; Ekmekci, Hakan; Sahmay, Sezai; Nalbantoglu, Burcin; Donma, Mustafa Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Infertility is a problem concerning 10-15% of the individuals in the fertile period. This study investigated effects of proinflammatory factors as well as lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) levels upon in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. Materials and Methods In this prospective, non-randomized, controlled clinical study, sera obtained from 26 fertile (group-1), 26 infertile women before (group-2) and after (group-3) IVF treatment were analyzed. Leptin, leptin receptor, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). LPO was determined spectrophotometrically. Mann- Whitney U test, paired samples t test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test as well as Pearson correlation analysis by SPSS were performed for statistical analysis. Results TNF-α, resistin and LPO levels increased (P=0.020, P=0.003, P=0.001, respectively) in group-3 compared to group-2. A significant increase in LPO was noted both in group-2 and -3 compared to controls (P=0.000). LPO were higher in non-pregnants than pregnants in group-2. For pregnants, significant correlations were observed between leptin and resistin in group-2 and TNF-α and leptin in group-3. None of these correlations were found for the women, who could not conceive. Conclusion LPO, leptin-resistin correlation, associations with TNF-α may be helpful during the interpretation of IVF success rates. PMID:26644849

  9. Sperm chromatin structure assay in prediction of in vitro fertilization outcome.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, K; Giwercman, A; Bungum, M

    2016-03-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Previous studies on DFI as predictor of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, based on relatively small materials, gave contradictory results. The present study examines, in a large cohort, the association between sperm DFI and the outcome of IVF/ICSI procedure. The study is based on 1633 IVF or ICSI cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden, between May 2007 and March 2013. DFI values were categorized into four intervals: DFI ≤ 10% (reference group), 10% < DFI ≤ 20%, 20% < DFI ≤ 30%, DFI > 30%. For the three latter intervals, the following outcomes of IVF/ICSI procedures were analyzed in relation to the reference group: fertilization, good quality embryo, pregnancy, miscarriage, and live births. In the standard IVF group, a significant negative association between DFI and fertilization rate was found. When calculated per ovum pick-up (OPU) Odds Ratios (ORs) for at least one good quality embryo (GQE) were significantly lower in the standard IVF group if DFI > 20%. OR for live birth calculated per OPU was significantly lower in standard IVF group if DFI > 20% (OR 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97; p = 0.04). No such associations were seen in the ICSI group. OR for live birth by ICSI compared to IVF were statistically significantly higher for DFI > 20% (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9; p = 0.05). OR for miscarriage was significantly increased for DFI > 40% (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12; p = 0.02). The results suggest that ICSI might be a preferred method of in vitro treatment in cases with high DFI. Efforts should be made to find options for pharmacologically induced reduction of DFI. The study was based on retrospectively collected data and prospective studies confirming the superiority of ICSI in cases with high DFI are warranted. PMID:26757265

  10. Evaluation of frozen thawed cauda epididymal sperms and in vitro fertilizing potential of bovine sperm collected from the cauda epididymal

    PubMed Central

    Chaveiro, A; Cerqueira, C; Silva, J; Franco, J; Moreira da Silva, F

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the fertilizing potential of semen recovered from slaughtered bulls epididymis was evaluated after cryopreservation, by conventional techniques and flow cytometry methods. The cauda epididymal was dissected and sperm were recovered and evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, and membrane and acrosome integrity using a flow cytometer. Sperm fertility potential was tested by in vitro fertilization (IVF). For each bull, three trials of IVF were performed. Before freezing, on average, the sperm concentration was 216 ± 27.5 × 106 sperm/ml. Sperm viability averaged 86.5 ± 4%. The mean percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane and acrosome before and after cryopreservation was 90.7 ± 2.9% and 90.8 ± 1.9% (P≥0.05), respectively. The fertilization rate using frozen/thawed epididymal semen averaged 64.1 ± 3.9% fertilization with no significant differences between bulls (P>0.05). For the bull considered as control, the fertilization rate was 72.2 ± 4.5%, differing significantly (P>0.05) from the frozen/thawed epididymal semen’s fertilization rate. In conclusion, it is possible to use in vitro techniques with cryopreserved spermatozoa obtained from bull’s epididymis using a controlled rate freezing method with a predetermined freezing curve, and with assessment of sperm’s viability by conventional techniques and flow cytometry methods, together with the fertilizing ability of cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa. PMID:27175174

  11. Cost and efficacy comparison of in vitro fertilization and tubal anastomosis for women after tubal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Lauren B.; Alford, Connie E.; Csokmay, John M.; Henne, Melinda B.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Segars, James H.; Armstrong, Alicia Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cost and efficacy of tubal anastomosis to in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women who desired fertility after a tubal ligation. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure(s) Cost per ongoing pregnancy. Result(s) Cost per ongoing pregnancy for women after tubal anastomosis ranged from $16,446 to $223,482 (2014 USD), whereas IVF ranged from $32,902 to $111,679 (2014 USD). Across maternal age groups <35 and 35–40, years tubal anastomosis was more cost effective than IVF for ongoing pregnancy. Sensitivity analyses validated these findings across a wide range of ongoing pregnancy probabilities as well as costs per procedure. Conclusion(s) Tubal anastomosis was the most cost-effective approach for most women less than 41 years of age, whereas IVF was the most cost-effective approach for women aged ≥41 years who desired fertility after tubal ligation. A model was created that can be modified based on cost and success rates in individual clinics for improved patient counseling. PMID:26006734

  12. Partial hydatidiform mole progression into invasive mole with lung metastasis following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XI; CHEN, YONGLI; LI, YONGMEI; DUAN, ZHAO

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the case of a 34-year-old Chinese female who underwent in vitro fertilization resulting in a twin pregnancy was reported. Following in vitro fertilization, the patient was found to have a partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) with a co-existing twin by transvaginal sonography (TVS). At 16 weeks, the pregnancy was terminated and a normal-looking fetus with a HM placenta was delivered, in addition to a normal fetus with a normal placenta. Following termination of the pregnancy, the PHM progressed into an invasive mole with lung metastasis, a rare event. Serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) concentrations decreased in the first week following delivery, but over the following 21 days hCG levels showed a continuous increase. Following 2 cycles of combinative chemotherapy consisting of fluorouracil (5-FU) and dactinomycin (KSM), hCG concentrations decreased to normal levels. The patient was then administered 1 cycle of repeated chemotherapy and hCG levels remained negative for the following 2 years. PMID:22740971

  13. Embryos derived from the in vitro fertilization of oocytes of pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Vajta, G; Macháty, Z; Bárándi, Z; Varga, Z

    1992-04-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if the oocytes of pregnant cattle are capable for undergoing embryonic growth following in vitro fertilization. The ovaries of nine heifers at 4 to 7 months of pregnancy were collected at an abattoir and transferred to the laboratory. A total 191 oocytes (10.6 per ovary) collected by aspiration were matured and fertilized by frozen-thawed semen. Embryos were co-cultured with granulosa cells in modified TCM 199 medium and 20% estrous cow serum. The cleavage rate of embryos was 48%, and 41% of of the cleaved embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst stage 7 days after insemination. Additionally, the ovaries of 10 nonpregnant heifers were also collected, yielding 213 oocytes (10.7 per ovary). The cleavage rate was 51%, and 35% of those which cleaved reached the morula/blastocyst stage. No significant differences were found between the two groups. The average number of transferable-stage embryos obtained from pregnant and nonpregnant animals was 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. Our results indicate that preganancy does not influence the meiotic competence of bovine oocytes, and transferable stage embryos can be obtained by the fertilization of oocytes derived from pregnant animals. PMID:16727081

  14. Functional capacity and fertilizing longevity of frozen-thawed scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa in a heterologous in vitro fertilization system.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J K; Roth, T L

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if cryopreservation and thawing reduces the quality of scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa and thus might be responsible for sub-optimal artificial insemination (Al) efficiency. Functional capacity of frozen thawed oryx spermatozoa was compared in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) system after being prepared by four methods. Fertilizing longevity was also assessed after thawing and pre-incubating spermatozoa for 12 or 24 h before IVF. Sperm characteristics (viability, morphology, acrosomal and capacitation status) were superior for samples prepared by Percoll centrifugation and standard swim-up compared with microdrop swim-up and wash methods. Regardless of variation in sperm characteristics over time, fertilization success and embryo development were high and did not differ among treatments. Fertilization and cleavage success for spermatozoa pre-incubated for 12 h before IVF were comparable with that achieved with non-incubated spermatozoa. Even 24 h after thawing, spermatozoa were capable of fertilizing oocytes, but percentage fertilization and embryo cleavage were significantly lower than for spermatozoa pre-incubated for 12 h. Overall, functional capacity of oryx spermatozoa after thawing appears comparable with that of domestic bull spermatozoa. When used for Al, frozen-thawed oryx spermatozoa should be capable of fertilizing oocytes in females ovulating 12 or even 24 h after insemination, providing sperm transport mechanisms are adequate. The functional capacity and fertilizing longevity of oryx sperm after thawing is high, and therefore unlikely to be responsible for decreased Al efficiency in the scimitar-horned oryx. PMID:11545181

  15. Xenogenous fertilization of equine oocytes following recovery from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Wirtu, G; Bailey, T L; Chauhan, M S; Parker, N A; Dascanio, J J; Gwazdauskas, F C; Ley, W B

    2004-01-15

    The in vitro production (IVP) of equine embryos using currently available protocols has met limited success; therefore investigations into alternative approaches to IVP are justified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of xenogenous fertilization and early embryo development of in vitro matured (IVM) equine oocytes. Follicular aspirations followed by slicing of ovarian tissue were performed on 202 equine ovaries obtained from an abattoir. A total of 667 oocytes (3.3 per ovary) were recovered from 1023 follicles (recovery rate, 65%). Oocytes underwent IVM for 41 +/- 2 h (mean +/- S.D.), before being subjected to xenogenous gamete intrafallopian transfer (XGIFT). An average of 13 +/- 0.8 oocytes and 40x10(3) spermatozoa per oocyte were transferred into 20 oviducts of ewes. Fourteen percent of transferred oocytes (36/259) were recovered between 2 and 7 days post-XGIFT and 36% of those recovered displayed embryonic development ranging from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage. Fertilization following XGIFT was also demonstrated by the detection of zinc finger protein Y (ZFY) loci. Ligation of the uterotubal junction (UTJ), ovarian structures, or the duration of oviductal incubation did not significantly affect the frequency of embryonic development or recovery of oocytes/embryos after XGIFT. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced in a smaller non-equine species that is easier for handling. PMID:14662137

  16. The creation of "monsters": the discourse of opposition to in vitro fertilization in Poland.

    PubMed

    Radkowska-Walkowicz, Magdalena

    2012-12-01

    In Poland, there is a campaign to criminalise in vitro fertilization, led by the Catholic church. This article explores how this campaign makes "monsters" of IVF children in its discourse, that is, embodiments of "the other" in the sense of Frankenstein's monster. Basing the analysis primarily on Catholic mass media publications, the article investigates the discursive strategies employed to oppose IVF, most notably by the Catholic clergy and activists and journalists associated with the Church. They attribute "monstrosity" to the children in the following ways: physical (possible bodily deformity), psychological (survivor syndrome, identity crisis), social (loneliness, uncertain place in family relations), and ethical (a life burdened with the deaths of many embryos). Although the world of families with IVF does not provide examples of children who could be considered monsters in any of these terms, these arguments have become the primary reasons given for banning IVF. PMID:23245406

  17. Potential Pathophysiological Mechanisms of the Beneficial Role of Endometrial Injury in In Vitro Fertilization Outcome.

    PubMed

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Vrachnis, Nikos; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Chrelias, Charalampos; Retamar, Andrea Quinteiro; Bettocchi, Stefano; Glujovsky, Demián

    2014-03-01

    Successful embryo implantation is a complex process that involves multiple biological mechanisms and reciprocal interactions between the embryo and the proliferated endometrium. In this review, we provide an informative contribution on the pathways underlying the beneficial nature of endometrial injury toward improving implantation rates of embryos conceived and through in vitro fertilization. The evidence published to date are in favor of inducing local endometrial injury in the preceding cycle of ovarian stimulation to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with unexplained and recurrent implantation failure. Endometrial injury triggers a series of biological responses but the findings suggest that no particular pathway is solely adequate to explain the association between trauma and improved pregnancy rates rather than a cluster of events in response to trauma which benefits embryo implantation in ways both known and unknown to the scientific community. PMID:24604231

  18. In vitro fertilization rate of horse oocytes with partially removed zonae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Okada, Y; Hochi, S; Braun, J; Sato, K; Oguri, N

    1994-10-01

    Frozen-thawed ejaculated stallion spermatozoa were preincubated for 3 h in BO medium containing 5 mM caffeine and then treated with 0.1 micro M calcium ionophore A23187 for 60 sec. Aliquots of the sperm suspension (final concentration 1-2 x 10(7)/ml) were added to the oocytes which had been matured in vitro for 32 h. In Experiment 1, there were 3 groups of oocytes; cumulus intact, denuded zona-intact, and zona-free. Cumulus cells were removed with 0.5% hyaluronidase and the zona pellucida with 0.1% protease. The oocytes were fixed 20 h after insemination with acetic acid:ethanol (1:3) and stained with 1% orcein. The sperm penetration rate of zona-free oocytes was 83%, whereas the sperm penetration rate was very low (1 to 3%) in the cumulus-enclosed or zona-intact oocytes. In Experiment 2, denuded zona-intact oocytes were placed in PBS supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum 1 h before the end of in vitro maturation. The zona pellucida was micromanipulated with a metal microblade under x 100 magnification within 20 min of treatment with 0.3 M sucrose. For partial zona dissection, a slit in the zona pellucida was made. For partial zona removal, oocytes were transferred to protein-free PBS to fix the oocytes on the bottom of the Petri-dish and to remove a piece of the zona pellucida. Micromanipulated oocytes were subjected to in vitro fertilization as described above. Zona-intact and zona-free oocytes treated with sucrose solution for 20 min were used as controls. The penetration rates were 4 (2/57), 12 (7/58), 52 (31/60), and 86% (44/51) for zona-intact, partially zona dissected, partially zona removed, and zona-free oocytes, respectively. Proportions of oocytes with monospermic penetration were 100 (2/2), 57 (4/7), 58 (18/31), and 34% (15/44), respectively. In Experiment 3, sperm penetration and male pronucleus formation in the partially zona removed oocytes were examined at 2.5 to 20.0 h of insemination. Sperm penetration started 2.5 h post-insemination (22%, 11

  19. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis in bovine embryos fertilized in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bielanski, A B; Surujballi, O

    1998-01-01

    The association of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjobovis with bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Morula stage embryos with an intact zona pellucida (ZP) were exposed to this spirochete for 24 h in culture medium, washed by the standard washing procedure as recommended by the International Embryo Transfer Society, and then examined. SEM showed typical helicoid leptospires on the surface and in the pores of the ZP. TEM showed cross and longitudinal sections of leptospires in the matrix and channels of the ZP, in the perivitelline and intercellular spaces, on the vitellus and in the embryonic cells. Some of the embryos that were penetrated showed damage to the membranes and the cytoplasm. The ineffectiveness of the washing procedure, for the removal of hardjobovis from exposed embryos may be of importance to the industry. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:9684055

  20. Royal Jelly alleviates sperm toxicity and improves in vitro fertilization outcome in Stanozolol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza; Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Sedighnia, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stanozolol (ST) is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid often abused by athletes. An increasing body of evidence points towards the role of ST misuses in the pathogenesis of a wide range of adverse effects including reprotoxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the possible reproprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) as an efficient antioxidant in ST-treated mice. Materials and Methods: Adult male mice were divided into four groups (n=5). Two groups of mice received ST (4.6 mg/kg/day) via gavage for 35 days. RJ was given orally to one of these groups at the dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight per day synchronously. Untreated control group and RJ-only treated group were also included. Epididymal sperm characteristics and in vitro fertilizing capacity were evaluated after 35 days. Results: ST treatment caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count and motility and fertilization rate along with poor blastocyst formation and increased sperm DNA damage. Moreover, the incidence of apoptosis and abnormality in spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher in ST-exposed mice than those of control. The above-mentioned parameters were restored to near normal level by RJ co-administration. Conclusion: Data from the current study suggest that RJ has a potential repro-protective action against ST-induced reproductive toxicity in mice. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate such an effect in human subjects. PMID:25653671

  1. In vitro fertilization and development of porcine oocytes matured in follicular fluid.

    PubMed

    Agung, Budiyanto; Otoi, Takeshige; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Senbon, Shoichiro; Onishi, Akira; Nagai, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the fertilization and development of porcine oocytes matured in a solo follicular fluid (pFF) using different in vitro culture systems and insemination periods. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), follicular cells (FCs), and pFF were collected from the follicles of ovaries. The pFF was used as a maturation medium (MpFF) after supplementation with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and antibiotics. The COCs were matured in a 15 ml test tube containing 3.5 ml of MpFF with FCs (5.2 × 10(6) cells/ml; rotating culture system) or 2 ml of MpFF without FCs in a 35-mm petri dish (static culture system) for 44 to 48 h. After maturation culture, oocytes were co-incubated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa for 5 h and then cultured for 7 days. The total mean rates of sperm penetration, normal fertilization, male pronucleus (MPN) formation, cleavage, and development to the blastocyst stage of oocytes after insemination were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the rotating culture system than in the static culture system. In conclusion, compared with the static culture system, the rotating culture system is adequate for the production of developmentally competent porcine oocytes when MpFF is used as a maturation medium. PMID:23428620

  2. Brain Tumor in an In Vitro Fertilization-Facilitated Pregnancy: Fourth Ventricle Anaplastic Ependymoma in the Second Trimester.

    PubMed

    Ryskeldiyev, Nurzhan; Olenbay, Gabit; Auezova, Raushan; Killeen, Tim; Aldiyarova, Nurgul; Akhmetzhanova, Zauresh; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Akshulakov, Serik

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of fourth ventricle anaplastic ependymoma in a pregnancy which was the first result of three rounds of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer. Whether hormonal treatment can directly or indirectly precipitate brain tumors to develop or become symptomatic is unclear. PMID:27330925

  3. Use of Bayesian Inference to Correlate In Vitro Embryo Production and In Vivo Fertility in Zebu Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sudano, Mateus José; Crespilho, André Maciel; Fernandes, Claudia Barbosa; Junior, Alicio Martins; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Rodrigues, Josemar; Machado, Rui; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda Da Cruz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP) as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G). The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP. PMID:21547211

  4. Spectral interferometry for morphological imaging in in vitro fertilization (IVF) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Li, Chengshuai

    2016-03-01

    Morphological assessment of spermatozoa is of critical importance for in vitro fertilization (IVF), especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-based IVF. In ICSI, a single sperm cell is selected and injected into an egg to achieve fertilization. The quality of the sperm cell is found to be highly correlated to IVF success. Sperm morphology, such as shape, head birefringence and motility, among others, are typically evaluated under a microscope. Current observation relies on conventional techniques such as differential interference contrast microscopy and polarized light microscopy. Their qualitative nature, however, limits the ability to provide accurate quantitative analysis. Here, we demonstrate quantitative morphological measurement of sperm cells using two types of spectral interferometric techniques, namely spectral modulation interferometry and spectral multiplexing interferometry. Both are based on spectral-domain low coherence interferometry, which is known for its exquisite phase determination ability. While spectral modulation interferometry encodes sample phase in a single spectrum, spectral multiplexing interferometry does so for sample birefringence. Therefore they are capable of highly sensitive phase and birefringence imaging. These features suit well in the imaging of live sperm cells, which are small, dynamic objects with only low to moderate levels of phase and birefringence contrast. We will introduce the operation of both techniques and demonstrate their application to measuring the phase and birefringence morphology of sperm cells.

  5. Conjoined twins in a monochorionic triplet pregnancy after in vitro fertilization: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Talebian, Marzieh; Rahimi-Sharbaf, Fatemeh; Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Teimoori, Batool; Izadi-mood, Narges; Sarmadi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monozygotic monochorionic triplet pregnancy with conjoined twins is a very rare condition and is associated with many complications. Case: In this study, we describe a monochorionic–diamniotic triplet pregnancy after in vitro fertilization with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection. At a gestational age of 6 weeks and 4 days of pregnancy one gestational sac was observed, and at a gestational age of 12 weeks and 2 days, triplets with conjoined twins were diagnosed. After consulting with the parents, they chose fetal reduction of the conjoined twins. Selective feticide was successfully performed by radiofrequency ablation at 16 weeks of pregnancy. Unfortunately, the day after the procedure, the membrane ruptured, and 1 week later, all fetuses and placenta were spontaneously aborted. Conclusion: Monochorionic triplet pregnancy with conjoined twins is very rare. These pregnancies are associated with very serious complications. Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection increases the rate of monozygotic twinning and conjoined twins. Counseling with parents before IVF is very important. PMID:26730249

  6. Adult male mice conceived by in vitro fertilization exhibit increased glucocorticoid receptor expression in fat tissue.

    PubMed

    Simbulan, R K; Liu, X; Feuer, S K; Maltepe, E; Donjacour, A; Rinaudo, P

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal development is highly plastic and readily influenced by the environment. Adverse conditions have been shown to alter organ development and predispose offspring to chronic diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Notably, it appears that the changes in glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in peripheral tissues could play a role in the development of chronic diseases. We have previously demonstrated that in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation embryo culture is associated with growth alterations and glucose intolerance in mice. However, it is unknown if GR signaling is affected in adult IVF offspring. Here we show that GR expression is increased in inbred (C57Bl6/J) and outbred (CF-1× B6D2F1/J) blastocysts following in vitro culture and elevated levels are also present in the adipose tissue of adult male mice. Importantly, genes involved in lipolysis and triglyceride synthesis and responsive to GR were also increased in adipose tissue, indicating that increased GR activates downstream gene pathways. The promoter region of GR, previously reported to be epigenetically modified by perinatal manipulation, showed no changes in DNA methylation status. Our findings demonstrate that IVF results in a long-term change in GR gene expression in a sex- and tissue-specific manner. These changes in adipose tissues may well contribute to the metabolic phenotype in mice conceived by IVF. PMID:26511158

  7. Apparatus for the in vitro fertilization and culture of human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Testart, J; Lassalle, B; Frydman, R

    1982-09-01

    An apparatus for in vitro fertilization and culture of mammalian eggs that permits close control over variations in temperature, lighting, and pH has been developed to imitate natural conditions as far as possible. All handling of the oocyte and zygote are performed inside a baby incubator which has a system of air saturation using water vapor. A binocular dissecting microscope and an inverted compound microscope are built into the enclosure to permit simultaneous observation of the egg at widely different magnifications. Lighting is restricted to the longer wavelengths, which do not harm mammalian eggs. The microscope is equipped with a camera system. A gas mixture of 5% CO2, 5% O2, and 90% N2 is delivered at a pressure of 1 bar by a double reduction valve arrangement. The gas passes into the incubator through a filter and is humidified and warmed inside the incubator by bubbling through a bottle of sterile distilled water. The gas is finally distributed by a series of culture tubes. The culture tubes are usually kept in darkness; their position is changed as the development of the egg progresses to take advantage of the slight temperature differentials within the apparatus. Less than 1 minute after puncture of the follicle, the fluid is transferred to the incubator and is examined in a petri dish using the stereomicroscope. The oocyte is immediately transferred to a culture tube containing medium and placed at 36.8 degrees Celsius. 16-20 hours after insemination the egg is transferred under the stereomicroscope by pipetting directly into a new tube, where the medium is supplemented by a small quantity of maternal serum. It is kept at 37.2 degrees Celsius. After 2-4 days of culture in vitro, if normal development is observed, the egg is transferred to the patient's uterus. The variation in temperature at any given point in the apparatus is less than .2 degrees Celsius. 114 human oocytes have been collected, of which 58% were fertilized. 82% of the fertilized eggs

  8. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  9. INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF IN VITRO FERTILIZATION IN THE HAMSTER BY ANTIBODIES RAISED AGAINST THE RAT SPERM PROTEIN SP22. SC Jeffay*, SD Perreault, KL Bobseine*, JE Welch*, GR Klinefelter, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22, a rat sperm membrane protein that is highly-correlated w...

  10. Vitrification, in vitro fertilization, and development of Atg7 deficient mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Soyoung; Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Suh, Chang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Objective Autophagy contributes to the clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming. Herein, we investigate the potential role of Atg7 in oocyte vitrification by using an oocyte-specific deletion model of the Atg7 gene, a crucial upstream gene in the autophagic pathway. Methods Oocyte-specific Atg7 deficient mice were generated by crossing Atg7 floxed mice and Zp3-Cre transgenic mice. The oocytes were vitrified-warmed and then subjected to in vitro fertilization and development. The rates of survival, fertilization, and development were assessed in the Atg7 deficient oocytes in comparison with the wildtype oocytes. Light chain 3 (LC3) immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine whether this method effectively evaluates the autophagy status of oocytes. Results The survival rate of vitrified-warmed Atg7f/f;Zp3-Cre (Atg7d/d) metaphase II (MII) oocytes was not significantly different from that of the wildtype (Atg7f/f) oocytes. Fertilization and development in the Atg7d/d oocytes were significantly lower than the Atg7f/f oocytes, comparable to the Atg5d/d oocytes previously described. Notably, the developmental rate improved slightly in vitrified-warmed Atg7d/d MII oocytes when compared to fresh Atg7d/d oocytes. LC3 immunofluorescence staining showed that this method can be reliably used to assess autophagic activation in oocytes. Conclusion We confirmed that the LC3-positive signal is nearly absent in Atg7d/d oocytes. While autophagy is induced during the warming process after vitrification of MII oocytes, the Atg7 gene is not essential for survival of vitrified-warmed oocytes. Thus, induction of autophagy during warming of vitrified MII oocytes seems to be a natural response to manage cold or other cellular stresses. PMID:27104152

  11. Effect of antral follicle count (AFC) in beef heifers on in vitro fertilization/production (IVF/IVP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective has been to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers. This is the 4th year of the study with years 1 to 3 reported individually. For this report, we add data for the 4th year and present a combined an...

  12. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development. PMID:24735637

  13. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ≥42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  14. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium—SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge – 270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development. PMID:27008092

  15. Production of oocytes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) for in vitro fertilization via hormonal treatments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A F A; Alvarenga, É R; Oliveira, D A A; Aleixo, C G; Prado, S A; Luz, R K; Sarmento, N L A F; Teixeira, E A; Luz, M R; Turra, E M

    2013-12-01

    Only a few studies have described hormonal treatments for induction of synchronicity and gamete collection in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), both important for assortative matings in breeding programmes and essential for polyploidy technologies. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of carp pituitary extract (CPE), Nile tilapia pituitary extract (TPE), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) protocols on the induction of spawning and egg production in Nile tilapia. Among the hormonal treatments analysed, only hCG was effective for producing viable gametes for in vitro fertilization. To verify the viability of this hormonal treatment, hCG was tested using different doses (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 IU/kg) in a large number of females (208 animals) from two Nile tilapia lines. The results indicated that hCG doses between 1000 and 5000 IU/kg could be used to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia with collection of stripped oocytes. This is the first study to report differential reproductive responses to hormonal treatment between tilapia lines: line 1 was more efficient at producing eggs and post-hatching larvae after hCG induction than line 2. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hCG protocol may be applied on a large scale to induce final oocyte maturation in Nile tilapia. The development of a protocol for in vitro fertilization in Nile tilapia may aid in breeding programmes and biotechnological assays for the development of genetically modified lines of Nile tilapia. PMID:23834584

  16. Does Embryo Culture Medium Influence the Health and Development of Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization?

    PubMed

    Bouillon, Céline; Léandri, Roger; Desch, Laurent; Ernst, Alexandra; Bruno, Céline; Cerf, Charline; Chiron, Alexandra; Souchay, Céline; Burguet, Antoine; Jimenez, Clément; Sagot, Paul; Fauque, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In animal studies, extensive data revealed the influence of culture medium on embryonic development, foetal growth and the behaviour of offspring. However, this impact has never been investigated in humans. For the first time, we investigated in depth the effects of embryo culture media on health, growth and development of infants conceived by In Vitro Fertilization until the age of 5 years old. This single-centre cohort study was based on an earlier randomized study. During six months, in vitro fertilization attempts (No. 371) were randomized according to two media (Single Step Medium--SSM group) or Global medium (Global group). This randomized study was stopped prematurely as significantly lower pregnancy and implantation rates were observed in the SSM group. Singletons (No. 73) conceived in the randomized study were included (42 for Global and 31 for SSM). The medical data for gestational, neonatal and early childhood periods were extracted from medical records and parental interviews (256 variables recorded). The developmental profiles of the children in eight domains (social, self-help, gross motor, fine motor, expressive language, language comprehension, letter knowledge and number knowledge--270 items) were compared in relation to the culture medium. The delivery rate was significantly lower in the SSM group than in the Global group (p<0.05). The culture medium had no significant effect on birthweight, risk of malformation (minor and major), growth and the frequency of medical concerns. However, the children of the Global group were less likely than those of the SSM group to show developmental problems (p = 0.002), irrespective of the different domains. In conclusion, our findings showed that the embryo culture medium may have an impact on further development. PMID:27008092

  17. Thirteen -weeks ovarian pregnancy following in vitro fertilization for primary infertility treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh; Nemati Honar, Behzad; Defaee, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ovarian pregnancy constitutes 0.15-3% of all ectopic pregnancies. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is on the rise owing to evolution in assisted reproductive techniques (ART). The incidence reported following In vitro fertilization (IVF) or embryo transfer (ET) is 0.27% per clinical pregnancy. Case: We present a case of a 13-weeks ovarian pregnancy following IVF-ET and through a review of the literature, the specific symptomatology, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of this particular pathology will be described. Conclusion: Ovarian pregnancy is a rare condition and its diagnosis is difficult and relies on criteria based on intraoperative and histopathological findings. The management is, in spite of medical improvement, based on surgery. But the trend has shifted towards conservative surgeries in majority of cases. PMID:25709634

  18. Clinical Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization among Chinese Infertile Couples Treated for Syphilis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xiaomiao; Yuan, Ping; Fang, Tingfeng; Ouyang, Nengyong; Li, Ruiqi; Ou, Songbang; Wang, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of infertile patients with and without syphilis after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), in this case-control study, 320 infertile couples were enrolled and divided into syphilis (n = 160) and control groups (n = 160). The primary IVF outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate and the birth of a healthy baby. All syphilis patients received the standard anti-syphilis treatment before undergoing IVF/ICSI. Our results showed that the endometrial thickness of the syphilis group was greater than that of the control group following hCG injection (16.9±5.4 vs. 13.0±4.7 mm, P<0.001). The numbers of normally fertilized eggs and normally cleaved fertilized eggs and the implantation rate were 6.8±4.8, 6.3±4.7 and 24.2%, respectively, for the syphilis group and 8.3±4.6, 8.1±4.6 and 34.4%, respectively, for the control group, and these values were significantly different between the groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was lower in the syphilis group compared with that in the control group (43.8% vs. 55.6%, P = 0.03). Lower offspring birth weight was observed in the infected male group compared with those in the infected female (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.0±0.4 kg, P = 0.01) and infected couple groups (2.7±0.4 vs. 3.1±0.5 kg, P = 0.007). Therefore, syphilis infection reduces the clinical pregnancy rate after IVF/ICSI. PMID:26208116

  19. Effect of hexavalent chromium-treated sperm on in vitro fertilization and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Yoisungnern, Ton; Das, Joydeep; Choi, Yun-Jung; Parnpai, Rangsun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an environmental contaminant that is associated with reproductive abnormalities in both humans and animals. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of Cr(VI) on sperm function and subsequent embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm obtained from BDF1 male mice were treated with potassium dichromate (0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, or 50 μM) for 3 h. Cr(VI) significantly decreased sperm viability and acrosome reaction with increasing dose. These Cr(VI)-treated sperms were further used for IVF of oocytes obtained from BDF1 female mice. Results showed that Cr(VI)-treated sperm caused a significant reduction in IVF success, higher developmental arrest at the two-cell stage of embryos, and delayed blastocyst formation with increasing dose. In particular, most blastocysts from the Cr(VI)-treated sperm resulted in hatching failure as well as decreased inner cell mass and trophectoderm (TE). Furthermore, blastocysts obtained from Cr(VI)-treated sperm showed lower expression of not only TE-associated genes (eomes, cdx2, and krt8) but also pluripotent marker genes (sox2, pou5f1, and klf4) that are responsible for further embryo development of blastocyst embryos. The results of our current study showed that Cr(VI)-treated sperm had negative effects on oocyte fertilization and subsequent embryo development. PMID:25903088

  20. A Newborn with Congenital Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia After In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Hacer; Özdemir, Özmert M A; Karaca, Abdullah; Türk, Nilay Şen; Düzcan, Füsun; Ergin, Şeniz; Kazancı, Elif; Vergin, Canan; Erbay, Ayşe

    2015-08-01

    Congenital leukemia is a rare disease. The majority of cases of this disease are acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Congenital acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is rare and most often is of B cell lineage. Rarely, some cases have been designated biphenotypic or mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL). Herein, we report a preterm newborn referred to us as a result of the appearance of blue-violaceous dermal nodules on her body at birth. She was a twin and the product of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy. Physical examination showed jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and peripheral facial nerve palsy in addition to dermal nodules. Bone marrow aspiration showed 40% blasts of lymphoid lineage; skin biopsy and its immunohistochemistry revealed myeloblastic infiltration of the dermis. Cytogenetic analysis (46,XX), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and cranial magnetic resonance were normal. The patient was diagnosed with congenital MPAL, and an association between IVF and congenital leukemia was suggested. PMID:23639745

  1. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 causing infertility and subsequent successful in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Muthuvel, Arun; Ravindran, Manipriya; Chander, Aravind; Subbian, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common and benign variants of normal human karyotype is pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 (inv[9][p11q13]). Despite being categorized as a normal variant, there are several reports of its association with various disease conditions. Here, we report a 27 year old female, who presented to us with primary infertility. The woman was diagnosed with inv (9)(p11q13) which was acknowledged as the reason for her otherwise unexplained infertility. The couple thereupon underwent in vitro fertilization using donor oocyte resulting in live birth. The clinical significance of this minor chromosomal rearrangement, need for genetic counseling, and subsequent reproductive guidance is highlighted in this report. PMID:27226692

  2. Factors influencing the success of in vitro fertilization for alleviating human infertility.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G; Fishel, S B; Cohen, J; Fehilly, C B; Purdy, J M; Slater, J M; Steptoe, P C; Webster, J M

    1984-03-01

    The program for in vitro fertilization at Bourn Hall began in October 1980. Various types of infertility have been treated during this time using the natural menstrual cycle or stimulation of follicular growth with antiestrogens and gonadotrophins. Follicular growth and maturation are assayed by urinary estrogens and LH, monitored regularly during the later follicular stage. Many patients had an endogenous LH surge; others needed an injection of HCG to induce ovulation. All oocytes were recovered by laparoscopy. Wide variations occurred in the time interval between the start of the LH surge and oocyte recovery and between oocyte recovery and insemination. Embryos taken between the one- and the eight-cell stage were replaced into their mother, no standard procedure being adopted for all patients. The results of all treatments including patient's responses during the follicular and luteal phases, oocyte recovery, fertilization, cleavage, replacement, implantation, abortion, and birth and the effect of factors such as replacing two or more embryos, maternal age, and previous obstetric history are described in detail. The incidence of implantation after embryo replacement improved from 16.5% initially to 30% currently. More than 118 babies have been born, and many pregnancies are continuing. PMID:6242159

  3. Is in-vitro fertilization for older women ethical? A personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Perla, L

    2001-03-01

    Fertility treatments raise a range of social and ethical issues regarding self-identity for family, sexual intimacy, and the interests and welfare of potential children. Eggs and sperm are combined to produce fertilized eggs. These eggs are then implanted as embryos and grow into viable fetuses, which are carried by the original mother or a surrogate mother. This artificial form of conception can challenge religious values and family structures. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) can be considered either as a medical miracle or playing with divinity. What obligation do medical professionals have to infertile women and to what extent? The bioethical dilemma of IVF use encompasses different moral issues for all involved in the process. Ethical issues address respect for personal autonomy, access and care, and the duty of the health care provider to be compassionate to persons whose actions and moral values may be different from their own. Health care providers need to impart empathy, understanding and sensitivity towards this unique type of patient population. The conflict for those treating patients who are trying to conceive by IVF includes respect for personal autonomy, nonmaleficence, justice, utility and the ethics of care. As a registered nurse in a postpartum hospital unit, I have seen antepartum and postpartum women involved with this new technology. I have worked with mothers and their partners as they experience different levels of anxiety and hope for the future. There is an underlying psychosocial connection with patients who undergo IVF treatments. The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical use of IVF on older women. Is this type of biotechnolgy being applied for the right reasons and for the best patient population? PMID:16010890

  4. Random start or emergency IVF/in vitro maturation: a new rapid approach to fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David Mark; Gilchrist, Robert B; Ledger, William Leigh; Baerwald, Angela

    2016-06-01

    There is a need to develop rapid protocols for ovarian stimulation for women who wish to preserve their fertility following diagnosis of cancer. Conventional gonadotropin stimulation protocols are lengthy and are delayed until the start of the next menstrual period, potentially compromising cancer treatments. The development of random start IVF/in vitro maturation has made significant strides for enabling couples undergoing cancer therapy to achieve a family. However, several unanswered questions still remain. What do we know about the endocrinology of stimulating ovarian follicular activity outside the established protocols of stimulation during the follicular phase? This article explores what is known about antral follicle development during the menstrual cycle, novel ovarian stimulation proposals for optimizing assisted reproductive therapies in women, and direction. PMID:27248769

  5. Uncertainty in clinical data and stochastic model for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yenkie, Kirti M; Diwekar, Urmila

    2015-02-21

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most widely used technique in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). It has been divided into four stages; (i) superovulation, (ii) egg retrieval, (iii) insemination/fertilization and (iv) embryo transfer. The first stage of superovulation is a drug induced method to enable multiple ovulation, i.e., multiple follicle growth to oocytes or matured follicles in a single menstrual cycle. IVF being a medical procedure that aims at manipulating the biological functions in the human body is subjected to inherent sources of uncertainty and variability. Also, the interplay of hormones with the natural functioning of the ovaries to stimulate multiple ovulation as against single ovulation in a normal menstrual cycle makes the procedure dependent on several factors like the patient's condition in terms of cause of infertility, actual ovarian function, responsiveness to the medication, etc. The treatment requires continuous monitoring and testing and this can give rise to errors in observations and reports. These uncertainties are present in the form of measurement noise in the clinical data. Thus, it becomes essential to look at the process noise and account for it to build better representative models for follicle growth. The purpose of this work is to come up with a robust model which can project the superovulation cycle outcome based on the hormonal doses and patient response in a better way in presence of uncertainty. The stochastic model results in better projection of the cycle outcomes for the patients where the deterministic model has some deviations from the clinical observations and the growth term value is not within the range of '0.3-0.6'. It was found that the prediction accuracy was enhanced by more than 70% for two patients by using the stochastic model projections. Also, in patients where the prediction accuracy did not increase significantly, a better match with the trend of the clinical data was observed in case of the

  6. Generating Transgenic Mice by Lentiviral Transduction of Spermatozoa Followed by In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekran, Anil; Casimir, Colin; Dibb, Nick; Readhead, Carol; Winston, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Most transgenic technologies rely on the oocyte as a substrate for genetic modification. Transgenics animals are usually generated by the injection of the gene constructs (including lentiviruses encoding gene constructs or modified embryonic stem cells) into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg followed by the transfer of the injected embryos into the uterus of a foster mother. Male germ cells also have potential as templates for transgenic development. We have previously shown that mature sperm can be utilized as template for lentiviral transduction and as such used to generate transgenic mice efficiently with germ line capabilities. We provide here a detailed protocol that is relatively simple, to establish transgenic mice using lentivirally transduced spermatozoa. This protocol employs a well-established lentiviral gene delivery system (usual for somatic cells) delivering a variety of transgenes to be directly used with sperm, and the subsequent use of these modified sperm in in vitro fertilization studies and embryo transfer into foster female mice, for the establishment of transgenic mice. PMID:27317176

  7. Associations between free fatty acids, cumulus oocyte complex morphology and ovarian function during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jungheim, Emily S.; Macones, George A.; Odem, Randall R.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Lanzendorf, Susan E.; Ratts, Valerie S.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if follicular free fatty acid (FFA) levels are associated with cumulus oocyte complex morphology Design Prospective cohort study Setting University in vitro fertilization (IVF) practice Patients 102 women undergoing IVF Interventions Measurement of FFAs in serum and ovarian follicular fluid Main Outcome Measures Total and specific follicular and serum FFA levels, correlations between follicular and serum FFAs, and associations between follicular FFA levels and markers of oocyte quality including cumulus oocyte complex (COC) morphology Results Predominant follicular fluid and serum FFAs were oleic, palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Correlations between follicular and serum FFA concentrations were weak (r=0.252, 0.288, 0.236, 0.309 respectively for specific FFAs; r=0.212 for total FFAs). A receiver operator characteristic curve determined total follicular FFAs ≥ 0.232 µmol/ml distinguished women with lower versus higher percentage COCs with favorable morphology. Women with elevated follicular FFAs (n=31) were more likely to have COCs with poor morphology than others (n=71) (OR 3.3, 95% CI:1.2–9.2). This relationship held after adjusting for potential confounders including age, BMI, endometriosis and amount of gonadotropin administered (β=1.2; OR 3.4, 95% CI:1.1–10.4). Conclusions Elevated follicular FFA levels are associated with poor COC morphology. Further work is needed to determine what factors influence follicular FFA levels and if these factors impact fertility. PMID:21353671

  8. Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1 as an outcome of in vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Karaer, K; Yüksel, Z

    2014-01-01

    Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type I [OMIM #190350] is an autosomal dominant disorder. Common features are: Slowly growing sparse hair, laterally thin eyebrows, bulbous tip of the nose, long philtrum, thin upper lip, protruding ears. Common skeletal anomalies include shortening of phalanges and metacarpals causing mild to severe brachydactyly, cone shaped epiphyses, hip dysplasia and short stature. Recently many reports have been published on the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and the increased risk of congenital major malformations or syndromes. We present a 6 years old Turkish Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) case of a twin pair after in vitro fertilization (IVF). TRPS with IVF pregnancy has not been reported previously. This new case reported herein will contribute to a better understanding whether ART pregnancy increases congenital malformations. PMID:24783650

  9. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Belkien, L.D.; Bordt, J.; Moeller, P.; Hano, R.; Nieschlag, E.

    1985-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E/sub 2/ were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E/sub 2/ throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E/sub 2/ was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E/sub 2/ concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E/sub 2/ levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E/sub 2/ provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program.

  10. Effect of body mass index on in vitro fertilization outcomes in women

    PubMed Central

    Sathya, Anjali; Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Gupta, Shalu; Verma, Thankam

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a major health problem across the world. In women, it is known to cause anovulation, subfecundity, increased risk of fetal anomalies and miscarriage rates. However, in women going for assisted reproduction the effects of obesity on egg quality, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy, live birth rates are controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of women’s body mass index (BMI) on the reproductive outcome of non donor In vitro fertilization (IVF)/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The effects of BMI on their gonadotrophin levels (day 2 LH, FSH), gonadotrophin dose required for ovarian stimulation, endometrial thickness and oocyte/embryo quality were looked at, after correcting for age and poor ovarian reserve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of medical records of 308 women undergoing non donor IVF cycles in a University affiliated teaching hospital. They were classified into three groups: normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m2), overweight (BMI>25 <30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI>30 kg/m2). All women underwent controlled ovarian hyper stimulation using long agonist protocol. RESULTS: There were 88 (28.6%) in the normal weight group, 147 (47.7%) in the overweight and 73 (23.7%) in the obese group. All three groups were comparable with respect to age, duration of infertility, female and male causes of infertility. The three groups were similar with respect to day 2 LH/FSH levels, endometrial thickness and gonadotrophin requirements, oocyte quality, fertilization, cleavage rates, number of good quality embryos and clinical pregnancy rates. CONCLUSION: Increase in body mass index in women does not appear to have an adverse effect on IVF outcome. However, preconceptual counselling for obese women is a must as weight reduction helps in reducing pregnancy-related complications. PMID:21234174

  11. [Morphological changes in gametes of tiger barb Puntius tetrazona (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and the implementation of in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Castanedo, Omar; Toledano-Olivares, Ángel; Martínez-Espinosa, David; Ávalos-Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2014-12-01

    The production of ornamental fishes represents an economic activity of a growing number of Mexican families. Nevertheless, the reproduction of fish in captivity is one of the complications faced by farmers. This study was set up to: (i) evaluate the morphological and functional changes induced by hydration in the gametes of fish tiger barb (Puntius tetrazona; 240 samples) at tree times after hydration (10, 20 and 30s) with classic spermograms (volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and normal morphology); and (ii) evaluate the implementation of in vitro fertilization based on the ovulation rate, the percentage of fertilization and hatching; and the larval numbers obtained after 72 hours. The average volume of milt was 3.0 ± 0.7 μL, and the minimum, maximum and average concentration of sperm was 44.4 x 10(6) spz/mL, 52.3 x 10(6) spz/mL, and 48.1 ± 5.9 x 10(6) spz/mL, respectively. The viability and motility of the sperm was 84.6 ± 3.2% and 81.5 ± 2.2%, respectively. The diameter of the sperm with/without water contact was 2.10 ± 6 μm and 3.8 ± 1.0 μm (p < 0.05); the largest diameter was recorded 30 seconds after the contact with water. For oocytes, the smaller and larger diameters were recorded at 10 and 30s, respectively (both with/without water contact); the oocytes diameters after 10 and 30 seconds of contact with water were 1.11 and 1.55 mm, respectively. A higher ovulation rate was recorded using the in vitro fertilization: 250 ± 50 oocytes versus 28 ± 09 oocytes (during natural fertilization; p < 0.05). Nevertheless, fertilization and hatching rates were higher for the natural fertilization (80 and 60%, respectively). Considering the number of larvae obtained after 72 hours, our results showed a higher value for the in vitro fertilization (75 ± 18 compared to 13.4 ± 12 of the natural fertilization; p < 0.05). We propose this fish as a model for other ornamental fishes of commercial interest. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro

  12. Handling of boar spermatozoa during and after flow cytometric sex-sorting process to improve their in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, D; Parrilla, I; Gil, M A; Maside, C; Tarantini, T; Angel, M A; Roca, J; Martinez, E A; Vazquez, J M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an adequate sperm handling protocol in order to obtain a sex-sorted sperm population with an optimal fertilizing ability. For this purpose, different aspects of the sorting procedure were examined. The effects of the high dilution rates (experiment 1), type of collection medium used (experiment 2), and sheath fluid composition (experiment 3) on sorted boar sperm quality and function were evaluated. Sperm quality was assessed by motility and viability tests, whereas sperm function was evaluated by an in vitro fertilization assay which determined the penetration and polyspermy rates as well as the mean number of sperm penetrating each oocyte. In experiment 1, the results obtained indicated that the high dilution rates did not cause a decrease either in the sperm quality parameters evaluated or the in vitro fertilization ability of spermatozoa. In experiment 2, although sperm quality was not affected, fertilizing ability was compromised after sorting, regardless of the collection medium that was used. In the experiment 3, all groups displayed adequate sperm quality values, but higher in vitro fertility parameters were obtained for spermatozoa sorted in presence of EDTA in the sheath fluid and egg yolk (EY) in the collection media when compared with those sorted in absence of these protective agents. No differences in penetration rates between unsorted highly diluted (control) and sorted sperm in the presence of EDTA and EY were observed. In conclusion, fertilizing ability was compromised in sex-sorted sperm. The addition of EDTA to sheath fluid and EY to collection medium improved boar sperm fertilizing ability, and both agents should be included as essential media components in future studies. PMID:23746874

  13. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  14. Influence of temperature stress on in vitro fertilization and heat shock protein synthesis in maize (Zea mays L. ) reproductive tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, I.; Dumas, C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the response of maize (Zea mays) male and female mature reproductive tissues to temperature stress. We have tested the fertilization abilities of the stressed spikelets and pollen using in vitro pollination-fertilization to determine their respective tolerance to stress. The synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs) was also analyzed in male and female tissues using electrophoresis of {sup 35}S-labeled proteins and fluorography, to establish a relationship between the physiological and molecular responses. Pollen, spikelets, and pollinated spikelets were exposed to selected temperatures (4, 28, 32, 36, or 40{degree}C) and tested using an in vitro fertilization system. The fertilization rate is highly reduced when pollinated spikelets are exposed to temperatures over 36{degree}C. When pollen and spikelets are exposed separately to temperature stress, the female tissues appear resistant to 4 hours of cold stress (4{degree}C) or heat stress (40{degree}C). Under heat shock conditions, the synthesis of a typical set of HSPs is induced in the female tissues. In contrast, the mature pollen is sensitive to heat stress and is responsible for the failure of fertilization at high temperatures. At the molecular level, no heat shock response is detected in the mature pollen.

  15. Sexually dimorphic effect of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on adult mouse fat and liver metabolomes.

    PubMed

    Feuer, Sky K; Donjacour, Annemarie; Simbulan, Rhodel K; Lin, Wingka; Liu, Xiaowei; Maltepe, Emin; Rinaudo, Paolo F

    2014-11-01

    The preimplantation embryo is particularly vulnerable to environmental perturbation, such that nutritional and in vitro stresses restricted exclusively to this stage may alter growth and affect long-term metabolic health. This is particularly relevant to the over 5 million children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). We previously reported that even optimized IVF conditions reprogram mouse postnatal growth, fat deposition, and glucose homeostasis in a sexually dimorphic fashion. To more clearly interrogate the metabolic changes associated with IVF in adulthood, we used nontargeted mass spectrometry to globally profile adult IVF- and in vivo-conceived liver and gonadal adipose tissues. There was a sex- and tissue-specific effect of IVF on adult metabolite signatures indicative of metabolic reprogramming and oxidative stress and reflective of the observed phenotypes. Additionally, we observed a striking effect of IVF on adult sexual dimorphism. Male-female differences in metabolite concentration were exaggerated in hepatic IVF tissue and significantly reduced in IVF adipose tissue, with the majority of changes affecting amino acid and lipid metabolites. We also observed female-specific changes in markers of oxidative stress and adipogenesis, including reduced glutathione, cysteine glutathione disulfide, ophthalmate, urate, and corticosterone. In summary, embryo manipulation and early developmental experiences can affect adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and metabolic physiology. PMID:25211591

  16. Monozygotic multiple gestation following in vitro fertilization: analysis of seven cases from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yanaihara, Atsushi; Yorimitsu, Takeshi; Motoyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hideaki; Kawamura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We present a series of monozygous multiple gestations achieved following in vitro fertilization (IVF): one case of monochorionic triplet pregnancy and six cases of dizygotic triplet pregnancy. From September 2000 to December 2006, all patients achieving clinical pregnancy by ART were reviewed (n = 2433). A 37 year-old woman who delivered a healthy singleton after IVF returned two years later for FET, and a single blastocyst was transferred. This also resulted in pregnancy, but TV-USG revealed a single gestational sac with three distinct amniotic sacs, each containing a distinct fetal pole with cardiac activity. This pregnancy was electively terminated at nine weeks' gestation. An additional six cases of dizygotic triplets established after fresh embryo transfer (no ICSI or assisted hatching) are also described. Of these, one resulted in a miscarriage at eight weeks' gestation and five patients have an ongoing pregnancy. This case series suggests the incidence of dizygotic/monochorionic triplets following IVF is approximately 10 times higher than the expected rate in unassisted conceptions, and underscores the importance of a conservative approach to lower the number of embryos at transfer. The role of embryo transfer technique and in vitro culture media in the twinning process requires further study. PMID:17888172

  17. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  18. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) administration prior to superovulation.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-10-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to the oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 48 h later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); using the same dose, group 2 received hCG 52 h post-PMSG and group 3, 55 h post-PMSG. Group 4 received buserelin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist [GnRH]) followed 24 h later by PMSG and then hCG 55 h post-PMSG. IVF was performed using 129S1/SvImJ oocytes and sperm; C57BL/6J sperm with 129S1/SvImJ oocytes was used as fertility control. The IVF fertility rate was 1% (Groups 1 and 2), 17% (Group 3) and 55% (Group 4) for 129 oocytes fertilized with 129 sperm. For 129 oocytes fertilized with C57BL/6J sperm, the fertility rate was 5% (Group 1), 10% (Group 2), 40% (Group 3) and 59% (Group 4). These results suggest that extending the interval time between PMSG and hCG and giving GnRH in addition to the standard PMSG and hCG treatments can improve IVF fertility rate of 129S1/SvImJ mouse strains significantly. PMID:23097563

  19. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  20. Survey of the Situation of Infertile Women Seeking In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xuan; Wang, Gongxian; Liu, Sisun; Zhang, Jing; Zeng, Fang; Qiu, Yun; Huang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, people's knowledge of reproductive health and infertile women's psychological states was surveyed in several countries. However, there has been limited information concerning the psychological states of infertile women seeking treatment and the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in China. Methods. Infertile women were asked to complete short questionnaires on the day that their oocytes were retrieved; these questionnaires covered the durations of their infertility, levels of education, sources of pressure, and psychological states. Data concerning IVF outcomes were provided by embryologists and clinicians. The correlations between the duration of infertility and educational level, psychological state and education level, and psychological state and outcome of IVF were analyzed in the cohort study. Results. The duration of infertility in more than half of the females was longer than 5 years. Compared with less-educated women, women with higher levels of education sought treatment earlier and their rates of depressive symptoms were lower. There is an association between negative emotions and outcome of IVF. Conclusions. The survey of the situations of infertile women seeking IVF treatment in China indicates the importance of popularizing knowledge concerning reproductive health. Improving medical conditions, reducing the costs of treatment, and developing social culture will aid in relieving the stress of infertile women and improving assisted reproductive treatment. PMID:24369006

  1. Comparison of different stimulation protocols used in in vitro fertilization: a review

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Deekshya; Feng, Huai L.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is one of the major medical problems in the western world caused by genetic or epigenetic factors, or both, which has led to continuous research and advancements in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Many stimulation protocols are available for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in in vitro fertilization (IVF). This review compares the agonist long protocol, antagonist protocol and minimal stimulation protocol. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and minimal stimulation protocol has shorter duration of treatment and less gonadotropin use. GnRH agonist long protocol is better in folliculogenesis and pregnancy rate, which is the imperative goal of COH. Despite its costly and lengthy approach, GnRH agonist long protocol has delivered satisfactory results in most women. On the other hand, patients with poor ovarian reserve may have greater advantage when considering minimal stimulation protocol. Evidently, it is crucial to have a larger scale studies with more focused comparisons, which take into account the differences in patients’ response criteria and additional confounding variables (age, BMI, previous IVF outcomes etc.), in order to reach to a more definite conclusions. PMID:26207230

  2. [Blood cell chimerism in dizygotic twins conceived by in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, G Á; Campos, C; Flores, R; Yturriaga, R; Pérez-Jurado, L A; Argente, J

    2013-10-01

    We present a case of hematopoietic chimerism in dizygotic twins (male and female) conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF). At 8 years of age a blood karyotype was performed on the female due to the presence of clitoromegaly. Two different lines: 46,XX (53%) and 46,XY (47%) were found. FISH studies confirmed the presence of the SRY gene in 46,XY cells. Karyotyping of the male showed two different lines: 46,XY (58%) and 46,XX (42%). SRY gene was present in 46,XY cells. Microsatellite analyses of blood DNA revealed tetra-allelic contribution at some autosomal loci with similar proportions of maternal and paternal alleles and X/Y chromosome dose. FISH in buccal mucous showed that all cells from the female were 46,XX and those from the male 46,XY. The gonadal karyotype in the female was 46,XX without SRY. Hence, we report 46,XX/46,XY chimerism in dizygotic twins. Blood chimerism was confirmed by performing FISH on the buccal cells of the patients. PMID:23726690

  3. Psychiatric morbidity in parents of twins born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques.

    PubMed

    Munro, J M; Ironside, W; Smith, G C

    1990-12-01

    A matched comparison was made of 158 parents of preschool twins conceived under three conditions; spontaneously, after infertility workup including drug treatment, and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Indications of probable psychiatric caseness were obtained using the 60-item General Health Questionnaire. IVF parents' mean scores were similar to those of parents who spontaneously conceived, and both were significantly greater than those who conceived after an infertility workup. Mothers and fathers overall had similar scores, contrary to previous community findings of higher rates of psychiatric disorder among females. The prevalence of probable psychiatric caseness was less for IVF and spontaneously conceiving mothers, but greater for the respective fathers, than in an English community sample and greater than in an Australian community sample. The extent to which the self-reports of current psychiatric disturbance can be ascribed to any preexisting psychopathology is unknown. Indications of increased psychiatric disturbance found in this investigation warrant further prospective investigations, especially of the difficulties of rearing twins when couples are vulnerable in having this degree of psychiatric morbidity. PMID:2077086

  4. Promising system for selecting healthy in vitro-fertilized embryos in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Yamanouchi, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos are morphologically evaluated at the time of embryo transfer to select those that are likely to establish a pregnancy. This method is, however, subjective and results in unreliable selection. Here we describe a novel selection system for IVF bovine blastocysts for transfer that traces the development of individual embryos with time-lapse cinematography in our developed microwell culture dish and analyzes embryonic metabolism. The system can noninvasively identify prognostic factors that reflect not only blastocyst qualities detected with histological, cytogenetic, and molecular analysis but also viability after transfer. By assessing a combination of identified prognostic factors--(i) timing of the first cleavage; (ii) number of blastomeres at the end of the first cleavage; (iii) presence or absence of multiple fragments at the end of the first cleavage; (iv) number of blastomeres at the onset of lag-phase, which results in temporary developmental arrest during the fourth or fifth cell cycle; and (v) oxygen consumption at the blastocyst stage--pregnancy success could be accurately predicted (78.9%). The conventional method or individual prognostic factors could not accurately predict pregnancy. No newborn calves showed neonatal overgrowth or death. Our results demonstrate that these five predictors and our system could provide objective and reliable selection of healthy IVF bovine embryos. PMID:22590579

  5. Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Implantation Failure among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Flaws, Jodi A.; Berry, Katharine F.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Petrozza, John C.; Wright, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins found in numerous consumer products. In experimental animals, BPA increases embryo implantation failure and reduces litter size. Objective: We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods: We used online solid phase extraction–high performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry to measure urinary BPA concentrations in 137 women in a prospective cohort study among women undergoing IVF at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center in Boston, Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of cycle-specific urinary BPA concentrations with implantation failure, accounting for correlation among multiple IVF cycles in the same woman using generalized estimating equations. Implantation failure was defined as a negative serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin test (β-hCG < 6 IU/L) 17 days after egg retrieval. Results: Among 137 women undergoing 180 IVF cycles, urinary BPA concentrations had a geometric mean (SD) of 1.53 (2.22) µg/L. Overall, 42% (n = 75) of the IVF cycles resulted in implantation failure. In adjusted models, there was an increased odds of implantation failure with higher quartiles of urinary BPA concentrations {odds ratio (OR) 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 2.95}, 1.60 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.78), and 2.11 (95% CI: 0.84, 5.31) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.06). Conclusion: There was a positive linear dose–response association between BPA urinary concentrations and implantation failure. PMID:22484414

  6. Impact of oxygen concentrations on fertilization, cleavage, implantation, and pregnancy rates of in vitro generated human embryos

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhao-Feng; Shi, Sen-Lin; Jin, Hai-Xia; Yao, Gui-Dong; Wang, En-Yin; Yang, Hong-Yi; Song, Wen-Yan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of oxygen concentration during in vitro culture of human oocytes and embryos on fertilization, cleavage, implantation, pregnancy, multiple gestation and abortion rates. Women 20-48 years old presenting for infertility treatment and accounting for 3484 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study. Oocytes/embryos were randomly allocated to be incubated under three different oxygen tension environments: (1) 20% O2 in air; (2) initially 20% O2 in air, followed on day 2 (2-4 cells stage) by 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2; and (3) 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 throughout. Interestingly, IVF-derived embryos cultured in 5% O2 yielded higher rates of fertilization and implantation as compared to those incubated in 20% O2 (P < 0.05). Conversely, embryos in 20% O2 yielded higher rates of fertilization, high quality embryo and implantation than those in the 20%-5% O2 group (P < 0.05). Moreover, ICSI-derived embryos cultured in 20% O2 resulted in lower rates of cleavage as compared to those from the 20%-5% O2 group (P < 0.05). These results are consistent with in vitro and subsequent in vivo embryo development being more susceptible to O2 tension fluctuations rather than the degree of O2 tension itself during culture. PMID:26131222

  7. Effect of Phosalone on Testicular Tissue and In Vitro Fertilizing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Amniattalab, Amir; Razi, Mazdak

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of phosalone (PLN) as an organophosphate (OP) compound on testicular tissue, hormonal alterations and embryo development in rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided 18 mature Wistar rats into three groups-control, control-sham and test (n=6 per group). Animals in the test group received one-fourth the lethal dose (LD50) of PLN (150 mg/kg), orally, once per day for 45 days. DNA laddering and epi-fluorescent analyses were performed to evaluate testicular DNA fragmentation and RNA damage, respectively. Serum levels of testosterone and inhibin-B (IN-B) were evaluated. Testicular levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules (TTM) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were analyzed. Finally, we estimated sperm parameters and effect of PLN on embryo development. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Results There was severe DNA fragmentation and RNA damage in testicular tissue of animals that received PLN. PLN remarkably (p<0.05) decreased testicular TAC, TTM and GSH-px levels. Animals that received PLN exhibited significantly (p<0.05) decreased serum levels of testosterone and IN-B. Reduced sperm count, viability, motility, chromatin condensation and elevated sperm DNA damage were observed in the test group rats. PLN resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of in vitro fertilizing (IVF) potential and elevated embryonic degeneration. Conclusion PLN reduced fertilization potential and embryo development were attributed to a cascade of impacts on the testicles and sperm. PLN promoted its impact by elevating DNA and RNA damages via down-regulation of testicular endocrine activity and antioxidant status. PMID:25918597

  8. Does dilation and curettage versus expectant management for spontaneous abortion in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization affect subsequent endometrial development?

    PubMed

    Moon, Kimberly S; Richter, Kevin S; Levy, Michael J; Widra, Eric A

    2009-11-01

    In in vitro fertilization patients, treatment of spontaneous abortion with dilation and curettage (D&C) versus expectant management has no long-term effect on subsequent endometrial development, as measured by change in endometrial thickness. A transient reduction in endometrial thickness was found within the first 6 months after D&C, which is a novel finding, but it is likely to have little or no effect on pregnancy rates given the small absolute effect on endometrial thickness. PMID:19560759

  9. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  10. The impact of in vitro fertilization on health of the children: an update.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2011-02-01

    Infertile couples make up approximately 10% of the worldwide population, and around 1% of current live births are a result of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Since the time that this technology was first applied, many studies have been performed in order to determine the risk associated with infertility treatments. Short- and long-term risks have been identified, which confirm that the major complications are due to multiple pregnancies. In a previous study we described in detail the main reproductive processes, the techniques for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and the risks associated with each of them, with a focus on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In this review we provide an update from 2007 to the present. In particular, in addition to new information on post-pregnancy complications and infant morbidity and malformations, we report data on rare syndromes, including recent case reports. Although data are controversial, an association between IVF and a minor increase in the incidence of birth defects has been confirmed. Several lines of evidence also suggest that there may be a link between ART and psychological disorders in the parents and the child. Finally, recent findings draw attention to the need for accurate clinical and psychological counselling of couples before any treatment decisions are made. PMID:21093976

  11. Effect of body mass index and age on in vitro fertilization in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Kalem, Ziya; Sarı, Tamer; Ateş, Can; Gürgan, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate age-related variations in the effect of body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Material and Methods This was a cohort study conducted by retrospectively investigating the IVF cycles of 653 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients under the age of 40 years who were diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria in a private IVF clinic between 2005 and 2015. The study included data from 653 IVF cycles of PCOS patients. The patients were classified into three groups based on their BMI, i.e., normal weight (n=299), overweight (n=208), and obese (n=146). The patients were also grouped by age: 562 patients were under the age of 35 years and 91 patients were above the age of 35 years. Then, BMI- and age-related variations in the IVF cycle parameters and clinical pregnancy rates of patients with PCOS were investigated. The Mantel–Haenszel Chi-square statistical assessment method was used to determine whether the effect of BMI on IVF outcomes varies with age. Results Variations in cycle variables with BMI and age showed that IVF cycles were negatively affected by increases in obesity and age. Clinical pregnancy rates were found to be lower in the obese group than in the other groups, particularly in the age group above 35 years; however, this difference could not be proven statistically. Conclusion The present study evaluated obesity and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF cycles in PCOS patients according to age groups, and particularly in the obese group, the clinical pregnancy rates were observed to be lower in the age group ≥35 years than in the other BMI groups; however, this difference was found to be statistically insignificant. PMID:27403074

  12. Thioredoxin, an antioxidant redox protein, in ovarian follicles of women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Ikuko; Ohishi, Miho; Akiba, Yasuo; Asada, Hironori; Konishi, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masao; Kamei, Kiyoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Maruyama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a bidirectional role in the development and maturation of zygotes and embryos. Reduction-oxidation reactions and regulatory proteins, such as thioredoxin (TRX) and thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), are intimately involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of TRX mRNA and protein in ovarian follicles collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to assess these levels relative to follicle size, presence of oocytes, and responsiveness to superovulation. Follicular fluid (FF) and/or granulosa cells (GCs) from large and small follicles were collected at the time of ovum pick-up from 42 IVF patients enrolled in this study. We divided the patients into normal and poor responders (NR and PR, respectively) based on the serum estradiol levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. We also compared the TRX concentration in FF (FF-TRX) between oocyte-containing follicles (Oc+) and empty follicles (Oc-). The transcript levels of TRX, but not TRXR, were significantly higher in GCs derived from follicles collected from NR than PR, as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In NR, the FF-TRX was significantly higher in Oc+ follicles than in Oc- follicles and also in large Oc+ follicles than in large Oc- follicles. Unlike NR, PR exhibited no positive association with elevated FF-TRX and presence of oocytes. Based on its collective anti-oxidative, cytoprotective, and cytokine-like properties of TRX, TRX is likely to be involved in the optimal growth and maturation of ovarian follicles and responsiveness to hyperstimulation. PMID:26536897

  13. Prerequisite work-up of the couple before in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Ron-El, R; Bracha, Y; Herman, A; Golan, A; Soffer, Y; Bukovsky, I; Caspi, E

    1992-04-01

    Prerequisite examinations, including immune status for rubella and hepatitis B antigens, cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas, Pap smear and hystersalpingogram were performed in 227 couples before their enrollment into an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) programme. The examinations were completed in 187 couples. Immune status for rubella had already been documented in 45% of the women: of the remainder, 11 patients were not immune (6%). A screening test for hepatitis B antigens had already been documented in only 10% of the patients; eight of the remaining women (5%) were carriers of hepatitis B antigen. C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis were each isolated from 14% of the patients and Ureaplasma urealiticum from 16%. Pap smears had been previously performed in only 35% of the enrolled women. Six (5%) of the 122 newly referred cases had cervical intra-epithelial dysplasia. In 21 (11%) cases some pathology in the uterine cavity was demonstrated. One patient conceived after diagnostic hysteroscopy; another two patients conceived following lysis of adhesions and before IVF treatment. The results of this study show the importance of the preparatory examinations before the IVF and embryo transfer procedure, and raise the medical and medico-legal aspects of this prerequisite work-up. PMID:1522189

  14. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    GLOBEVNIK VELIKONJA, Vislava; LOZEJ, Tina; LEBAN, Gaja; VERDENIK, Ivan; VRTAČNIK BOKAL, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. Methods In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn’s data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group. Results The mean women’s age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in “friend/acquaintances” (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05). Conclusions IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed.

  15. Impaired imprinted X chromosome inactivation is responsible for the skewed sex ratio following in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kun; An, Lei; Miao, Kai; Ren, Likun; Hou, Zhuocheng; Tao, Li; Zhang, Zhenni; Wang, Xiaodong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Jinghao; Wang, Zhuqing; Xi, Guangyin; Gao, Shuai; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, De-Sheng; Wang, Shumin; Wu, Zhonghong; Bach, Ingolf; Chen, Dong-Bao; Tian, Jianhui

    2016-03-22

    Dynamic epigenetic reprogramming occurs during normal embryonic development at the preimplantation stage. Erroneous epigenetic modifications due to environmental perturbations such as manipulation and culture of embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) are linked to various short- or long-term consequences. Among these, the skewed sex ratio, an indicator of reproductive hazards, was reported in bovine and porcine embryos and even human IVF newborns. However, since the first case of sex skewing reported in 1991, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We reported herein that sex ratio is skewed in mouse IVF offspring, and this was a result of female-biased peri-implantation developmental defects that were originated from impaired imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI) through reduced ring finger protein 12 (Rnf12)/X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) expression. Compensation of impaired iXCI by overexpression ofRnf12to up-regulateXistsignificantly rescued female-biased developmental defects and corrected sex ratio in IVF offspring. Moreover, supplementation of an epigenetic modulator retinoic acid in embryo culture medium up-regulatedRnf12/Xistexpression, improved iXCI, and successfully redeemed the skewed sex ratio to nearly 50% in mouse IVF offspring. Thus, our data show that iXCI is one of the major epigenetic barriers for the developmental competence of female embryos during preimplantation stage, and targeting erroneous epigenetic modifications may provide a potential approach for preventing IVF-associated complications. PMID:26951653

  16. The psychological profile and affective response of women diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg Romano, Gabi; Ravid, Hila; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Azem, Foad; Shachar, Izhak; Bloch, Miki

    2012-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that unexplained infertility may be related to specific personality and coping styles. We studied two groups of women with explained infertility (EIF, n = 63) and unexplained infertility (UIF, n = 42) undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Women completed personality and coping style questionnaires prior to the onset of the cycle, and state depression and anxiety scales before and at two additional time points during the cycle. Almost no in-between group differences were found at any of the measured time points in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 validity and clinical scales, Illness Cognitions and Life Orientation Test, or for the situational measures. The few differences found suggest a more adaptive, better coping, and functioning defensive system in women with EIF. In conclusion, we did not find any clinically significant personality differences or differences in depression or anxiety levels between women with EIF and UIF during an IVF cycle. Minor differences found are probably a reaction to the ambiguous medical situation with its uncertain prognosis, amplifying certain traits which are not specific to one psychological structure but rather to the common experience shared by the group. The results of this study do not support the possibility that personality traits are involved in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. PMID:22847827

  17. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Methods In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fibroids. Results Patient characteristics were similar between the fibroid and control groups. The IVF/ICSI outcomes in patients with fibroids were similar to those of patients in the control group. The resistance index (RI) and pulsatile index (PI) of the uterine and subendometrial arteries on the day of embryo transfer were also comparable between the two groups. IVF outcomes and uterine hemodynamics in patients with multiple (≥2) fibroids were similar to those of patients with a single fibroid. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). The RI and PI of the subendometrial artery were significantly higher on the day of embryo transfer in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). Conclusion Fibroids which distorting the uterine cavity might impair the subendometrial artery blood flow clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF. Otherwise, IVF outcomes were not influenced by the presence of uterine fibroids. PMID:26816875

  18. Monitoring in-vitro bovine embryo development during the first days after fertilization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Rubessa, Marcello; Fernandes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tan H.; Wheeler, Matthew B.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Conventional label-based contrast enhancement techniques (e.g., fluorescence) frequently modify the genetic makeup of tagged cells, making them poor candidates for use in in-vitro fertilization applications. Instead, we choose a label-free form of contrast, based on interferometric imaging, sensitive to optical path length differences. Compared to, single HeLa cells, typical mammalian ova and embryos are more than an order of magnitude thicker. As a result, regions of large phase variation lead to phase wrapping and an overall reduction in signal intensity occurs due to multiple scattering. These effects manifest themselves in low-spatial frequencies (blurs), with the desired details buried in the background. We present a phase shifting interferometer that yields the derivative of the phase, a quantity whose value is particularly sensitive to local variations and fine details. We demonstrate that our new real-time imaging platform is valuable in measuring the multiday development of bovine embryos. Reconstructing the derivative of the image phase and amplitude, we characterize the motion of previously low-contrast structures, which are relevant for embryo viability tests.

  19. Factors Associated with the Success of In Vitro Fertilization in Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Sveta Shah; Pabby, Vikas; Dodge, Laura E.; Hacker, Michele R.; Fox, Janis H.; Moragianni, Vasiliki A.; Correia, Katharine; Missmer, Stacey A.; Ibrahim, Yetunde; Penzias, Alan S.; Burakoff, Robert; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether certain factors are associated with the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim This study assessed whether certain characteristics are associated with greater success of live birth following IVF. Methods In a cohort study of 8684 women with IBD seen at two tertiary care centers, we identified 121 women with IBD who underwent IVF. We assessed the effect of numerous factors on likelihood of achieving live birth after IVF. Results Seventy-one patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 49 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) were analyzed. Patients with UC who achieved a live birth were younger (p = 0.03), had a shorter duration of disease (p = 0.01), and were more likely to be in remission (p = 0.03) versus those who did not achieve live birth. Patients with CD who achieved live birth were younger (p < 0.001), had lower body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02), and had lower cycle day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p = 0.02). There was no difference in likelihood of achieving live birth among patients in remission and those with mild or unknown disease status (p = 0.69), though most CD patients (79.5 %) were in remission. Prior surgery was not associated with live birth in patients with UC (p = 0.31) or CD (p = 0.62). Conclusions As in the general infertility population, younger patients and those with lower BMI were more likely to achieve live birth. History of surgery was not associated with live birth among IBD patients. This is important information for practitioners counseling IBD patients. PMID:26888767

  20. Suicidal risk among infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization: Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shani, Chen; Yelena, Stukalina; Reut, Ben Kimhy; Adrian, Shulman; Sami, Hamdan

    2016-06-30

    Despite the fact that depression and other emotional distress are well documented in infertile women, little is known about the relationship between infertility and suicidal risk. The aim of this cross sectional study was to examine the rate of suicide risk (suicidal ideation/suicidal attempts) among 106 infertile women visiting Infertility and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Hospital Unit, and to identify the demographic, medical and clinical correlates to suicidal risk. The incidence of suicide risk was 9.4%. Suicidal women were more likely to be childless or had fewer children and experienced higher levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, they reported more frequently on denial, social withdrawal and self-blame coping strategies compared to participants without suicidal risk. A multiple logistic regression model revealed that being childless, using non-positive reappraisal and exhibiting depressive symptoms were significant predictors of suicide risk in the future. These results suggest that routine assessment of suicidal risk and depression should be provided for infertile women in the course of IVF. Furthermore, future interventions should focus on helping them acquire different emotions regulation strategies and provide alternative skills for positive coping. PMID:27084991

  1. HYPERGLYCOSYLATED HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN AS AN EARLY PREDICTOR OF PREGNANCY OUTCOMES AFTER IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Chuan, Sandy; Homer, Michael; Pandian, Raj; Conway, Deirdre; Garzo, Gabriel; Yeo, Lisa; Su, H. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if hyperglycosylated hCG (hhCG), produced by invasive trophoblasts, measured as early as 9 days after egg retrieval can predict ongoing pregnancies (OP) after in vitro fertilization and fresh embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Design Cohort Setting Academic ART center Patients Consecutive patients undergoing IVF-ET Interventions Serum hhCG and hCG levels measured 9 (D9) and 16 (D16) days after egg retrieval Outcome Ongoing pregnancy (OP) beyond 9 weeks of gestation Results OP (62 of 112 participants) was associated with higher D9 levels of hhCG and hCG However, hhCG was detectable in all D9 OP samples, while hCG was detectable in only 22%. D9 hhCG levels >110 pg/mL was 96% specific for OP, yielding a positive predictive value of 95%. Compared to D9 hCG levels, hhCG was more sensitive and had a larger area under the curve (0.87 vs. 0.67). Diagnostic test characteristics were similar between D16 hhCG and hCG levels. Conclusions In patients undergoing assisted reproduction, a test to detect pregnancy early and predict outcomes is highly desirable. HhCG is detectable in serum 9 days after egg retrieval IVF-ET cycles. At this early assessment, hhCG is superior to traditional hCG and highly predictive of ongoing pregnancies. PMID:24355054

  2. Support through patient internet-communities: Lived experience of Russian in vitro fertilization patients

    PubMed Central

    Isupova, Olga G.

    2011-01-01

    The article is concerned with the life experiences of infertile women going through infertility treatment and their need for social and psychological support, which they try to find in their immediate social environment. The Internet has become one place where everyone can find “people like oneself.” The best support is received from these people who are in the same life situation and are able and willing to share their lived experiences with each other. Communication via the Internet and the formation of a virtual community of patients has both positive and negative aspects, all of which are examined in the article. On the one hand, it creates a psychologically favorable atmosphere and might potentially increase the success rate of IVF treatment. On the other, this leads to the seclusion of patients within the circle of “similar people” and sometimes to negative attitudes towards people outside the circle. The article is based on the author's “netnography” research of a virtual community of Russian In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)1 patients. PMID:21760835

  3. [Impact of leptin levels on outcome of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Fu; Huang, He-Feng

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of ovarian stimulation on leptin levels and their effect on in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). METHODS: In 39 women who underwent IVF-ET, serum and follicular fluid leptin and E(2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay. Blood samples were collected just prior to FSH and HCG injection and follicles puncture. Follicular fluid was collected at the time of oocyte retrieval. RESULTS: The serum leptin levels before HCG administration (26.1+/-2.3)&mgr;g/L were significantly higher than before FSH administration (9.3+/-1.0)&mgr;g/L and oocyte retrieval (15.8+/-2.3)&mgr;g/L(P<0.001). On the day of oocyte retrieval, there was no significant difference between the serum leptin(15.8+/-2.3)&mgr;g/L.and the follicular fluid leptin (18.5+/-2.2)&mgr;g/L. Serum and follicular leptin levels in successful pregnancies were significantly lower(P<0.05) than in women with failed conception. CONCLUSION: It could indicate that high leptin levels may interfere with the developing of dominant follicles. PMID:12596302

  4. Anesthesia Related Toxic Effects on In Vitro Fertilization Outcome: Burden of Proof

    PubMed Central

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Kaminioti, Eva; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Management of pain and anxiety during oocyte retrieval makes anesthesia an important part of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. There are many studies investigating the influence of anesthesia on IVF success. This review article provides an overview of published data regarding the potential toxic effects of different anesthetic techniques (Loco-regional, general anesthesia (GA), and monitored anesthesia care (MAC)), different anesthetic agents, and alternative medicine approach (principally acupuncture) on the IVF outcome. From our analysis, evidence of serious toxicity in humans is not well established. Trials regarding different anesthetic techniques ended up without clear conclusions. Studies about GA came up with conflicting results. A few trials relate GA with lower pregnancy rates, although some others failed to prove this conclusion. Furthermore, detectable amounts of some anesthetic agents are measurable in the follicular fluid but these findings are not strongly associated with toxicity. MAC and Loco-regional anesthesia appear as safe alternative choices and there is evidence of improved outcome. Whereas acupuncture may provide assistance increasing IVF success according to some trials, some others could not obtain these effects. Questions about the appropriate time of application and the underlying mechanism of action are not answered yet, so further investigation should be done. PMID:26161404

  5. Risk Factors and Early Predictors for Heterotopic Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiju; Zhang, Xiuqing; Geng, Ling; Xia, Mingdi; Zhai, Junyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yuchao; Sun, Yinhua; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhu, Dongyi; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the risk factors and early predictors for heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). From January 2008 to January 2013, 41 cases of HP and 72 cases of intrauterine twin pregnancy after IVF-ET were recruited and retrospectively analyzed. Compared with intrauterine twin pregnancy group, the HP group had a lower basal luteinizing hormone (LH) level (P = 0.005) and more cases had a history of hydrosalpinx (P = 0.008). After 14 days of IVF-ET, the serum β-HCG (β-human chorionic gonadotropin), E2 (Estradiol) and P (Progesterone) levels were lower in HP group (P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain were the significant features of HP before diagnosis (P<0.001, respectively). Further by logistic regression, serum β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding were identified as the independent factors of HP. These results indicate that when two or more embryos transferred in IVF procedure, β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding could be taken as predictors for HP. PMID:26510008

  6. Risk Factors and Early Predictors for Heterotopic Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ling; Xia, Mingdi; Zhai, Junyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yuchao; Sun, Yinhua; Zhang, Jiangtao; Zhu, Dongyi; Zhao, Han; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the risk factors and early predictors for heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). From January 2008 to January 2013, 41 cases of HP and 72 cases of intrauterine twin pregnancy after IVF-ET were recruited and retrospectively analyzed. Compared with intrauterine twin pregnancy group, the HP group had a lower basal luteinizing hormone (LH) level (P = 0.005) and more cases had a history of hydrosalpinx (P = 0.008). After 14 days of IVF-ET, the serum β-HCG (β-human chorionic gonadotropin), E2 (Estradiol) and P (Progesterone) levels were lower in HP group (P<0.001, respectively). Moreover, vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain were the significant features of HP before diagnosis (P<0.001, respectively). Further by logistic regression, serum β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding were identified as the independent factors of HP. These results indicate that when two or more embryos transferred in IVF procedure, β-hCG, P levels on the 14th day after ET, and vaginal bleeding could be taken as predictors for HP. PMID:26510008

  7. Development of a Chinese childbearing attitude questionnaire for infertile women receiving in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Hsin; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Lu, Yen-Chiao; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Lee, Maw-Shen; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the second phase of instrument development, a culturally sensitive questionnaire of childbearing attitudes to assess the psychosocial responses of infertile women. Using a nonexperimental quantitative design, we investigated 238 women who are undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. Data collection and relevant planning occurred in two phases: in-depth interviews of women to generate items for the questionnaire and establishing the questionnaire's content and construct validity. Through factor analysis, five factors were extracted from the "attitude toward childbearing questionnaire": gender identification with self and society, insurance of marriage and inheritance, happy family life, spiritual investment, and continuing the family line and procreation. The total variance of these five factors was 64.31%. Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability were between .72 and .87 and between .60 and .76, respectively, demonstrating acceptable internal consistency and stability. The information obtained through the questionnaire could be used to provide infertile women with personal counseling and appropriate psychological support during and after assisted reproductive technology. PMID:23460456

  8. Circulating microRNAs in follicular fluid, powerful tools to explore in vitro fertilization process

    PubMed Central

    Scalici, E.; Traver, S.; Mullet, T.; Molinari, N.; Ferrières, A.; Brunet, C.; Belloc, S.; Hamamah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating or “extracellular” microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in biological fluids, could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of several disease, such as cancer, gynecological and pregnancy disorders. However, their contributions in female infertility and in vitro fertilization (IVF) remain unknown. This study investigated the expression profiles of five circulating miRNAs (let-7b, miR-29a, miR-30a, miR-140 and miR-320a) in human follicular fluid from 91 women with normal ovarian reserve and 30 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their ability to predict IVF outcomes. The combination of FF miR-30a, miR-140 and let-7b expression levels discriminated between PCOS and normal ovarian reserve with a specificity of 83.8% and a sensitivity of 70% (area under the ROC curve, AUC = 0.83 [0.73–0.92]; p < 0.0001). FF samples related to low number of mature oocytes (≤2) contained significant less miR-320a levels than those related to a number of mature oocytes >2 (p = 0.04). Moreover, FF let-7b predicted the development of expanded blastocysts with 70% sensitivity and 64.3% specificity (AUC = 0.67 [0.54–0.79]; p = 0.02) and FF miR-29a potential to predict clinical pregnancy outcome reached 0.68 [0.55–0.79] with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 53.5% (p = 0.01). Therefore, these miRNAs could provide new helpful biomarkers to facilitate personalized medical care during IVF. PMID:27102646

  9. Bisphenol A exposure reduces the estradiol response to gonadotropin stimulation during in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Kim, Dongsul; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.; Cheng, Gloria; Lamb, Julie D.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Investigate associations between serum BPA concentrations and follicular response to exogenous ovary stimulation. Design Fasting serum was prospectively collected on the day of oocyte retrieval and assessed for unconjugated BPA using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with Coularray detection. Multivariable linear regression and negative binomial regression were used to assess associations between concentrations of BPA and outcome measures. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, antral follicle count at baseline, and cigarette smoking. Setting A reproductive health center. Patients Forty-four women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Main outcome measures Peak-estradiol level (E2) and the number of oocytes retrieved during IVF. Results The median unconjugated serum BPA concentration is 2.53 ng/ml (range 0.3–67.36 ng/ml). Bisphenol A is inversely associated with E2 (β=−0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.32, 0.01), as well as with E2 normalized to the number of mature-sized follicles at the hCG trigger (β=−0.14; 95%CI −0.24, −0.03). No association is observed for BPA and the number of oocytes retrieved (adjusted risk ratio=0.95; 95%CI 0.82, 1.10). Conclusions Bisphenol A is associated with a reduced estradiol response during IVF. Although limited by the preliminary nature of this study, these results merit confirmation in a future comprehensive investigation. PMID:21813122

  10. A more realistic approach to the cumulative pregnancy rate after in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Stolwijk, A M; Hamilton, C J; Hollanders, J M; Bastiaans, L A; Zielhuis, G A

    1996-03-01

    As most studies overestimate the cumulative pregnancy rate, a method is proposed to estimate a more realistic cumulative pregnancy rate by taking into account the reasons for an early cessation of treatment with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Three methods for calculating cumulative pregnancy rates were compared. The first method assumed that those who stopped treatment had no chance at all of pregnancy. The second method, the one used most often, assumed the same probability of pregnancy for those who stopped as for those who continued. The third method assumed that only those who stopped treatment, because of a medical indication, had no chance at all of pregnancy and that the others who stopped had the same probability of pregnancy as those who continued treatment. Data were used from 616 women treated at the University Hospital Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The cumulative pregnancy rates after five initiated IVF cycles for the three calculation methods were in the ranges 37-51% for the positive pregnancy test result, 33-55% for a clinical pregnancy and 30-56% for an ongoing pregnancy. As expected, the first method underestimated the cumulative pregnancy rate and the second overestimated it. The third method produced the most realistic cumulative pregnancy rates. PMID:8671287

  11. Two direct radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol evaluated for use in monitoring in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Haning, R V; Meier, S M; Boehnlein, L M; Gerrity, M; Shapiro, S S

    1984-05-01

    Two direct 125I radioimmunoassays for 17 beta-estradiol were evaluated by comparing results with those obtained by a comparison RIA involving extraction and chromatography (x) and with ultrasound parameters of ovarian activity. The correlation coefficients (R2) for the Immuchem Covalent-Coat Solid Phase 125I results (y1) and the Pantex Immuno-direct results (y2) with the comparison method results were 0.56 and 0.96, respectively, after log transformation of data (N = 42). Similar differences were observed in the correlations with the ultrasound parameters. We also evaluated the untransformed data by linear regression and obtained: y1 = 254 + 0. 410x (R2 = 0.65) and y2 = 48.2 + 0. 749x (R2 = 0.96). Between- and within-assay variations for a serum pool containing 17 beta-estradiol at 1278 pg/mL were respectively 9.0% and 9.4% for Immuchem , 3.3% and 6.7% for Pantex , and 7.3% and 9.4% for the comparison method; for the 267 pg/mL pool, these were 21.8% and 16.6% for Immuchem , 4.7% and 4.6% for Pantex , and 21.2% and 13.1% for the comparison method. Differences in the results obtained with the Pantex method and the comparison method were not clinically significant for monitoring superovulation for in vitro fertilization; the performance of the Immuchem method was less satisfactory. PMID:6713642

  12. MEN’S BODY MASS INDEX IN RELATION TO EMBRYO QUALITY AND CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN COUPLES UNDERGOING IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wright, Diane L.; Toth, Thomas L.; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between men’s body mass index (BMI), early embryo quality and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in an academic medical center. Patients 114 couples that underwent 172 ART cycles. Interventions None Main outcome measure Fertilization rate, embryo quality, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Results Fertilization rate was higher among obese men than among normal weight men (p-trend=0.04) in conventional IVF cycles. No significant associations were found between men’s BMI and the proportion of poor quality embryos on day 3 (p-trend =0.67), slow embryo cleavage rate (p-trend=0.17), or accelerated embryo cleavage rate (p-trend =0.07). Men’s BMI was unrelated to positive β-hCG rate (p-trend =0.37), clinical pregnancy rate (p-trend =0.91) or live birth rate (p-trend =0.42) per embryo transfer. Among couples undergoing ICSI, the odds of live birth in couples with obese male partners was 84% (95% CI 10%–97%) lower than the odds in couples with men with normal BMI (p-trend=0.04). Conclusion Our data suggest a possible deleterious effect of male obesity on the odds of having a live birth among couples undergoing ICSI. PMID:22884013

  13. Interstitial Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Following Bilateral Salpingectomy: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Garavaglia, Elisabetta; Quaranta, Lavinia; Redaelli, Anna; Colombo, Gabriella; Pasi, Federica; Candiani, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is defined as the implantation and development of an embryo outside the uterus. Its incidence has increased over the past two decades. We report two cases of interstitial pregnancy on a tubal stump following bilateral salpingectomy and in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. We emphasize the importance of total salpingectomy during surgery in order to avoid interstitial pregnancy, particularly in women undergoing IVF treatments. PMID:25493171

  14. Laser irradiation of mouse spermatozoa enhances in-vitro fertilization and Ca2+ uptake via reactive oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Natalie; Lubart, Rachel; Rubinstein, Sara; Breitbart, Haim

    1996-11-01

    630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation was found to have a profound influence on Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing potential of these cells. Laser irradiation affected mainly the mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the effect of light was found to be Ca2+-dependent. We demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the cascade of biochemical events evoked by laser irradiation. A causal association between laser irradiation, ROS generation, and sperm function was indicated by studies with ROS scavengers, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and exogenous hydrogen peroxide. SOD treatment resulted in increased Ca2+ uptake and in enhanced fertilization rate. Catalase treatment impaired the light-induced stimulation in Ca2+ uptake and fertilization rate. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was found to enhance Ca2+ uptake in mouse spermatozoa and the fertilizing capability of these cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the effect of 630 nm He-Ne laser irradiation is mediated through the generation of hydrogen peroxide by the spermatozoa and that this effect plays a significant role in the augmentation of the sperm cells' capability to fertilize metaphase II-arrested eggs in-vitro.

  15. Women's psychological profile and psychiatric diagnoses and the outcome of in vitro fertilization: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Zaig, Inbar; Azem, Foad; Schreiber, Shaul; Gottlieb-Litvin, Yael; Meiboom, Hadas; Bloch, Miki

    2012-10-01

    The influence of psychological processes and psychiatric syndromes on the outcome of fertility treatments is not well understood. In this prospective study, we investigated the effect of baseline psychiatric diagnosis and situational psychiatric symptoms on several biological outcome factors of in vitro fertilization treatments (IVF). Women undergoing their first IVF treatment (n = 108) were interviewed before treatment for the presence of a lifetime DSM-IV-TR disorder. Questionnaires measuring state depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory), and psychiatric symptomatology (Brief Symptom Inventory) were administered at ovulation induction. Outcome variables were number of retrieved and fertilized oocytes, chemical pregnancy, and a take home baby. Situational anxiety, depression, or other psychiatric symptoms had no effect on any of the outcome measures. Women diagnosed with mood or anxiety disorder prior to the onset of the IVF treatment showed a higher, though not statistically significant, pregnancy success rate compared to women without a diagnosis (57 % compared to 38 %). We speculate that in women with such psychopathology, chronic stress results in biological effects that impede successful implantation, thus impairing fertility. Fertility treatment using the IVF paradigm may bypass this negative effect, resulting in high success rates. This hypothesis should be further explored. PMID:22767032

  16. Differential influence of ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells on zona pellucida hardening and in vitro fertilization in ovine.

    PubMed

    Dadashpour Davachi, Navid; Zare Shahneh, Ahmad; Kohram, Hamid; Zhandi, Mahdi; Shamsi, Helia; Hajiyavand, Amir M; Saadat, Mozafar

    2016-03-01

    The central role of the oviduct, as the site of zona pellucida (ZP) maturation, fertilization and early embryogenesis, has been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ampullary and isthmic derived epithelial cells have different effects on in vitro ZP hardening, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) of the resulting embryos. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in a coculture system with ampullary/isthmic epithelial cells, TCM199 supplemented with insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial derived growth factor (EGF) (GF treated group), conditioned media produced using ampullary (ACM), isthmic (ICM), COCs+ampullary, and COCs+isthmic epithelial cells, contactless culture system, oviductal fluid, GF+ACM/ICM, and drops of TCM199 (control), for 24h. The matured oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: Group I was subjected to ZP digestion; Group II underwent IVF. The duration of the ZP digestion, in a coculture system with ampullary epithelial cells (AE) was significantly increased (p<0.05), compared with other groups. Penetrated oocytes and monospermic fertilization were significantly increased (p<0.05) in the AE group. The mean number of spermatozoa per penetrated oocyte was reduced dramatically for the AE group (p<0.05). A significant increase (p<0.05) in the embryo development was observed in all treated groups, compared to the control. Results revealed that epithelial cells harvested from the ampullary segment of the oviduct had in vitro specialized role in ZP hardening and have subsequent IVF and IVC outcomes. PMID:26952755

  17. LOCALIZATION OF THE SPERM PROTEIN SP22 AND INHIBITION OF FERTILITY IN VIVO AND IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously established that the levels sperm membrane protein SP22 are highly correlated with the fertility of sperm from the cauda epididymidis of rats exposed to both epididymal and testicular toxicants, and that a testis-specific SP22 transcript is expressed in post-meiotic...

  18. Development of goat embryos after in vitro fertilization and parthenogenetic activation by different methods.

    PubMed

    Ongeri, E M; Bormann, C L; Butler, R E; Melican, D; Gavin, W G; Echelard, Y; Krisher, R L; Behboodi, E

    2001-06-01

    Effective activation protocols that can be used during nuclear transfer investigations in goats need to be developed. We compared the development of IVF goat embryos with those of nonfertilized parthogenetically developing oocytes activated by treatment with either ionomycin or ethanol, both followed by immediate exposure to 6-diethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from abattoir goat ovaries were either matured in a conventional laboratory incubator or placed in pre-equilibrated maturation medium and shipped overnight in a battery-operated dry incubator to another laboratory. Mature COCs were allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups. Group 1 oocytes (n=169 shipped, n=253 not shipped) were fertilized in vitro at 24 h postmaturation (hpm). The remaining COCs were activated at 28 hpm in either ionomycin (Group 2: n=362 shipped, n=202 not shipped), or ethanol (Group 3: n=263 shipped, n=249 not shipped). Activated oocytes were immediately incubated in 6-DMAP for 4 h. Blastocyst development was evaluated on Day 8 post-insemination/activation. Percent cleavage was comparable in shipped and nonshipped oocytes and in all treatment groups. In both shipped and nonshipped oocytes, parthenotes developing from ionomycin- and ethanol-activated oocytes had significantly greater blastocyst development (P<0.01) compared to IVF embryos (28.5 +/- 3.0, 27.4 +/- 2.8, 10.3 +/- 3.0, respectively for the nonshipped oocytes and 9.9 +/- 2.1, 10.3 +/- 2.4, 3.7 +/- 4.7 respectively for the shipped oocytes). Shipped oocytes had lower blastocyst development compared to nonshipped oocytes in the three treatment groups. The mean blastocyst cell number was not statistically different between shipped and nonshipped oocytes or among treatment groups, suggesting that all were equally viable. PMID:11414497

  19. Does hormonal contraception prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) negatively affect oocyte yields? - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As oral contraceptives (OCs) suppress anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and hormonal contraceptives (HCs), likely, suppress functional ovarian reserve, this study was initiated to determine whether HC affect oocyte yields. Methods We investigated in a retrospective cohort study 43 oocyte donors in 71 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, evaluating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and oocyte yields as reflections of functional ovarian reserve (OR). In 25 IVF cycles egg donors were on HC within one month prior to IVF, and in 46 cycles they were not. Donors, based on their HCs, were further subdivided into 12 with less, and 13 with more androgenic progestins. Results While the three groups did not differ in age, age at menarche, BMI and AMH, oocyte yields among donors who utilized estrane- and gonane-derived (higher androgenic) HCs were lower 11.3 (95% CI 8.3 – 14.3) than either donors using no HCs 16.6 (95% CI 14.7 -18.4) (P < 0.05) or those using anti-androgenic HCs 19.0 (95% CI 12.2-25.8) (P< 0.01). Significance was maintained after adjustments for the donor age and total FSH dose used in ovulation induction. Conclusions Even in young oocyte donors, high androgenic OC exposure appears to suppress functional ovarian reserve and oocyte yields. Since OCs are often routinely used in preparation for IVF, such practice may require reevaluation. Especially in women with diminished ovarian reserve OCs, and especially high androgenic progestin HCs, should, likely, be avoided. PMID:23557032

  20. Rapamycin Influences the Efficiency of In vitro Fertilization and Development in the Mouse: A Role for Autophagic Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geun-Kyung; Shin, Hyejin; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cellular processes such as cell growth, metabolism, transcription, translation, and autophagy. Rapamycin is a selective inhibitor of mTOR, and induces autophagy in various systems. Autophagy contributes to clearance and recycling of macromolecules and organelles in response to stress. We previously reported that vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes show acute increases in autophagy during warming, and suggested that it is a natural response to cold stress. In this follow-up study, we examined whether the modulation of autophagy influences survival, fertilization, and developmental rates of vitrified-warmed mouse oocytes. We used rapamycin to enhance autophagy in metaphase II (MII) oocytes before and after vitrification. The oocytes were then subjected to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The fertilization and developmental rates of vitrified-warmed oocytes after rapamycin treatment were significantly lower than those for control groups. Modulation of autophagy with rapamycin treatment shows that rapamycin-induced autophagy exerts a negative influence on fertilization and development of vitrified-warmed oocytes. PMID:26954158

  1. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  2. Effects of Vitrification on Immature and in vitro Matured, Denuded and Cumulus Compact Goat Oocytes and Their Subsequent Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Govind Narayan; Meena, Harikesh; Solanki, Kanika

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitrification has proven to be more effective than slow freezing methods to cryopreserve mammalian oocytes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of vitrification on immature and in vitro matured, denuded and cumulus compact goat oocytes and their subsequent fertilization. Methods Oocytes were either cryopreserved as immature cumulus compact (IMCC) (n=98 Exp 1; 102 Exp 2) and immature denuded (IMDN) (n=127 Exp 1; 109 Exp 2) or were first matured in vitro for 28 h and then cryopreserved as mature cumulus compact (MCC) (n=109 Exp 1; 89 Exp 2) or mature denuded (MDN) (n=112 Exp 1; 110 Exp 2) oocytes in four groups. The vitrification solution comprised of Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline supplemented with 0.5% sucrose, 0.4% bovine serum albumin and 8 M propylene glycol. After 7 days of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, oocytes in all groups were evaluated for normal morphologic survival and in vitro maturation (Experiment 1) and fertilization in vitro using epididymal buck spermatozoa (Experiment 2). Results The number of oocytes retaining normal morphology was significantly higher (p <0.05) for cumulus compact oocytes (IMCC: 94.12% vs. IMDN: 89.22%, experiment 1 and MCC: 87.80% vs. MDN: 82.17%, experiment 2) compared to the denuded oocytes. The in vitro maturation of oocytes was highest for non-vitrified control oocytes. The maturation of vitrified IMCC oocytes was significantly higher than IMDN and their fertilizability was higher than MCC and MDN oocytes. Conclusion The results suggest that immature cumulus compact goat oocytes better tolerate cryopreservation stress by vitrification in terms of fertilization rate. PMID:23926524

  3. Differential evaluation of human sperm hypoosmotic swelling test and its relationship with the outcome of in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Chan, S Y; Wang, C; Chan, S T; Ho, P C

    1990-01-01

    The hypoosmotic swelling test is a simple laboratory test to measure the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane. Its in-vivo and in-vitro applicability needs to be evaluated before it can be accepted as a useful routine test for the fertilizing potential of human semen. We studied the standard semen analysis results and differential sperm tail swelling patterns of seminal and swim-up sperm after hypoosmotic treatment in 97 semen samples used for in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes. Semen samples were classified as infertile (0% fertilization rate; n = 27) or fertile (greater than 0% fertilization rate; n = 70) before statistical analyses. There was a significant difference (P less than 0.005) in percentage normal morphology of seminal sperm between the fertile and infertile semen samples. The percentage normal morphology of seminal sperm correlated (r = 0.4250; P less than 0.005) with the in-vitro fertilization rate of human oocytes and this parameter was selected by the multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis as the discriminator capable of predicting the in-vitro fertilization rate with 57.7% accuracy. The percentage total swelling of seminal and swim-up sperm after hypoosmotic treatment was not correlated with the in-vitro fertilization rate. The percentage swelling pattern g (the open type) of seminal sperm was also selected by the multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis as the discriminator to predict the in-vitro fertilization rate. This parameter correlated with the percentage normal morphology of seminal sperm (r = 0.3014; P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2324249

  4. Serum and follicular fluid concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and in-vitro fertilization outcome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Paula I.; Altshul, Larisa; Cramer, Daniel W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of endocrine disruption and reproductive effects in animals following exposure to certain PBDEs, but human studies are limited. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of serum and follicular fluid as biomarkers of exposure to PBDEs and to explore whether a relationship between PBDE exposure and early pregnancy loss exists. We measured 8 PBDE congeners in archived serum and ovarian follicular fluid samples from 65 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Logistic regression models were used to predict the odds of failed embryo implantation associated with higher levels of PBDEs among the women in the study. There were moderate Kendall’s Tau-beta correlations between serum and follicular fluid concentrations of BDE 28, 47, 100 and 154 (Tβ =0.29–0.38, all p-values<0.005), but BDE 99 and 153 were not correlated between the two matrices (Tβ<0.2, p-values>0.05). Women with detectable concentrations of BDE 153 (39% had detectable levels) in follicular fluid had elevated odds of failed implantation compared with women who had non-detectable concentrations (adjusted OR=10.0; 95%CI: 1.9 to 52; p=0.006; adjusted by age and body mass index). These findings suggest that exposure to BDE 153 may be associated with failed embryo implantation. Due to our observation of only moderate correlations between matrices, serum PBDE concentrations may not be a good indicator of follicular fluid concentrations when studying early pregnancy endpoints in women undergoing IVF. PMID:22572111

  5. Effect of Fibroblast Co-culture on In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Malekshah, Abbasali Karimpour; Parivar, Kazem; Khanbabaei, Ramezan; Rafiei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate fibroblast co-culture on in vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal mouse preantral follicles. Materials and Methods The ovaries of 12-14 day old mice were dissected and 120-150 μm intact preantral follicles with one or two layers of granulosa cells, and round oocytes were cultured individually in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 mIU/ml recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, 1% insulin, transferrin, selenium mix, 100 μg/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin as base medium for 12 days. A total number of 226 follicules were cultured under two conditions: i) base medium as control group (n=113); ii) base medium co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) (n=113). Follicular diameters, alone, in addition to other factors were analyzed by student’s t-test and chi-square test, respectively. Results The co-culture group showed significant differences (p<0.05) in growth rate (days 4, 6 and 8 of the culture period) and survival rate. However, there was no significant difference in antrum formation, ovulation rate and embryonic development of released oocytes. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the estradiol and progesterone secretion at all days between the co-culture and control groups. Conclusion Fibroblast co-culture increased survival rate and steroid production of preantral follicles by promoting granulosa cell proliferation. PMID:24917917

  6. Association of FMR1 Genotypes with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Outcomes Based on Ethnicity/Race

    PubMed Central

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Lee, Irene H.; Barad, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The FMR1 gene, mapping to an area of the X chromosome closely associated with autoimmunity also affects ovarian reserve, with specific genotypes associated with distinct ovarian aging patterns. They, therefore, could also be associated with differences of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, reported between races/ethnicities. We analyzed 339 consecutive IVF patients, 232 Caucasian, 59 African and 48 Asian, for FMR1 genotypes, and tested by multiple logistic regressions for associations between race/ethnicity, FMR1 genotype, autoimmunity and pregnancy chances with IVF. FMR1 genotypes were predictive of pregnancy (P = 0.046), het-norm/low most significantly and with decreasing chance in comparison to norm genotypes (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23–0.85; P = 0.014). Race/ethnicity was, overall, independently associated (P = 0.03), African demonstrating decreased odds in comparison to Caucasian (OR 0.33. 95%CI 0.13–0.79; P = 0.014). Autoimmunity did not differ but interaction of autoimmunity with FMR1 genotype almost reached significance (P = 0.07). Logistic regression with race/ethnicity and interaction between FMR1 genotype and autoimmunity in the model, demonstrated 2.5-times the odds of being associated with autoimmune positivity (OR 2.5, 1.34–4.55; P = 0.004). FMR1 genotypes offer a possible explanation for differences in IVF outcomes between races/ethnicities. PMID:21526209

  7. Effect of the bovine oviductal fluid on in vitro fertilization, development and gene expression of in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; García-Roselló, E; Pericuesta, E; Pérez-Cerezales, S; Gutierrez-Adán, A; Coy, P; Silvestre, M A

    2013-04-01

    Oviductal microenvironment generally provides better conditions for early embryo development than the conventional in vitro system. In an attempt to simulate the oviduct conditions or the main potentially influencing factors, the effect was studied of a bovine oviductal fluid (bOF) treatment applied prior to IVF on (i) IVF parameters, (ii) cleavage rate, (iii) blastocyst yield and (iv) blastocyst quality. Embryo quality was assessed by morphological embryo quality and relative transcript abundance of several developmental genes in bovine blastocysts. Furthermore, to study the effect of bOF without the male effect and zona-sperm interaction, artificially activated metaphase II oocytes were also treated with bOF. In vitro-matured bovine oocytes from abattoir ovaries were treated or untreated with bOF for 30 min and then washed prior to IVF or activation. Subsequently, in vitro-fertilized and parthenogenetic embryos were in vitro cultured for 7 to 8 days. The bOF treatment had no effect on fertilization parameters, cleavage, blastocyst rates both on parthenogenetic and IVF bovine embryos and neither on morphological quality of IVF blastocysts. G6PD and SOD2 genes from IVF blastocysts showed significant changes in their expression after a bOF treatment. Significant differences were found for the expression of SCL2A1, GPX1, BAX, AKR1B1 and PLAC8 genes between excellent or good blastocysts (Grade 1) and fair blastocysts (Grade 2). To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of bOF oocyte treatment on fertilization parameters, development and quality of bovine embryos. PMID:22908847

  8. Novel and traditional traits of frozen-thawed porcine sperm related to in vitro fertilization success.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Bradford W; McNamara, Kelli A; Purdy, Phillip H; Krisher, Rebecca L; Knox, Robert V; Miller, David J

    2014-07-15

    Cryopreserved semen allows the use of single ejaculates for repeated analyses, potentially improving IVF consistency by eliminating interejaculate variability observed with fresh semen. However, the freezing and thawing processes result in compromised sperm function and IVF success. Semen samples are often screened for motility before use for IVF. Samples that are below a designated motility threshold may be discarded. Our objectives were to determine if post-thaw sperm motility, other traits that may be indicative of sperm function, or a novel assay of oviduct binding were related to IVF success. Semen from 16 boars was cooled to 15 °C for overnight shipment before cryopreservation. Semen was thawed and motility was recorded microscopically and confirmed using computer-automated sperm assessment. Each sample was tested by IVF in two to three independent replicates. Regression and correlation analyses were employed to determine the interrelationships between sperm traits and the relationships between post-thaw motility, sperm-oviduct binding and IVF outcomes. Among the sperm traits examined, sperm acrosome integrity was negatively correlated with post-thaw motility (r(2) = 0.64) but not with IVF results. The number of sperm bound to oviduct aggregates was correlated with IVF polyspermy rates (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.05) but less with overall IVF rates (r(2) = 0.31, P > 0.10). There was some relationship of post-thaw motility with IVF monospermic fertilization (P = 0.06, r(2) = 0.08) but not to other IVF outcomes. Our results indicate that post-thaw motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm is strongly related to acrosome integrity but has limited use for predicting IVF success. The number of sperm bound to oviduct cells was related to IVF polyspermy rates and may be more indicative of in vitro sperm function than traditional sperm motility and acrosome status evaluation. PMID:24839923

  9. In vitro fertilization in pigs: New molecules and protocols to consider in the forthcoming years.

    PubMed

    Romar, Raquel; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Coy, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproduction technology (ART) protocols are used in livestock for the improvement and preservation of their genetics and to enhance reproductive efficiency. In the case of pigs, the potential use of embryos for biomedicine is being followed with great interest by the scientific community. Owing to the physiological similarities with humans, embryos produced in vitro and many of those produced in vivo are used in research laboratories for the procurement of stem cells or the production of transgenic animals, sometimes with the purpose of using their organs for xenotransplantation. Several techniques are required for the production of an in vitro-derived embryo. These include in vitro oocyte maturation, sperm preparation, IVF, and further culture of the putative zygotes. Without doubt, among these technologies, IVF is still a critical limiting factor because of the well-known, but still unsolved, question of polyspermy. Despite the improvements made in the past decade, current IVF systems hardly reach 50% to 60% efficiency and any progression in porcine ARTs requires an unavoidable improvement in the monospermy rate. It is time, then, to learn from what happens under in vivo physiological conditions and to transfer this knowledge into ART. This review describes the latest advances in porcine IVF, from sperm preparation procedures to culture media supplements with special attention paid to molecules with a known or potential role in in vivo fertilization. Oviductal fluid is the natural medium in which fertilization takes place, and, in the near future, could become the definitive supplement for culture media, where it would help to solve many of the problems inherent in ARTs in swine and improve the quality of in vitro-derived porcine embryos. PMID:26271164

  10. The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for in vitro fertilization failure in a Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Mao, Genhong; Lu, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wu-Liang; Tao, Shi-Bo; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and variants with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure. A retrospective, comparative study of 260 fresh IVF cycles in a Han Chinese population was performed from July 2011 to April 2014. Seventy-three couples had low fertilization rates (≤30%) or total fertilization failure, and 187 controls with normal fertilization were included. Human sperm mtDNA haplogroups and variants were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and direct sequencing. One unreported point variant, A15397G, and two novel deletions at positions 8270-8278 and 8276-8284 were found in this study. A homozygous variant, G9053A in MT-ATP6, was detected in 4 of the 73 cases with fertilization failure, whereas this substitution was not detected in the control group (p < 0.01). The frequency of the point 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 in the IVF failure group was markedly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this study showed that the frequencies of point 8701 and 8943 heterozygous variants in MT-ATP6 in the IVF failure group were also markedly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, the frequency of haplogroup Z was markedly higher in the IVF failure group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that MT-ATP6 variants might be possible causes of IVF failure, but the 10397 homozygous variant in MT-ND3 might help decrease the risk of developing IVF failure. Furthermore, this study indicated that men with haplogroup Z might inherit a higher risk of IVF failure in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26242719

  11. In vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed feline epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Axnér, Eva; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation offers a potential for rescuing genetic material from endangered or valuable animals after injury or death. Spermatozoa from corpus, as well as from cauda, have the capability to be motile and to undergo capacitation and can thus potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. In the present study, feline frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions were investigated for their ability to fertilize homologous oocytes and further embryo development in vitro. Epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda of seven cats were cryopreserved and used for IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 419) were obtained from female cats after routine spaying. Frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa showed similar properties of acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and chromatin integrity as frozen-thawed spermatozoa from cauda except corpus spermatozoa showed lower motility (P < 0.05). The fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by similar number of embryos developing to the two- and four-cell stages compared with sperm from cauda (32.03% vs. 33.33%). However, oocytes fertilized with corpus spermatozoa had lower potential to develop to the blastocyst stage (6.79%) and had lower cell numbers compared to oocytes fertilized with cauda spermatozoa (14.08%). In conclusion, spermatozoa from corpus epididymis had a similar capability to fertilize homologous oocytes in vitro as sperm from cauda but resulted in fewer embryos developing to the blastocyst stage compared to spermatozoa from the cauda. PMID:27242180

  12. Development of in vitro fertilized feline embryos in a modified Earle's balanced salt solution: influence of protein supplements and culture dishes on fertilization success and blastocyst formation.

    PubMed

    Kanda, M; Miyazaki, T; Kanda, M; Nakao, H; Tsutsui, T

    1998-04-01

    The effects of protein supplements and culture dish type on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo development in culture were examined in the domestic cat. In Experiment I, follicular oocytes were fertilized and cultured in either 1) modified Earle's balanced salt solution, designated MK-1, supplemented with one of the following: 10% human serum (HS), 10% FCS or 0.4% BSA, or 2) Medium 199 (M-199) supplemented with 10% FCS. Fertilization rates were lower (P < 0.01) in MK-1 + BSA (74.4%), MK-1 + FCS (56.1%), and M-199 + FCS (51.4%) than in MK-1 + HS (94.7%). A greater (P < 0.01) percentage of blastocysts was obtained in MK-1 + HS (50.0%) than in other treatment groups (range, 4.3-17.2%). In Experiment II, the effect of dish type (tissue culture dish, TCD, versus suspension culture dish, SCD) on embryo development was evaluated in MK-1 supplemented with either HS or BSA. Significantly higher proportions of IVF-derived embryos developed to blastocysts at 120 and 144 hr post-insemination, respectively, when cultured in HS/SCD (47.2 and 71.7%) than in BSA/SCD (11.4 and 27.3%) or BSA/TCD (10.4 and 25.0%). At 120 hr post-insemination, there was a lower (P < 0.01) percentage of blastocysts in HS/TCD (22.2%) than in HS/SCD. In Experiment III, six embryos per cat were transferred to the uterine horns of 17 recipients at 144 hr after hCG treatment. Five of 7 recipients which received late morulae cultured in MK-1 + BSA (SCD) for 120 hr became pregnant (71.4%). Eight of 10 recipients which received early blastocysts cultured in MK-1 + HS (SCD) for 120 hr became pregnant (80.0%). We conclude that MK-1 containing HS is highly beneficial for overcoming the in vitro developmental block of IVF-derived feline embryos and increasing the success rate of IVF/ET. PMID:9592713

  13. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans. PMID:26683055

  14. Effects of media and the presence of bovine oviduct epithelial cells during in vitro fertilization on fertilizability and developmental capacity of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y H; Fukui, Y; Ono, H

    1991-11-01

    The effect of the presence of bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC; Experiment 1) as well as the effects of media (Tyrode fertilization medium: TFM vs synthetic oviduct fluid: SOF), fertilization containers (drops in petri dish vs 96-wells), and the number of oocytes per drop and well (5 vs 10) for in vitro fertilization (Experiment 2) on the fertilizability and in vitro development of bovine oocytes were investigated. Immature oocytes with cumulus cells were cultured in TCM199 supplemented with 10% ECS and 2.5x10(6) granulosa cells for 24 hours at 39 degrees C under 5% CO(2) in air. In vitro fertilization was performed with frozen-thawed, heparin-treated spermatozoa (100 mug/ml, 15 minutes) and with BOEC (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, in vitro fertilization was performed with two different media (TFM and SOF) and various conditions (culture dish and different number of oocytes). Cleavage, development to the blastocyst stage were evaluated on Day 2 and Day 7 after the start of culture. Effect of the presence of BOEC on fertilizability and developmental capacity (Experiment 1) was not significantly different. In Experiment 2, alterations in media, containers and number of oocytes during in vitro fertilization had no affect. The SOF medium showed results similar to those of TFM (normal fertilization rate: 63.2 vs 64%; cleavage: 69.3 vs 73.9%; development to the blastocyst stage: 14 vs 15%; and mean number of nuclei per blastocyst: 80.5 vs 86.6). The results indicate that the presence of BOEC during in vitro fertilization did not improve fertilizability, and that SOF as well as TFM medium can be utilized as a simple fertilization medium. PMID:16727055

  15. In vitro fertilization in ctenophores: sperm entry, mitosis, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry in Beroe ovata.

    PubMed

    Carré, D; Rouvière, C; Sardet, C

    1991-10-01

    We have found ways to control in vitro fertilization in a ctenophore (Beroe ovata) for the first time. This is based on the existence of a partial block to self-fertilization at the time of gamete release which can be overcome by removal of the egg envelope. It has allowed us to exploit the excellent optical properties of Beroe eggs to make detailed observations on all events from sperm penetration or penetrations in these physiologically polyspermic eggs to first cleavage, and to extend our initial observations (Carré and Sardet, 1984). Sperm entry is characterized by local modifications of the egg cortex in a 70-microns zone around the penetration site or sites. Upon sperm entry, the egg surface contracts and relaxes locally, then a fertilization cone forms and disappears. These events are accompanied by localized exocytosis, growth of a ring of microvilli, thickening of the egg cortex, and gathering of mitochondria around the sperm pronuclei. The female pronucleus then migrates beneath the egg surface toward one or successive sperm pronuclei. The fusion of pronuclei, sperm and egg chromatin intermixing, and mitosis were also observed with exceptional clarity. Furthermore, we have noticed that the direction of the last trajectory of the female pronucleus tends to define the orientation of the mitotic spindle, and as a consequence the position of first unipolar cleavage furrow. This in turn determines the future sagittal plane of the embryo and of the adult B. ovata. PMID:1680762

  16. Downregulation of miR-199a-5p Disrupts the Developmental Potential of In Vitro-Fertilized Mouse Blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kun; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhenni; Miao, Kai; Yu, Yong; An, Lei; Tian, Jianhui

    2016-09-01

    Although in vitro fertilization (IVF), one of the most effective and successful assisted reproductive technologies, is widely used for treating infertility and in animal breeding, increasing evidence indicates that IVF offspring are linked to various short- or long-term consequences. Erroneous epigenetic modifications induced by IVF are suspected of contributing to these consequences. Among these epigenetic modifications, microRNAs may affect embryo implantation and early postimplantation development. Here, we performed comparative microRNA profiling between in vivo-fertilized (IVO group) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF group) mouse embryos at Embryonic Day 3.5 (E3.5) and E7.5. Our dynamic analyses showed that the dysregulated microRNAs were mainly associated with the regulation of genes involved in carcinogenesis, genetic information processing, glucose metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and neurogenesis. Further analysis showed that miR-199a-5p was consistently downregulated in IVF embryos compared with their IVO counterparts. Through gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we demonstrated that IVF-induced downregulation of miR-199a-5p results in a higher glycolytic rate and lower developmental potential of IVF blastocysts, including cell lineage misallocation and lower fetal survival post implantation. Therefore, preventing downregulation of miR-199a-5p may become an effective strategy for improving the development of IVF peri-implantation embryos in the future. PMID:27488027

  17. Heterologous in vitro fertilization and sperm capacitation in an endangered African antelope, the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Weiss, R B; Buff, J L; Bush, L M; Wildt, D E; Bush, M

    1998-02-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx sperm function was studied using protocols developed for domestic cattle. Objectives were to assess sperm 1) viability and motility in vitro over time, 2) capacitation in heparin- or calcium-supplemented medium, and 3) function in an in vitro fertilization system using heterologous (domestic cow) oocytes. Seminal aliquots were washed, and sperm were resuspended in 1) Talp with 5% fetal calf serum (TALP), 2) TALP + 10 microM heparin, 3) TALP + 20 microM heparin, and 4) TALP + 10 mM CaCl. At 0, 3, and 6 h, aliquots were evaluated for sperm motility, viability (using Hoechst 33258), and ability to acrosome-react when exposed to lysophosphatidylcholine (LC). Sperm function was assessed by evaluating fertilization and embryo development after coculture of in vitro-matured domestic cow oocytes with oryx sperm. Overall mean percentages of motile and viable sperm remained high at 6 h (> 60% and > 70%, respectively). Fewer (p < 0.05) sperm incubated in TALP + 10 microM heparin for 6 h contained intact acrosomes after exposure to LC, but there were no differences between LC and control samples after incubation in TALP without heparin. LC-treated sperm in TALP + 10 mM CaCl contained fewer (p < 0.05) intact acrosomes at 3 and 6 h (52.6% and 31.2%, respectively) than paired controls (83.6% and 70.0%, respectively). Oryx sperm from all males were capable of fertilizing cow oocytes (range 17 of 26 [65.4%] to 25 of 26 [96.2%]). Of the 55 2-cell embryos produced, 34 (61.8%) developed to > or = 8 cells. Of the 24 uncleaved oocytes, 7 (29.2%) were polyspermic. These data demonstrate that processed sperm from the endangered scimitar-horned oryx remain vigorous in vitro for at least 6 h. Capacitation can be induced using cattle sperm-processing techniques, with sperm appearing most responsive to elevated CaCl concentrations. Most interesting was the successful production and development of hybrid embryos after coincubation of oryx sperm with cow oocytes, suggesting

  18. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on fertility quality of life and pregnancy rates among women subjected to first in vitro fertilization treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Long, Ling; Liu, Yu; He, Wei; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    Generally, undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an emotional and physical burden for the infertile woman, which may negatively influence the treatment outcome. We conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) among women subjected to first IVF treatment at a fertility medical center in China. Among infertile women registered for their first IVF treatment, 58 completed the intervention, and 50 were assigned to a control group using a non-randomized controlled study. Standardized measures of mindfulness, self-compassion, emotion regulation difficulties, infertility-related coping strategies and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) were endorsed pre- and post-MBI, and measure of pregnancy rates at the sixth months after the intervention. Both groups were shown to be equivalent at baseline. By the end of the intervention, women who attended the intervention revealed a significant increase in mindfulness, self-compassion, meaning-based coping strategies and all FertiQoL domains. Inversely, they presented a significant decrease in emotion regulation difficulties, active- and passive-avoidance coping strategies. Women in the control group did not present significant changes in any of the psychological measures. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between participants in the pregnancy rates, the experiment group higher than the control group. Being fully aware of the present moment without the lens of judgment, seems to help women relate to their infertility and IVF treatment in new ways. This is beneficial for promoting their self-compassion, adaptive emotion regulation and infertility-related coping strategies, which, in turn, may influence the FertiQoL and pregnancy rates. The brief and nonpharmaceutical nature of this intervention makes it a promising candidate for women' use during first IVF treatment. PMID:26742022

  19. Antioxidant effect of crocin on bovine sperm quality and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sapanidou, V; Taitzoglou, I; Tsakmakidis, Ι; Kourtzelis, I; Fletouris, D; Theodoridis, A; Zervos, I; Tsantarliotou, M

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production above critical levels affects the genetic and functional integrity of spermatozoa by causing oxidative stress. Spermatozoa are susceptible to oxidative stress in terms of motility and fertilization capacity. Crocin (crocetin di-gentiobiose ester), a main constituent of Crocus Sativus L. (saffron), is known for its antioxidant activity by scavenging ROS, especially superoxide anion. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of crocin on the quality characteristics of spermatozoa and fertilization rate. Frozen-thawed and washed spermatozoa from four different bulls were incubated with three different concentrations of crocin (0.5, 1, and 2 mM), for 120 and 240 minutes, in the presence of a negative control, and were evaluated in terms of motility, viability, acrosomal status, DNA fragmentation index, intracellular ROS, and lipid peroxidation. The most potent concentration of crocin (1 mM) was also added in the fertilization medium to test its impact on fertilization outcome. The results indicate that the incubation of spermatozoa with 1 mM of crocin resulted in a statistically significant lower production of ROS, lower lipid peroxidation and in better maintenance of motility, viability, and acrosomal integrity, with a very small number of fragmented cells, compared to the control and the other treated groups (P < 0.05). Crocin concentration of 1 mM resulted in a significant increase of blastocyst rate, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). These data indicate that crocin (1 mM) improves bovine sperm quality and its fertilization capability, directly and/or indirectly, by modulating ROS concentration. PMID:26253435

  20. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone troche supplementation improves the serum androgen profile of women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kevin N; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Namdar, Navid; Conceicao, Jason L; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John L

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone in the circulation and has potent multifunctional activity. Epidemiological evidence suggests that levels of serum DHEA decrease with advancing age, and this has been associated with onset or progression of various age-related ailments, including cognitive decline and dementia, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Consequently, these findings have sparked intense research interest in DHEA supplementation as an "antiaging" therapy. Currently, DHEA is being used by 25% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians as an adjuvant in assisted reproductive programs, yet the therapeutic benefit of DHEA is unclear. Here, we examined the use of novel DHEA-containing oral troches in patients undertaking IVF and investigated the impact of these troches on their serum androgen profile. This retrospective study determined the androgen profile of 31 IVF patients before (baseline) and after DHEA supplementation (with DHEA). Baseline serum measurements of testosterone (total and free), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione were made before and after supplementation. Each patient received DHEA troches containing 25 mg of micronized DHEA, and troches were administered sublingually twice daily for a period of no greater than 4 months. Adjuvant treatment with DHEA boosted the serum concentration of a number of androgen-related analytes, including total and free testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAS, while serum SHBG remained unchanged. Supplementation also significantly increased the free-androgen index in IVF patients. Interestingly, the increase in serum analyte concentration following DHEA supplementation was found to be dependent on body mass index (BMI), but not individual age. Patients with the lowest BMI (<20.0 kg/m(2)) tended to have lower testosterone and DHEAS, but higher SHBG and androstenedione levels in comparison with other BMI groups postsupplementation. However

  1. Novel dehydroepiandrosterone troche supplementation improves the serum androgen profile of women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Kevin N; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Namdar, Navid; Conceicao, Jason L; Newsholme, Philip; Yovich, John L

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid hormone in the circulation and has potent multifunctional activity. Epidemiological evidence suggests that levels of serum DHEA decrease with advancing age, and this has been associated with onset or progression of various age-related ailments, including cognitive decline and dementia, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Consequently, these findings have sparked intense research interest in DHEA supplementation as an “antiaging” therapy. Currently, DHEA is being used by 25% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinicians as an adjuvant in assisted reproductive programs, yet the therapeutic benefit of DHEA is unclear. Here, we examined the use of novel DHEA-containing oral troches in patients undertaking IVF and investigated the impact of these troches on their serum androgen profile. This retrospective study determined the androgen profile of 31 IVF patients before (baseline) and after DHEA supplementation (with DHEA). Baseline serum measurements of testosterone (total and free), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and androstenedione were made before and after supplementation. Each patient received DHEA troches containing 25 mg of micronized DHEA, and troches were administered sublingually twice daily for a period of no greater than 4 months. Adjuvant treatment with DHEA boosted the serum concentration of a number of androgen-related analytes, including total and free testosterone, androstenedione, and DHEAS, while serum SHBG remained unchanged. Supplementation also significantly increased the free-androgen index in IVF patients. Interestingly, the increase in serum analyte concentration following DHEA supplementation was found to be dependent on body mass index (BMI), but not individual age. Patients with the lowest BMI (<20.0 kg/m2) tended to have lower testosterone and DHEAS, but higher SHBG and androstenedione levels in comparison with other BMI groups postsupplementation

  2. Perception of risks and benefits of in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Macer, D R

    1994-01-01

    The use of new biotechnology in medicine has become an everyday experience, but many people still express concern about biotechnology. Concerns are evoked particularly by the phrases genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization (IVF), and these concerns persist despite more than a decade of their use in medicine. Mailed nationwide opinion surveys on attitudes to biotechnology were conducted in Japan, among samples of the public (N = 551), high school biology teachers (N = 228), scientists (N = 555) and nurses (N = 301). People do see more benefits coming from science than harm when balanced against the risks. There were especially mixed perceptions of benefit and risk about IVF and genetic engineering, and a relatively high degree of worry compared to other developments of science and technology. A discussion of assisted reproductive technologies and surrogacy in Japan is also made. The opinions of people in Japan were compared to the results of previous surveys conducted in Japan, and international surveys conducted in Australia, China, Europe, New Zealand, U.K. and U.S.A. Japanese have a very high awareness of biotechnology, 97% saying that they had heard of the word. They also have a high level of awareness of IVF and genetic engineering. Genetic engineering was said to be a worthwhile research area for Japan by 76%, while 58% perceived research on IVF as being worthwhile, however 61% were worried about research on IVF or genetic engineering. Japanese expressed more concern about IVF and genetic engineering than New Zealanders. The major reason cited for rejection of genetic manipulation research in Japan and New Zealand was that it was seen as interfering with nature, playing God or as unethical. The emotions concerning these technologies are complex, and we should avoid using simplistic public opinion data as measures of public perceptions. The level of concern expressed by scientists and teachers in Japan suggest that public education "technology promotion

  3. Lessons from elective in vitro fertilization (IVF) in, principally, non-infertile women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We here report the first investigation of exclusively elective in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with no apparent history of infertility. Since IVF outcome in women with infertility are always influenced by underlying causes of infertility, a study on non-infertile women may offer new insights. Methods We investigated 88 females without history of infertility in 109 consecutive elective IVF cycles, almost exclusively performed for purposes of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS; i.e., elective gender selection). The following questions were addressed: (i) impact of PGS on IVF pregnancy chances; (ii) impact of transfer of 1 vs. ≥2 embryos on IVF pregnancy chances; (iii) correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels to embryo ploidy (iv) effect of gonadotropin dosage used in stimulation on available embryos for transfer; and (v) in form of a 1:1 case control study, compared 33 elective PGS cycles with matched control cycles without PGS, performed in couples with either prior tubal ligations and/or severe male factor infertility as indication of IVF. Results The overall clinical pregnancy rate for the group was 36.7%; pregnancy was associated with number of euploid (P = 0.009) and number of embryos transferred (P = 0.001). Odds of pregnancy were 3.4-times higher if ≥4 euploid embryos were produced in comparison to <4 (95% CI 1.2 to 9.2; P = 0.019), and odds of pregnancy were 6.6-times higher if greater than or equal to 2 rather than <1 euploid embryos were transferred (95% CI 2.0 to 21.7; P = 0.002). Increasing AMH (P = 0.001) and gonadotropin dosage used in ovarian stimulation (P = 0.024), was, independently, associated with number of available euploid embryos. Increasing AMH, but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), was associated with number of embryos available for biopsy and PGS (P = 0.0001). Implantation rates were 26.4% with PGS and 9.5% without (P = 0.008). Women undergoing PGS, demonstrated

  4. Endometriosis, Ovarian Reserve and Live Birth Rate Following In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    PubMed

    Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Jianini, Bruna Talita Gazeto Melo; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether women with endometriosis have different ovarian reserves and reproductive outcomes when compared with women without this diagnosis undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and to compare the reproductive outcomes between women with and without the diagnosis considering the ovarian reserve assessed by antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women who underwent IVF/ICSI in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. All patients were followed up until a negative pregnancy test or until the end of the pregnancy. The primary outcomes assessed were number of retrieved oocytes and live birth. Women were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of endometriosis, and each group was divided again into a group that had AFC ≤ 6 (poor ovarian reserve) and another that had AFC ≥ 7 (normal ovarian reserve). Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared using unpaired t-test, and those without normal distribution, using Mann-Whitney test. Binary data were compared using either Fisher's exact test or Chi-square (χ(2)) test. The significance level was set as p < 0.05. Results 787 women underwent IVF/ICSI (241 of which had endometriosis). Although the mean age has been similar between women with and without the diagnosis of endometriosis (33.8 ± 4 versus 33.7 ± 4.4 years, respectively), poor ovarian reserves were much more common in women with endometriosis (39.8 versus 22.7%). The chance of achieving live birth was similar between women with the diagnosis of endometriosis and those without it (19.1 versus 22.5%), and also when considering only women with a poor ovarian reserve (9.4 versus 8.9%) and only those with a normal ovarian reserve (25.5 versus 26.5%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with endometriosis are more likely to have a poor ovarian reserve; however, their chance of conceiving by

  5. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes and Alcohol Consumption in At-Risk Drinkers: The Effects of a Randomized Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Brooke V.; Chang, Grace; Berry, Katharine F.; Hornstein, Mark D.; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Women’s use of alcohol in pregnancy is associated with an increase risk of fetal loss and birth defects. Also, alcohol use in women decreases the success of infertility treatment, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). Our goal was to determine if there were differences in IVF outcomes and alcohol use parameters among at-risk drinkers randomized to a brief intervention (BI) vs. assessment only (AO). Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of brief intervention (BI) or assessment only (AO) among at-risk drinkers on in vitro fertilization (IVF). We studied 37 women (AO= 21; BI= 16). Results While the BI group had a significantly greater decrease in the number of drinks/drinking day compared to the AO group (P=0.04), there were no differences in the likelihood of implantation failure, chemical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, or live birth. Conclusions BI and AO contributed to a decrease in alcohol use and did not demonstrate differences in IVF outcomes. A larger study may confirm these preliminary findings. Scientific Significance Our results will assist care providers in treating alcohol use in pregnancy in an effective way, such that IVF cycles and the chance of pregnancy are optimized. PMID:23952894

  6. Effect of Rat Medicated Serum Containing You Gui Wan on Mouse Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Subsequent Fertilization Competence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Yan-li; Lu, Hua; Duan, Heng; Zhen, Xia; Hu, Xiang; Liang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    You Gui Wan (YGW) is a classic herbal formula in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for the clinical treatment of infertility. This study was to explore whether YGW has an impact on mouse oocyte maturation in vitro and subsequent fertilization competence. Rat medicated serum containing YGW was prepared by orally administrating YGW. Mouse immature oocytes were cultured with YGW medicated serum and compared to those cultured with or without normal rat serum or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). YGW medicated serum significantly increased the percentages of matured oocytes when compared to the groups with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, YGW medicated serum increased the rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) when compared to the groups treated with FSH and with or without normal rat serum (P < 0.001). YGW medicated serum also had significant effects on the mRNA expressions of PKA, CREB, MAPK, PKC, PKG, and MPF and the concentrations of cAMP, cGMP, and NO in matured oocytes. These results indicate that YGW can promote mouse oocyte maturation and IVF in vitro. Signaling pathways, such as the cAMP/PKA/MAPK, the PKC-MAPK, and the NO-cGMP-PKG pathway, which are similar to those induced by FSH, may be responsible for this action. PMID:25530775

  7. In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, 'Fertility'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyploid plantlets, including triploid, tetraploid and other polyploids, were induced from in vitro leaves of a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Fertility' by a colchicine treatment. In vitro leaves were incubated in 0.4% colchicine solution for 24, 48 or 72 h, and transferred to an adv...

  8. Multiple pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: report of a quadruplet pregnancy and delivery.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Feldberg, D; Ashkenazi, J; Shelef, M; Dicker, D; Hart, J

    1987-08-01

    The first baby from in-vitro fertilization (IVF) was born in England in 1978 as a result of retrieval of a single preovulatory oocyte in the course of a natural cycle (Steptoe and Edwards, 1978). At present most programmes of IVF throughout the world do not use natural cycles producing only one oocyte, but rather multiple oocyte cycles produced by clomiphene citrate (CC), human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG), or pure follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), either separately or in combination, sequentially or concomitantly, for the induction of multiple follicular maturation. PMID:2444621

  9. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on In Vitro Fertilization Success Rate in N MRI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, Leili; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Karimi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Saleh; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza; Emami Meibodi, Neda; Hosseini, Golkoo; Mostafavi Toroghi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) on reproduction systems have been widely debated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether low frequency EMF could ameliorate the in vitro fertilization success rate in Naval medical research institute (NMRI) Mice. Materials and Methods: In this randomized comparative animal study, ten NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups (control and experimental). 10 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was injected intraperitoneally to both groups in order to stimulate ovulating, and ovums were then aspirated and kept in KSOM (modified version of sequential simplex optimization medium with a higher K+ concentration) culture medium. Metaphase II ovums were separated, and sperms obtained by "swim out" method were added to metaphase II ovums in the culture medium. The experimental group was exposed to 1.3 millitesla pulsed electromagnetic field at 4 kilohertz frequency for 5 hours. To assess the efficacy, we considered the identification of two-pronuclear zygote (2PN) under microscope as fertilizing criterion. Results: Total number of collected ovums in the control and experimental groups was 191 and 173, respectively, from which 58 (30.05%) and 52 (30.36%) ovums were collected from metaphase II, respectively. In vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate was 77% in extremely low frequency- pulsed electromagnetic field (ELFPEMF) for exposed group (experimental), whereas the rate was 68% for control group. Conclusion: Despite increased percentile of IVF success rate in exposed group, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups, but this hypothesis has still been stated as a question. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different EMF designs are suggested. PMID:24381855

  10. Unexplained in-vitro fertilization failure: implication of acrosomes with a small reacting region, as revealed by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Albert, M; Gallo, J M; Escalier, D; Parseghian, N; Jouannet, P; Schrevel, J; David, G

    1992-10-01

    To determine the acrosomal characteristics related to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, spermatozoa from 50 men whose wives had resorted to IVF have been studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy with anti-human pro-acrosin monoclonal antibody 4D4 (mAb 4D4), prior to and after incubation in a capacitating medium. The antibody labelled only the acrosomal principal region (APR), revealing its shape (i.e. normal, small or amorphous) and its status (i.e. unreacted, partially or totally reacted). The IVF outcome distinguished: (i) spermatozoa which were able to fertilize at least one oocyte in vitro (group I; n = 25) and (ii) spermatozoa which failed to fertilize any oocyte in vitro (group II; n = 25). The semen characteristics of the two sperm groups, including the acrosome morphology, were similar according to conventional analysis. The mAb 4D4 detected in both the whole and the swim-up sperm cell fractions a lower percentage of normal APR in group II (< 50% for 10 patients in group II versus one patient from group I), which was related to a higher percentage of small APR. Moreover, after 21 h incubation, group II had a lower acrosomal loss index. The spermatozoa of five patients of this infertile group II did not undergo acrosomal modification whereas spermatozoa of all group I patients underwent the acrosomal reaction. The data showed that the relationship between acrosomal anomalies and IVF failure is mainly due to an increased incidence of acrosomes with a reduced size of the region involved in the acrosome reaction. Immunodiagnosis of this acrosomal region by means of mAb 4D4 is informative for IVF outcome. PMID:1479007

  11. Sister-sister in vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy with donor sperm: the case for surrogate gestational pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Leeton, J; King, C; Harman, J

    1988-10-01

    A case of surrogate pregnancy is described in the sister of a 40-year-old hysterectomized woman where two oocytes of the latter were fertilized in vitro with known donor sperm and transferred into the surrogate. A normal singleton pregnancy developed which was complicated after 24 weeks of gestation with recurrent antepartum hemorrhages due to grade 3 placenta praevia. A healthy female baby was delivered by elective cesarean section at 36 weeks of gestation. The legal, social, psychological, and ethical issues of surrogacy remain unsettled and are discussed in this case report. PMID:3230346

  12. A Case of Secondary Abdominal Pregnancy after in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET)

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Mariya Angelova; Kovachev, Emil Georgiev; Kozovski, Ivan; Kornovski, Yavor Dimitrov; Kisyov, Stefan Vasilev; Ivanova, Vilislava Robert

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a rare case of secondary abdominal pregnancy after in vitro fertilization pre-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Ultrasonography was applied to image ectopic gestational sac containing a yolk vesicle and located adjacent to the anterior uterine wall and left adnexa. Laparoscopy was done on the same day followed by sinistral salpingectomy due to tubal abortion indications. Intraabdominal examination showed chorionic structures penetrating pl. vesicouterina. Histological tests confirmed the EP diagnosis in the second material, i.e. indications of secondary abdominal pregnancy.

  13. Current achievements and future research directions in ovarian tissue culture, in vitro follicle development and transplantation: implications for fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Smitz, J.; Dolmans, M.M.; Donnez, J.; Fortune, J.E.; Hovatta, O.; Jewgenow, K.; Picton, H.M.; Plancha, C.; Shea, L.D.; Stouffer, R.L.; Telfer, E.E.; Woodruff, T.K.; Zelinski, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female cancer patients are offered ‘banking’ of gametes before starting fertility-threatening cancer therapy. Transplants of fresh and frozen ovarian tissue between healthy fertile and infertile women have demonstrated the utility of the tissue banked for restoration of endocrine and fertility function. Additional methods, like follicle culture and isolated follicle transplantation, are in development. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine scientists and clinicians with complementary expertise in ovarian tissue culture and transplantation presented relevant published literature in their field of expertise and also unpublished promising data for discussion. As the major aims were to identify the current gaps prohibiting advancement, to share technical experience and to orient new research, contributors were allowed to provide their opinioned expert views on future research. RESULTS Normal healthy children have been born in cancer survivors after orthotopic transplantation of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. Longevity of the graft might be optimized by using new vitrification techniques and by promoting rapid revascularization of the graft. For the in vitro culture of follicles, a successive battery of culture methods including the use of defined media, growth factors and three-dimensional extracellular matrix support might overcome growth arrest of the follicles. Molecular methods and immunoassay can evaluate stage of maturation and guide adequate differentiation. Large animals, including non-human primates, are essential working models. CONCLUSIONS Experiments on ovarian tissue from non-human primate models and from consenting fertile and infertile patients benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. The new discipline of oncofertility requires professionalization, multidisciplinarity and mobilization of funding for basic and translational research. PMID:20124287

  14. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm's chromatins. PMID:25568681

  15. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL-1 bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm’s chromatins. PMID:25568681

  16. Effect of Embryo Density on In Vitro Development and Gene Expression in Bovine In Vitro-fertilized Embryos Cultured in a Microwell System

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMURA, Satoshi; AKAI, Tomonori; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; AIKAWA, Yoshio; OHTAKE, Masaki; MATSUDA, Hideo; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; KOBAYASHI, Eiji; KONISHI, Kazuyuki; IMAI, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 µl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  17. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  18. Analysis of in vivo oocyte maturation, in vitro embryo development and gene expression in cumulus cells of dairy cows and heifers selected for one fertility quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on BTA3.

    PubMed

    Coyral-Castel, S; Brisard, D; Touzé, J-L; Dupont, M; Ramé, C; Uzbekova, S; Dupont, J

    2012-06-01

    We have previously shown that Holstein cows selected for their homozygous favorable ("fertil+") or unfavorable ("fertil-") haplotype at one quantitative trait loci (QTL) of female fertility located on chromosome 3 (QTL-F-Fert-BTA3) had a different success rate 35 and 90 days after the first artificial insemination. To determine whether the lower fertility in "fertil-" animals could be related to oocyte quality, we analyzed the embryo development rate in vitro and the oocyte meiotic maturation in vivo in "fertil+" and "fertil-" heifers. In vitro maturation and fertilization of immature oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up from "fertil+" and "fertil-" heifers resulted in similar cleavage and blastocyst rates in the two haplotypes. However the percentage of expanded blastocysts and the number of cells per blastocyst were significantly higher in "fertil+". Oocytes from presumptive preovulatory follicles were analyzed after ovarian stimulation. A similar rate of immature (from prophase to metaphase-I) and mature oocytes (metaphase-II) was obtained in the two haplotypes, whereas a significantly higher percentage of oocytes from metaphase-I to metaphase-II was observed in "fertil+" compared to "fertil-" heifers. Since cumulus cells (CCs) could reflect the developmental competence of oocytes, we analyzed the expression of seven genes included in the QTL-F-Fert-BTA3 using real-time PCR in bovine CCs after in vivo or in vitro maturation, as a model of higher and lower competence, respectively. Transcript levels of TAGLN2, EEF1A1 and PIGM were higher in CCs after in vitro maturation (IVM) compared to in vivo maturation, whereas no difference was observed for IFI16, KIRREL, SPTA1 and PEX19 expression. The expression levels of all these genes in in preovulatory CCs were not significantly different between "fertil+" and "fertil-" heifers. In conclusion, the lower fertility of "fertil-" females could be partially due to a lowest quality of the oocytes and consequently of

  19. Anti-laminin-1 antibodies in serum and follicular fluid of women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Caccavo, Domenico; Pellegrino, Nelly M; Nardelli, Claudia; Vergine, Silvia; Leone, Luca; Marolla, Alessandra; Vacca, Margherita P; Depalo, Raffaella

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of anti-laminin-1 antibodies (aLN-1) in sera and follicular fluid (FF) of infertile women affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and its impact on oocyte maturation and IVF outcome. aLN-1 were measured by a home-made enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in: (1) sera and FF from 44 infertile women affected by HT (HTIW) with tubal factor or male factor as primary cause of infertility; (2) in sera and FF from 28 infertile women without HT, with tubal factor or male factor as cause of infertility (infertile controls-ICTR); and (3) in sera from 50 fertile women (FW). aLN-1 serum levels were significantly higher in HTIW when compared with both fertile women and ICTR (P <0.001and P <0.01, respectively). Assuming as cutoff the 99th percentile of values obtained in sera of FW, 43.2% of HTIW and 3.6% of ICTR were aLN-1 positive (P = 0.0001). Also aLN-1 detected in FF from HTIW were significantly higher in comparison with those found in FF of ICTR (P = 0.006). In HTIW, metaphase II oocyte count showed inverse correlation with both serum and FF aLN-1 levels (r = 0.34, P = 0.02 and r = 0.33, P = 0.03, respectively). Implantation and pregnancy rates were significantly lower in HTIW (7.9% and 9.1%, respectively) when compared with ICTR (23% and 31.1%, respectively) (P = 0.015 and P = 0.03, respectively). Our results demonstrated for the first time the presence of aLN-1 in a relevant percentage of HTIW and suggest that these auto-antibodies may impair IVF outcome. PMID:26813862

  20. An overview of the available methods for morphological scoring of pre-implantation embryos in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Nahid; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of embryo quality in order to choose the embryos that most likely result in pregnancy is the critical goal in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The current trend in human in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) protocols is to decrease the rate of multiple pregnancies after multiple embryo transfer with maintaining the pregnancy rate at admissible levels (according to laboratory standards). Assessment of morphological feathers as a reliable non-invasive method that provides valuable information in prediction of IVF/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome has been frequently proposed in recent years. This article describes the current status of morphological embryo evaluation at different pre-implantation stages. PMID:25685730

  1. An Overview of The Available Methods for Morphological Scoring of Pre-Implantation Embryos in In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Nahid; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of embryo quality in order to choose the embryos that most likely result in pregnancy is the critical goal in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The current trend in human in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) protocols is to decrease the rate of multiple pregnancies after multiple embryo transfer with maintaining the pregnancy rate at admissible levels (according to laboratory standards). Assessment of morphological feathers as a reliable non-invasive method that provides valuable information in prediction of IVF/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome has been frequently proposed in recent years. This article describes the current status of morphological embryo evaluation at different pre-implantation stages. PMID:25685730

  2. Laser-Assisted In Vitro Fertilization Facilitates Fertilization of Vitrified-Warmed C57BL/6 Mouse Oocytes with Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Spermatozoa, Producing Live Pups

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephanie E.; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G.; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  3. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization facilitates fertilization of vitrified-warmed C57BL/6 mouse oocytes with fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa, producing live pups.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephanie E; Qi, Peimin; Rosalia, Elizabeth; Chavarria, Tony; Discua, Allan; Mkandawire, John; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The utility of cryopreserved mouse gametes for reproduction of transgenic mice depends on development of assisted reproductive technologies, including vitrification of unfertilized mouse oocytes. Due to hardening of the zona pellucida, spermatozoa are often unable to penetrate vitrified-warmed (V-W) oocytes. Laser-assisted in vitro fertilization (LAIVF) facilitates fertilization by allowing easier penetration of spermatozoa through a perforation in the zona. We investigated the efficiency of V-W C57BL/6NTac oocytes drilled by the XYClone laser, compared to fresh oocytes. By using DAP213 for cryoprotection, 83% (1,470/1,762) of vitrified oocytes were recovered after warming and 78% were viable. Four groups were evaluated for two-cell embryo and live offspring efficiency: 1) LAIVF using V-W oocytes, 2) LAIVF using fresh oocytes, 3) conventional IVF using V-W oocytes and 4) conventional IVF using fresh oocytes. First, the groups were tested using fresh C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (74% motile, 15 million/ml). LAIVF markedly improved the two-cell embryo efficiency using both V-W (76%, 229/298) and fresh oocytes (69%, 135/197), compared to conventional IVF (7%, 12/182; 6%, 14/235, respectively). Then, frozen-thawed C57BL/6NTac spermatozoa (35% motile, 15 million/ml) were used and LAIVF was again found to enhance fertilization efficiency, with two-cell embryo rates of 87% (298/343) using V-W oocytes (P<0.05, compared to fresh spermatozoa), and 73% (195/266) using fresh oocytes. Conventional IVF with frozen-thawed spermatozoa using V-W (6%, 10/168) and fresh (5%, 15/323) oocytes produced few two-cell embryos. Although live offspring efficiency following embryo transfer was greater with conventional IVF (35%, 18/51; LAIVF: 6%, 50/784), advantage was seen with LAIVF in live offspring obtained from total oocytes (5%, 50/1,010; conventional IVF: 2%, 18/908). Our results demonstrated that zona-drilled V-W mouse oocytes can be used for IVF procedures using both fresh and frozen

  4. Divalent cation levels in serum and preovulatory follicular fluid of women undergoing in vitro fertilization embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Azem, Foad; Hanannel, Arik; Wolf, Yoram; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Wagman, Israel; Yovel, Israel; Kapustiansky, Rita; Lessing, Joseph B; Maclov, Mira; Amit, Ami

    2004-01-01

    In this controlled clinical study, we determined the serum and follicular fluid concentrations of the biologically active fractions of magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in 39 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryo transfer (ET). Serum levels of ionized Ca (Ca2+) and ionized Mg (Mg2+) were measured during day 3 of the IVF cycle, on the day of ovum pickup and 12 days following ET. Follicular fluid levels were measured on the day of ovum pickup. Serum levels of Mg2+ decreased and Ca2+ levels increased during the IVF cycle. Mg levels were significantly higher in follicular fluid than in serum. Ca2+ and Mg2+ may play a role in the preovulatory follicle, a possibility that warrants further study. PMID:14671416

  5. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-08-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -}), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) {delta}{psi}{sub m}, vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity ({approx} 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} ({approx} 40%), a significant decrease in {delta}{psi}{sub m} ({approx} 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration ({approx} 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility.

  6. Improved in vitro fertilization and development by use of modified human tubal fluid and applicability of pronucleate embryos for cryopreservation by rapid freezing in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Kito, Seiji; Hayao, Tatsuo; Noguchi-Kawasaki, Yoshiko; Ohta, Yuki; Hideki, Uhara; Tateno, Shintaro

    2004-10-01

    We examined in vitro fertilizability and development of 10 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, C57BL/10, C57BL/10.D2/newSn, C57BL/10-Thy1.1, C57BL/10.Br/Sn, C3H/He, RFM/Ms, STS/A, BALB/c-nu and C.B-17/Icr), and the viability of frozen-thawed in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos after embryo transfer (ET). In seven strains, fertilizability was significantly greater in modified human tubal fluid (mHTF) compared with modified Krebs-Ringer's bicarbonate solution (TYH medium). The TYH medium supported almost no fertilization in four strains. More than 80% of IVF embryos developed to the blastocyst stage by 120 h in potassium-enhanced simplex optimization medium (KSOM). Reciprocal fertilization between C57BL/6J and BALB/c-nu gametes in TYH medium yielded poor fertilization o f BALB/c-nu due to spermatozoal deficiencies. Increased concentrations of bovine serum albumin and spermatozoa during capacitation and Percoll washing did not drastically affect fertilization. The mHTF, but not TYH medium, supported BALB/c-nu spermatozoa penetration into the zona pellucida irrespective of capacitation media. In vitro fertilized embryos frozen-thawed rapidly were transferred to surrogate mothers at the two-cell stage. Compared with that of unfrozen controls, rapid freezing had no significant effect on fetus development except in C57BL/10.D2/newSn mice. These results suggest that mHTF medium is superior with respect to IVF of inbred mice, and that KSOM adequately supports in vitro fertilized embryo development in inbred mice. The data also indicate that rapid freezing of pronucleate embryos following IVF is suitable for cryopreservation and embryo banking of inbred mice and for the production of genetically modified mice. PMID:15575371

  7. Pregnancy Outcome Using General Anesthesia Versus Spinal Anesthesia for In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Azmude, Azra; Agha'amou, Shahrzad; Yousefshahi, Fardin; Berjis, Katayoun; Mirmohammad'khani, Majid; Sadaat'ahmadi, Farahnaz; Ghods, Kamran; Dabbagh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a considerable rate of fertility failure and this causes a great burden of untoward effects for patients. Usually a considerable number of these patients undergo anesthesia for their treatment. Objectives This study was designed to compare the effects of general and spinal anesthesia on these patients. Patients and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, after taking informed written consent from the patients, 200 patients entered the study; 100 in each. During a 2 year period, women aged 20 to 40 years entered the study (one group receiving spinal anesthesia and the other, receiving general anesthesia). Ovum retrieval protocols were the same. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were used for data analysis. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results There was no difference between the two groups regarding demographic variables. 15 of 100 patients (15%) in the general anesthesia group and 27 of 100 patients (27%) in the spinal anesthesia group had successful pregnancy after IVF; so, spinal anesthesia increased significantly the chance of IVF success (P value < 0.001; Chi Square). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrated that spinal anesthesia increased the chance of fertilization success. PMID:24282775

  8. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p < 0.05). aSERT can be detected in the cytoplasm by removing the cumulus cell 5 h after cIVF. However, aSERT-MII oocytes do not affect other normal-MII oocytes in cycles with aSERT. PMID:26607857

  9. Relationship between in vitro sperm functional tests and in vivo fertility of rams following cervical artificial insemination of ewes with frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    O' Meara, C M; Hanrahan, J P; Prathalingam, N S; Owen, J S; Donovan, A; Fair, S; Ward, F; Wade, M; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2008-03-01

    Several procedures have been proposed to assess structural and functional characteristics of cryopreserved ram semen but none so far have yielded consistent relationships with in vivo fertility. The objectives of this study were to evaluate several sperm function tests as potential markers of in vivo ram fertility (determined by pregnancy rate in ewes) using frozen-thawed semen. In experiment 1, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from three high and three low fertility rams were assessed using fluorescent microscopy for (1) progressive motility, (2) viability and, (3) acrosomal status. In experiment 2, frozen-thawed straws (n=3 per ram) of semen from 18 rams of known fertility were analysed using either computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) for eight motion characteristics or flow cytometric staining for: (1) viability and acrosomal status, (2) plasma membrane status and capacitation-like changes, and (3) live cells following an osmotic resistance test (ORT). In experiment 3, platelet-activating factor (PAF) was isolated from straws (n=2 per ram) of semen using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry for 18 rams. In experiment 1, no association was found between motility, viability (% live) or acrosomal status (% damaged, % intact and % reacted) and in vivo fertility. In experiment 2, no correlation was found between motility (CASA), viability (% live), acrosomal status (% live, % live intact and % reacted), capacitation status (% capacitated, % non-capacitated), plasma membrane stability (% dead) and % live cells following ORT and ram in vivo fertility. In experiment 3, there was no relationship between PAF content in spermatozoa and ram fertility. In conclusion, we were unable to relate the in vivo fertility of rams with in vitro functional tests of their frozen-thawed semen and suggest that the fertility of a given semen sample cannot easily be quantified using available in vitro tests. PMID

  10. Sericin Accelerates the Production of Hyaluronan and Decreases the Incidence of Polyspermy Fertilization in Bovine Oocytes During In Vitro Maturation

    PubMed Central

    HOSOE, Misa; YOSHIDA, Nao; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; TERAMOTO, Hidetoshi; TAKAHASHI, Toru; NIIMURA, Sueo

    2014-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been widely used as a supplement in the maturation medium of bovine oocytes in vitro. However, serum contains many undefined factors and is potentially infectious to humans and animals. As a serum replacement, we evaluated the feasibility of using the silk protein, sericin, derived from the cocoons of silkworm. To examine the rates of oocyte maturation and fertilization, cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199 supplemented with 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% or 0.15% sericin or 5% FBS. The sizes of the perivitelline space that might relate to polyspermy, the expressions of Has2 and CD44 mRNA, the amount of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid: HA) contained in the oocytes and the rates of blastocyst formation following insemination were then compared between the oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin and 5% FBS, because the polyspermy rates in oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly lower than in those cultured with 5% FBS. After in vitro maturation (IVM), the mean size of the perivitelline space was significantly greater in oocytes cultured with sericin than in those cultured with FBS, although the rates of nuclear maturation, fertilization and blastocyst formation of oocytes under both IVM conditions were not significantly different. The expression of HAS2 and CD44 mRNA and the amount of HA in the denuded oocytes cultured with 0.05% sericin were significantly greater than in those cultured with FBS. These results indicate the feasibility of sericin as an alternative protein supplement for IVM in bovine oocytes. PMID:24748396

  11. Effects of sera, hormones and granulosa cells added to culture medium for in-vitro maturation, fertilization, cleavage and development of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Y; Ono, H

    1989-07-01

    Sera (fetal calf serum: FCS; and oestrous cow serum: ECS), hormones (2.5 FSH micrograms/ml + 5 micrograms LH/ml + 1 microgram oestradiol/ml) and granulosa cells (5 x 10(6)/ml) were added to culture medium to determine the frequencies of in-vitro maturation, fertilization, cleavage (2- to 8-cell) and development into blastocysts of bovine follicular oocytes. The maturation rates after 24 h in culture were not significantly different among the three factors tested (56-72%). The fertilization rates were significantly affected by serum type and the addition of granulosa cells. FCS gave significantly higher rates of fertilization (57-71%) than did ECS (34-52%), but the proportions of polyspermic fertilization were significantly higher in the former (8-19%) than in the latter (2-3%). The addition of hormones did not affect fertilization, cleavage and development. Neither type of serum affected cleavage and development. The highest rates of blastocyst formation were obtained when granulosa cells alone were added (FCS, 17%; ECS, 16%). The cell numbers of the blastocysts obtained were 100-150, similar to those of blastocysts developed in vivo. Transfer of 6 blastocysts to 3 cows resulted in 1 pregnancy. The present results indicate that the co-culture with granulosa cells is the most important factor for in-vitro fertilization to development into blastocysts of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. PMID:2760879

  12. Production of Diabetic Offspring Using Cryopreserved Epididymal Sperm by In Vitro Fertilization and Intrafallopian Insemination Techniques in Transgenic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; HONDA, Kasumi; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; HIDAKA, Tatsuro; SEKIGUCHI, Keito; MOCHIZUKI, Hironori; TAKEUCHI, Yasuhiro; FUJIWARA, Tsukasa; WATANABE, Masahito; NAGAYA, Masaki; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for creating pig strains that model human diseases. However, production of numerous cloned disease model pigs by SCNT for large-scale experiments is impractical due to its complexity and inefficiency. In the present study, we aimed to establish an efficient procedure for proliferating the diabetes model pig carrying the mutant human hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene. A founder diabetes transgenic cloned pig was generated by SCNT and treated with insulin to allow for normal growth to maturity, at which point epididymal sperm could be collected for cryopreservation. In vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination using the cryopreserved epididymal sperm resulted in diabetes model transgenic offspring. These results suggest that artificial reproductive technology using cryopreserved epididymal sperm could be a practical option for proliferation of genetically modified disease model pigs. PMID:23979397

  13. Production of diabetic offspring using cryopreserved epididymal sperm by in vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination techniques in transgenic pigs.

    PubMed

    Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Honda, Kasumi; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Hidaka, Tatsuro; Sekiguchi, Keito; Mochizuki, Hironori; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Masahito; Nagaya, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-12-17

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a useful technique for creating pig strains that model human diseases. However, production of numerous cloned disease model pigs by SCNT for large-scale experiments is impractical due to its complexity and inefficiency. In the present study, we aimed to establish an efficient procedure for proliferating the diabetes model pig carrying the mutant human hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene. A founder diabetes transgenic cloned pig was generated by SCNT and treated with insulin to allow for normal growth to maturity, at which point epididymal sperm could be collected for cryopreservation. In vitro fertilization and intrafallopian insemination using the cryopreserved epididymal sperm resulted in diabetes model transgenic offspring. These results suggest that artificial reproductive technology using cryopreserved epididymal sperm could be a practical option for proliferation of genetically modified disease model pigs. PMID:23979397

  14. /sup 125/I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits for progesterone evaluated for use in an in vitro fertilization program

    SciTech Connect

    Blight, L.F.; White, G.H.

    1983-06-01

    We have evaluated two commercially available /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay kits (Diagnostic Products Corp., DPC; and Radioassay Systems Laboratories, RSL) for measurement of serum or plasma progesterone, to determine their suitability for use in in vitro fertilization programs. Both kits were suitably rapid for program requirements. Results by both were linear with concentration up to 60 nmol/L, and both had acceptable lower detection limits of 0.3 nmol/L. Kit-determined progesterone concentrations (y) for 100 patients' samples correlated well with results by our existing 3H radioimmunoassay method (y . 1.11x + 0.2, r . 0.965 for the DPC kit; y . 1.01x + 1.4, r . 0.974 for the RSL kit). Mean analytical recovery for the RSL kit was 116%, that for the DPC kit, 202%. Within-batch precision, expressed as the mean CV for three concentrations of progesterone, was 6.5% for the RSL kit, and 16.4% for the DPC kit; between-day CV was 8.1% for the RSL kit, 17.7% for the DPC kit. We conclude that the RSL kit provides a rapid, precise, and accurate assay for serum progesterone, suitable for use in a fertilization program, but do not recommend the DPC kit for either this purpose or the more general purpose of tracking menstrual cycles.

  15. Assessment of in vitro fertility of deer spermatozoa by heterologous IVF with zona-free bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, P; Mauget, R; Mermillod, P

    2001-07-15

    We have previously shown that the in vitro development of deer embryos differed according to the IVF conditions. The aim of the study was to use heterologous IVF with zona-free matured bovine oocytes to assess the in vitro fertility of 3 samples of deer semen (2 ejaculates from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and 1 pool of epididymal spermatozoa from red deer (Cervus elaphus)). The frozen/thawed semen samples were selected on Percoll gradient and resuspended in Tyrode modified medium supplemented with estrus sheep serum (0, 2, 20% v/v) or heparin (10 microg/mL). During 8 h of culture, the sperm motility index according to the post-insemination time (hpi) did not differ either between samples or between supplemented IVF media. In vitro matured zona-free bovine oocytes were inseminated in different IVF media with the semen samples. Penetration rates assessed at 15 hpi were optimal with 20% estrus sheep serum for sika deer ejaculates whereas 2% were sufficient to reach the maximum functionality of epididymal spermatozoa from red deer. The mean time of pronuclear formation was similar regardless of the semen sample. The precocity of the onset of the first S-phase in both pronuclei was characterized by Bromo-deoxy-Uridine exposures between 5 and 15 hpi in order to assess the developmental potential conferred by the semen sample (intrinsic value). As we previously observed in homologous IVF, this value seemed to be higher for the epididymal sperm sample. PMID:11480618

  16. From Embryos to Adults: A DOHaD Perspective on In Vitro Fertilization and Other Assisted Reproductive Technologies.

    PubMed

    Feuer, Sky; Rinaudo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a treatment for infertility is regarded as one of the most outstanding accomplishments of the 20th century, and its use has grown dramatically since the late 1970s. Although IVF is considered safe and the majority of children appear healthy, reproductive technologies have been viewed with some skepticism since the in vitro environment deviates substantially from that in vivo. This is increasingly significant because the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has illuminated the sensitivity of an organism to its environment at critical stages during development, including how suboptimal exposures restricted specifically to gamete maturation or the preimplantation period can affect postnatal growth, glucose metabolism, fat deposition, and vascular function. Today, some of the physiological metabolic phenotypes present in animal models of IVF have begun to emerge in human IVF children, but it remains unclear whether or not in vitro embryo manipulation will have lasting health consequences in the offspring. Our expanding knowledge of the DOHaD field is fueling a paradigm shift in how disease susceptibility is viewed across the life course, with particular emphasis on the importance of collecting detailed exposure information, identifying biomarkers of health, and performing longitudinal studies for any medical treatment occurring during a developmentally vulnerable period. As IVF use continues to rise, it will be highly valuable to incorporate DOHaD concepts into the clinical arena and future approaches to public health policy. PMID:27517965

  17. Influence of co-culture with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on fertilization and developmental competence of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, Ruth; Somfai, Tamás; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Maes, Dominiek; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Co-culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes (DOs) during in vitro maturation (IVM) was reported to improve the developmental competence of oocytes via oocyte-secreted factors in cattle. The aim of the present study was to investigate if addition of DOs during IVM can improve in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) results for oocytes in a defined in vitro production system in pigs. The maturation medium was porcine oocyte medium supplemented with gonadotropins, dbcAMP and β-mercaptoethanol. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were matured without DOs or with DOs in different ratios (9 COC, 9 COC+16 DO and 9 COC+36 DO). Consequently; oocytes were subjected to IVF as intact COCs or after denudation to examine if DO addition during IVM would affect cumulus or oocyte properties. After fertilization, penetration and normal fertilization rates of zygotes were not different between all tested groups irrespective of denudation before IVF. When zygotes were cultured for 6 days, no difference could be observed between all treatment groups in cleavage rate, blastocyst rate and cell number per blastocyst. In conclusion, irrespective of the ratio, co-culture with DOs during IVM did not improve fertilization parameters and embryo development of cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes in a defined system. PMID:26249727

  18. A prospective controlled study of in-vitro fertilization, gamete intra-fallopian transfer and intrauterine insemination combined with superovulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, M S; Eddowes, H A; Cahill, D J; Fahy, U M; Abuzeid, M I; McDermott, A; Hull, M G

    1992-04-01

    The relative effectiveness of in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) combined with superovulation in the treatment of infertility were compared in 151 couples undergoing a single cycle of treatment. Treatment was selected as appropriate (IVF for tubal disease, GIFT or IUI/superovulation for nontubal infertility) but possible bias due to non-randomization was overcome by all couples having had favourable fertilization in a previous cycle of IVF. Furthermore, in a preliminary study of initial IVF treatment in 265 couples from whom the study patients were drawn, implantation and pregnancy rates in the diagnostic groups were similar. In the definitive study comparing IVF, GIFT and IUI/superovulation, the pregnancy rate observed with GIFT was highest (40%) but this was not significantly higher than with IVF (28%) or IUI/superovulation (20%). However, the implantation rate per egg transferred by GIFT (21%) was significantly higher than the implantation rate per embryo transferred by IVF (11%). Although the pregnancy rates with GIFT were not statistically greater than with IVF, a significant advantage is likely to be observed in larger groups in view of the better implantation rate. The lower pregnancy rates with IUI superovulation are to be expected because of limited ovarian stimulation, they are nevertheless of comparative interest. PMID:1522191

  19. [The analysis of physicians' work: announcing the end of attempts at in vitro fertilization].

    PubMed

    Santiago-Delefosse, M; Cahen, F; Coeffin-Driol, C

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study is to analyze modalities of announcing the end of attempts at in vitro ferti-lization to women who, for various reasons, were not able to have a child after several trials. What are the problems physicians face when, in the course of their work, they make these announcements? How do they give (or not give) support to these women who have placed so much hope in this technique? These are some of the questions that led the authors to conduct this empirical study within the framework of a clinical and qualitative approach to work psychology. Within this framework, work is conceptualised as a complex activity that involves the subject, both bodily and through his various modes of socialisation. The field of clinical and quali-tative approach to work psychology situations focuses on different ways of expressing distress related to contradictory work demands, as the activity is being performed; it also focuses on those creative processes used by the subject to cope with those internal and external conflicts that hinder task performance. A review of the literature and preliminary observations led us to postulate that the problems physicians are faced with when they announce the end of attempts at in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are linked to several conflicts between work values (that are specific to the medical world) and the recognition of work failure: termination of attempts at IVF. The popu-lation that participated in this research project belongs to a network of private practitioners who work with the in-house team of a Parisian clinic. But the group is not uniform and some physicians perform IVFs more frequently than others. Our qualitative study involved 10 semi-directive interviews of approximately 1 1/2 hours each, which were recorded and transcribed. Initial instructions focused on a concrete description of situations of abandonment of attempts at IVF, in terms of their preparation, development, and the way they are experienced

  20. Normal reproductive capacity of heifers that originated from in vitro fertilized embryos cultured with an antiviral compound.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Marley, Mylissa S D; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can associate with in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos despite washing and trypsin treatment. An antiviral compound, DB606 (2-(4-[2-imidazolinyl]phenyl)-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)furan), inhibits the replication of BVDV in bovine uterine tubal epithelial cells, Madin Darby bovine kidney cells, and fetal fibroblast cells. As well, DB606 in in vitro culture medium does not affect embryonic development. Antiviral-treated-IVF embryos placed into recipients developed into clinically normal calves. The objective of this project was to determine if these resultant heifer calves were capable of reproducing. Seven heifers from each of the treatment groups (natural breeding, IVF embryo, and IVF embryo cultured in DB606) of the previous study were used. At 20-27 months of age, the heifers were exposed to a fertile bull in a single pasture during a 63 d breeding season. Five of the seven heifers originating from natural breeding were pregnant 35 d after removal of the bull and calved. All of the heifers resulting from transfer of untreated IVF embryos were pregnant at 35 d; however, one aborted the fetus at 5-7 months of gestation. All of the heifers derived from transfer of IVF embryos cultured in DB606 were pregnant and calved. Offspring from dams of all treatment groups were clinically normal at birth. Adjusted 205 d weaning weights were not significantly different among the offspring of the treated and untreated dams. These results indicate that culture of bovine-IVF embryos in DB606 does not impair future reproductive capacity of resulting heifers. PMID:18691836

  1. Lack of transmission of murine norovirus to mice via in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raspa, Marcello; Mahabir, Esther; Fray, Martin; Volland, Ruth; Scavizzi, Ferdinando

    2016-07-15

    Since its discovery in 2003, murine norovirus (MNV) is still endemic in many rodent animal facilities. Our aim was to determine the risk of transmission of MNV (91% homology to MNV3) to embryo recipients and pups via assisted reproductive technologies, especially those which compromise the integrity of the zona pellucida. In vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted in vitro fertilization (AIVF) with reduced glutathione, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation were performed. Murine norovirus was detected by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After natural infection of immunocompetent C57BL/6NTacCnrm and immunodeficient athymic nude mice with MNV, the mesenteric lymph nodes, small intestine, spleen, liver, lung, brain, ovary, and testis were infected at specific intervals for more than a 1-year period. At Week 12, the number of viral genomes per milligram of gonad from both strains was 20 to 50. Murine norovirus strictly adhered to spermatozoa collected from infected mice because three washes did not remove MNV from the sperm. After using MNV-positive sperm for IVF, AIVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 27 to 30 genomes were detected in IVF (n = 100) and AIVF (n = 100) embryos from both mouse strains. Approximately 87% of MNV detected in these embryos was found in the zona pellucida. However, all embryo transfer recipients, pups, and ovary recipients were MNV-negative. The results indicate that manipulation of the germplasm through assisted reproductive technologies did not lead to transmission of MNV to mice. This may be because of the absence of an infectious dose or failure of the MNV strain to replicate effectively in developing embryos and the reproductive tract. PMID:26972226

  2. Follicular fluid and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites among infertile women and associations with in vitro fertilization parameters.

    PubMed

    Du, Yao-Yao; Fang, Yue-Li; Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Guo, Na; Zhao, Hua; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from toxicological studies has demonstrated that phthalates can lead to reduced fertility through effects on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryonic development, but human data are limited. Concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites in 110 follicular fluid (FF) and urine samples collected from 112 women attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China were quantified, and correlations between paired matrices were explored. Associations between metabolite concentrations and in vitro fertilization (IVF) parameters were evaluated with multivariable models. Six metabolites were detected in >72.73% of the FF samples. MEHP and MBP were the dominant metabolites with a median level of 2.80 and 2.05ng/mL, respectively. Significant correlations between the two matrices, urine and FF, were found for MEP (rs=0.44), and MBP (rs=0.22). FF and urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with any IVF parameters. However, given the prevalence of phthalates exposure, further work is needed to elucidate the potential hazard on female reproduction. PMID:27067915

  3. The "Test-Tube" Generation: Parent-Child Relationships and the Psychological Well-Being of In Vitro Fertilization Children at Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; MacCallum, Fiona; Goodman, Emma

    2001-01-01

    Compared parent-child relationships and early adolescent well-being in families with children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), adoptive families, and families with a naturally conceived child. Found that IVF children were functioning well and did not differ from other children in social or emotional adjustment. (Author/KB)

  4. [Surgical pelviscopy in treatment of extrauterine pregnancy following in vitro fertilization and spontaneous conception].

    PubMed

    Fiedler, K; Krüsmann, G; Würfel, W

    1991-08-01

    We report on our experience with surgical pelviscopy in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies after in-vitro fertilisation and, in comparison, during spontaneous cycles and during cycles with ovarian hyperstimulations and IUI. From 1.1. 1988 to 31.12.1990, 54 patients underwent this operation, 25 of these having undergone the IVF programme. All IVF patients had an extensive history of tubal sterility. Therefore, we found difficult anatomic conditions during the operation in most cases. Furthermore, the special conditions of the IVF treatment itself (e.g., multiple transfer of embryos into the uterus) caused a higher incidence of complicated situations (one triple ectopic, three ovarian ectopic pregnancies and one simultaneous pregnancy). Firstly, our experience leads to the conclusion, that surgical pelviscopy can be used for management of more complicate problems and can be regarded, so far, as an alternative to laparotomy. Secondly, laparotomy should not be replaced by pelviscopy in difficult situations (e.g., ovarian ectopics pregnancies). Surgical pelviscopy reduces the trauma of treatment, a consideration, which is very important especially for IVF patients. Because of the extraordinary problems related to ectopic pregnancies after IVF, we are at present sceptical about the use of other methods (e.g., instillation of prostaglandins or methotrexate) for these patients. Subsequently, 19 patients in the IVF group conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy after repeated IVF treatment. In the second group, 8 spontaneous intrauterine conceptions have occurred since. PMID:1834513

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Body Mass Index Effect on in Vitro Fertilization Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sarais, Veronica; Pagliardini, Luca; Rebonato, Giorgia; Papaleo, Enrico; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a raised body mass index (BMI) on the outcome of assisted reproduction technology (ART) still represents a controversial issue. Even less clear is whether BMI acts with a potential detrimental effect on IVF outcomes via a deleterious effect on innate quality of oocytes or on the environmental milieu within the uterus. With the aim to better understand the mechanisms underlying the potential deleterious effect of an increased BMI on IVF outcomes, we have evaluated the effects of female BMI on number and quality of retrieved oocytes, fertilization rate, embryo score and incidences of ongoing pregnancy and live births among couples undergoing IVF in an Italian population. Data from 1602 women who underwent their first IVF cycle were retrospectively analyzed. A significantly reduced percentage of mature oocytes when comparing obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and normal-weight patients (BMI = 18.50–24.99 kg/m2) was found. After adjusting for maternal age and other confounders, odds for ongoing pregnancy rate showed no differences across different BMI categories. However, a significant increased odds ratio (OR) could be observed for miscarriage rate in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 2.5; p = 0.04). These results should be taken into account in order to define optimal strategies for overweight and obese patients referring to ART procedures. PMID:26907340

  6. Associations Between Insulin Resistance, Free Fatty Acids, and Oocyte Quality in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome During In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhihong; Lin, Nan; Gu, Ruihuan; Sun, Yijuan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Both polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are associated with specific reproductive health complications, including lower oocyte quality and clinical pregnancy rates in assisted conception cycles, which may be a result of metabolism-induced changes in the oocyte through the microenvironment of follicular fluid. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are important biomedical indicators of abnormal lipid metabolism and have pronounced effects on cells, leading to changes in metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of FFA metabolism in plasma and follicular fluid on oocyte quality in the women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization. Design and Setting: Ninety-three women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment, including 55 with PCOS and 38 age-matched controls, were recruited. PCOS patients were divided into obese and nonobese subgroups on the basis of their body mass index. Main Outcome Measures: Embryo quality was morphologically assessed, and serum sex hormone and insulin levels were measured. FFAs in plasma and follicular fluid were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: PCOS was found to be associated with significantly higher LH/FSH, total T, free androgen index (FAI), and lower SHBG levels, independent of obesity(P < .05). Obese women with PCOS had a significantly higher total T level, FAI, fasting insulin, insulin resistance index as determined by homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, and lower SHBG levels than the nonobese women with PCOS (P < .05). The embryo fragmentation score was significantly positively correlated with the oleic acid concentration in all PCOS patients (r = 0.22, P = .04, for nonobese patients and r = 0.25, P = .03, for obese patients). Conclusions: Our findings clearly demonstrated that PCOS is associated with significantly higher FAI and insulin resistance levels and decreased plasma SHBG levels, independent of body mass index

  7. Overfeeding and underfeeding have detrimental effects on oocyte quality measured by in vitro fertilization and early embryonic development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Grazul-Bilska, A T; Borowczyk, E; Bilski, J J; Reynolds, L P; Redmer, D A; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A

    2012-11-01

    To determine effects of maternal diet on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and early embryonic development, ewes (n = 48) were divided into control, overfed (ad libitum feeding), and underfed (60% of control) nutritional planes for 8 wk before oocyte collection. Follicular development was induced by twice-daily injections of FSH on days 13 and 14 of the estrous cycle, and ovaries and blood samples were collected on day 15 of the estrous cycle. During the 8-wk experiment, for control ewes BW and BCS did not change, but for overfed ewes mean (± SEM) BW and BCS increased (11.8 ± 1.1 kg and 2.0 ± 0.1, respectively) and for underfed ewes decreased (14.2 ± 0.9 kg and 0.7 ± 0.1, respectively). The number of follicles was determined; oocytes were collected and subjected to in vitro maturation and fertilization. After IVF, developing embryos were evaluated throughout the 8-d culture period. The proportion of cleaved oocytes after IVF and developing morula and blastocyst were less (P < 0.0001) in overfed and underfed ewes than in control ewes. However, number of visible follicles, total number of oocytes, number of healthy oocytes, and percentage of healthy oocytes were similar for control, overfed, and underfed ewes. Serum insulin concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in overfed ewes than in underfed ewes, estradiol 17-β (E(2)) concentration was greater (P < 0.05) in underfed ewes than in overfed ewes, but triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) concentrations were similar in all treatment groups. These data show that inadequate feeding has a negative effect on oocyte quality which results in lower oocyte cleavage after IVF and morula and blastocyst formation; overfeeding increased serum insulin and underfeeding increased serum E(2) but not T(3) or T(4). These data emphasize the importance of diet for reproductive and metabolic functions. Furthermore, the mechanisms through which enhanced or decreased energy in diet affect oocyte quality and serum insulin and E(2

  8. Fire and nitrogen fertilization effects on Purple Threeawn in vitro fermentation and gas production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea) is a native perennial bunchgrass with poor forage quality. The grass often dominates sites where soils have been disturbed and persists with continued severe grazing of preferred species due to livestock avoidance of threeawn. Nitrogen fertilization and fire hav...

  9. Comparative detection of calcium fluctuations in single female sex cells of tobacco to distinguish calcium signals triggered by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiong-Bo; Sun, Meng-Xiang; Yang, Hong-Yuan

    2009-08-01

    Double fertilization is a key process of sexual reproduction in higher plants. The role of calcium in the activation of female sex cells through fertilization has recently received a great deal of attention. The establishment of a Ca(2+)-imaging technique for living, single, female sex cells is a difficult but necessary prerequisite for evaluating the role of Ca(2+) in the transduction of external stimuli, including the fusion with the sperm cell, to internal cellular processes. The present study describes the use of Fluo-3 for reporting the Ca(2+) signal in isolated, single, female sex cells, egg cells and central cells, of tobacco plants. A suitable loading protocol was optimized by loading the cells at pH 5.6 with 2 microM Fluo-3 for 30 min at 30 degrees C. Under these conditions, several key factors related to in vitro fertilization were also investigated in order to test their possible effects on the [Ca(2+)](cyt) of the female sex cells. The results indicated that the bovine serum albumin-fusion system was superior to the polyethlene glycol-fusion system for detecting calcium fluctuations in female sex cells during fertilization. The central cell was fertilized with the sperm cell in bovine serum albumin; however, no evident calcium dynamic was detected, implying that a transient calcium rise might be a specific signal for egg cell fertilization. PMID:19686375

  10. Morphometric parameters of living human in-vitro fertilization embryos; importance of the asynchronous division process.

    PubMed

    Roux, C; Joanne, C; Agnani, G; Fromm, M; Clavequin, M C; Bresson, J L

    1995-05-01

    A total of 304 human pronuclear zygotes and cleaved embryos from the 2- to 9-cell stages, obtained during invitro fertilization attempts, were photographed and retrospectively analysed after transfer for their morphology and size in relation to their developmental stage, using the Imagenia programme of a Biocom 500 image analyser. Morphometric parameters were calculated from the perimeters, surface measurements, theoretical diameters and circularity factors for the different structures analysed. This report provides the morphometric characteristics of living embryos. For the whole population the mean values were: 157.4 microns for the external zona pellucida diameter, 121.8 microns for the internal zona pellucida diameter, 17.9 microns for the thickness of the zona pellucida and 117.2 microns for the embryo cell mass diameter. The morphometric characteristics of the pronuclear-stage population were significantly different from the cleaved cell stages. If the zona pellucida and cell mass embryo diameters increased slowly from the 2- to 9-cell stages, embryonic external diameters were higher and zona pellucida thicknesses were lower in odd than even number blastomere embryos. Preliminary results show that in cases where implantation occurs, the embryo has a lower zona pellucida thickness. A comparison of the different embryo cell stages confirmed the existence of an asynchronous division process during early embryo development. Global results show no evidence of morphometric differences between subpopulations of the embryos according to their microscopic grading. Deviations from the normal asynchronous division process, however, appear to be a new parameter to take into account during embryo scoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7657766

  11. Depletion of human serum albumin in embryo culture media for in vitro fertilization using monolithic columns with immobilized antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Irina A; Lobas, Anna A; Černigoj, Urh; Solovyeva, Elizaveta M; Mahlberg, Barbara; Ivanov, Mark V; Panić-Janković, Tanja; Nagy, Zoltan; Pridatchenko, Marina L; Pungor, Andras; Nemec, Blaž; Vidic, Urška; Gašperšič, Jernej; Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Vidič, Jana; Gorshkov, Mikhail V; Mitulović, Goran

    2016-09-01

    Affinity depletion of abundant proteins such as HSA is an important stage in routine sample preparation prior to MS/MS analysis of biological samples with high range of concentrations. Due to the charge competition effects in electrospray ion source that results in discrimination of the low-abundance species, as well as limited dynamic range of MS/MS, restricted typically by three orders of magnitude, the identification of low-abundance proteins becomes a challenge unless the sample is depleted from high-concentration compounds. This dictates a need for developing efficient separation technologies allowing fast and automated protein depletion. In this study, we performed evaluation of a novel immunoaffinity-based Convective Interaction Media analytical columns (CIMac) depletion column with specificity to HSA (CIMac-αHSA). Because of the convective flow-through channels, the polymethacrylate CIMac monoliths afford flow rate independent binding capacity and resolution that results in relatively short analysis time compared with traditional chromatographic supports. Seppro IgY14 depletion kit was used as a benchmark to control the results of depletion. Bottom-up proteomic approach followed by label-free quantitation using normalized spectral indexes were employed for protein quantification in G1/G2 and cleavage/blastocyst in vitro fertilization culture media widely utilized in clinics for embryo growth in vitro. The results revealed approximately equal HSA level of 100 ± 25% in albumin-enriched fractions relative to the nondepleted samples for both CIMac-αHSA column and Seppro kit. In the albumin-free fractions concentrated 5.5-fold by volume, serum albumin was identified at the levels of 5-30% and 20-30% for the CIMac-αHSA and Seppro IgY14 spin columns, respectively. PMID:27122488

  12. Progestin Exposure Before Gonadotropin Stimulation Improves Embryo Development after In Vitro Fertilization in the Domestic Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Pelican, Katharine M.; Spindler, Rebecca E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary A.; Howard, JoGayle

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of progestin priming and ovarian quiescence on response to exogenous gonadotropin stimulation in the cat. Because a subpopulation of cats routinely ovulated spontaneously, there also was the opportunity to examine the ovary's reaction to the added impact of endogenously secreted progestagen. Queens were given 1) equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) plus human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) only (control; n = 9 cats), 2) GnRH antagonist (antide) injections followed by eCG and hCG (n = 9), and 3) a progestin implant (levonorgestrel) followed by eCG and hCG (n = 9). Laparoscopy was used to assess ovarian activity and aspirate follicular oocytes that were graded on the basis of morphology. In five cats per treatment, half of the high-quality oocytes were assessed for glucose, pyruvate, and lactate metabolism as well as nuclear maturation. Remaining oocytes were inseminated in vitro, cultured, and examined at 72 h after insemination for cleavage. In the remaining four cats per treatment, all oocytes were inseminated in vitro and assessed at 72, 120, and 168 h after insemination for embryo developmental stage. Cats pretreated with progestin had more follicles and produced more embryos per donor (including at the combined morula/blastocyst stage) than controls or females treated with GnRH antagonist (P < 0.05). There were no differences among groups (P > 0.05) in oocyte carbohydrate metabolism, nuclear maturation metrics, or fertilization success, although there was a tendency toward improvements in all three (P < 0.2) in progestin-treated females. Interestingly, cats that spontaneously ovulated within 60 days of treatment onset also produced more embryos per cat than induced-ovulation counterparts (P < 0.05). Results indicate that prior exposure to exogenous progestin (via implant) or endogenous progestagen (via spontaneous ovulation) improves ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins in the cat through a mechanism that is independent of

  13. Impact of estrogen-to-oocyte ratio on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the ratio of serum estrogen level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration to number of oocyte retrieved has any impact on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 7,112 women treated with GnRH-a long protocol in our center. Cycles were firstly divided into 6 groups according to the E2/oocyte ratio (< 150 pg/ml; 150~300 pg/ml; 300~450 pg/ml; 450-600 pg/ml; 600-750 pg/ml; ≥ 750 pg/ml). Live birth rate (39.4%) in women with E2/oocyte ratio ≥ 750 pg/ml was the lowest compared with that in other groups. We further divided the top 10% of patients into high estrogen group (E2/oocyte ≥ 740 pg/ml; n = 713). Compared with controls, those with high E2/oocyte ratio had significantly higher peak E2 level (6711.85 pg/ml versus 4670.89 pg/ml; P = 0.000) on the day of hCG administration; however, the live birth rate (39.27% versus 45.67%; P = 0.001) was significantly lower for women with high estrogen level. Thus, we conclude that high E2/oocyte ratio adversely affects live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treated with GnRH-a long protocol. PMID:26379944

  14. Predictive value of early serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin for the successful outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeta; Goyal, Manu; Malhotra, Neena; Tiwari, Abanish; Badiger, Shreenivas

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization (IVF) are at increased risk of adverse outcome. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-HCG) and age of the patient for the successful outcome in IVF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was done in 139 pregnancies after IVF at single IVF center from June 2007 to July 2012. The age of the patient and initial serum values of β-HCG on day 14 of embryo transfer were correlated with ongoing pregnancy (>12 weeks gestation). RESULTS: The β-HCG level on day 14 of more than 347 mIU/ml has a sensitivity of 72.2% and specificity of 73.6% in prediction of pregnancy beyond 12 weeks period of gestation. Positive likelihood ratio (LR) is 2.74 and negative LR is 0.37, (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.79). DISCUSSION: In IVF cycles, there is a lot of stress on the couples while the cycle is going on. There was a positive correlation between the higher values of early serum β-HCG levels and ongoing pregnancy. Hence, it can be used as an independent predictor of a successful outcome of IVF cycle. CONCLUSION: We concluded from our study that early serum β-HCG can be used as a predictor of a successful outcome in IVF. PMID:24672163

  15. Less depressed or less forthcoming? Self-report of depression symptoms in women preparing for in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Adam M.; Liu, Dawei; Stuart, Scott P.; Ryan, Ginny

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE While depression has been associated with infertility treatments, it is not routinely assessed in women prior to undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Findings are mixed regarding the degree to which women report depression prior to IVF. The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine response profiles in women preparing for IVF, and 2) compare responses to those of postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. METHODS Female IVF patients (n=321; 19 – 45 years) completed the PHQ-9 at their first visit. Clinical, demographic characteristics, and incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other depressive disorder (ODD) were examined. Overall score distributions of the IVF group were compared to those of local postpartum patients, and published primary care and general populations. RESULTS Demographic or clinical characteristics did not account for response differences within the IVF group. The IVF group had lower incidences of MDD and ODD than a PHQ-9 normative group. Women in the IVF group reported no depressive symptoms significantly more than postpartum, primary care, and general population groups. CONCLUSIONS Women preparing to undergo IVF report fewer symptoms of depression than multiple comparison groups. Specific quality of life measures may be needed to assess distress in this population. PMID:23138273

  16. In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

    2014-06-01

    Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

  17. Pronuclear morphology evaluation in in vitro fertilization (IVF) / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: a retrospective clinical review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of the embryo quality is crucial to maintain an high pregnancy rate and to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy. The evaluation of the pronuclear and nucleolar characteristics of human zygote have been proposed as an indicator of embryo development and chromosomal complement. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of pronuclear morphology evaluation in vitro fertilization (IVF) / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Methods Retrospective clinical analysis on 755 non-elective transfers of only one embryo (ET). Embryo assessment was performed in days 1 and 2. Clinical and biological data were recorded and analyzed according to embryo and/or pronuclear morphology. Results Both pronuclear and embryo morphology were significantly related to clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates. No significant difference in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was detected when the pronuclear and embryo morphology assessments were combined. Embryo morphology and maternal age were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Pronuclear evaluation is effective to select the best zygotes if ET is performed at day 1, whereas it did not improve the clinical outcomes when combined with embryo morphology evaluation in day 2. PMID:23282023

  18. Differences in body image between anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients - a study with Body Grid

    PubMed Central

    Borkenhagen, Ada; Klapp, Burghard F.; Schoeneich, Frank; Brähler, Elmar

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the investigation was to explore the body image disturbance of anorexics and in-vitro-fertilization patients (IvF-patients) with Body Grid and Body Identity Plot. Methods: The paper reports on an empirical study conducted with 32 anorexic patients and 30 IvF-patients. The structure of the body image was derived from the Body Grid, an idiographic approach following the Role Repertory Grid developed by George A. Kelly [17]. The representation of the body image and the degree of body-acceptance is represented graphically. Results: By the Body Grid and Body Identity Plot measures we were able to identify important differences in body image between anorexics and IvF-patients. Conclusion: The tendencies of dissociation in the body image of anorexics which we found must be seen in the sense of a specific body image disturbance which differs significantly from the body-experience profile of IvF-patients. With the grid approach it was possible to elicit the inner structure of body image and determine the acceptance of the body and integration of single body parts. PMID:19742059

  19. Ca2+ ionophore A23187 can make mouse spermatozoa capable of fertilizing in vitro without activation of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Hiroyuki; Krapf, Dario; Hino, Toshiaki; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Darszon, Alberto; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Visconti, Pablo E.

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ ionophore A23187 is known to induce the acrosome reaction of mammalian spermatozoa, but it also quickly immobilizes them. Although mouse spermatozoa were immobilized by this ionophore, they initiated vigorous motility (hyperactivation) soon after this reagent was washed away by centrifugation. About half of live spermatozoa were acrosome-reacted at the end of 10 min of ionophore treatment; fertilization of cumulus-intact oocytes began as soon as spermatozoa recovered their motility and before the increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which started 30–45 min after washing out the ionophore. When spermatozoa were treated with A23187, more than 95% of oocytes were fertilized in the constant presence of the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89. Ionophore-treated spermatozoa also fertilized 80% of oocytes, even in the absence of HCO3−, a component essential for cAMP synthesis under normal in vitro conditions. Under these conditions, fertilized oocytes developed into normal offspring. These data indicate that mouse spermatozoa treated with ionophore are able to fertilize without activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, they suggest that the cAMP/PKA pathway is upstream of an intracellular Ca2+ increase required for the acrosome reaction and hyperactivation of spermatozoa under normal in vitro conditions. PMID:24128762

  20. Developmental competence of different quality bovine oocytes retrieved through ovum pick-up following in vitro maturation and fertilization.

    PubMed

    Saini, N; Singh, M K; Shah, S M; Singh, K P; Kaushik, R; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Palta, P; Chauhan, M S

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, oocytes retrieved from cross bred Karan Fries cows by ovum pick-up technique were graded into Group 1 and Group 2, based on the morphological appearance of the individual cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). To analyze whether the developmental potential of the COCs bears a relation to morphological appearance, relative expression of a panel of genes associated with; (a) cumulus-oocyte interaction (Cx43, Cx37, GDF9 and BMP15), (b) fertilization (ZP2 and ZP3), (c) embryonic development (HSF1, ZAR1 and bFGF) and (d) apoptosis and survival (BAX, BID and BCL-XL, MCL-1, respectively) was studied at two stages: germinal vesicle (GV) stage and after in vitro maturation. The competence was further corroborated by evaluating the embryonic progression of the presumed zygotes obtained from fertilization of the graded COCs. The gene expression profile and development rate in pooled A and B grade (Group 1) COCs and pooled C and D grade (Group 2) COCs were determined and compared according to the original grades. The results of the study demonstrated that the morphologically characterized Group 2 COCs showed significantly (P<0.05) lower expression for most of the genes related to cumulus-oocyte interplay, fertilization and embryonic development, both at GV stage as well as after maturation. Group 1 COCs also showed greater expression of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-XL and MCL1) both at GV stage and after maturation, while pro-apoptotic genes (BAX and BID) showed significantly (P<0.05) elevated expression in poor quality COCs at both the stages. The cleavage rate in Group 1 COCs was significantly higher than that of Group 2 (74.46±7.06 v. 31.57±5.32%). The development of the presumed zygotes in Group 2 oocytes proceeded up to 8- to 16-cell stages only, while in Group 1 it progressed up to morulae (35.38±7.11%) and blastocyst stages (9.70±3.15%), indicating their better developmental potential. PMID:26165355

  1. Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W.; Dodge, Laura E.; Ehrlich, Shelley; Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Williams, Paige L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse female reproductive outcomes. Objective: We evaluated the associations between urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods: This analysis included 256 women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2004–2012) who provided one to two urine samples per cycle before oocyte retrieval. We measured 11 urinary phthalate metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP), monocarboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP)]. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the association of urinary phthalate metabolites with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes, accounting for multiple IVF cycles per woman. Results: In multivariate models, women in the highest as compared with lowest quartile of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MECPP, ΣDEHP (MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP), and MCNP had lower oocyte yield. Similarly, the number of mature (MII) oocytes retrieved was lower in the highest versus lowest quartile for these same phthalate metabolites. The adjusted differences (95% CI) in proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth between women in the fourth versus first quartile of ΣDEHP were –0.19 (–0.29, –0.08) and –0.19 (–0.28, –0.08), respectively, and there was also a lower proportion of cycles resulting in clinical pregnancy and live birth for individual DEHP metabolites. Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy

  2. The Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate Exposure on Fertilization and Embryonic Development In Vitro and Testicular Genomic Mutation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi-Hua; Liu, Miao; Xu, Yan; Yuan, Yao; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Hui-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the reproductive hazards of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) on mouse spermatozoa and embryos in vitro and genomic changes in vivo. Direct low-level DEHP exposure (1 μg/ml) on spermatozoa and embryos was investigated by in vitro fertilization (IVF) process, culture of preimplanted embryos in DEHP-supplemented medium and embryo transfer to achieve full term development. Big Blue® transgenic mouse model was employed to evaluate the mutagenesis of testicular genome with in vivo exposure concentration of DEHP (500 mg/kg/day). Generally, DEHP-treated spermatozoa (1 μg/ml, 30 min) presented reduced fertilization ability (P<0.05) and the resultant embryos had decreased developmental potential compared to DMSO controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the transferred 2-cell stage embryos derived from treated spermatozoa also exhibited decreased birth rate than that of control (P<0.05). When fertilized oocytes or 2-cell stage embryos were recovered by in vivo fertilization (without treatment) and then exposed to DEHP, the subsequent development proceed to blastocysts was different, fertilized oocytes were significantly affected (P<0.05) whereas developmental progression of 2-cell stage embryos was similar to controls (P>0.05). Testes of the Big Blue® transgenic mice treated with DEHP for 4 weeks indicated an approximately 3-fold increase in genomic DNA mutation frequency compared with controls (P<0.05). These findings unveiled the hazardous effects of direct low-level exposure of DEHP on spermatozoa's fertilization ability as well as embryonic development, and proved that in vivo DEHP exposure posed mutagenic risks in the reproductive organ – at least in testes, are of great concern to human male reproductive health. PMID:23226291

  3. In Vitro Fertilization Affects Growth and Glucose Metabolism in a Sex-Specific Manner in an Outbred Mouse Model1

    PubMed Central

    Donjacour, Annemarie; Liu, Xiaowei; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel; Rinaudo, Paolo F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The preimplantation period is a time of reprogramming that may be vulnerable to disruption. This question has wide clinical relevance since the number of children conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) is rising. To examine this question, outbred mice (CF1 × B6D2F1) conceived by IVF and cultured using Whitten medium and 20% O2 (IVFWM group, less optimal) or K simplex optimized medium with amino acids and 5% O2 (IVFKAA group, more optimal and similar to conditions used in human IVF) were studied postnatally. We found that flushed blastocysts transferred to recipient mice provided the best control group (FB group), as this accounted for the effects of superovulation, embryo transfer, and litter size. We observed that many physiological parameters were normal. Reassuringly, IVFKAA offspring did not differ significantly from FB offspring. However, male IVFWM mice (but not females) were larger during the first 19 wk of life and exhibited glucose intolerance. Male IVFWM mice also showed enlarged left heart despite normal blood pressure. Expression of candidate imprinted genes (H19, Igf2, and Slc38a4) in multiple adult tissues did not show differences among the groups; only Slc38a4 was down-regulated following IVF (in both culture conditions) in female adipose tissue. These studies demonstrate that adult metabolism is affected by the type of conditions encountered during the preimplantation stage. Further, the postnatal growth trajectory and glucose homeostasis following ex vivo manipulation may be sexual dimorphic. Future work on the long-term effects of IVF offspring should focus on glucose metabolism and the cardiovascular system. PMID:24621920

  4. A new predictive test for in-vitro fertilization based on the induction of sperm acrosome reaction by N-acetylglucosamine-neoglycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, A; Miranda, P V; Añón-Vazquez, M G; Marín-Briggiler, C I; Sanjurjo, C; Gonzalez-Echeverría, F; Blaquier, J A; Tezón, J G

    1995-07-01

    Neoglycoproteins with N-acetylglucosamine residues (BSA-GlcNAc) induced specifically the acrosome reaction (AR) in human spermatozoa. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and the invitro fertilization (IVF) rate. Sperm suspensions from IVF protocols were incubated with BSA-GlcNAc (t), using calcium ionophore (i) or medium alone (c) as positive or negative controls. When the normalized AR percentage ratio (STIM) (% ARt-%ARc):(%ARi-%ARc) was compared with fertilization rate in 31 couples from our IVF programme, a positive correlation was found (r = 0.46, P < 0.01). The fertilization rate in patients with STIM > or = 0.2 was higher than in non-responders (STIM < 0.2); 72 +/- 7% compared with 5 +/- 3%. The overall predictive value of this test for adequate fertilization rate (> 30%) was 87%, sensitivity 91% and specificity 78%. False positives were 9% and false negatives 22%. For successful fertilization rates (> 60%), the results were: overall predictive value, 84%; sensitivity 100%; specificity 64%. False positives were 23% and no false negatives were found. The results indicated that the induction of AR in human spermatozoa by GlcNAc-neoglycoproteins could be used to predict their fertilizing ability in vitro. PMID:8582974

  5. Singleton Pregnancy Outcomes after In Vitro Fertilization with Fresh or Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer and Incidence of Placenta Praevia

    PubMed Central

    Korosec, Sara; Kladnik, Urska; Kotar, Vanja; Virant-Klun, Irma; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the single pregnancy and neonate outcome after fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer in the in vitro fertilization programme (IVF). The study focused on clinical and laboratory factors affecting the abnormal placentation, especially placenta praevia, in patients conceiving in the IVF programme. The results confirm that neonates born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer had significantly higher mean birth weight than after fresh embryo transfer (ET). Moreover, the birth weight distribution in singletons was found to shift towards “large for gestation” (LGA) after frozen-thawed ET. On the other hand, the pregnancies after fresh ET were characterized by a higher incidence of placenta praevia and 3rd trimester bleeding. Placenta praevia was more common in IVF patients with fresh ET in a stimulated cycle than in patients with ET in a spontaneous cycle. It occurred more frequently in patients with transfer of 2 embryos. From this point of view, single ET and ET in a spontaneous cycle should be encouraged in good prognosis patients in the future with more than two good quality embryos developed. An important issue arose of how the ovarian hormonal stimulation relates to abnormal placentation and if the serum hormone levels interfere with in the IVF treatment results. PMID:24822209

  6. Debating Elective Single Embryo Transfer after in vitro Fertilization: A Plea for a Context-Sensitive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ezugwu, EC; Van der Burg, S

    2015-01-01

    The number of embryos transferred after in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been a topic of debate for over a decade now. Due to the risk associated with multiple pregnancy, there has been a global effort at reducing the multiple pregnancy rates to a minimum while maintaining an acceptable level of successful IVF pregnancy rate. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) is advocated in most European countries. In Belgium and Sweden, eSET is mandatory for couples with a good prognosis. However, despite clinical recommendations and policy statements, patients in clinical practice frequently do request for the transfer of multiple embryos in order to have twins. Such requests conflict with policy guidelines and create an ethical dilemma for physicians: Should the physician do as the couple requests, and there with respect the autonomy of patients, or adhere to medical policy that takes the health of the mother and children at heart? This article provides an exploration of the arguments found in the literature that plays a role in the discussion on this topic and eventually argues that what a physician should do depends on the specificities of the context in which patients and physicians are implicated. These contextual issues can be taken into account in a shared decision-making procedure, which allows reflections and the responsibilities of both patients and physicians to be attended in decision about assisted reproduction. PMID:25745568

  7. Debating Elective Single Embryo Transfer after in vitro Fertilization: A Plea for a Context-Sensitive Approach.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, Ec; der Burg, S Van

    2015-01-01

    The number of embryos transferred after in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been a topic of debate for over a decade now. Due to the risk associated with multiple pregnancy, there has been a global effort at reducing the multiple pregnancy rates to a minimum while maintaining an acceptable level of successful IVF pregnancy rate. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) is advocated in most European countries. In Belgium and Sweden, eSET is mandatory for couples with a good prognosis. However, despite clinical recommendations and policy statements, patients in clinical practice frequently do request for the transfer of multiple embryos in order to have twins. Such requests conflict with policy guidelines and create an ethical dilemma for physicians: Should the physician do as the couple requests, and there with respect the autonomy of patients, or adhere to medical policy that takes the health of the mother and children at heart? This article provides an exploration of the arguments found in the literature that plays a role in the discussion on this topic and eventually argues that what a physician should do depends on the specificities of the context in which patients and physicians are implicated. These contextual issues can be taken into account in a shared decision-making procedure, which allows reflections and the responsibilities of both patients and physicians to be attended in decision about assisted reproduction. PMID:25745568

  8. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns. PMID:25623229

  9. The Impact of Serum Progesterone Levels on the Results of In Vitro Fertilization Treatments: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime Larach Del; Bousamra, Maroun; Fuente, Laura De La; Ruiz-Balda, Jose A; Palomo, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to analyze the relationship between preovulatory progesterone (P) rise and in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy outcomes. It also investigates the sources and effects of rises in progesterone levels, including the underlying mechanisms and potential strategies in preventing its elevation during ovarian stimulation. Progesterone is produced in the early follicular phase in the adrenal gland, which shifts toward the ovaries prior to ovulation. Several factors contribute to the etiology of P level increase including the number of multiple follicles, the overdose of gonadotropins and poor ovarian response. Nowadays, the influence of the preovulatory P rise on IVF outcome remains controversial. Several authors have failed to demonstrate any negative impact, while others reported a detrimental effect associated with the rise of P. It seems that P rise (1.5 ng/ml or 4.77 nmol/l) may have deleterious effects on endometrial receptivity, namely, accelerating the endometrial maturation process that subsequently narrows the period for implantation and thus decreases pregnancy rates. Recent studies have proposed different cutoffs according to the ovarian response, which may be a little high in patients with high response in relation to those of normal response or low response. To prevent a P rise, it might be preferable to use milder stimulation protocols, earlier trigger of ovulation, cryopreservation of all embryos and transfer in the natural cycle. PMID:27203093

  10. Pronuclear morphology evaluation for fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The current systematic review was aimed to assess the effectiveness of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. All available studies reporting on zygote morphology and clinical and/or biological outcomes were analyzed. Forty studies were included in the final analysis. Fourteen different zygote scoring systems were employed. Zygote morphology correlated significantly with embryo quality and cleavage, blastocyst stage, embryonic chromosome status, in a high proportion of the studies which assessed the specific outcome [15/25 (60%), 15/20 (75%), 7/8 (87.5%), 6/6 (100%), respectively]. On the other hand, only a reduced proportion of papers showed a statistically significant relationship between implantation, pregnancy and delivery/live-birth rates and zygote morphology score [12/23 (52.2%), 12/25 (48%), 1/4 (25%), respectively]. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the lack of conclusive data on the clinical efficacy of the zygote morphology evaluation in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles, even if biological results showing a good relationship with embryo viability suggest a role in cycles in which the transfer/freezing is performed at day 1. PMID:24028277

  11. Endometrial fluid associated with Essure implants placed before in vitro fertilization: Considerations for patient counseling and surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, David J; Jones, Christopher A; Wood, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    Essure (Bayer) received approval from the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration as a permanent non-hormonal contraceptive implant in November 2002. While the use of Essure in the management of hydrosalpinx prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains off-label, it has been used specifically for this purpose since at least 2007. Although most published reports on Essure placement before IVF have been reassuring, clinical experience remains limited, and no randomized studies have demonstrated the safety or efficacy of Essure in this context. In fact, no published guidelines deal with patient selection or counseling regarding the Essure procedure specifically in the context of IVF. Although Essure is an irreversible birth control option, some patients request the surgical removal of the implants for various reasons. While these patients could eventually undergo hysterectomy, at present no standardized technique exists for simple Essure removal with conservation of the uterus. This article emphasizes new aspects of the Essure procedure, as we describe the first known association between the placement of Essure implants and the subsequent development of fluid within the uterine cavity, which resolved after the surgical removal of both devices. PMID:26473113

  12. The serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration prior to initiation of an in vitro fertilization cycle predicts outcome.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Ilana; Kanninen, Tomi T; Sisti, Giovanni; Witkin, Steven S; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    Our objective was to determine if the concentration of circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) prior to cycle initiation predicts outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Stored serum samples from 226 women - 54 with a live birth, 45 with a spontaneous abortion, 38 with a biochemical pregnancy, 54 who did not become pregnant and 35 with an ectopic pregnancy- were retrospectively blindly tested for BDNF by ELISA. The median serum concentration of BDNF was highest in women with an extrauterine ectopic pregnancy (7.3ng/ml), intermediate in women whose embryos did not implant (5.5ng/ml) and lowest in women with a spontaneous abortion (4.2ng/ml), biochemical pregnancy (3.8ng/ml) or a live birth (3.6ng/ml) (P<0.0001). Among women with a positive pregnancy test an elevated BDNF level predicted an ectopic pregnancy with a sensitivity of 0.853 (0.689, 0.950) and a specificity of 0.949 (0.897, 0.979). We conclude that elevated BDNF in serum obtained before IVF cycle initiation is predictive of an extrauterine pregnancy. PMID:27179717

  13. The Experience of Chinese Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: Perception of the Treatment Process and Partner Support

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Li-Ying; Wu, Lai Har; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Background Couples undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Treatment suffer as dyads from the stressful experience of the painful treatment and the fear that the IVF cycle will fail. They are likely to report that their marital relationship has become unstable due to the prolonged period of treatment. Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted to explore the experiences that Chinese couples have had with IVF treatment, especially their perceptions of the process and the support between couples. Results The interviews revealed that couples suffered from the process, experiencing physical and emotional pain, struggling with the urgency and inflexibility of bearing a child, and experiencing disturbances in their daily routines and work. The participants described how they endured the hardships as a couple and how it affected their relationship. The couples felt that sharing feelings and supporting each other contribute to psychological well-being and improves the marital relationship. They also identified some unfavorable aspects in their partner relationship. They were ambivalent about receiving social support from friends and family members. Conclusions With the couples indicating that the support that they received from each other affected their experience during the treatment process, it is suggested that a supportive intervention that focuses on enhancing the partnership of the couples and dealing with their inflexibility on the issue of bearing a child might result in improvements in the psychological status and marital relationship of infertile couples undergoing IVF treatment. PMID:26431545

  14. Effect of Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling on Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization in Clomiphene-Resistant Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Deghani Firoozabadi, Razieh; Khani, Parisa; Ziaei Bideh, Ehsan; Forghani, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently the laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been used as a surgical treatment for ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although its mechanism and outcomes are still unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS who were treated with LOD. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 300 women between 20 to 35 years old with clomiphene-resistant PCOS who had an ovulatory infertility and who were nominated for IVF/ICSI. Based on their treatment history, they were located into the following two groups: group I (n=150) including PCOS women who had history of LOD at least 6 months to 3 years before IVF/ICSI, and group II (n=150) including PCOS patients without history of drilling. Both groups were treated with antagonist protocol in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) process. The duration of treatment cycles, number of oocytes and embryos obtained, chemical and clinical pregnancy rate, the number of embryos transferred, and presence of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS) were measured. To compare means and frequencies, Student’s t test, Mann-whitney and chi-square tests were used. Results Our results showed that ovarian cauterization before IVF/ICSI in patients with PCOS reduced the risk of OHSS (P=0.025). Despite the same pregnancy rate in both groups (P=0.604), more obtained oocytes and embryos were seen on women without ovarian drilling than women with LOD (P˂0.001 and P=0.033, respectively). Conclusion There is no difference between the pregnancy rate in both groups. Due to significant reduction in OHSS in women undergoing LOD, this surgical treatment may be considered as a useful technique in the management of patients who have previously developed OHSS. However, there are ongoing concerns about long-term effects of LOD on ovarian function. PMID

  15. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  16. Assessment of endometrial receptivity by transvaginal color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Kupesic, S; Bekavac, I; Bjelos, D; Kurjak, A

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of transvaginal color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography for the assessment of endometrial receptivity. A total of 89 patients undergoing in vitro fertilization procedures were evaluated for endometrial thickness and volume, endometrial morphology, and subendometrial perfusion on the day of embryo transfer. Neither the volume nor the thickness of the endometrium on the day of embryo transfer had a predictive value for conception during in vitro fertilization cycles (P > .05). Patients who became pregnant were characterized by a significantly lower resistance index, obtained from subendometrial vessels by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography (resistance index = 0.53 +/- 0.04 versus 0.64 +/- 0.04, pregnant versus not pregnant, respectively; P < .05), and a significantly higher flow index (13.2 +/- 2.2 versus 11.9 +/- 2.4; P < .05), as measured by a three-dimensional power Doppler histogram. No difference was found in the predictive value of scoring systems analyzing endometrial thickness and volume, endometrial morphology, and subendometrial perfusion by color Doppler and three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. The high degree of endometrial perfusion shown by color Doppler ultrasonography and on three-dimensional power Doppler histograms on the day of embryo transfer can indicate a more favorable endometrial milieu for successful in vitro fertilization. PMID:11211132

  17. Pregnancy Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization with or without Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan; Deng, Cheng-Yan; Sun, Zheng-Yi; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, Han-Bi; Zhou, Yuan-Zheng; Jin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) on pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients is still ambiguous. This study aimed to analyze pregnancy outcomes of IVF with or without OHSS in Chinese patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare pregnancy outcomes between 190 women with OHSS and 197 women without OHSS. We examined the rates of clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, miscarriage, live birth, preterm delivery, preterm birth before 34 weeks’ gestation, cesarean delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) between the two groups. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of measure of clinical pregnancy were also analyzed. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate of OHSS patients was significantly higher than that of non-OHSS patients (91.8% vs. 43.5%, P < 0.001). After controlling for drug protocol and causes of infertility, the adjusted ORs of moderate OHSS and severe/critical OHSS for clinical pregnancy were 4.65 (95% CI, 1.86–11.61) and 5.83 (95% CI, 3.45–9.86), respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of multiple pregnancy (4.0% vs. 3.7%) and miscarriage (16.1% vs. 17.5%) between the two groups. With regard to ongoing clinical pregnancy, we also found no significant differences in the rates of live birth (82.1% vs. 78.8%), preterm delivery (20.9% vs. 17.5%), preterm birth before 34 weeks’ gestation (8.6% vs. 7.9%), cesarean delivery (84.9% vs. 66.3%), LBW (30.2% vs. 23.5%), and SGA (21.9% vs. 17.6%) between the two groups. Conclusion: OHSS, which occurs in the luteal phase or early pregnancy in IVF patients and represents abnormal transient hemodynamics, does not exert any obviously adverse effect on the subsequent pregnancy. PMID:26612291

  18. Association of in vitro fertilization with global and IGF2/H19 methylation variation in newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Loke, Y J; Galati, J C; Saffery, R; Craig, J M

    2015-04-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) and its subset intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), are widely used medical treatments for conception. There has been controversy over whether IVF is associated with adverse short- and long-term health outcomes of offspring. As with other prenatal factors, epigenetic change is thought to be a molecular mediator of any in utero programming effects. Most studies focused on DNA methylation at gene-specific and genomic level, with only a few on associations between DNA methylation and IVF. Using buccal epithelium from 208 twin pairs from the Peri/Postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS), we investigated associations between IVF and DNA methylation on a global level, using the proxies of Alu and LINE-1 interspersed repeats in addition to two locus-specific regulatory regions within IGF2/H19, controlling for 13 potentially confounding factors. Using multiple correction testing, we found strong evidence that IVF-conceived twins have lower DNA methylation in Alu, and weak evidence of lower methylation in one of the two IGF2/H19 regulatory regions and LINE-1, compared with naturally conceived twins. Weak evidence of a relationship between ICSI and DNA methylation within IGF2/H19 regulatory region was found, suggesting that one or more of the processes associated with IVF/ICSI may contribute to these methylation differences. Lower within- and between-pair DNA methylation variation was also found in IVF-conceived twins for LINE-1, Alu and one IGF2/H19 regulatory region. Although larger sample sizes are needed, our results provide additional insight to the possible influence of IVF and ICSI on DNA methylation. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date investigating the association of IVF and DNA methylation. PMID:25857739

  19. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) on In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Websites: Presentations of Risks, Benefits and Other Information

    PubMed Central

    Klitzman, Robert; Zolovska, Beata; Folberth, William; Sauer, Mark V.; Chung, Wendy; Appelbaum, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine information on Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) presented on In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) clinic websites. Design We systematically sampled every third IVF clinic on the 2004 CDC provider list. Setting The Internet. Patients None. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Benefits, risks and other types of information mentioned regarding PGD. Results Of 135 sites examined, 88.1% had websites, and 70% mentioned PGD, of which 27% were university/hospital-based and 63% were private clinics. Sites mentioning PGD listed uses/benefits of PGD far more than the risks involved. Of these sites, 76% described testing for single gene diseases, but fewer mentioned risks of missing target diagnoses (35%), or risks for loss of embryo (18%); and 14% described PGD as new or controversial. Private clinics were more likely than other programs to: be on either the East or West Coasts; list certain PGD risks (e.g., diagnostic error); note that PGD was new or controversial; reference source of PGD information; provide accuracy rates of genetic testing of embryos; and offer gender selection for social reasons. Conclusions Most IVF clinics advertise PGD on-line, but the scope and quality of information about it varies widely, emphasizing benefits while minimizing risks. Clinics and patients may benefit from more thorough and consistent presentation of PGD, drawing on available evidence to best provide a realistic portrayal of PGD. PMID:18829009

  20. Combination of oviduct fluid and heparin to improve monospermic zygotes production during porcine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ribrio Ivan Tavares Pereira; Moro, Lucia N; Corbin, Emilie; Alminana, Carmen; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria Gonçalves; de Figueirêdo Freitas, Vicente José; Mermillod, Pascal

    2016-07-15

    In vivo, the oviduct provides appropriate microenvironment conditions for monospermic fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, glycosaminoglycans such as heparin are present in the oviduct and have been shown to modulate the activity of oviduct-secreted proteins on the regulation of sperms parameters. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of porcine oocytes exposure to oviduct fluid (OF) before in vitro fertilization (IVF; incubation of oocytes in OF for 30 minutes before IVF), during IVF (supplementation of IVF medium with 10% OF), and during IVF in combination with heparin (10% OF + 10-μg/mL heparin) on IVF parameters. Regardless of sperm concentration used (0.5, 1.5, or 4.5 × 10(5) cells/mL), exposure of oocytes to OF led to an increased (P < 0.05) monospermy rate, without alteration (P > 0.05) of the penetration rate in comparison with the control group. This resulted in a general increase (P < 0.05) in the final output of the IVF system in terms of zygotes with two pronuclei in OF-exposed groups: 56 ± 9% (OF before) and 60 ± 7% (10% OF during IVF), compared with control (21 ± 8%), when IVF was performed with 4.5 × 10(5) cells/mL. The combination of 10% OF with heparin during IVF induced a decrease (P < 0.05) of the penetration rate, with no effect (P > 0.05) on the monospermy rate in comparison with 10% OF alone. This resulted in a general reduction (P < 0.05) in the final output of the IVF system (%), which was 33 ± 6% and 52 ± 8%, for 10% OF + heparin and 10% OF, respectively. In conclusion, the OF, used in porcine IVF, exerted a beneficial effect on oocytes by reducing the incidence of polyspermy without decreasing the penetration rate. However, the association of the OF with heparin reduced the efficiency of monospermic zygotes' production. PMID:26964763

  1. Slow oocyte freezing and thawing in couples with no sperm or an insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The clinical results of in vitro fertilization of slowly frozen-thawed oocytes are known to be significantly worse than those obtained by fresh oocytes. Little is known about the factors affecting the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes. The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the role of oocyte cryopreservation in the group of patients with no available sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization. Additionally, the effects of the female serum FSH level and sperm quality on the clinical outcome of frozen-thawed oocytes were evaluated. Methods Oocytes were slowly frozen and thawed in 22 infertile couples with no sperm or insufficient number of sperm on the day of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In 9 couples with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous sperm of bad quality when available (Group 1). In 13 couples with non-ejaculation due to psychological stress on the day of classical IVF or severe azoospermia frozen-thawed oocytes were fertilized by autologous or donated sperm of normal quality (Group 2). Oocytes were thawed in 23 cycles and microinjected by the autologous or donated sperm, when available. The clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection - ICSI (fertilization, blastocyst, and pregnancy rates) was compared to the outcome of fresh oocytes of the same group of patients; additionally, the female serum FSH level and the sperm quality were compared. Results In all couples, 70.5% of oocytes survived the freeze-thaw procedure. After ICSI, 61.5% of thawed oocytes were fertilized. Twenty one% of embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The pregnancy rates per embryo transfer and freeze-thaw cycle were 33.3% and 17.4%, respectively. All pregnancies ended in the birth of a baby without congenital anomalies. In patients with severe azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia there was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy rates per cycle obtained by

  2. Oxidative stress biomarkers in endometrial secretions: A comparison between successful and unsuccessful in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Ganji, Maziar; Eskandari, Nika; Yepez, Mayel; Rabiee, Soghra; Wise, Meredith; Ruano, Rodrigo; Ranjbar, Akram

    2016-08-01

    A potential role of oxidative stress has been implicated in the outcome of various steps of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In a prospective cohort study, a total of 100 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI procedure due to male factor infertility were recruited based on the inclusion criteria. In all patients, 1-2ml of endometrial secretions was aspirated prior to embryo transfer. The oxidative stress markers in endometrial secretions, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total thiol groups (TTG), and total antioxidant power (TAP) were investigated and compared among study groups including term pregnancy, failed IVF cycle, and miscarriage. P<0.05 was considered statistically different. Of the 100 patients, 28 cases (28%) resulted in ongoing pregnancy (biochemical pregnancy followed by clinical pregnancy), 11 cases (11%) resulted in miscarriage, and 61 cases (61%), resulted in failed IVF cycle. SOD, LPO, CAT, and TAP levels in the endometrial secretions of the three groups were statistically different (P-value <0.01, <0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). TTG levels in endometrial secretion of three groups were not statistically different (P-value=0.837). Our results indicated that higher levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT, or TAP, and lower levels of oxidative stress markers such as LPO in the endometrial secretions were associated with successful IVF outcome. PMID:27232354

  3. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  4. In quest of the perfect analogy for using in vitro fertilization patients as oocyte donors.

    PubMed

    Nisker, J A

    1997-01-01

    Whether painted in totalitarian terror, like the organ farm story and The Handmaid's Tale, the science-fiction reality of Make Room! Make Room!, the cinema noir urban tragedy of prostitution, or the portrayals of slavery (Afro-American, Nazi-European, and Russian), this series of resemblances, I hope, illustrates the power of analogy to surface sensitivity to ethical issues in the efficient, and possibly entertaining, texture demanded by medical personnel. Although my quest was quixotic from the start, I hope that this exercise will encourage your consideration of using analogy as an educational tool to heighten the awareness in medical personnel to many issues, to allow our better service of patients and society. PMID:9283278

  5. Lower growth factor expression in follicular fluid undergone in-vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung Bin; Park, Bang Ja

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to identify whether growth and differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expressions would be lower in the follicular fluid (FF) of those over age 35 who underwent IVF than under age 35. Methods A total of 24 IVF cycles (20 patients) were included in this study. All of patients were stimulated for IVF by the GnRH short protocol and divided into two groups for analysis, according to their age: <35 group (14 cycles, 11 patients) vs. ≥35 group (10 cycles, 9 patients). The expression levels of GDF-9 and TGF-β1 were determined by western blotting and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The numbers of retrieved oocytes and metaphase II oocytes were significantly lower in the ≥35 group. Lower expression of GDF-9 and TGF-β1 by western blotting in the ≥35 group were observed as well. The mean GDF-9 and TGF-β1 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were lower in the ≥35 group. The values were 6,850.5±928.4 ng/L vs. 3,333.3±1,089.2 ng/L of GDF-9 (p<0.05) and 3,844.1±571.1 ng/L vs. 2,187.7±754.0 ng/L of TGF-β1 (p<0.05). A negative correlation between GDF-9 and age was observed (r=-0.546, p=0.006). Conclusion GDF-9 and TGF-β1 production from stimulated ovaries during IVF appears to decrease with age. PMID:22384444

  6. Effects of salpingectomy on ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Almog, Benny; Wagman, Israel; Bibi, Guy; Raz, Yael; Azem, Foad; Groutz, Asnat; Barkan, Gali; Holzer, Hananel; Amit, Ami; Tulandi, Togas; Levin, Ishai

    2011-06-30

    To evaluate the effects of salpingectomy on ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), 36 women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation cycles for IVF before and after salpingectomy were studied. The overall number of dominant follicles and the number of oocytes aspirated before and after salpingectomy were comparable (7.2 ± 3.8 vs. 7.3 ± 3.7 and 10.2 ± 6.6 vs. 10.3 ± 7.4, respectively) as well as maximal E(2) levels, daily doses of gonadotropins, and the number of dominant follicles before and after surgery on the operated side, demonstrating that salpingectomy does not influence ovarian response in COH. PMID:21474129

  7. Use of a mouse in vitro fertilization model to understand the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Feuer, Sky K; Liu, Xiaowei; Donjacour, Annemarie; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel K; Giritharan, Gnanaratnam; Piane, Luisa Delle; Kolahi, Kevin; Ameri, Kurosh; Maltepe, Emin; Rinaudo, Paolo F

    2014-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice. We demonstrate that IVF and embryo culture, even under conditions considered optimal for mouse embryo culture, alter postnatal growth trajectory, fat accumulation, and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Unbiased metabolic profiling in serum and microarray analysis of pancreatic islets and insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) revealed broad changes in metabolic homeostasis, characterized by systemic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adopting a candidate approach, we identify thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key molecule involved in integrating cellular nutritional and oxidative states with metabolic response, as a marker for preimplantation stress and demonstrate tissue-specific epigenetic and transcriptional TXNIP misregulation in selected adult tissues. Importantly, dysregulation of TXNIP expression is associated with enrichment for H4 acetylation at the Txnip promoter that persists from the blastocyst stage through adulthood in adipose tissue. Our data support the vulnerability of preimplantation embryos to environmental disturbance and demonstrate that conception by IVF can reprogram metabolic homeostasis through metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms with lasting effects for adult growth and fitness. This study has wide clinical relevance and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of IVF-conceived offspring. PMID:24684304

  8. Effect of crotamine, a cell-penetrating peptide, on blastocyst production and gene expression of in vitro fertilized bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Iana S; Pereira, Alexsandra F; Alcântara-Neto, Agostinho S; Canel, Natalia G; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Camargo, Luiz S A; Melo, Luciana M; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi; Salamone, Daniel F; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of crotamine, a cell-penetrating peptide from rattlesnake venom, at different exposure times and concentrations, on both developmental competence and gene expression (ATP1A1, AQP3, GLUT1 and GLUT3) of in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos. In Experiment 1, presumptive zygotes were exposed to 0.1 μM crotamine for 6, 12 or 24 h and control groups (vehicle and IVF) were included. In Experiment 2, presumptive zygotes were exposed to 0 (vehicle), 0.1, 1 and 10 μM crotamine for 24 h. Additionally, to visualize crotamine uptake, embryos were exposed to rhodamine B-labelled crotamine and subjected to confocal microscopy. In Experiment 1, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed among different exposure times and control groups for cleavage and blastocyst rates and total cells number per blastocyst. Within each exposure time, mRNA levels were similar (P > 0.05) in embryos cultured with or without crotamine. In Experiment 2, concentrations as high as 10 μM crotamine did not affect (P > 0.05) the blastocyst rate. Crotamine at 0.1 and 10 μM did not alter mRNA levels when compared with the control (P > 0.05). Remarkably, only 1 μM crotamine decreased both ATP1A1 and AQP3 expression levels relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Also, it was possible to visualize the intracellular localization of crotamine. These results indicate that crotamine can translocate intact IVF bovine embryos and its application in the culture medium is possible at concentrations from 0.1-10 μM for 6-24 h. PMID:25532535

  9. Ultrastructural comparison of porcine putative embryonic stem cells derived by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunju; Kim, Eunhye; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Yoon, Junchul David; Jeon, Yubyeol; Park, Kyu-Mi; Kim, Kyu-Jun; Jin, Minghui; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Eunsong; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Gonhyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-04-22

    The ultrastructure of porcine putative embryonic stem cells and porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The aim of this study was to compare the features of organelles in in vitro fertilization (IVF) derived porcine embryonic stem cells (IVF-pESCs) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) derived pESCs (SCNT-pESCs). Also, the features of organelles in high-passage IVF-pESCs were compared with those in low-passage cells. The ultrastructure of PFFs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, polygonal or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles. IVF-pESCs showed rare microvilli on the cell surfaces, round or irregular nuclei with one to two reticular-shaped nucleoli and euchromatin, low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rich ribosomes, long stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum, elongated mitochondria, rare lysosomes and rare autophagic vacuoles. By contrast, SCNT-pESCs showed rich microvilli with various lengths and frequencies on the cell surfaces, polygonal nuclei with one reticular shaped nucleoli and heterochromatin, high cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratios, rare ribosomes, rare rough endoplasmic reticulum, round mitochondria, rich lysosomes and rich phagocytic vacuoles with clear intercellular junctions. Furthermore, high-passage IVF-pESCs showed irregularly shaped colonies, pyknosis and numerous lysosomes associated with autophagic vacuoles showing signs of apoptosis. In conclusion, this study confirms that the ultrastructural characteristics of pESCs differ depending on their origin. These ultrastructural characteristics might be useful in biomedical research using pESCs, leading to new insights regarding regenerative medicine and tissue repair. PMID:26821870

  10. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  11. Cell-free DNA in Human Follicular Microenvironment: New Prognostic Biomarker to Predict in vitro Fertilization Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mullet, Tiffany; Molinari, Nicolas; Vincens, Claire; Anahory, Tal; Hamamah, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) fragments, detected in blood and in other biological fluids, are released from apoptotic and/or necrotic cells. CfDNA is currently used as biomarker for the detection of many diseases such as some cancers and gynecological and obstetrics disorders. In this study, we investigated if cfDNA levels in follicular fluid (FF) samples from in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients, could be related to their ovarian reserve status, controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols and IVF outcomes. Therefore, 117 FF samples were collected from women (n = 117) undergoing IVF/Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure and cfDNA concentration was quantified by ALU-quantitative PCR. We found that cfDNA level was significantly higher in FF samples from patients with ovarian reserve disorders (low functional ovarian reserve or polycystic ovary syndrome) than from patients with normal ovarian reserve (2.7 ± 2.7 ng/μl versus 1.7 ± 2.3 ng/μl, respectively, p = 0.03). Likewise, FF cfDNA levels were significant more elevated in women who received long ovarian stimulation (> 10 days) or high total dose of gonadotropins (≥ 3000 IU/l) than in women who received short stimulation duration (7–10 days) or total dose of gonadotropins < 3000 IU/l (2.4 ± 2.8 ng/μl versus 1.5 ± 1.9 ng/μl, p = 0.008; 2.2 ± 2.3 ng/μl versus 1.5 ± 2.1 ng/μl, p = 0.01, respectively). Finally, FF cfDNA level was an independent and significant predictive factor for pregnancy outcome (adjusted odds ratio = 0.69 [0.5; 0.96], p = 0.03). In multivariate analysis, the Receiving Operator Curve (ROC) analysis showed that the performance of FF cfDNA in predicting clinical pregnancy reached 0.73 [0.66–0.87] with 88% specificity and 60% sensitivity. CfDNA might constitute a promising biomarker of follicular micro-environment quality which could be used to predict IVF prognosis and to enhance female infertility management. PMID:26288130

  12. [In-vitro fertilization: advantage and disadvantage of covering the costs of IVF/ICSI by the health insurance in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Wunder-Galié, D; Hohlfeld, P; de Ziegler, D

    2009-10-21

    In-vitro fertilization: advantage and disadvantage of covering the costs of IVF/CSI by the health insurance in Switzerland The reimbursement of certain infertility treatments (stimulation with/without insemination) whereas IVF/ICSI is not leads patients with an indication of IVF to prefer treatments of low efficacy. The costs of multiple pregnancies issued by reimbursed or non-reimbursed fertility treatments are paid by the society. There should be measures to reduce these costs and to take the money used today to pay the complications of infertility treatments to reimburse IVF. The efficacy of such a system (single embryo transfer) has been proven in Belgium since several years. The dangers of complete reimbursement (IVF treatment in cases without any chances of success, only because it is for free) can be avoided by an Efficacy and Safety Board. PMID:19947454

  13. Transabdominal follicular aspiration in an in vitro fertilization cycle: experiences with an unusual but necessary intervention in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    Osemwenkha, Abieyuwa

    2016-01-01

    Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is one of the major steps of in vitro fertilization. The inaccessibility or non-visualization of developing follicles on transvaginal sonography (the preferred imaging method) may be misjudged as a poor response, resulting in cycle cancellation. It is necessary to scrupulously appraise proxy indicators for ovarian response, such as estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, and other individual clinical characteristics. This can prompt meticulous transabdominal ultrasound follicular monitoring and oocyte retrieval with the goal of averting cycle cancellation and improving treatment outcomes. PMID:27104159

  14. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 polymorphisms and infertility associated with endometriosis or with post-in vitro fertilization implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Paskulin, D D; Cunha-Filho, J S L; Souza, C A B; Bortolini, M C; Hainaut, P; Ashton-Prolla, P

    2012-01-01

    p53 has a crucial role in human fertility by regulating the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a secreted cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation. To examine whether TP53 polymorphisms may be involved with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and endometriosis (END), we have assessed the associations between TP53 polymorphism in intron 2 (PIN2; G/C, intron 2), PIN3 (one (N, non-duplicated) or two (D, duplicated) repeats of a 16-bp motif, intron 3) and polymorphism in exon 4 (PEX4; C/G, p.P72R, exon 4) in 98 women with END and 115 women with post-IVF failure. In addition, 134 fertile women and 300 women unselected with respect to fertility-related features were assessed. TP53 polymorphisms and haplotypes were identified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 were associated with both END (P=0.042 and P=0.007, respectively) and IVF (P=0.004 and P=0.009, respectively) when compared with women both selected and unselected for fertility-related features. Haplotypes D-C and N-C were related to higher risk for END (P=0.002, P=0.001, respectively) and failure of IVF (P=0.018 and P=0.002, respectively) when compared with the Fertile group. These results support that specific TP53 haplotypes are associated with an increased risk of END-associated infertility and with post-IVF failure. PMID:23013791

  15. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 polymorphisms and infertility associated with endometriosis or with post-in vitro fertilization implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Paskulin, D D; Cunha-Filho, J S L; Souza, C A B; Bortolini, M C; Hainaut, P; Ashton-Prolla, P

    2012-01-01

    p53 has a crucial role in human fertility by regulating the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a secreted cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation. To examine whether TP53 polymorphisms may be involved with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and endometriosis (END), we have assessed the associations between TP53 polymorphism in intron 2 (PIN2; G/C, intron 2), PIN3 (one (N, non-duplicated) or two (D, duplicated) repeats of a 16-bp motif, intron 3) and polymorphism in exon 4 (PEX4; C/G, p.P72R, exon 4) in 98 women with END and 115 women with post-IVF failure. In addition, 134 fertile women and 300 women unselected with respect to fertility-related features were assessed. TP53 polymorphisms and haplotypes were identified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 were associated with both END (P=0.042 and P=0.007, respectively) and IVF (P=0.004 and P=0.009, respectively) when compared with women both selected and unselected for fertility-related features. Haplotypes D-C and N-C were related to higher risk for END (P=0.002, P=0.001, respectively) and failure of IVF (P=0.018 and P=0.002, respectively) when compared with the Fertile group. These results support that specific TP53 haplotypes are associated with an increased risk of END-associated infertility and with post-IVF failure. PMID:23013791

  16. The reproductive outcome of women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Saynur; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Yumusak, Omer; Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Seckin, Berna; Yilmaz, Nafiye

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes of patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and to compare the results with male factor (MF) infertility patients. The reproductive outcome of 33 HH patients was evaluated retrospectively and compared with results of 47 patients with mild male factor infertility. For ovulation induction, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was used in HH patients and recFSH was used in MF infertility patients. HH patients were divided into subgroups according to retrieved oocyte numbers and the groups were compared with each other. The main outcome measures were total gonadotropin dose used, duration of stimulation, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) day estradiol level and endometrial thickness, oocyte number retrieved, and rate of clinical pregnancy. ART outcomes and cycle characteristics of 33 HH patients were compared with 47 MF infertility patients. There was no difference in age and body mass index (BMI) between the groups, but mean follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH levels were significantly lower in the HH group (p < 0.001). Duration of stimulation was 12.5 ± 2.06 days in the HH patients and 10.08 ± 1.62 days in the MF infertility patients and the difference was significant (p < 0.001). Total gonadotropin dose used was higher in the HH group than the MF infertility group (p < 0.001). However, there were no differences in hCG day estradiol levels, endometrial thickness on hCG day, total oocyte number retrieved, MII oocyte number, and pregnancy rate. In the HH subgroups, patient ages were significantly lower in the >15 oocyte retrieved group. Although patients with HH have a long-term estrogen deficiency, their response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation treatment is similar to normal women. However, the HH group is heterogeneous and estimating the ovarian reserve before treatment is not always possible in

  17. Fertility in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results. PMID:27098490

  18. How couples who have undergone in vitro fertilization decide what to do with surplus frozen embryos.

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Robert D; Mac Dougall, Kirstin; Harrington, Jennifer; Duff, Julia; Lee, Matthew; Becker, Gay

    2009-12-01

    In a qualitative interview study of 77 families with stored frozen embryos, we found that while embryo disposition decision making was influenced by individual life circumstances, embryo quantity/quality, personal values, embryo conceptualization, and clinic information, it was a stepwise process that could be represented as three sequential questions: (1) Will the embryos be used for additional attempts at conception? If not, (2) Will the embryos remain in storage? And if not, (3) Will the embryos be donated to other people or to science, or will they be destroyed? While almost two-thirds (63%) of participants kept their embryos in storage after 5 years, either passively through disagreement or indecision or actively to maintain embryo potential, avert feelings of loss, or as psychological or genetic "insurance," IVF clinic support and detailed information about options motivated families to make disposition decisions. PMID:19700150

  19. The relationship between some endometrial secretion cytokines and in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Ebrahimi, Mehrnoosh; Rabiee, Soghra; Zamani, Alireza; Ezzati, Mohammad; Abdollah Shamshirsaz, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometrial secretion analysis is a non-invasive and promising method in evaluation of endometrial receptivity. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the success rate of IVF procedures and some endometrial secretion cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP). Materials and Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 50 women selected for IVF met the study inclusion criteria. All the patients underwent endometrial secretion aspiration prior to embryo transfer. The level of IL-1β, TNF-α, IP-10 and MCP were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method using special standard kits. To detect successful implantation and pregnancy patients underwent serum human chorionic gonadotropin measurements and ultrasound evaluation. Results: Five samples were excluded. Nine women (20%) had successful clinical pregnancies, which resulted in live birth. Other 36 women (80%) were classified as failed pregnancy. Comparison of cytokine levels showed lower concentrations of TNF-α, IP-10, and MCP in the group with successful clinical pregnancy compared to the group with failed pregnancy (p=0.007, 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). However, no significant difference was revealed in IL-1β levels between two groups (p=0.614). Conclusion: The current study suggested that lower concentrations of TNF-α, IP-10, and MCP in endometrial secretions might be associated with improved endometrial receptivity and IVF outcome. Regarding IL-1β, no statistically significant differences were seen between the groups with and without successful pregnancy. PMID:26568760

  20. Term delivery following pyometra after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanyam, Sathya; Varma, Thankam R

    2014-04-01

    A 30 year old woman presented 12 days after embryo transfer with lower abdominal pain and orange vaginal discharge. She was diagnosed to have pyometra. A conservative management with drainage of the pyometra was followed by an uneventful pregnancy and term delivery. Conservative management in a case of pregnancy with pyometra needs close supervision to ensure maternal and fetal well being. PMID:25191031

  1. Cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Carrie; Westerfield, Monte; Varga, Zoltán M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, laboratories throughout the world generated several thousand mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish lines and more lines continue to be produced. At the same time, relatively little effort has been expended to develop reliable, high-throughput, standardized, long-term cryopreservation storage methods, even though laboratories and the research community as a whole struggle to maintain the large number of lines alive. Safe and reliable methods for maintaining these valuable genetic resources are vital for future biomedical research. Cryopreservation is the most efficient method for large-scale, long-term storage of important genetic materials. It extends the time offspring can be produced from individual fish, reduces the need to maintain live populations, and can prevent catastrophic loss of irreplaceable research lines. Cryopreservation is also the most cost-effective alternative for maintaining genetic resources because it reduces costs for animal and facility maintenance, personnel, and space. In addition, it provides novel opportunities to develop new types of research using large numbers of lines. For example, several genetic strategies, such as TILLING or enhancer and gene trapping, depend on the use of cryopreservation to bypass generations of live organisms until a strain is revived for research. In this chapter, we describe and discuss the current cryopreservation method used at the Zebrafish International Resource Center. This method is derived from the initial protocol developed for zebrafish over 20 years ago that has recently been refined (1). PMID:19378097

  2. Impact of Whole Systems Traditional Chinese Medicine on In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hullender Rubin, Lee E.; Opsahl, Michael S.; Wiemer, Klaus; Mist, Scott D.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing IVF patients may receive either acupuncture or whole-systems traditional Chinese medicine (WS-TCM) as an adjuvant IVF treatment. WS-TCM is a complex intervention that can include acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, dietary, lifestyle recommendations, or both. In this retrospective cohort study, 1231 IVF patient records were reviewed to assess the effect of adjuvant WS-TCM on IVF outcomes compared among three groups: IVF with no additional treatment; IVF and elective acupuncture on day of embryo transfer; or IVF and elective WS-TCM. The primary outcome was live birth. Of 1069 non-donor cycles, WS-TCM was associated with greater odds of live birth compared with IVF alone (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36 to 3.21), or embryo transfer with acupuncture only (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.52). Of 162 donor cycles, WS-TCM was associated with increased live births compared with all groups (odds Ratio [OR] 3.72; 95% CI 1.05 to 13.24, unadjusted] or embryo transfer with acupuncture only (OR 4.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 16.38, unadjusted). Overall, IVF with adjuvant WS-TCM was associated with greater odds of live birth in donor and non-donor cycles. These results should be taken cautiously as more rigorous research is needed. PMID:25911598

  3. Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Methods Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n = 142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n = 374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. Results The fertilizing rate was lower (P = 0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/−6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/−7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/−6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (P < 0.0001) in control (44.1+/−4.15%) than in APPA group (19.7+/−4.22%). Prt CD spectroscopy showed a 22% alpha-helical structure in 30% (m/v) aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 17% alpha in 0.6% (m/v) TFE. The predominant alpha-helical secondary structure detected correlates with the predicted three dimensional structure for ovine Prt, which was subsequently used to test Prt/ZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Conclusions Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis

  4. Global gene transcription patterns in in vitro-cultured fertilized embryos and diploid and haploid murine parthenotes

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Xiangshun; Li Xingyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung . E-mail: nhkim@chungbuk.ac.kr

    2007-01-19

    To gain insights into the roles the paternal genome and chromosome number play in pre-implantation development, we cultured fertilized embryos and diploid and haploid parthenotes (DPs and HPs, respectively), and compared their development and gene expression patterns. The DPs and fertilized embryos did not differ in developmental ability but HPs development was slower and characterized by impaired compaction and blastocoel formation. Microarray analysis revealed that fertilized blastocysts expressed several genes at higher levels than DP blastocysts; these included the Y-chromosome-specific gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3, structural gene Y-linked (Eif2s3y) and the imprinting gene U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor 1, related sequence 1 (U2af1-rs1). We also found that when DPs and HPs were both harvested at 44 and 58 h of culture, they differed in the expression of 38 and 665 genes, respectively. However, when DPs and HPs were harvested at the midpoints of 4-cell stage (44 and 49 h, respectively), no differences in expression was observed. Similarly, when the DPs and HPs were harvested when they became blastocysts (102 and 138 h, respectively), only 15 genes showed disparate expression. These results suggest that while transcripts needed for early development are delayed in HPs, it does progress sufficiently for the generation of the various developmental stages despite the lack of genetic components.

  5. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is used to treat many causes of infertility , including: Advanced age of the woman (advanced maternal ... disease or prior reproductive surgery) Endometriosis Male factor infertility, including decreased sperm count and blockage Unexplained infertility

  6. In vitro fertilization (IVF)

    MedlinePlus

    IVF; Assisted reproductive technology; ART; Test-tube baby procedure ... or unassisted conception. IVF is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This means special medical techniques are used ...

  7. Separation of motile sperm for in vitro fertilization from frozen-thawed bull semen using progesterone induction on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchun; Ning, Bolin; Cao, Xinyan; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Li; Wei, Guosheng; Liu, Shengjun; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Aizhong; Wu, Rui; Li, Yanbing

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a novel method for the separation of motile sperm from non-progressive motile and immotile sperm and in vitro Fertilization (IVF). This separation of bull sperm was accomplished by inducing chemotaxis along a progesterone release agent in a 7.5-mm microchannel microchip composed of a biocompatible polydimethysiloxane layer and a glass gradient. The selected sperm was applied directly for IVF. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of different lengths of microchannnel (5mm, 7.5mm and 10mm) on quality parameter of separated sperm. The results showed that separated sperm using 7.5-mm microchannel chip were improved in sperm motility, swimming velocity, and beat frequency compared with other groups. In the second experiment, a medium containing sperm from swim-up method and outlet reservoir of our 7.5-mm microchannel chip was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by fluorescence microscopy. The sperm from the microchip had higher mitochondria activity (47.6%±6.0%) than the sperm from the swim-up method (23.6%±4.7%) (P<0.05). There were significant differences in rate of acrosome intactness between the swim-up method and the microchip (36.0%±4.1% vs. 66.8±2.1%, respectively, P<0.05). In the third experiment, we compared sperm penetration in the microchip-IVF system with a standard IVF method (droplet-IVF). The microchip-IVF group had the highest percentages of oocytes penetrated (82.2%±1.6% vs. 63.5%±2.4%) and monospermic oocytes (67.8%±3.4% vs. 42.4%±1.5%). In addition, early developmental competence of oocytes to the blastocyst stage was higher when the oocytes were inseminated in the microchip-IVF system compared with those inseminated in a standard droplet-IVF system. These results demonstrate that our microchip based on a sperm chemotaxis system is useful for motile sperm separation from frozen-thawed bull semen for IVF. Therefore, the optimized microchip system provides a good opportunity to sort

  8. Deficiencies in extrusion of the second polar body due to high calcium concentrations during in vitro fertilization in inbred C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Minami, Naojiro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kito, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of all inbred strains of laboratory mice has not yet been accomplished. We have previously shown that a high calcium concentration improved IVF in various inbred mice. However, we also found that in cumulus-free ova of C3H/He mice such IVF conditions significantly increased the deficiency of extrusion of the second polar body (PBII) in a dose-dependent manner (2% at 1.71 mM and 29% at 6.84 mM, P < 0.05) and that PBII extrusion was affected by high calcium levels at 2-3 h post-insemination. While developmental competence of ova without PBII extrusion to blastocysts after 96 h culture was not affected, a significant reduction in the nuclear number of the inner cell mass was observed in blastocyst fertilized under high calcium condition. We also examined how high calcium concentration during IVF affects PBII extrusion in C3H/He mice. Cumulus cells cultured under high calcium conditions showed a significantly alleviated deficient PBII extrusion. This phenomenon is likely to be specific to C3H/He ova because deficient PBII extrusion in reciprocal fertilization between C3H and BDF1 gametes was observed only in C3H/He ova. Sperm factor(s) was still involved in deficient PBII extrusion due to high calcium concentrations, as this phenomenon was not observed in ova activated by ethanol. The cytoskeletal organization of ova without PBII extrusion showed disturbed spindle rotation, incomplete formation of contractile ring and disturbed localization of actin, suggesting that high calcium levels affect the anchoring machinery of the meiotic spindle. These results indicate that in C3H/He mice high calcium levels induce abnormal fertilization, i.e. deficient PBII extrusion by affecting the cytoskeletal organization, resulting in disturbed cytokinesis during the second meiotic division. Thus, use of high calcium media for IVF should be avoided for this strain. PMID:26503636

  9. Cryosurvival and in vitro fertilizing capacity postthaw is improved when boar spermatozoa are frozen in the presence of seminal plasma from good freezer boars.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Calvete, Juan J; Sanz, Libia; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José A; Vázquez, Juan M; Martínez, Emilio A

    2007-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effect of seminal plasma (SP) added to freezing extender against cryopreservation injuries to boar spermatozoa. Pooled sperm-rich fractions collected from 9 fertile boars were frozen in 0.5-mL straws after being extended in a conventional freezing extender either alone or supplemented with 5% of SPs (SP1-SP4) collected from the sperm-rich fractions (diluted 1:1, vol/vol, in Beltsville Thawing Solution extender) from 4 boars (1-4) with known sperm cryosurvival (poor, moderate, and good sperm freezers). Cryopreservation injuries were assessed in terms of postthaw sperm motility (assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis), viability (plasma membrane and acrosome integrity assessed simultaneously by flow cytometry), membrane lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA] production), and the ability of thawed spermatozoa to fertilize in vitro-matured homologous oocytes. The addition of SP from good sperm freezers (SP3 and SP4) improved (P < .01) the motility and viability of thawed spermatozoa without any influence on MDA production. Moreover, SP from good sperm freezers also increased (P < .05) the percentage of penetrated (SP3) and polyspermic oocytes (SP4) with respect to the control. Neither the total amount of SP proteins, protein profiles, nor antioxidant capacity of the different SPs were related to the various cryosurvival/fertilizing capacities of the processed spermatozoa. PMID:17460094

  10. A Case of Unicornuate Uterus with Atypical Located Hyperstimulated Ovary after in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET)

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Mariya Angelova; Kovachev, Emil Georgiev; Kisyov, Stefan Vasilev; Ivanova, Vilislava Robert

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a congenital Mullerian anomaly, uterus unicornis with missing right fallopian tube. An in Vitro Fertilization Pre-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) procedure was done and presently is known that the patient has left fallopian tube and left ovary, two kidneys, and right ovary is missing. No diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy were done, only hysterosalpingography (HSG) before the IVF procedure. Several days after the follicular puncture of the left ovary the patient was urgently admitted to the hospital for specialized gynaecology in Varna. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed right ovary atypically located immediately next to the liver and with emerging theca-lutein cysts.

  11. Effect of different thawing temperatures on the viability, in vitro fertilizing capacity and chromatin condensation of frozen boar semen packaged in 5 ml straws.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Izquierdo, A; Oliva, J H; Lleó, B; García-Artiga, C; Corcuera, B D; Pérez-Gutiérrez, J F

    2006-03-01

    The effect of two different thawing temperatures on frozen boar semen viability, in vitro fertilizing capacity and chromatin condensation and stability was studied. Freeze-thaw motility, normal apical ridge (NAR), in vitro fertilizing (IVF) capacity and chromatin condensation and stability were evaluated after thawing at 42 degrees C, 40s and 50 degrees C, 40s. Chromatin condensation degree was determined by flow cytometry, using propidium iodide as fluorochrome intercalating agent, and chromatin stability was evaluated by the same procedure after inducing sperm chromatin decondensation with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results showed that thawing straws at 42 degrees C, 40s significantly reduced motility compared to straws thawed at 50 degrees C, 40s. NAR, penetration, monospermy and polyspermy were not different between the two groups of samples thawed at different temperatures. Chromatin was significantly more compact when thawing was performed at 50 degrees C, but its stability did not show any difference relative to thawing at 42 degrees C. It is suggested that the interactions involved in chromatin overcondensation had a non-covalent nature. PMID:15975744

  12. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp. PMID:26038669

  13. Effects of caffeine, cumulus cell removal and aging on polyspermy and embryo development on in vitro matured and fertilized ovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, W E; Lee, J-H; Campbell, K H S

    2009-04-15

    The objectives of these studies were to determine the effects of cumulus cell removal and caffeine treatment on the development of in vitro matured ovine oocytes aged in vitro until until fertilization. Oocytes were denuded (DO) at 24h post-onset of maturation (hpm), control cumulus oocyte complexes (COC's) and DO groups were fertilized at 24 hpm or returned to culture in the presence or absence of 10mM caffeine and fertilized at 30 hpm. Removal of cumulus cells and aging both increased polyspermy, caffeine reduced this increase, however, with the exception of DO's (30 hpm) vs. COC's (24 hpm) the differences were not statistically significant. Aging significantly decreased cleavage between COC groups at 24 hpm and 30 hpm and caffeine did not affect this (68.4%, 73.4%, 74.0% respectively). In contrast, the frequency of cleavage was significantly reduced in the DO (24 hpm) group as compared to COC controls (45.6% vs. 68.4% (P<0.05)), however, cleavage increased in the DO group on aging (73.4%) and this was not affected by caffeine (73.0%). The percentage of COC's and DO's developing to the blastocyst stage significantly decreased on aging, caffeine treatment of DO's prevented this (31.3%, 12.7% and 29.4% respectively (P<0.05)) but had no effect on COC's (4.2% vs. 3.9%). Total cell numbers in blastocysts were not statistically different (92.4+/-5.2, 84.7+/-3.7 and 80.4+/-5.8 (P>0.05)). In summary caffeine treatment of aged COC's had no significant effect on the frequency of development, however, in aged DO's caffeine treatment statistically increased development to blastocyst and lowered the frequency of polyspermy. PMID:19185338

  14. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  15. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  16. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome due to a Translocation t(6;22) in a Patient Conceived via in vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gollo Dantas, Anelisa; Bortolai, Adriana; Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Takeno Herrero, Sylvia; Azoubel Antunes, Adriana; Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz; Ayres Meloni, Vera; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2016-02-01

    We report on a patient conceived via in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a 22q11.2 deletion due to an unusual unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes. Cytogenomic studies showed that the patient has a 3.3-Mb deletion of chromosome 22q and a 0.4-Mb deletion of chromosome 6p, which resulted in haploinsufficiency of the genes responsible for the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and also of the IRF4 gene, a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors, which is expressed in the immune system cells. The rearrangement could be due to the manipulation of the embryo or as a sporadic event unrelated to IVF. Translocation involving chromosome 22 in a karyotype with 45 chromosomes is a rare event, with no previous reports involving chromosomes 6p and 22q. PMID:26997945

  17. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  18. Improved embryo development in Japanese black cattle by in vitro fertilization using ovum pick-up plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection with dithiothreitol.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Toshinori; Itahashi, Tomoko; Numabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of sperm and ethanol activation improve embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, we compared ICSI with standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) in oocytes obtained from cattle. We demonstrated that DTT reduced the disulfide bond in the bovine sperm head. Using oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse, ICSI-DTT treatment without ethanol showed the highest rate of blastocyst formation. We applied these results to fertilization using ovum pick-up (OPU). Eleven Japanese black cattle served as donors for OPU plus standard IVF (OPU-IVF). Of them, four donors with low embryo development rates were selected to determine whether embryo development was enhanced by OPU plus ICSI (OPU-ICSI). We assessed effects on embryo development following IVF and ICSI in oocytes obtained using OPU. Blastocyst rates were significantly higher for OPU-ICSI than for OPU-IVF. Our results suggest that OPU-ICSI improves the blastocyst development rate in donors with low embryo production compared with the standard OPU-IVF. PMID:26460690

  19. Improved embryo development in Japanese black cattle by in vitro fertilization using ovum pick-up plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection with dithiothreitol

    PubMed Central

    OIKAWA, Toshinori; ITAHASHI, Tomoko; NUMABE, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of sperm and ethanol activation improve embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, we compared ICSI with standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) in oocytes obtained from cattle. We demonstrated that DTT reduced the disulfide bond in the bovine sperm head. Using oocytes obtained from a slaughterhouse, ICSI-DTT treatment without ethanol showed the highest rate of blastocyst formation. We applied these results to fertilization using ovum pick-up (OPU). Eleven Japanese black cattle served as donors for OPU plus standard IVF (OPU-IVF). Of them, four donors with low embryo development rates were selected to determine whether embryo development was enhanced by OPU plus ICSI (OPU-ICSI). We assessed effects on embryo development following IVF and ICSI in oocytes obtained using OPU. Blastocyst rates were significantly higher for OPU-ICSI than for OPU-IVF. Our results suggest that OPU-ICSI improves the blastocyst development rate in donors with low embryo production compared with the standard OPU-IVF. PMID:26460690

  20. The correlation of interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor to oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels in periovulatory follicular fluid of in-vitro fertilization patients.

    PubMed

    Barak, V; Mordel, N; Holzer, H; Zajicek, G; Treves, A J; Laufer, N

    1992-04-01

    Data has accumulated suggesting reciprocity between cytokines and the reproductive system. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the correlation between interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations in follicular fluid and its oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. A total of 39 follicular fluid samples, from eight patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer were evaluated. All of the patients were treated by a midluteal (long) protocol involving a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) coupled with follicular phase human menopausal gonadotrophin. Mean levels in follicular fluid of IL-1, TNF, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were 1.58 +/- 0.42 fmol/0.1 ml, 4.69 +/- 4.18 pg/ml, 28.5 +/- 58.1 ng/ml, 2360.5 +/- 2846.3 ng/ml and 7.22 +/- 7.08 ng/ml respectively. There was a significant (P less than 0.01) positive correlation between IL-1 and progesterone levels. There was no significant correlation between the different lymphokines and oestradiol secretion, oocyte fertilization, embryo quality and pregnancy rates. It is concluded that IL-1 and TNF exist in follicular fluid. It may be hypothesized that IL-1 has a local regulatory action, possibly promoting luteinization. PMID:1522186

  1. Successful pregnancy and delivery via in vitro fertilization with cryopreserved and thawed embryo transfer in an acute myeloid leukemia patient after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hideyuki; Kishimoto, Kumiko; Numata, Ayumi; Motohashi, Kenji; Tachibana, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Yamashita, Naoki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Fujisawa, Shin

    2015-04-01

    As the number of young long-term survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute leukemia continues to increase, post-transplant infertility is becoming a significant concern. HSCT, particularly with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, is known to cause secondary premature ovarian failure, resulting in infertility. To preserve post-transplant fertility, several methods have been proposed, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo cryopreservation. Due to the aggressiveness of acute leukemia, however, patients have little chance to undergo egg harvesting and IVF before they must begin receiving chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no detailed reports of successful pregnancy after HSCT using IVF with embryo cryopreservation and transfer in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we report the case of a 42-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia who became pregnant 2 years and 2 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation via IVF-embryo transfer with an egg collected after induction therapy and delivered a full-term healthy infant. PMID:25430084

  2. Proteomes of Animal Oocytes: What Can We Learn for Human Oocytes in the In Vitro Fertilization Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes are crucial cells for mammalian reproduction, yet the molecular principles underlying oocyte development are only partially understood. Therefore, contemporary proteomic approaches have been used increasingly to provide new insights into oocyte quality and maturation in various species such as mouse, pig, and cow. Especially, animal studies have helped in elucidating the molecular status of oocytes during in vitro maturation and other procedures of assisted reproduction. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature on mammalian oocyte proteome and secretome research in the light of natural and assisted reproduction and on lessons to be learned for human oocytes, which have so far remained inaccessible for proteome analysis. PMID:24804254

  3. Creating the ‘ethics industry': Mary Warnock, in vitro fertilization and the history of bioethics in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a shift in the management and discussion of biomedicine. Issues once considered by doctors and scientists are now handled by a diverse array of participants, including philosophers, lawyers, theologians and lay representatives. This new approach, known as ‘bioethics', has become the norm in regulatory committees and public debate. In this article, I argue that bioethics emerged as a valued enterprise in Britain during the 1980s because it fulfilled, and linked, the concerns of several groups. My analysis centres on the moral philosopher Mary Warnock, who chaired a government inquiry into human fertilization and embryology between 1982 and 1984, and became a strong advocate of bioethics. I detail how Warnock's promotion of bioethics tallied with the Conservative government's desire for increased surveillance of hitherto autonomous professions – while fulfilling her own belief that philosophers should engage in public affairs. And I also show that Warnock simultaneously promoted bioethics to doctors and scientists as an essential safeguard against declining political and public trust. This stance, I argue, framed bioethics as a vital intermediary between politics, the public, and biomedicine, and explains the growth and endurance of what the Guardian identified as an ethics industry. PMID:22563348

  4. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B. S.; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A. K.; Dashottar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients’ wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  5. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Virender; Sunita, B S; Sarin, Arti; Singh, A K; Dashottar, S

    2015-01-01

    Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy. PMID:26942145

  6. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    PubMed Central

    Pónya, Zsolt; Corsi, Ilaria; Hoffmann, Richárd; Kovács, Melinda; Dobosy, Anikó; Kovács, Attila Zoltán; Cresti, Mauro; Barnabás, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to) the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation. PMID:25535074

  7. When isolated at full receptivity, in vitro fertilized wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) egg cells reveal [Ca2+]cyt oscillation of intracellular origin.

    PubMed

    Pónya, Zsolt; Corsi, Ilaria; Hoffmann, Richárd; Kovács, Melinda; Dobosy, Anikó; Kovács, Attila Zoltán; Cresti, Mauro; Barnabás, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to) the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation. PMID:25535074

  8. The effect of extender, method of thawing, and duration of storage on in vitro fertility measures of frozen-thawed boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V; Ringwelski, J M; McNamara, K A; Aardsma, M; Bojko, M

    2015-08-01

    Frozen-thawed boar sperm (FTS) has reduced in vitro and in vivo life span compared to liquid semen. Experiments tested whether extenders, thawing procedures, and storage temperatures could extend the fertile life span of FTS. Experiment 1 tested the effect of six extenders on postthaw motility (MOT) and viability (VIA). Straws from boars (n = 6) were thawed, diluted into each extender, and evaluated at 20, 60, and 120 minutes. There was a trend (P = 0.08) for an extender-by-time interaction for MOT and effect of extender and time for MOT (P < 0.0001) and extender (P = 0.10) and time (P < 0.0001) for VIA. Experiment 2 evaluated the effect of temperature and time of thawing on in vitro fertility at intervals after thawing. Straws (0.5 mL) from different boar ejaculates (n = 15) were thawed at 50 °C for 10, 20, or 30 seconds or at 70 °C for 5, 10, or 20 seconds and evaluated at 5, 30, and 60 minutes. There was an effect of thawing treatment on MOT, VIA, and ACR (viable sperm with intact acrosomes, P < 0.0001) and an effect of time of evaluation (P < 0.0001) on MOT and ACR. Thawing at 70 °C for 20 seconds reduced (P < 0.05) MOT, VIA, and ACR compared to other treatments. Experiment 3 tested the effects of storage temperature and time after thawing using 20 ejaculates. Samples were thawed, diluted, and allotted to storage at 17 °C, 26 °C, or 37 °C with evaluation at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. There was a storage temperature and time effect and an interaction for MOT and VIA (P < 0.0001). Storage at 17 °C and 26 °C increased (P < 0.05) MOT over all times (38.5%) compared to 37 °C (26%), whereas MOT was reduced at intervals. Viability was also greatest with 17 °C and 26 °C compared to 37 °C and was also affected by time and decreased with time. These results indicate that FTS can be held at 17 °C or 26 °C for up to 2 hours before use and would allow for preparation of multiple doses. These data suggest in vitro fertility of FTS is affected by extenders, thawing

  9. Noninvasive Metabolomic Profiling of Human Embryo Culture Media Using a Simple Spectroscopy Adjunct to Morphology for Embryo Assessment in in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qinghong; Yin, Tailang; Peng, Jin; Zou, Yujie; Yang, Jing; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2013-01-01

    Embryo quality is crucial to the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF); however, the ability to precisely distinguish the embryos with higher reproductive potential from others is poor. Morphologic evaluation used to play an important role in assessing embryo quality, but it is somewhat subjective. The culture medium is the immediate environment of the embryos in vitro, and a change of the substances in the culture medium is possibly related to the embryo quality. Thus, the present study aims to determine whether metabolomic profiling of the culture medium using Raman spectroscopy adjunct to morphology correlates with the reproductive potential of embryos in IVF and, thus, to look for a new method of assessing embryo quality. Fifty seven spent media samples were detected by Raman spectroscopy. Combined with embryo morphology scores, we found that embryos in culture media with less than 0.012 of sodium pyruvate and more than −0.00085 phenylalanine have a high reproductive potential, with up to 85.7% accuracy compared with clinical pregnancy. So, sodium pyruvate and phenylalanine in culture medium play an important role in the development of the embryo. Raman spectroscopy is an important tool that provides a new and accurate assessment of higher quality embryos. PMID:23528887

  10. Metabolomic profiling of human follicular fluid from patients with repeated failure of in vitro fertilization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lan; Zhao, Xiaoming; Sun, Yun; Hong, Yan; Gao, Yuping; Hu, Shuanggang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics method to compare the metabolites in the follicular fluid (FF) from patients with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and repeated IVF failure (RIF). Methods: A prospective study was employed in Center for Reprodutive Medcine, Renji Hospital, Shanghai, China, between January and October 2010. FF samples were collected from 13 patients with RIF and 15 patients who achieved pregnancy after the first IVF cycle. Results: Partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis of the PCA data revealed that the samples were scattered into two different regions. FF from the two groups differed with respect to 20 metabolites. FF from RIF group showed elevated levels of several amino acids (valine, threonine, isoleucine, cysteine, serine, proline, alanine, phenylalanine, lysine, methionine and ornithine), and reduced levels of dicarboxylic acids, cholesterol and some organic acids. Conclusions: The studies corroborated successful determination of the levels of metabolite in the FF. PMID:25400819

  11. Factors affecting efficiency of introducing foreign DNA and RNA into parthenogenetic or in vitro-fertilized porcine eggs by cytoplasmic microinjection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Liu, XiaoQun; Huang, HaiYan; Liu, QingYou; Su, XiaoPing; Zhu, Peng; Li, HongLi; Cui, KuiQing; Xie, BingKun; Shi, DeShun

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic microinjection (CI) of foreign gene into in vivo fertilized zygotes has emerged as a useful tool for transgenic pig production. In the current study, we investigated factors affecting transgenic efficiency and developmental potential of parthenogenetic (PA) and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) porcine embryos produced by CI. These factors included adding of RNase inhibitor, DNA or RNA concentration, injection time, and different structures of plasmids. Our results showed that adding of 1-4 U/μL of RNase inhibitor did not have negative effect on development potential of CI-PA embryos, and RNase inhibitor injection significantly increased EGFP expressing rate of CI-PA embryos. High injection DNA concentration and long injection interval after PA significantly reduced blastocyst formation. Different molecular structures such as DNA or RNA affected CI-PA embryos development, and RNA had little harmful effect on pig's early embryonic development. EGFP expression rate of CI-IVF embryos was improved following the increase of foreign DNA concentration, but blastocyst formation rate was decreased. Injection time after IVF did not show any significant difference on embryonic development, but longer interval resulted in a significantly lower EGFP expressing rate. Cas9 mRNA and myostatin (GDF-8) sgRNA co-injection indicated that the mutation rate of CI-IVF group was significantly higher than that of CI-PA. The CI-IVF-generated embryos were then transferred to six recipient pigs, but no live piglets were obtained. The following pronuclear formation assessment showed more than 76.1% IVF zygotes were polyspermy. These results demonstrate that CI-PA and CI-IVF were effective methods for production of transgenic pig embryos. However, polyspermic fertilization and poor quality of porcine IVF blastocysts are still the main problem of resulting in pregnancy failure. PMID:27130683

  12. Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy after In Vitro Fertilization with Favorable Outcome of the Intrauterine Twin Pregnancy Subsequent to Surgical Treatment of the Tubal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Akrivis, Christodoulos; Tsirkas, Panagiotis; Korkontzelos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Heterotopic triplet pregnancy is an exceptionally rare medical condition. The broad use of assisted reproductive technologies has contributed to the increase of ectopic and subsequently heterotopic pregnancy rate, masking a life-threatening condition for the gravid and the intrauterine pregnancy. We describe a case of a woman with heterotopic triplets at 9+4 gestational week following transfer of three embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization techniques. The ectopic tubal pregnancy was ruptured and salpingectomy was performed by laparotomy. The intrauterine pregnancy progressed to the delivery by cesarean section of two healthy twins at 36+2 gestational age. Heterotopic triplets with tubal ectopic are a special diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the obstetrician. High index of suspicion and timely treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy can preserve the intrauterine gestation with a successful outcome of the pregnancy. PMID:24527252

  13. Identification of an anti-sperm auto-monoclonal antibody (Ts4)-recognized molecule in the mouse sperm acrosomal region and its inhibitory effect on fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Oda, Risako; Yanagida, Mitsuaki; Kawasaki, Yu; Sakuraba, Mayumi; Takamori, Kenji; Hasegawa, Akiko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2016-06-01

    We previously established an anti-mouse sperm auto-monoclonal antibody, Ts4, which shows immunoreactivity against several kinds of glycoproteins in the acrosomal region of epididymal spermatozoa, testicular germ cells, and early embryo, via binding to an epitope containing a common N-linked oligosaccharide (OS) chain on the molecules. In mice, we have already demonstrated that the OS chain in the epitope for Ts4 is a fucosylated agalacto-complex-type biantennary glycan carrying bisecting N-acetylglucosamine. In the testis, one of the specific OS chain-conjugated molecules is TEX101, a germ cell-marker glycoprotein, which is expressed in spermatocytes, spermatids, and testicular spermatozoa, but not in epididymal spermatozoa. In this study, we identified a Ts4-reactive glycoprotein in mouse cauda epididymal sperm. An immunoprecipitation method together with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry showed that alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu; a degradation enzyme of heparan sulfate) is one of the glycoproteins recognized by Ts4 in the epididymal spermatozoa. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that mouse Naglu exists in two forms (82 and 77kDa) and is expressed in the acrosomal region and the flagellum of cauda epididymal sperm. Of the two Naglu-forms expressed in sperm, Ts4 immunoreacted against only the 82-kDa form located on the acrosomal region. The Ts4 mAb and anti-Naglu pAb negatively affected mouse fertilization in vitro. In addition, Ts4 inhibited sperm acrosome reaction induced by heparan sulfate. The Ts4-recognized fucosylated agalactobiantennary complex-type glycan with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine and Naglu on cauda epididymal spermatozoa may play a role in the process of fertilization. PMID:27064211

  14. Predicting pregnancy in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization with basal serum follicle stimulating hormone levels between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Dan; Jun, Sunny H.; Dahan, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results of the in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes in women whose borderline basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L and to analyze the predictors of pregnancy in this population. Material and Methods A prospective cohort study was performed at an academic teaching hospital; participants were infertile couples in which the women were undergoing IVF treatment and had borderline basal highest FSH levels between 10.0 and 11.9 IU/L. Statistical modeling was performed to determine risk factors for pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Results A clinical pregnancy rate of 26.5% per cycle and 35% per patient was found in the study population. Among all subjects and non-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) subjects, younger age, higher gravidity, higher number of mature follicles on day of Human Chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) triggering, higher number of oocytes retrieved, and number of embryos produced were significant discriminators between individuals who conceived and those who did not. However, only the number of embryos predicted those who had a clinical pregnancy when compared with those who did not. Higher gravidity, and basal estradiol (E2) levels, and lower maximum basal FSH levels predicted clinical pregnancy in non-ICSI patients. Among ICSI patients, the only predictor of pregnancy was a thicker endometrium. A trend towards higher pregnancy rates was noted in ICSI patients. Conclusion We showed that pregnancy rates per cycle and per patient in this population were not significantly different than those in patients with a basal FSH level below 10.0 IU/L. Preliminary evidence suggests that ICSI is the fertilization method of choice in these patients. PMID:25788842

  15. Antibiotic treatment based on seminal cultures from asymptomatic male partners in in-vitro fertilization is unnecessary and may be detrimental.

    PubMed

    Liversedge, N H; Jenkins, J M; Keay, S D; McLaughlin, E A; Al-Sufyan, H; Maile, L A; Joels, L A; Hull, M G

    1996-06-01

    We questioned the policy of routine microbiological culture of semen prior to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with a view to prescribing antibiotics to reduce the risk of introducing seminal infection into the embryo culture system. An initial retrospective study examined serum microbiology reports of 449 couples undergoing IVF or gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT). In semen samples taking >/=1 days to reach the microbiology laboratory compared with same-day delivery there was increased frequency of significant culture of enterococci (27 versus 15%, P < 0.01). In samples taking >/=2 days there was increased frequency of significant culture of Gram-negative bacilli (31 versus 12%, P < 0.01) and of overall culture of other potentially pathogenic organisms (26 versus 14%, P < 0.01). We questioned diagnostic accuracy and relevance. Therefore, in a prospective study, semen and high vaginal swabs obtained on the day of oocyte collection were cultured from 100 couples having IVF or GIFT, of whom 52 male partners had been treated with antibiotics following positive pre-IVF semen culture. The presence of bacteria in semen samples used only for IVF (n = 90) did not reduce fertilization rates nor lead to infection of the embryo culture system. However, there was an increased incidence of significant culture of vaginal Gram-negative bacilli in patients with treated partners compared with untreated partners [15/52 (29%) versus 5/48 (10%), P < 0.05]. Thus antibiotic therapy in the male partner may increase the likelihood of inoculation of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria from the vagina into the embryo culture system during vaginal oocyte collection. In asymptomatic patients, microbiological screening of semen samples prior to IVF treatment and subsequent treatment with antibiotic therapy in those with positive cultures appears to be unnecessary and may be detrimental to IVF outcome. PMID:8671429

  16. Effect of myo-inositol and alpha-lipoic acid on oocyte quality in polycystic ovary syndrome non-obese women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rago, R; Marcucci, I; Leto, G; Caponecchia, L; Salacone, P; Bonanni, P; Fiori, C; Sorrenti, G; Sebastianelli, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined administration of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with normal body mass index (BMI), who had previously undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and received myo-inositol alone. Thirty-six of 65 normal-weight patients affected by PCOS who did not achieve pregnancy and one patient who had a spontaneous abortion were re-enrolled and given a cycle of treatment with myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid. For all female partners of the treated couples, the endocrine-metabolic and ultrasound parameters, ovarian volume, oocyte and embryo quality, and pregnancy rates were assessed before and after three months of treatment and compared with those of previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle(s). After supplementation of myo-inositol with α-lipoic acid, insulin levels, BMI and ovarian volume were significantly reduced compared with myo-inositol alone. No differences were found in the fertilization and cleavage rate or in the mean number of transferred embryos between the two different treatments, whereas the number of grade 1 embryos was significantly increased, with a significant reduction in the number of grade 2 embryos treated with myo-inositol plus α-lipoic acid. Clinical pregnancy was not significantly different with a trend for a higher percentage for of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid compared to the myo-inositol alone group. Our preliminary data suggest that the supplementation of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in PCOS patients undergoing an IVF cycle can help to improve their reproductive outcome and also their metabolic profiles, opening potential for their use in long-term prevention of PCOS. PMID:26753656

  17. Anesthetic management for oocyte retrieval: An exploratory analysis comparing outcome in in vitro fertilization cycles with and without pre-implantation genetic diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Weitman, Marina; Altarescu, Gheona; Rivilis, Alina; Elstein, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To date, there has been no comparison of outcomes in women undergoing anesthesia for in vitro fertilization (IVF) oocyte retrieval for the purpose of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) because of their or their partner's genetic disease relative to the outcome in women requiring IVF because of fertility issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study, wherein all demographic and anesthetic management data were collected from IVF and PGD units' records for a 6-month period. Descriptive analyses and parametric tests were employed. RESULTS: There were 307 cases IVF and 76 cases PGD: most (97.4% and 99.7%, respectively) received general anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl ± dipyrone (90.5% and 93.3%, respectively) with no adverse effects. The only statistically significant difference between IVF and PGD groups that was potentially clinically significant was post-procedure recovery time (23.0 ± 20.4 vs. 29.4 ± 35.8 min, respectively; P < 0.0001), but is explainable as greater caution by Anesthesiologists for higher-risk PGD cases having autosomal dominant diseases that may impact anesthesia management (myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Marfan's); two of these cases also recovered in the general post-anesthesia care unit, as a precaution for early diagnosis and treatment of potential post-procedural complication. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this first-ever survey of anesthesia for PGD compared with IVF cases imply that propofol-and-fentanyl-based anesthesia is safe and can be recommended, bearing in mind that with patients who have autosomal dominant diseases impacting anesthetic management it is prudent to be more cautious post-recovery. PMID:24672167

  18. A comparative prospective study using matched samples to determine the influence of subnormal hypo-osmotic test scores of spermatozoa on subsequent fertilization and pregnancy rates following in-vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; Stumpo, L; Lurie, D; Benfer, K; Callan, C

    1995-05-01

    The achievement of pregnancies in vivo is rare in couples where the male partner has defective sperm membranes as shown by hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test scores of < 50%. However, there have been mixed reports on the value of the HOS test in predicting outcome following invitro fertilization; some studies suggest reduced fertilization rates and others find little, if any, predictability of decreased fertilization. The assumption has been made that fertilization rates are proportional to pregnancy rates; however, this may not necessarily be true since defective spermatozoa could lead to a less viable pre-embryo and therefore a decreased viable pregnancy rate. We performed a comparative prospective study using matched controls to evaluate fertilization rates and to determine subsequent pregnancy rates. The mean HOS scores were 70.0 and 36.7% respectively, with mean motile sperm concentrations of 35.7 and 34.0 x 10(6)/ml in 27 matched pairs. There was no difference in the mean number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates or number of embryos transferred between the two groups by HOS score. The clinical and viable pregnancy rates and implantation rates were 25.9, 18.5 and 9.9% for normal versus 3.7, 3.7 and 1.1% for subnormal groups. These data suggest that low HOS scores may be associated with the formation of defective embryos, leading to low pregnancy rates but normal fertilization rates. PMID:7657765

  19. Expression Profile of Genes as Indicators of Developmental Competence and Quality of In Vitro Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Mucci, Nicolas; Kaiser, German Gustavo; Brocco, Marcela; Mutto, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA) of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5) and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3) in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A) + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip) was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). PMID:25269019

  20. Associations between Individual and Combined Polymorphisms of the TNF and VEGF Genes and the Embryo Implantation Rate in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Programs

    PubMed Central

    Boudjenah, Radia; Molina-Gomes, Denise; Torre, Antoine; Boitrelle, Florence; Taieb, Stéphane; Dos Santos, Esther; Wainer, Robert; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Selva, Jacqueline; Vialard, François

    2014-01-01

    Background A multiple pregnancy is now considered to be the most common adverse outcome associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF). As a consequence, the identification of women with the best chances of embryo implantation is a challenge in IVF program, in which the objective is to offer elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) without decreasing the pregnancy rate. To date, a range of hormonal and clinical parameters have been used to optimize eSET but none have significant predictive value. This variability could be due to genetic predispositions related to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we assessed the individual and combined impacts of thirteen SNPs that reportedly influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on the embryo implantation rate for patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection program (ICSI). Materials and Methods A 13 gene polymorphisms: FSHR(Asn680Ser), p53(Arg72Pro), AMH(Ile49Ser), ESR2(+1730G>A), ESR1(−397T>C), BMP15(−9C>G), MTHFR1(677C>T), MTHFR2(1298A>C), HLA-G(−725C>G), VEGF(+405G>C), TNFα(−308A>G), AMHR(−482A>G), PAI-1(4G/5G), multiplex PCR assay was designed to genotype women undergoing ICSI program. We analyzed the total patients population (n = 428) and a subgroup with homogeneous characteristics (n = 112). Results Only the VEGF(+405G>C) and TNFα(−308A>G) polymorphisms impacted fertilization, embryo implantation and pregnancy rates. Moreover, the combined VEGF+405.GG and TNFα-308.AG or AA genotype occurred significantly more frequently in women with high implantation potential. In contrast, the VEGF+405.CC and TNFα-308.GG combination was associated with a low implantation rate. Conclusion We identified associations between VEGF(+405G>C) and TNFα(−308A>G) polymorphisms (when considered singly or as combinations) and the embryo implantation rate. These associations may be predictive of embryo implantation and could help to define populations in which elective single-embryo transfer

  1. Species-specific sperm-egg interaction affects the utility of a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system for evaluating antelope sperm.

    PubMed

    Kouba, A J; Atkinson, M W; Gandolf, A R; Roth, T L

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cryopreserved fringe-eared (FE) oryx (Oryx gazella callotis) sperm function using a heterologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) system previously developed to study scimitar-horned (SH) oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from FE oryx (n = 2) and SH oryx (n = 2), evaluated immediately postcollection, and cryopreserved. Thawed spermatozoa were evaluated for motility, forward progression, and acrosomal status immediately post-thaw, after Percoll-separation, and 1, 2, 3, and 8 h after culture in IVF medium. In vitro-matured cow oocytes (n = 924) were inseminated with either domestic bull, FE, or SH oryx spermatozoa and after an 8-h coincubation period, half the oocytes were fixed and examined for sperm penetration, polyspermy, and male pronuclear formation. The remaining oocytes were placed into in vitro culture and evaluated for cleavage after 48 h. Overall, there were no between-species differences in sperm motility and acrosome integrity. However, an effect of time (P < 0.05) and a species-by-time interaction (P < 0.05) were detected for both parameters. Penetration, male pronuclear formation, and embryo cleavage were high (>90%, >85%, and >70%, respectively) for oocytes inseminated with domestic bull and SH oryx spermatozoa and did not differ (P > 0.05) between species. In contrast, very few oocytes (2.8%, 4 of 141) inseminated with FE oryx sperm were penetrated. Cleavage was rare (8.0%, 16 of 200) in oocytes inseminated with FE oryx spermatozoa and did not differ (P > 0.05) from that in parthenogenetic controls (4.2%, 3 of 72). Furthermore, FE oryx spermatozoa were incapable of penetrating zona-free cow oocytes. These results indicate that species-specific differences in gamete interaction may exist even between very closely related nondomestic bovids. PMID:11566750

  2. The Efficient Derivation of Trophoblast Cells from Porcine In Vitro Fertilized and Parthenogenetic Blastocysts and Culture with ROCK Inhibitor Y-27632

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongxia; Su, Min; Li, Xiawei; Li, Zhiying; Yun, Ting; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhang, Manling; Zhao, Lihua; Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Haiquan; Li, Xueling

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblasts (TR) are specialized cells of the placenta and play an important role in embryo implantation. The in vitro culture of trophoblasts provided an important tool to investigate the mechanisms of implantation. In the present study, porcine trophoblast cells were derived from pig in vitro fertilized (IVF) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) blastocysts via culturing in medium supplemented with KnockOut serum replacement (KOSR) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on STO feeder layers, and the effect of ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinases) inhibiter Y-27632 on the cell lines culture was tested. 5 PA blastocyst derived cell lines and 2 IVF blastocyst derived cell lines have been cultured more than 20 passages; one PA cell lines reached 110 passages without obvious morphological alteration. The derived trophoblast cells exhibited epithelium-like morphology, rich in lipid droplets, and had obvious defined boundaries with the feeder cells. The cells were histochemically stained positive for alkaline phosphatase. The expression of TR lineage markers, such as CDX2, KRT7, KRT18, TEAD4, ELF5 and HAND1, imprinted genes such as IGF2, PEG1 and PEG10, and telomerase activity related genes TERC and TERF2 were detected by immunofluorescence staining, reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Both PA and IVF blastocysts derived trophoblast cells possessed the ability to differentiate into mature trophoblast cells in vitro. The addition of Y-27632 improved the growth of both PA and IVF blastocyst derived cell lines and increased the expression of trophoblast genes. This study has provided an alternative highly efficient method to establish trophoblast for research focused on peri-implantation and placenta development in IVF and PA embryos. PMID:26555939

  3. Fertility in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Amor, David J; Gillam, Lynn H; Warne, Garry L; Grover, Sonia; Zacharin, Margaret R

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing interest in fertility and use of assisted reproductive technologies for women with Turner syndrome (TS). Current parenting options include adoption, surrogacy, and spontaneous and assisted reproduction. For women with TS, specific risks of pregnancy include higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, foetal anomaly, maternal morbidity and mortality. Heterologous fertility assistance using oocytes from related or unrelated donors is an established technique for women with TS. Homologous fertility preservation includes cryopreservation of the patient's own gametes prior to the progressive ovarian atresia known to occur: preserving either mature oocytes or ovarian tissue containing primordial follicles. Mature oocyte cryopreservation requires ovarian stimulation and can be performed only in postpubertal individuals, when few women with TS have viable oocytes. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation, however, can be performed in younger girls prior to ovarian atresia - over 30 pregnancies have resulted using this technique, however, none in women with TS. We recommend consideration of homologous fertility preservation techniques in children only within specialized centres, with informed consent using protocols approved by a research or clinical ethics board. It is essential that further research is performed to improve maternal and foetal outcomes for women with TS. PMID:23844676

  4. Role of Embryo Glue as a transfer medium in the outcome of fresh non-donor in-vitro fertilization cycles

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeta; Gupta, Monica; Kriplani, Alka; Vanamail, Perumal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: EmbryoGlue is a hyaluronan-enriched embryo transfer (ET) medium which aids in implantation of embryos, hence, improves pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization-ET cycles (IVF-ET). AIM: To evaluate the role of EmbryoGlue in improving implantation and pregnancy rates. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective case–control study conducted at assisted reproductive center of a tertiary care hospital. METHOD: In 42 women undergoing IVF, embryos were transferred into 50 μL of EmbryoGlue for 10 min prior to transfer inside uterine cavity. In the control group (n = 42), embryos were transferred to conventional blastocyst culture medium. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS IBM version 19.0. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate in the study group was 7% higher than the control group. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. In addition, no improvement in implantation rates was observed in the study group. However, significant difference (P = 0.04) in clinical pregnancy rate was observed with the EmbryoGlue in patients with previous IVF failure. In the study group, 50% patients (6/12) with previous IVF failure had successful implantation, but in the control group none of the patients (0/11) with previous implantation failure could achieve pregnancy. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to conclude a favourable role of EmbryoGlue in IVF-ET cycles with a good prognosis. However, in patients with recurrent implantation failure, it may be considered as a useful transfer medium. PMID:26752856

  5. Comparison between Cleavage Stage versus Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfer in an Egyptian Cohort Undergoing in vitro Fertilization: A Possible Role for Laser Assisted Hatching

    PubMed Central

    Hendawy, Sherif F.; Raafat, TA

    2011-01-01

    and improved alternative for patients with multiple failed in vitro fertilization attempts, associated with a significant increase in pregnancy and implantation rates. Furthermore, laser assisted hatching increases implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. PMID:24453510

  6. Cabergoline for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women at risk undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Niyazi; Özdemir, Özhan; Başar, Hakan Cevdet; Demircan, Fadime; Ekmez, Fırat; Yücel, Oğuz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious and potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication associated with ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of dopamine agonist as a preventive strategy of OHSS in women at high risk in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment cycles. Methods: Seventy women at risk to develop OHSS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment cycle were included. The study group received 0.5 mg of cabergoline for 8 days from the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in comparison to those who undergo no treatment for the prevention of OHSS. The reduction of the incidence of OHSS was the primary outcome. Results: The actual incidence of OHSS was 8.33% in the cabergoline group and 20.58% in the control group. Thus, the incidence of OHSS was significantly reduced, by almost 60%, in the cabergoline group in comparison with the control group (relative ratios: 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.18–0.79). Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with the dopamine agonist, cabergoline, reduces the incidence of OHSS in women at high risk undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. However, the effects of cabergoline on important outcomes, namely, live birth, miscarriage, and congenital abnormalities are still uncertain. PMID:26629467

  7. Effects of the reproductive status on morphological oocyte quality and developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer in cat.

    PubMed

    Naoi, H; Agung, B; Karja, N W K; Wongsrikeao, P; Shimizu, R; Taniguchi, M; Otoi, T

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of the reproductive cycle of donor cat on the quality of oocytes at recovery and developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT). Based on the presence or absence of follicles and corpora lutea, the ovarian pairs collected were classified into inactive, follicular or luteal stages. After collection of oocytes, the oocytes were classified into four grades according to the morphological condition of oocyte cytoplasm and cumulus cells. A total of 16 558 oocytes were obtained from 198 ovarian pairs. The total mean numbers of oocytes and the mean numbers of oocytes with high quality (grade I) were significantly higher in ovarian pairs at the inactive stage (111.1 and 19.0 oocytes, respectively) than in ovarian pairs at the follicular stage (67.1 and 11.4 oocytes, respectively). A significant difference in the proportions of oocytes with grade I out of the total examined oocytes was observed between the follicular and luteal stages of ovaries (14.9% vs 20.2%, p < 0.05). The proportions of IVF embryos cleaved and developed to blastocysts significantly decreased with decreased quality of oocytes at recovery, irrespective of the reproductive status of ovaries. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the proportions of cleavage and development to the blastocyst stage of IVF and NT embryos among three oestrous stages of ovaries. These results indicate that the reproductive cycle stage of donor cat ovaries has no apparent effects on the in vitro development of oocytes after IVF and NT, but the quality of oocytes at recovery influences the development of IVF embryos. PMID:18325005

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms Influence the Ovarian Response to rFSH Stimulation in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Programs with ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Boudjenah, Radia; Molina-Gomes, Denise; Torre, Antoine; Bergere, Marianne; Bailly, Marc; Boitrelle, Florence; Taieb, Stéphane; Wainer, Robert; Benahmed, Mohamed; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Selva, Jacqueline; Vialard, François

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obtaining an adequate number of high-quality oocytes is a major challenge in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). To date, a range of hormonal and clinical parameters have been used to optimize COH but none have significant predictive value. This variability could be due to the genetic predispositions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we assessed the individual and combined impacts of thirteen SNPs that reportedly influence the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on the ovarian response to rFSH stimulation for patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection program (ICSI). Results Univariate analysis revealed that only FSHR, ESR2 and p53 SNPs influenced the number of mature oocytes. The association was statistically significant for FSHR (p=0.0047) and ESR2 (0.0017) in the overall study population and for FSHR (p=0.0009) and p53 (p=0.0048) in subgroup that was more homogeneous in terms of clinical variables. After Bonferroni correction and a multivariate analysis, only the differences for FSHR and ESR2 polymorphisms were still statistically significant. In a multilocus analysis, only the FSHR and AMH SNP combination significantly influenced oocyte numbers in both population (p<0.01). Discussion We confirmed the impact of FSHR and ESR2 polymorphisms on the IVF outcome. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that a p53 polymorphism (which is already known to impact embryo implantation) could influence the ovarian response. However, given that this result lost its statistical significance after multivariate analysis, more data are needed to draw firm conclusions. Only the FSHR and AMH polymorphism combination appears to influence mature oocyte numbers but this finding also needs to be confirmed. Materials and Methods A 13 gene polymorphisms: FSHR(Asn680Ser), p53(Arg72Pro), AMH(Ile49Ser), ESR2(+1730G>A), ESR1(−397T>C), BMP15(−9C>G), MTHFR1(677C>T), MTHFR2(1298A>C), HLA-G(−725C>G), VEGF(+405G>C), TNFα(−308A>G), AMHR

  9. Preliminary report of an ultrasonography and colour Doppler uterine score to predict uterine receptivity in an in-vitro fertilization programme.

    PubMed

    Salle, B; Bied-Damon, V; Benchaib, M; Desperes, S; Gaucherand, P; Rudigoz, R C

    1998-06-01

    A total of 96 women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography with colour and pulsed Doppler ultrasound on the 22nd day of the menstrual cycle preceding IVF. We assessed endometrial thickness, endometrial morphology, myometrial echogenicity, subendometrial vascularization, the uterine artery pulsatility index, protodiastolic notch and end diastolic blood flow in order to define a uterine score which could be correlated with the pregnancy rate. The overall pregnancy rate was 30.2%, and there was no difference between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups with regard to any of the ultrasonographic and Doppler parameters when examined separately. However, the uterine score was significantly higher in the pregnant group (15.9 +/- 2.81 versus 12.7 +/- 5.3, P = 0.002; t-test). No pregnancy occurred if the score was between 0 and 10. With a score of 11-15 there was a 34.7% chance of pregnancy, and scores >16 had a 42% chance of pregnancy. In conclusion, individual ultrasonographic and Doppler parameters are not of sufficient accuracy to predict uterine receptivity. The uterine score calculated prior to IVF cycles appears to be a useful predictor of implantation. PMID:9688410

  10. [Preservation of fertility in children with cancer].

    PubMed

    de Lambert, Guénolée; Poirot, Catherine; Guérin, Florent; Brugières, Laurence; Martelli, Héléne

    2015-05-01

    Preserving fertility is a requisite for any child undergoing gonadotoxic treatment for cancer. Techniques vary depending on the age, sex of the patient and nature of the treatment. Boys undergoing irradiation have testicular protection or transposition. Post-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy can have semen cryopreservation like adults. However, fertility preservation for pre-pubertal boys undergoing chemotherapy implies testicular tissue cryopreservation. Research concentrates on germ cell transplantation, autotransplantation of testicular tissue or in vitro spermatogonial maturation in order to later restore spermatogenesis. Ovarian transposition can be undergone in case of brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy in girls and has published success rates of 80%. Ovarian cryopreservation has been developed since 1995 for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal girls undergoing chemotherapy. The ovary is retrieved surgically and ovarian cortical segments are frozen. Thawing and transplantation of gonadal tissue are the next steps to restoring fertility. However, immature oocytes will have to be matured either in vivo or in vitro in order to restore fertility. Fertility preservation must be offered to children with cancer even if maturation of immature germ cells is uncertain for research 20 to 30 years from now will probably enable fertility restoration. PMID:25818928

  11. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options. PMID:26370157

  12. Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa are functionally competent in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system after cryopreservation on dry ice, in a dry shipper, or over liquid nitrogen vapor.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Bush, L M; Wildt, D E; Weiss, R B

    1999-02-01

    A heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) system was used to study the functional competence of scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa after cryopreservation. Four sperm-freezing methods were compared after dilution of ejaculates from six oryx with an equine semen extender: 1) dry ice, 2) dry shipper one-step, 3) dry shipper two-step, and 4) liquid nitrogen vapor. Post-thaw sperm motility, longevity, and acrosomal status were assessed and zona pellucida penetration, fertilization, and embryo cleavage were evaluated after coincubation of thawed oryx spermatozoa with in vitro-matured domestic cow oocytes. Sperm motility index (SMI) decreased (p < 0.05) over a 6-h period, but a high percentage (>/= 65%) of spermatozoa contained intact acrosomes in all treatments. Despite differences in sperm motility among methods, oocyte penetration, fertilization, and embryo cleavage did not differ (p >/= 0.05). However, cleavage success was < 50% across all treatments. There were positive correlations (p < 0.05; r = 0.81-0.97) between sample SMI at 3 and 6 h and fertilization, penetration, and cleavage, but no correlations (p >/= 0.05) between SMI at 0 or 1 h and IVF success. This study demonstrates that compatible heterologous gamete interaction allows thorough assessment of post-thaw sperm function in an endangered antelope. Scimitar-horned oryx spermatozoa appear relatively tolerant of varied cryopreservation methods, and preserved samples exhibit adequate post-thaw function to warrant use for assisted reproduction. PMID:9916019

  13. Efficient in vitro regeneration of fertile plants from corm explants of Hypoxis hemerocallidea landrace Gaza -- the "African Potato".

    PubMed

    Ndong, Yves Assoumou; Wadouachi, Anne; Sangwan-Norreel, Brigitte S; Sangwan, Rajbir S

    2006-04-01

    We present efficient protocols for the regeneration of fertile plants from corm explants of Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and C. A. Mey. landrace Gaza, either by direct multiple shoot formation or via shoot organogenesis from corm-derived calluses. The regeneration efficiency depended on plant growth regulator concentrations and combinations. Multiple direct shoot formation with high frequency (100% with 5-8 shoots/explant) was obtained on a basal medium (BM) supplemented with 3 mg/l kinetin (BM1). However, efficient indirect regeneration occurred when corm explants were first plated on callus induction medium (BM2) with high kinetin (3 mg/l) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA 1 mg/l), and then transferred to shoot inducing medium (BM3) containing BA (1.5 mg/l) and NAA (0.5 mg/l). Shoot regeneration frequency was 100% and 30-35 shoots per explant were obtained. The regenerated shoots were rooted on a root inducing medium (BM4) containing NAA (0.1 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse. The regenerants were morphologically normal and fertile. Flow cytometric analyses and chloroplast counts of guard cells suggested that the regenerants were diploid. Efficient cloning protocols described here, have the potential not only to substantially reduce the pressure on natural populations but also for wider biotechnological applications of Hypoxis hemerocallidea-an endangered medicinal plant. PMID:16222532

  14. The role of magnesium and thyroid function in early pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization (IVF): New aspects in endocrine physiology

    PubMed Central

    Stuefer, Sibilla; Moncayo, Helga; Moncayo, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background The initiation of a pregnancy is a process that requires adequate energetic support. Recent observations at our Institution suggest a central role of magnesium in this situation. The aim of this study was to evaluate magnesium, zinc, selenium and thyroid function as well as anti-Müllerian hormone in early pregnancy following in-vitro fertilization as compared to spontaneous successful pregnancies. Results A successful outcome of pregnancy after IVF treatment was associated with 2 parameters: higher levels of anti-Müllerian hormone as well as higher levels of magnesium in the pre-stimulation blood sample. These two parameters, however, showed no correlation. Spontaneous pregnancies as well as pregnancies after IVF show a fall of magnesium levels at 2–3 weeks of gestation. This drop of magnesium concentration is larger following IVF as compared to spontaneous pregnancies. Parallel to these changes TSH levels showed an increase in early IVF-pregnancy. At this time point we also observed a positive correlation between fT4 and TSH. This was not observed in spontaneous pregnancies. Thyroid antibodies showed no correlation to outcomes. Conclusions In connection with the initiation of pregnancy following ovarian stimulation dynamic changes of magnesium and TSH levels can be observed. A positive correlation was found between fT4 and TSH in IVF pregnancies. In spontaneous pregnancies smaller increases of TSH levels are related to higher magnesium levels. General significance We propose that magnesium plays a role in early pregnancy as well as in pregnancy success independently from anti-Müllerian hormone. Neither thyroid hormones nor thyroid antibodies were related to outcome. PMID:26675754

  15. Analysis of follicular fluid retinoids in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: retinoic acid influences embryo quality and is reduced in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Samuel A; Session, Donna R; Shang, Weirong; Easley, Kirk; Wieser, Friedrich; Taylor, Robert N; Pierzchalski, Keely; Napoli, Joseph L; Kane, Maureen A; Sidell, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Retinol (ROL) and its biologically active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), are essential for a number of reproductive processes. However, there is a paucity of information regarding their roles in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, and early embryogenesis. The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare peripheral plasma (PP) and follicular fluid (FF) retinoid levels, including ATRA in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and to investigate the relationship between retinoid levels and embryo quality. Retinoid levels were evaluated in PP and FF from 79 women undergoing IVF at the time of oocyte retrieval and corresponding embryo quality assessed on a daily basis after retrieval for 3 days until uterine transfer. Analysis compared the retinoid levels with day 3 embryo grades and between endometriosis versus control patients. Results demonstrated distinctive levels of retinoid metabolites and isomers in FF versus PP. There was a significantly larger percentage of high-quality grade I embryos derived from the largest versus smallest follicles. An increase in follicle size also correlated with a >50% increase in FF ROL and ATRA concentrations. Independent of follicle size, FF yielding grade I versus nongrade I embryos showed higher mean levels of ATRA but not ROL. In a nested case-control analysis, control participants had 50% higher mean levels of ATRA in their FF and PP than women with endometriosis. These findings strongly support the proposition that ATRA plays a fundamental role in oocyte development and quality, and that reduced ATRA synthesis may contribute to decreased fecundity of participants with endometriosis. PMID:23427183

  16. Heparin and penicillamine-hypotaurine-epinephrine (PHE) solution during bovine in vitro fertilization procedures impair the quality of spermatozoa but improve normal oocyte fecundation and early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, F S; Barretto, L S S; Arruda, R P; Perri, S H V; Mingoti, G Z

    2014-01-01

    The presence of heparin and a mixture of penicillamine, hypotaurine, and epinephrine (PHE) solution in the in vitro fertilization (IVF) media seem to be a prerequisite when bovine spermatozoa are capacitated in vitro, in order to stimulate sperm motility and acrosome reaction. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the addition of heparin and PHE during IVF on the quality and penetrability of spermatozoa into bovine oocytes and on subsequent embryo development. Sperm quality, evaluated by the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes and mitochondrial function, was diminished (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. Oocyte penetration and normal pronuclear formation rates, as well as the percentage of zygotes presenting more than two pronuclei, was higher (P<0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE. No differences were observed in cleavage rates between treatment and control (P>0.05). However, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was increased in the presence of heparin and PHE (P>0.05). The quality of embryos that reached the blastocyst stage was evaluated by counting the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers and total number of cells; the percentage of ICM and TE cells was unaffected (P>0.05) in the presence of heparin and PHE (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that while the supplementation of IVF media with heparin and PHE solution impairs spermatozoa quality, it plays an important role in sperm capacitation, improving pronuclear formation, and early embryonic development. PMID:23949783

  17. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  18. Establishment of a bovine blastocyst-derived cell line collection for the comparative analysis of embryos created in vivo and by in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary; Ealy, Alan D

    2007-02-01

    Tools and methods for analyzing differences in embryos resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in comparison to those derived from normal fertilization are needed to define better the nature of the nuclear reprogramming that occurs after NT. To this end, a collection of bovine blastocyst-derived cell lines was created. In vitro expanded or hatched blastocysts, used as primary culture tissue, were from NT; in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture (IVF); or parthenogenetic (P) activation. Also, five in vivo-fertilized and developed blastocysts were collected by uterine flushing on the eighth d postfertilization. Whole blastocysts were physically attached to STO feeder layers to initiate all of the cell lines generated. The majority of the cell lines in the collection are trophectoderm, 38 NT-derived, 6 in vivo-derived, 20 IVF-derived, and 13 P-derived. Trophectoderm identity was ascertained by morphology and, in many cases, interferon-tau production. Several visceral endoderm cell lines and putative parietal endoderm cell lines were also established. At approximately 5% efficiency, epiblast masses from NT and IVF blastocysts survived and were isolated in culture. Two epiblast masses were also isolated from P blastocysts. Spontaneous differentiation from the epiblast outgrowths resulted in the establishment of fibroblast cell lines. The use of the trophectoderm cell lines as a comparative in vitro model of bovine trophectoderm and placental function is discussed in relation to NT reprogramming. PMID:17570020

  19. Efficacy of Kisspeptin-54 to Trigger Oocyte Maturation in Women at High Risk of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) During In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, Ali; Jayasena, Channa N.; Christopoulos, Georgios; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Nijher, Gurjinder M. K.; Comninos, Alexander N.; Peters, Deborah; Buckley, Adam; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Prague, Julia K.; Salim, Rehan; Lavery, Stuart A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Szigeti, Matyas; Ashby, Deborah A.; Trew, Geoffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is an effective therapy for infertility, but can result in the potentially life-threatening complication, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether kisspeptin-54 can be used to effectively and safely trigger oocyte maturation in women undergoing IVF treatment at high risk of developing OHSS. Setting and Design: This was a phase 2, multi-dose, open-label, randomized clinical trial of 60 women at high risk of developing OHSS carried out during 2013–2014 at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, United Kingdom. Intervention: Following a standard recombinant FSH/GnRH antagonist protocol, patients were randomly assigned to receive a single injection of kisspeptin-54 to trigger oocyte maturation using an adaptive design for dose allocation (3.2 nmol/kg, n = 5; 6.4 nmol/kg, n = 20; 9.6 nmol/kg, n = 15; 12.8 nmol/kg, n = 20). Oocytes were retrieved 36 h after kisspeptin-54 administration, assessed for maturation, and fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with subsequent transfer of one or two embryos. Women were routinely screened for the development of OHSS. Main Outcome Measure: Oocyte maturation was measured by oocyte yield (percentage of mature oocytes retrieved from follicles ≥ 14 mm on ultrasound). Secondary outcomes include rates of OHSS and pregnancy. Results: Oocyte maturation occurred in 95% of women. Highest oocyte yield (121%) was observed following 12.8 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54, which was +69% (confidence interval, −16–153%) greater than following 3.2 nmol/kg. At all doses of kisspeptin-54, biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates per transfer (n = 51) were 63, 53, and 45%, respectively. Highest pregnancy rates were observed following 9.6 nmol/kg kisspeptin-54 (85, 77, and 62%, respectively). No woman developed moderate, severe, or critical OHSS. Conclusion: Kisspeptin-54 is a promising approach to effectively and safely

  20. Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during in vitro fertilization (IVF) assisted by Raman analysis of embryos culture medium Accurate and noninvasive embryos screening during IVF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. G.; Peng, J.; Zhao, Q. H.; Su, L.; Wang, X. H.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In combination with morphological evaluation tests, we employ Raman spectroscopy to select higher potential reproductive embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) based on chemical composition of embryos culture medium. In this study, 57 Raman spectra are acquired from both higher and lower quality embryos culture medium (ECM) from 10 patients which have been preliminarily confirmed by clinical assay. Data are fit by using a linear combination model of least squares method in which 12 basis spectra represent the chemical features of ECM. The final fitting coefficients provide insight into the chemical compositions of culture medium samples and are subsequently used as criterion to evaluate the quality of embryos. The relative fitting coefficients ratios of sodium pyruvate/albumin and phenylalanine/albumin seem act as key roles in the embryo screening, attaining 85.7% accuracy in comparison with clinical pregnancy. The good results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for an accurate and noninvasive screening of higher quality embryos, which potentially decrease the time-consuming clinical trials during IVF.

  1. The Maternal Cytokine and Chemokine Profile of Naturally Conceived Gestations Is Mainly Preserved during In Vitro Fertilization and Egg Donation Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Pellicer, Begoña; Serra, Vicente; Hervás-Marín, David; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Bellver, José; Perales-Marín, Alfredo; Pellicer, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aimed at comparing maternal immune response among naturally conceived (NC; n = 25), in vitro fertilization (IVF; n = 25), and egg donation (ED; n = 25) pregnancies. The main outcome measures were, firstly, to follow up plasma levels of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL2, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL17, interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ), regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1α), and decidual granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) during the three trimesters of pregnancy during the three trimesters of pregnancy; secondly, to evaluate if the cytokine and chemokine pattern of ED pregnant women differs from that of those with autologous oocytes and, thirdly, to assess if women with preeclampsia show different cytokine and chemokine profile throughout pregnancy versus women with uneventful pregnancies. Pregnant women in the three study groups displayed similar cytokine and chemokine pattern throughout pregnancy. The levels of all quantified cytokines and chemokines, except RANTES, TNFα, IL8, TGFβ, and SDF1α, rose in the second trimester compared with the first, and these higher values remained in the third trimester. ED pregnancies showed lower SDF1α levels in the third trimester compared with NC and IVF pregnancies. Patients who developed preeclampsia displayed higher SDF1α plasma levels in the third trimester. PMID:26346343

  2. Intrauterine administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on outcome of in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Afsoon; Parsanezhad, Mohammad Ebrahim; Younesi, Masoumeh; Alborzi, Saeed; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Samsami, Alamtaj; Amooee, Sedigheh; Aramesh, Shahintaj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The direct effect of hCG on the human endometrium was studied several times. Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of intrauterine injection of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) before embryo transfer (ET). Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total number of 182 infertile patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization/ intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles were randomly assigned to receive 250μg intrauterine rhCG (n=84) or placebo (n=98) before ET. The implantation and pregnancy rates were compared between groups. Results: Patients who received intrauterine rhCG before ET had significantly higher implantation (36.9% vs. 22.4%; p=0.035), clinical pregnancy rates (34.5% vs. 20.4%; p=0.044) and ongoing pregnancy rate (32.1% vs. 18.4%; p=0.032) when compared to those who received placebo. The abortion (2.4% vs. 2.0%; p=0.929) and ectopic pregnancy rates (1.2% vs. 1.0%; p=0.976) were comparable between groups of rhCG and placebo, respectively. Conclusion: Intrauterine injection of 250μg of rhCG before ET significantly improves the implantation and pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012121711790N1 This article extracted from fellowship course thesis. (Masoumeh Younesi) PMID:24799855

  3. Resurgence of Minimal Stimulation In Vitro Fertilization with A Protocol Consisting of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Agonist Trigger and Vitrified-Thawed Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, John

    2016-01-01

    Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-IVF) consists of a gentle controlled ovarian stimulation that aims to produce a maximum of five to six oocytes. There is a misbelief that mini-IVF severely compromises pregnancy and live birth rates. An appraisal of the literature pertaining to studies on mini-IVF protocols was performed. The advantages of minimal stimulation protocols are reported here with a focus on the use of clomiphene citrate (CC), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) ago- nist trigger for oocyte maturation, and freeze-all embryo strategy. Literature review and the author's own center data suggest that minimal ovarian stimulation protocols with GnRH agonist trigger and freeze-all embryo strategy along with single embryo transfer produce a reasonable clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in both good and poor responders. Additionally, mini-IVF offers numerous advantages such as: i. Reduction in cost and stress with fewer office visits, needle sticks, and ultrasounds, and ii. Reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Mini-IVF is re-emerging as a solution for some of the problems associated with conventional IVF, such as OHSS, cost, and patient discomfort. PMID:27441046

  4. Resurgence of Minimal Stimulation In Vitro Fertilization with A Protocol Consisting of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-Agonist Trigger and Vitrified-Thawed Embryo Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, John

    2016-01-01

    Minimal stimulation in vitro fertilization (mini-IVF) consists of a gentle controlled ovarian stimulation that aims to produce a maximum of five to six oocytes. There is a misbelief that mini-IVF severely compromises pregnancy and live birth rates. An appraisal of the literature pertaining to studies on mini-IVF protocols was performed. The advantages of minimal stimulation protocols are reported here with a focus on the use of clomiphene citrate (CC), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) ago- nist trigger for oocyte maturation, and freeze-all embryo strategy. Literature review and the author’s own center data suggest that minimal ovarian stimulation protocols with GnRH agonist trigger and freeze-all embryo strategy along with single embryo transfer produce a reasonable clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in both good and poor responders. Additionally, mini-IVF offers numerous advantages such as: i. Reduction in cost and stress with fewer office visits, needle sticks, and ultrasounds, and ii. Reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Mini-IVF is re-emerging as a solution for some of the problems associated with conventional IVF, such as OHSS, cost, and patient discomfort. PMID:27441046

  5. Effect of second-line surgery on in vitro fertilization outcome in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary conservative surgery for moderate to severe endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hana; Kim, Eun-Young; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of second-line conservative surgery on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome in comparison with IVF without second-line surgery in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary conservative surgery. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 121 consecutive IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles that were performed after second-line surgery (n=53) or without second-line surgery (control group, n=68) between January 2006 and December 2011 in 121 infertile women with ovarian endometrioma(s) recurrence after primary conservative surgery for moderate to severe endometriosis were included. The two groups were compared in terms of controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF outcomes. Results There were no differences in patients' characteristics between the two groups. Total dose and days of gonadotropins administered were significantly higher in the second-line surgery group than in the control group (P<0.001, P=0.008). The numbers of oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes and grade 1 or 2 embryos were significantly lower in the second-line surgery group (P=0.007, P=0.001, P<0.001, respectively). Clinical pregnancy rate per cycle and embryo implantation rate were also significantly lower in the second-line surgery group of 24.5% and 11.8% compared with 48.5% and 25.3% in the control group (P=0.008, P=0.005, respectively). Conclusion Ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF outcome after second-line surgery is worse than those in IVF cycles without second-line surgery in infertile women with ovarian endometrioma recurrence after primary surgery for moderate or severe endometriosis. PMID:26623412

  6. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-Xian; Guo, Ping-Ping; He, Yu-Xia; Liu, Yu-Dong; Ye, De-Sheng; Chen, Shi-Ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI. PMID:27072965

  7. Reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned bovine embryos involves major structural remodeling with both striking similarities and differences to nuclear phenotypes of in vitro fertilized embryos

    PubMed Central

    Popken, Jens; Brero, Alessandro; Koehler, Daniela; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Wuensch, Annegret; Guengoer, Tuna; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear landscapes were studied during preimplantation development of bovine embryos, generated either by in vitro fertilization (IVF), or generated as cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of bovine fetal fibroblasts, using 3-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (3D-CLSM) and structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). Nuclear landscapes of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were compared with each other and with fibroblast nuclei. We demonstrate that reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned embryos requires changes of their landscapes similar to nuclei of IVF embryos. On the way toward the 8-cell stage, where major genome activation occurs, a major lacuna, enriched with splicing factors, was formed in the nuclear interior and chromosome territories (CTs) were shifted toward the nuclear periphery. During further development the major lacuna disappeared and CTs were redistributed throughout the nuclear interior forming a contiguous higher order chromatin network. At all stages of development CTs of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were built up from chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) pervaded by interchromatin compartment (IC) channels. Quantitative analyses revealed a highly significant enrichment of RNA polymerase II and H3K4me3, a marker for transcriptionally competent chromatin, at the periphery of CDCs. In contrast, H3K9me3, a marker for silent chromatin, was enriched in the more compacted interior of CDCs. Despite these striking similarities, we also detected major differences between nuclear landscapes of IVF and cloned embryos. Possible implications of these differences for the developmental potential of cloned animals remain to be investigated. We present a model, which integrates generally applicable structural and functional features of the nuclear landscape. PMID:25482066

  8. Hospital Mental Health Admissions in Women after Unsuccessful Infertility Treatment and In Vitro Fertilization: An Australian Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Louise M.; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.; Semmens, James B.; Preen, David; Mai, Qun; Hart, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and later admission to hospital with a mental health diagnosis in women who remained childless after infertility treatment. Methods This was a population-based cohort study using linked administrative hospital and registry data. The study population included all women commencing hospital treatment for infertility in Western Australia between the years 1982 and 2002 aged 20–44 years at treatment commencement who did not have a recorded birth by the end of follow-up (15 August 2010) and did not have a hospital mental health admission prior to the first infertility admission (n=6,567). Of these, 2,623 women had IVF and 3,944 did not. We used multivariate Cox regression modeling of mental health admissions and compared women undergoing IVF treatment with women having infertility treatment but not IVF. Results Over an average of 17 years of follow-up, 411 women in the cohort were admitted to hospital with a mental health diagnosis; 93 who had IVF and 318 who did not. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a hospital mental health admission comparing women who had IVF with those receiving other infertility treatment was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.63). After adjustment for age, calendar year and socio-economic status the HR was 0.56 (95% CI 0.44–0.71). Conclusions IVF treatment is associated with a reduced risk of hospital mental health admissions in women after unsuccessful infertility treatment. This may be explained by the healthy cohort effect. PMID:25807258

  9. Luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization using gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue before ovarian stimulation: a prospective randomized study of human chorionic gonadotrophin versus intramuscular progesterone.

    PubMed

    Claman, P; Domingo, M; Leader, A

    1992-04-01

    This study was conducted to compare the endocrine milieu and pregnancy rates in an in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) programme employing a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) when either human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) or progesterone were used for luteal phase support. A total of 121 IVF-ET treatment cycles were prospectively studied. All patients started leuprolide acetate in the midluteal phase and it was continued for at least 10 days. When oestradiol levels were less than 150 pmol/l, HMG was started. When at least three follicles were greater than or equal to 17 mm in diameter, HCG 5000 IU i.m. was given. Oocytes were retrieved using transvaginal ultrasound and embryos were transferred 48 h later. The patients' cycles were prospectively randomized to receive HCG (72 cycles) or progesterone (49 cycles) luteal support. The HCG group received 1500 IU i.m. on days 3, 6 and 9 after the initial trigger. The progesterone group received 12.5 mg i.m. q.d. starting from the day after the HCG trigger. The dose of progesterone was increased to 25 mg i.m. q.d. starting on the day of embryo transfer and continued for 17-21 days. If the patient became pregnant, this dose of progesterone was continued until fetal heart activity was visualized by ultrasound. Mean ages, number of eggs retrieved, embryos transferred, oestradiol levels on the day of the HCG trigger, oestradiol and progesterone at the time of embryo transfer were the same in both groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1522190

  10. In Vitro Fertilization and Adverse Childhood Outcomes: What We Know, Where We Are Going, and How Will We Get There? A Glimpse into What Lies Behind and Beckons Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Suleena Kansal; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of perinatal morbidity after in-vitro fertilization is due to multiple pregnancy; however even singleton infants are at an increased risk for adverse outcomes. We have summarized data that evaluates adverse outcomes in IVF-infants and recent attempts to delineate the underlying etiologies that confer this risk. We submit that practitioners of reproductive medicine should remain at the forefront of this investigation. PMID:21411083

  11. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Anti-Müllerian Hormone per Oocyte in Predicting in vitro Fertilization Pregnancy in High Responders: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weghofer, Andrea; Kim, Ann; Barad, David H.; Gleicher, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are utilized to differentiate between good and poor response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Their respective roles in defining functional ovarian reserve remain, however, to be elucidated. To better understand those we investigated AMH and FSH per oocyte retrieved (AMHo and FSHo). Methodology/Principal Findings Three-hundred and ninety-six women, undergoing first in vitro fertilization cycles, were retrospectively evaluated. Women with oocyte yields >75th percentile for their age group were identified as high responders. In a series of logistic regression analyses, AMHo and FSHo levels were then evaluated as predictive factors for pregnancy potential in high responders. Patients presented with a mean age of 38.0±5.0 years, mean baseline FSH of 11.8±8.7 mIU/mL and mean AMH of 1.6±2.1 ng/mL. Those 88 women, who qualified as high responders, showed mean FSH of 9.7±6.5 mIU/mL, AMH of 3.1±3.1 ng/mL and oocyte yields of 15.8±7.1. Baseline FSH and AMH did not predict pregnancy in high responders. However, a statistically significant association between FSHo and pregnancy was observed in high responders, both after univariate regression (p = 0.02) and when adjusted for age, percentage of usable embryos, and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.03). Rate of useable embryos also significantly affected pregnancy outcome independently of FSHo (p = 0.01). AMHo was also associated with clinical pregnancy chances in high responders (p = 0.03) and remained significant when adjusted for usable embryos and number of embryos transferred (p = 0.04). Conclusions AMHo and FSHo are predictive of pregnancy potential in high responders, but likely reflect different responsibilities in recruitment and maturation of growing follicle cohorts. PMID:22545082

  12. Ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization combining administration of gonadotrophins and blockade of the pituitary with D-Trp6-LHRH microcapsules: pilot studies with two protocols.

    PubMed

    Zorn, J R; Barata, M; Brami, C; Epelboin, S; Nathan, C; Papageorgiou, G; Quantin, P; Rolet, F; Savale, M; Boyer, P

    1988-02-01

    In women undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), a total of 408 IVF cycles were stimulated using human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) or pure follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) plus HMG in combination with a single injection of D-Trp6-LHRH microcapsules in order to enhance the ovarian response to gonadotrophins and to avoid spontaneous LH surges. Sixty-seven pregnancies were achieved. Two protocols were employed. In protocol 1 ('blocking protocol', n = 268), the pituitary was first inhibited with a full dose (3.75 mg) of D-Trp6-LHRH in microcapsules and ovarian stimulation was started after the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal state was ascertained (E2 less than 50 pg/ml). In protocol 2 ('flare-up protocol', n = 140), the treatment with D-Trp6-LHRH microcapsules (half-dose = 1.80 mg) and the ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins were started at the same time. Higher doses of gonadotrophins were needed (39.5 +/- 11.2 ampoules FSH and/or HMG) in protocol 1, in which the pituitary was blocked prior to and during the stimulation, than in protocol 2 (20 +/- 9 ampoules) where the exogenous gonadotrophin stimulation appeared to be augmented by the initial agonistic effect of the injection of D-Trp6-LHRH microcapsules. In patients with purely tubal infertility, under 38 years old and no male factor, the results obtained with protocols 1 and 2 were similar in terms of pregnancy rate per cycle or per embryo transfer: 22.6 versus 20.5% and 28.3 versus 27.4%, respectively. However, considering the cost benefit, 'flare-up' protocols appeared to be a better choice and could be recommended. PMID:2965712

  13. Effects of using a nursing crisis intervention program on psychosocial responses and coping strategies of infertile women during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Shu-Hsin, Lee

    2003-09-01

    Infertility and its treatment may cause life crises in infertile women. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a crisis intervention program on improving psychosocial responses and enhancing coping strategies for infertile women attending different stages of an In-Vitro Fertilization V Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET) treatment program. Using an experimental study design, infertile women attending an IVF-ET treatment program were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, infertile women completed and answered a questionnaire and received nursing crisis intervention at the initial stage of treatment (day 3). This included (1). viewing a video explaining the therapeutic process of IVF-ET, (2). self-hypnosis and muscle relaxation training, and (3). provision of cognitive-behavioral counseling. The same questionnaire was used again for subjects at the stage of embryo transfer and before taking a pregnancy test. The women in the control group were only interviewed using the same questionnaire and at the same times as the experimental group. Analysis by repeated measurement ANOVA demonstrated that there was a reduction in psychosocial response in terms of interpersonal relationships, and there was an interaction between intervention effects and stage of treatment. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the level of psychosocial responses between the experimental and control groups although some meaningful findings were made. However, in terms of state of anxiety, confrontational problems, and isolated mind/body relaxation, there were significant differences between the two groups of infertile women at some stages of IVF-ET treatment. The women in the experimental group perceived a positive effect of the nursing intervention in relieving their psychosocial responses. The results of this nursing crisis intervention could be helpful in nursing practice when dealing with infertile women attending IVF

  14. Role of early serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in predicting multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastage in an in vitro ET fertilization cycle

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeta; Begum, Anjuman Ara; Malhotra, Neena; Bahadur, Anupama; Vanamail, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), measured on day 14 post embryo transfer (ET) for predicting multiple gestation and pregnancy wastage in women undergoing in vitro fertilization ET (IVF-ET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed between May 2009 and November 2012. Out of the 181 women who conceived, 168 were included and the remaining 13 were excluded as their pregnancy was biochemical. Serum βhCG was measured using a chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay. The predictive values of serum βhCG for establishing multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastages were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Median values of serum βhCG and outcome of all pregnancies were compared. RESULTS: Out of the 168 patients who conceived after IVF treatment, 114 (68%) were viable pregnancies (delivered/ongoing). Among the viable pregnancies, 97 (85%) had a successful pregnancy outcome and the remaining 17 patients are ongoing pregnancies. Median values of βhCG (625 IU/L) among viable pregnancies was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of nonviable pregnancies (174 IU/L). The median values of βhCG for singleton (502 IU/L), twins (1093 IU/L), and triplets (2160 IU/L) was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Using ROC curve it was predicted that for a value of βhCG at 375 IU/L, the sensitivity of viable pregnancy was 65% and specificity of viable pregnancy was also 65%, with positive and negative predictive values of 65 and 68%, respectively. Similarly for multiple pregnancy and pregnancy wastage the predictive values of βhCG were 808 and 375 IU/L, respectively; while the sensitivity and specificity is more than 65% each. CONCLUSION: βhCG cutoff values determined on day 14 post ET by ROC curve analysis are useful in discriminating between multiple pregnancy and pregnancy losses. The cutoff value might aid in the prognosis, clinical

  15. Two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twins pregnancy as preferred outcome of in vitro fertilization for mothers and infants: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Morini, Daria; Gizzo, Salvatore; Nicoli, Alessia; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Objective Many infertile couples request a multiple embryo transfer because they desire more than one child. Based on this consideration, the current study aimed to compare the reproductive and perinatal outcomes of two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twin pregnancy in a large cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients. Research design and methods Retrospective analysis of data from patients with clinical twin pregnancy after IVF fresh cycles and from patients with two consecutive IVF fresh cycles and clinical singleton pregnancy. Main outcome measures Miscarriage rate, delivery rate, gestational age at birth, neonatal birth weight, and perinatal complications. A sub-analysis of data according to vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was also performed. Results A total of 18,703 autologous fresh cycles were analyzed. One hundred seven patients had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies, whereas one clinical twin pregnancy occurred in 641 women. In patients who had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies the rates of overall pregnancies lost (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4, 6.9) and live births (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.3) were, respectively, higher and lower when compared to patients who had one clinical twin pregnancy. That data did not change after sub-analysis for VTS. The overall risk of perinatal complications was significantly higher in patients who had one twin delivery rather than patients who had two consecutive singleton deliveries (OR 31.8, 95% CI 14.1, 71.5). No difference between groups was detected in terms of intrauterine/neonatal deaths, perinatal mortality and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Data did not change after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions When compared with two consecutive singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies are characterized by higher success rates but worse perinatal outcomes irrespectively of VTS. Well designed prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm or rebut

  16. Utrogestan as an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun

    2015-05-01

    A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P < 0.05). No significant between-group difference was observed in the mature oocyte rate (88.88% vs 90.12%), cleavage rate (96.58% vs 96.58%), clinical pregnancy rate (54.27% vs

  17. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: A relation between serum and follicular fluid levels and in-vitro fertilization outcome in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kahyaoglu, Inci; Yılmaz, Nafiye; Timur, Hakan; Inal, Hasan Ali; Erkaya, Salim

    2015-07-01

    Evidence is accumulating in the literature about the potential role of serum and follicular fluid (FF) granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a non-invasive biomarker of oocyte competence and embryo selection in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of serum and FF G-CSF levels on IVF outcome in non-hyperandrogenic, non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Twenty-two patients with PCOS (Group I), and 22 patients with the etiology of male factor infertility (Group II) undergoing IVF treatment were included. Demographic features, controlled ovarian stimulation parameters, neutrophil count (NC), neutrophil/leukocyte (N/L) ratio, serum and FF G-CSF levels of the two groups were compared. Serum E2 level on the day of hCG (2982.5±171.4 vs. 2279.0±207.2 pg/mL), total number of retrieved oocytes (14.7±0.9 vs. 11.5±1.3) and mature oocytes (11.6±0.8 vs. 9.1±1.1) were significantly higher in group I when compared to group II (p<0.05). On the day of oocyte retrieval, both the mean serum (54.8±1.7 vs. 48.1±0.9 pg/mL) and FF G-CSF levels (48.8±1.4 vs. 44.1±0.5 pg/mL), NC (4.4±0.2×10(3) vs. 3.6±0.3×10(3)/μL) and N/L ratio (63.6±1.4 vs. 56.1±1.7) in group I were found to be significantly higher than group II ((p<0.05). Despite the increased levels of G-CSF both in the serum and follicular microenvironment in patients with PCOS, a relation between G-CSF and good ovarian response or clinical pregnancy rates could not be demonstrated in this study. PMID:25258001

  18. Estimating the long-term effects of in vitro fertilization in Greece: an analysis based on a lifetime-investment model

    PubMed Central

    Fragoulakis, Vassilis; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify the economic effects of a child conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in terms of net tax revenue from the state’s perspective in Greece. Methods Based on previous international experience, a mathematical model was developed to assess the lifetime productivity of a single individual and his/her lifetime transactions with governmental agencies. The model distinguished among three periods in the economic life cycle of an individual: (1) early life, when the government primarily contributes resources through child tax credits, health care, and educational expenses; (2) employment, when individuals begin returning resources through taxes; and (3) retirement, when the government expends additional resources on pensions and health care. The cost of a live birth with IVF was based on the modification of a previously published model developed by the authors. All outcomes were discounted at a 3% discount rate. The data inputs – namely, the economic or demographic variables – were derived from the National Statistical Secretariat of Greece and other relevant sources. To deal with uncertainty, bias-corrected uncertainty intervals (UIs) were calculated based on 5000 Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, to examine the robustness of our results, other one-way sensitivity analyses were also employed. Results The cost of IVF per birth was estimated at €17,015 (95% UI: €13,932–€20,200). The average projected income generated by an individual throughout his/her productive life was €258,070 (95% UI: €185,376–€339,831). In addition, his/her life tax contribution was estimated at €133,947 (95% UI: €100,126–€177,375), while the discounted governmental expenses for elderly and underage individuals were €67,624 (95% UI: €55,211–€83,930). Hence, the net present value of IVF was €60,435 (95% UI: €33,651–€94,330), representing a 182% net return on investment. Results remained constant under various assumptions for the

  19. The effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The latest meta-analysis demonstrated that acupuncture improves pregnancy rates among women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), and surface acupoint stimulation, such as transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), may have the same or better potential. Methods/Design To explore the effect of TEAS on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) compared with real acupuncture and controls in women undergoing IVF, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. The inclusion criteria are the following: infertile women <40 years of age undergoing a fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, and the study will be restricted to women with the potential for a lower success rate as defined by two or more previous unsuccessful ETs (fresh or frozen). Those who have severe illnesses possibly precluding IVF or pregnancy, have FSH levels greater than 20 IU/L, received donor eggs, had been previously randomized for this study or had undergone acupuncture (in any modality) as infertility treatment will be excluded. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the TEAS group (IVF + TEAS), the electro-acupuncture (EA) group (IVF + EA), or the control group (only IVF). A total sample size of 2,220 women is required to detect differences in CPR among the three groups. TEAS or EA treatments will start once every two or three days from day 3 of menstruation in the ovarian stimulation cycle until the day of ET. The parameters of TEAS or EA will be the following: a frequency of 2/100 Hz, a moderate electrical current of 3 to 5 mA for TEAS and 0.8 to 1.0 mA for EA. The primary outcome is CPR. Secondary outcomes are LBR, the number of oocytes aspirated and the total gonadotropin dose used in the stimulation cycle. Discussion This study will provide significant evidence for using a new method (TEAS) in IVF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govID: NCT01608048 (05/24/2012). PMID:24886647

  20. ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

  1. Fertility preservation in young patients' with cancer.

    PubMed

    Dudani, Sharmila; Gupta, Apurva

    2014-10-01

    Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes. PMID:25540565

  2. GnRH-agonist induced depressive and anxiety symptoms during in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Miki; Azem, Foad; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the use of a GnRH agonist inducing a hypogonadic state during IVF-ET cycles induces negative mood symptoms, we conducted a prospective randomized study in 108 women comparing two different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols. A significant phase effect was observed for depression and anxiety symptoms during IVF-ET cycles reflecting an increase in symptoms between the hypogonadal phase and the peak in gonadotropin stimulation; however, the hypogonadal phase induced by the GnRH agonist was not associated with a significant increase in any of the studied mood parameters. PMID:20801439

  3. Auricular Acupressure Reduces Anxiety Levels and Improves Outcomes of in Vitro Fertilization: A Prospective, Randomized and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Fan; Zhang, Dan; Chen, Lu-Ting; Wang, Fang-Fang; Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhu, Yi-Min; Ma, Chun-Mei; Huang, Yi-Ting; Ye, Xiao-Qun; Sun, Sai-Jun; Zheng, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Run-Ju; Xu, Jian; Xing, Lan-Feng; Huang, He-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The study was to explore whether auricular acupressure (AA) can relieve anxiety during the period from trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval to the embryo transfer in IVF treatment and whether AA can improve the outcomes of IVF. 305 infertile patients with tubal blockage who were referred for IVF were included. The women were randomized into a control group with 102 cases, a Sham-AA group with 102 cases and an AA group with 101 cases. The anxiety levels were rated with Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale. Data of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate (IR) and live birth rate (LBR) were obtained. The levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in the follicular fluids were detected with ELISA. After treatment, in AA group, the levels of state anxiety, preoperative anxiety and need-for-information were significantly lower, whereas CPR, IR, LBR and NPY levels in the follicular fluids were markedly higher than Sham-AA group and control group. We concluded that AA could help to reduce anxiety levels associated with IVF and improves the outcomes of IVF partly through increasing the levels of NPY in the follicular fluids. PMID:24848522

  4. Ovarian volume and antral follicle count for the prediction of low and hyper responders with in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Kwee, Janet; Elting, Mariet E; Schats, Roel; McDonnell, Joseph; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2007-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to compare antral follicle count (AFC) and basal ovarian volume (BOV), the exogenous FSH ovarian reserve test (EFORT) and the clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT), with respect to their ability to predict poor and hyper responders. Methods One hundred and ten regularly menstruating patients, aged 18–39 years, participated in this prospective study, randomized, by a computer designed 4-blocks system study into two groups. Fifty six patients underwent a CCCT, and 54 patients underwent an EFORT. All patients underwent a transvaginal sonography to measure the basal ovarian volume and count of basal antral follicle. In all patients, the test was followed by a standard IVF treatment. The result of ovarian hyperstimulation during IVF treatment, expressed by the total number of follicles, was used as gold standard. Results The best prediction of ovarian reserve (Y) was seen in a multiple regression prediction model that included, AFC, Inhibin B-increment in the EFORT and BOV simultaneously (Y = -3.161 + 0.805 × AFC (0.258-1.352) + 0.034 × Inh. B-incr. (0.007-0.601) + 0.511 BOV (0.480-0.974) (r = 0.848, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression showed that the best predictors for poor response were the CCCT (ROC-AUC = 0.87), the bFSH (ROC-AUC = 0.83) and the AFC (ROC-AUC = 0.83). Multiple logistic regression analysis did not produce a better model in terms of improving the prediction of poor response. For hyper response, univariate logistic regression showed that the best predictors were AFC (ROC-AUC = 0.92) and the inhibin B-increment in the EFORT (ROC-AUC = 0.92), but AFC had better test characteristics, namely a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity 89%. Multiple logistic regression analysis did not produce a better model in terms of predicting hyper response. Conclusion In conclusion AFC performs well as a test for ovarian response being superior or at least similar to complex expensive and time consuming endocrine tests

  5. A randomized, controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of aqueous subcutaneous progesterone with vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Valerie L.; Jones, Christopher A.; Doody, Kevin; Foulk, Russell; Yee, Bill; Adamson, G. David; Cometti, Barbara; DeVane, Gary; Hubert, Gary; Trevisan, Silvia; Hoehler, Fred; Jones, Clarence; Soules, Michael

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the ongoing pregnancy rate with a new aqueous formulation of subcutaneous progesterone (Prolutex®) non-inferior to vaginal progesterone (Endometrin®) when used for luteal phase support of in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER In the per-protocol (PP) population, the ongoing pregnancy rates per oocyte retrieval at 12 weeks of gestation were comparable between Prolutex and Endometrin (41.6 versus 44.4%), with a difference between groups of −2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) −9.7, 4.2), consistent with the non-inferiority of subcutaneous progesterone for luteal phase support. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Luteal phase support has been clearly demonstrated to improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Because of the increased risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome associated with the use of hCG, progesterone has become the treatment of choice for luteal phase support. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, multicentre, two-arm, non-inferiority study was performed at eight fertility clinics. A total of 800 women, aged 18–42 years, with a BMI of ≤30 kg/m2, with <3 prior completed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles, exhibiting baseline (Days 2–3) FSH of ≤15 IU/L and undergoing IVF at 8 centres (seven private, one academic) in the USA, were enrolled from January 2009 through June 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS In total, 800 women undergoing IVF were randomized after retrieval of at least three oocytes to an aqueous preparation of progesterone administered subcutaneously (25 mg daily) or vaginal progesterone (100 mg bid daily). Randomization was performed to enrol 100 patients at each site using a randomization list that was generated with Statistical Analysis Software (SAS®). If a viable pregnancy occurred, progesterone treatment was continued up to 12 weeks of gestation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Using a PP analysis

  6. Expensive but worth it: older parents’ attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Robert D.; MacDougall, Kirstin; Davis, Anne C.; Beyene, Yewoubdar

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe older parents’ attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for IVF. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Two Northern California IVF practices. Patient(s) Sixty women and 35 male partners in which the woman had delivered her first child after the age of 40 years using IVF. Intervention(s) Two in-depth interviews over 3 months. Main Outcome Measure(s) Thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Result(s) We found that although the costs of IVF were perceived as high, even by those with insurance or who could afford them, the cost of IVF relative to other expenses in life was dwarfed by the value attributed to having a child. Women were twice as likely as men to support insurance coverage for IVF. Both men and women with complete or partial IVF insurance coverage were more likely to support insurance than those without coverage. There was a broad range of attitudes and opinions about the appropriateness of IVF insurance coverage, which addressed questions of age, gender equality, reproductive choice, whether infertility is a medical illness, and the role of personal and societal economic equity and responsibility. Conclusion(s) Despite a generally favorable opinion about the appropriateness of insurance coverage by those who have successfully undergone IVF treatment, the affordability of IVF remains an unresolved dilemma in the United States. PMID:22118993

  7. Should zygote intrafallopian transfer be offered to all patients with unexplained repeated in-vitro fertilization cycle failures?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the suggest strategy for patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) is zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). However, no data exist regarding to the issue of when and under which circumstances should ZIFT be offered to patients with RIF? We therefore aimed to examine whether repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients characteristics or their previous controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) variables may differentiate between those who will conceive following a ZIFT cycle and those who will not. Methods Forty seven consecutive women admitted to our IVF unit during a 7 year period, who underwent ZIFT for RIF, were included. Ovarian stimulation characteristics, number of oocytes retrieved and number and quality of zygotes/embryos transferred were assessed and compared between the ZIFT cycle and the previous IVF/ICSI cycle and between those who conceived following the ZIFT cycle and those who did not. Results Twelve clinical pregnancies (clinical pregnancy rate- 25.5%) were recorded following the ZIFT cycle. Those who benefit from ZIFT were young patients (≤31 yrs), who underwent ≤6 cycle attempts, yielding over eight 2PN embryos with low (≤0.4) ratio of number of top-quality embryos to total 2PN embryos. Moreover, in those destined for a ZIFT cycle, only those with >7 2PN embryo should undergo a transfer of at least five 2PN embryos. Conclusions Further large prospective studies are needed to identify the specific characteristics of RIF women who may benefit from ZIFT. PMID:24444039

  8. Migrant fertility differentials in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rundquist, F; Brown, L A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of migration on fertility in Ecuador were analyzed by subdividing migrant categories into permanent-, return-, circular-, and non-migrants, and context factors into 6 socioeconomic and agrarian variables. The study is introduced with a conceptual framework that explains personal intermediate variables and their influence on fertility in terms of demographic transition theory, and then defines the influences of selection for fertility, disruption of marital unions, and socialization into fertility norms at the origin vs. assimilation of norms at the destination. Migrants are usually better educated, younger and upwardly mobile, all selecting for lower fertility. Migration disrupts formation of marital unions, and causes separation of spouses, lowering fertility. Data for this study were from the 1974 and 1982 Ecuadorian Population Censuses. The contextual variables analyzed were urban/rural; manufacturing/agricultural; mineral extraction/economic recession; long/recent agricultural settlement; domestic/export crop; and large/medium sized farm. The analysis of personal attributes showed that fertility increased over the range on non-migrants through circular-, return- to permanent-migrants, a finding explained by degrees of disruption of unions. Higher fertility was associated with less education, lower economic participation, higher prevalence of marriage, longer residence and older ages. Regression analysis also showed that personal attributes outweighed contextual factors: thus age, marriage rates, residence time, education and economic activity were significant. Contextual factors were important only for non-migrants, except for destination variables which affected return-migrants and origin variables which affected circular-migrants. Low fertility was associated with urbanization, industrialization, mineral extraction, large farms, recent farm settlement and export crops. The results indicate cear influences of modernity and place influences on

  9. Effects of two human chorionic gonadotropin doses administered to the ovarian states during the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer program

    PubMed Central

    MA, MINGXING; WANG, JIALIN; XU, LIJUN; ZHANG, QINXI; DU, BOTAO; JIANG, XIAOYING; SHI, QINGLI; ZHOU, LILI; LI, BAOXIN; SAITO, HIDEKAZU; KURACHI, HIROHISA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dose on the pulsatility indices (PI) of the intraovarian artery on the day of follicle aspiration and the oocyte quality, intrafollicular oxidative stress and luteinization. PI was also measured on the day of hCG administration. A total of 15 patients were undergoing the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. To estimate whether there was any difference between the intraovarian artery blood flow and oocyte development of the same patients treated with 5,000 or 10,000 IU hCG, the intraovarian artery blood flow was measured by transvaginal color ultrasonography pulsed wave Doppler, and the follicular fluids and the granulosa cells were collected at follicle aspiration. There were statistically significant differences between the same patients undergoing the two different hCG-dose treatments in which the first protocol included 10,000 IU and the second protocol included 5,000 IU hCG treatment. These differences were apparent in the PI of intraovarian artery blood flow on the day of follicle aspiration (P=0.0023), in the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus (ApoC) and mural (ApoM) granulosa cells (ApoC, P=0.0077; ApoM, P=0.0128), in the total oocytes retrieved (P=0.0342) and in the follicle fluid progesterone concentration (P=0.0044). There were no significant differences between the two protocols in the PI of intraovarian artery blood flow on the day of hCG administration (P=0.4326), serum steroid on the day of follicle aspiration [serum P, P>0.9999; serum estradiol (E2), P=0.8589], follicle fluid E2 concentration (P=0.8939), mature oocyte rate (P=0.3743) and total mature oocytes retrieved (P=0.2026). In conclusion, the dose of hCG administration can significantly affect the intraovarian artery blood flow and the development of follicles and oocytes in an IVF-ET program. PMID:26075075

  10. In vitro oocyte fertilization and subsequent embryonic development after cryopreservation of bovine ovarian tissue, using an effective approach for oocyte collection.

    PubMed

    Faheem, Marwa S; Carvalhais, I; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2011-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess dissection/puncture combined technique for collecting large number of oocytes from bovine ovaries and to determine the effect of ovarian tissue cryopreservation on the oocytes capability to undergo in vitro maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development. Ovaries (n=31) of slaughtered cows were cut into small fragments using a scalpel blade and the ovarian tissues were randomly assigned to cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification and non cryopreserved (fresh) groups. Oocytes were collected from non-atretic follicles from fresh and post-thawing ovarian tissue by the puncture method. The advantage of this technique appeared through morphologically good quality cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) recovery rate from fresh tissue (31.7±2.0 oocytes/ovary). However, the cryopreservation affected the post thawing total and good quality COC recovery rates from slow freezing (26.6±2.0 and 23.5±2.3 oocytes/ovary, respectively) and vitrification groups (21.7±1.1 and 17.6±1.8 oocyte/ovary, respectively). The maturation rate resulted in significant differences between the fresh tissue (94.1±1.1%) and the two cryopreservation groups. Moreover, this rate was significantly higher in the slow freezing group (80.1±1.3%) than in the vitrification group (73.0±1.9%). No statistical differences were observed in the cleavage and the embryonic developmental rates between fresh tissue group and cryopreservation groups. Furthermore the number of embryos produced per animal was statistically higher for fresh tissues than for slow freezing and the vitrification groups (34.4±1.4, 27.8±3.1 and 22.0±0.7, respectively). In conclusion, dissection method followed by puncture of bovine ovaries greatly maximizes the number of good quality oocytes recovered, as well as the number of embryos obtained per animal. Ovarian tissue can be successfully cryopreserved by slow freezing and vitrification. PMID:21411252

  11. [Advances in fertility regulation].

    PubMed

    Harper, M J

    1984-02-01

    The author summarizes some crucial research projects in the field of contraception and fertility control which are going on from now to the end of this century. In the next 20 years, numerous new methods and devices for birth control will be used. Among them are some completely new developments and inventions. Certain research items suffered setbecks in the process of development because of poor effectiveness, the nature of toxicity, or strong side effects. Through constant studies and adequate financial support, most of these research projects have become successful. The results have been made possible because of close cooperation among theoretical researchers, toxicity specialists, pathologists, clinical doctors, and technicians. In addition, support from international societies has also contributed to their success. Because of limited financial resources, it is impossible to support all research projects at the same time. Some research projects have been selected as priorities to receive financial support, and these projects include the ones on IUDs, contraceptive vaccines, prediction of ovulation periods, male contraceptives, and others. These research projects are extremely significant for the development of birth control techniques for the next generation. PMID:12339566

  12. Effects of leptin on in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryonic cleavage after ICSI and early developmental expression of leptin (Ob) and leptin receptor (ObR) proteins in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Lange Consiglio, Anna; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Fiandanese, Nadia; Ambruosi, Barbara; Cho, Yoon S; Bosi, Giampaolo; Arrighi, Silvana; Lacalandra, Giovanni M; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    Background The identification of the adipocyte-derived obesity gene product, leptin (Ob), and subsequently its association with reproduction in rodents and humans led to speculations that leptin may be involved in the regulation of oocyte and preimplantation embryo development. In mice and pigs, in vitro leptin addition significantly increased meiotic resumption and promoted preimplantation embryo development in a dose-dependent manner. This study was conducted to determine whether leptin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) to horse oocytes could have effects on their developmental capacity after fertilization by IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Methods Compact and expanded-cumulus horse oocytes were matured in medium containing different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 1000 ng/ml) of recombinant human leptin and the effects on maturation, fertilization and embryo cleavage were evaluated. Furthermore, early developmental expression of Ob and leptin receptor (Ob-R) was investigated by immunocytochemical staining. Results In expanded-cumulus oocytes, the addition of leptin in IVM medium improved maturation (74% vs 44%, for 100 ng/ml leptin-treated and control groups, respectively; P < 0.05) and fertilization after ICSI (56% vs 23% for 10 ng/ml leptin-treated and control groups, respectively; P < 0.05). However, the developmental rate and quality of 8-cell stage embryos derived from leptin-treated oocytes (100 ng/ml) was significantly reduced, in contrast to previous data in other species where leptin increased embryo cleavage. Ob and Ob-R proteins were detected up to the 8-cell stage with cortical and cytoplasmic granule-like distribution pattern in each blastomere. Conclusion Leptin plays a cumulus cell-mediated role in the regulation of oocyte maturation in the mare. Species-specific differences may exist in oocyte sensitivity to leptin. PMID:19835605

  13. Effect of recombinant-LH and hCG in the absence of FSH on in vitro maturation (IVM) fertilization and early embryonic development of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes.

    PubMed

    Dinopoulou, Vasiliki; Drakakis, Peter; Kefala, Stella; Kiapekou, Erasmia; Bletsa, Ritsa; Anagnostou, Elli; Kallianidis, Konstantinos; Loutradis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    During in vitro maturation (IVM), intrinsic and extrinsic factors must co-operate properly in order to ensure cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. We examined the possible effect of LH/hCG in the process of oocyte maturation in mice with the addition of recombinant LH (r-LH) and hCG in our IVM cultures of mouse germinal vesicle (GV)-stage oocytes. Moreover, the effects of these hormones on fertilization, early embryonic development and the expression of LH/hCG receptor were examined. Nuclear maturation of GV-stage oocytes was evaluated after culture in the presence of r-LH or hCG. Fertilization rates and embryonic development were assessed after 24h. Total RNA was isolated from oocytes of different stages of maturation and from zygotes and embryos of different stages of development in order to examine the expression of LH/hCG receptor, using RT-PCR. The in vitro nuclear maturation rate of GV-stage oocytes that received hCG was significantly higher compared to the control group. Early embryonic development was increased in the hCG and LH cultures of GV oocytes when LH was further added. The LH/hCG receptor was expressed in all stages of in vitro matured mouse oocytes and in every stage of early embryonic development. Addition of hCG in IVM cultures of mouse GV oocytes increased maturation rates significantly. LH, however, was more beneficial to early embryonic development than hCG. This suggests a promising new technique in basic science research or in clinical reproductive medicine. PMID:27288338

  14. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. PMID:24659575

  15. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 552–556, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24659575

  16. DNA SYNTHESIS IN THE FERTILIZING HAMSTER SPERM NUCLEUS: SPERM TEMPLATE AVAILABILITY AND EGG CYTOPLASMIC CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the role of sperm template availability in the regulation of DNA synthesis, the morphological status of the fertilizing hamster sperm nucleus was correlated with its ability to synthesize DNA after in vivo and in vitro fertilization. Fertilized hamster eggs were incubat...

  17. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, J.M.; Taylor, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  18. Clinical guide to fertility preservation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Savani, B N; Chow, E J; Gilleece, M H; Halter, J; Jacobsohn, D A; Pidala, J; Quinn, G P; Cahn, J-Y; Jakubowski, A A; Kamani, N R; Lazarus, H M; Rizzo, J D; Schouten, H C; Socie, G; Stratton, P; Sorror, M L; Warwick, A B; Wingard, J R; Loren, A W; Majhail, N S

    2014-04-01

    With broadening indications, more options for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and improvement in survival, the number of long-term HCT survivors is expected to increase steadily. Infertility is a frequent problem that long-term HCT survivors and their partners face and it can negatively impact on the quality of life. The most optimal time to address fertility issues is before the onset of therapy for the underlying disease; however, fertility preservation should also be addressed before HCT in all children and patients of reproductive age, with referral to a reproductive specialist for patients interested in fertility preservation. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking are acceptable methods for fertility preservation in adult women/pubertal females. Sperm banking is the preferred method for adult men/pubertal males. Frequent barriers to fertility preservation in HCT recipients may include the perception of lack of time to preserve fertility given an urgency to move ahead with transplant, lack of patient-physician discussion because of several factors (for example, time constraints, lack of knowledge), inadequate access to reproductive specialists, and costs and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation. There is a need to raise awareness in the medical community about fertility preservation in HCT recipients. PMID:24419521

  19. Clinical guide to fertility preservation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S; Savani, BN; Chow, EJ; Gilleece, MH; Halter, J; Jacobsohn, DA; Pidala, J; Quinn, GP; Cahn, J-Y; Jakubowski, AA; Kamani, NR; Lazarus, HM; Rizzo, JD; Schouten, HC; Socie, G; Stratton, P; Sorror, ML; Warwick, AB; Wingard, JR; Loren, AW; Majhail, NS

    2014-01-01

    With broadening indications, more options for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and improvement in survival, the number of long-term HCT survivors is expected to increase steadily. Infertility is a frequent problem that long-term HCT survivors and their partners face and it can negatively impact on the quality of life. The most optimal time to address fertility issues is before the onset of therapy for the underlying disease; however, fertility preservation should also be addressed before HCT in all children and patients of reproductive age, with referral to a reproductive specialist for patients interested in fertility preservation. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking are acceptable methods for fertility preservation in adult women/pubertal females. Sperm banking is the preferred method for adult men/pubertal males. Frequent barriers to fertility preservation in HCT recipients may include the perception of lack of time to preserve fertility given an urgency to move ahead with transplant, lack of patient–physician discussion because of several factors (for example, time constraints, lack of knowledge), inadequate access to reproductive specialists, and costs and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation. There is a need to raise awareness in the medical community about fertility preservation in HCT recipients. PMID:24419521

  20. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients. PMID:25812494

  1. Fertilizing potential in vitro of semen from young beef bulls containing a high or low percentage of sperm with a proximal droplet.

    PubMed

    Amann, R P; Seidel, G E; Mortimer, R G

    2000-12-01

    Fertilizing potential of semen containing a high percentage of sperm with a proximal droplet was evaluated using IVF. Design criteria: (a) specified semen with >100 x 10(6) sperm/mL with >40% progressively motile spermatozoa, after collection via electro-stimulation; (b) designated a droplet group, bulls whose semen contained >30% spermatozoa with a proximal droplet and <25% with other morphological abnormalities, and a control group, with <25% abnormalities of any type; and (c) stipulated evaluations at 11 to 13 mo of age and again -4 wk later. At the initial evaluation, when a bull was assigned to the droplet group, the next bull meeting control criteria was designated his pair; 15 pairs in four herds were studied. Semen was extended in egg-yolk citrate, cooled to 5 degrees C over approximately 2.5 h, and held at 5 degrees C. After 20 to 44 h, spermatozoa were processed by swimup, incubated with heparin, and co-cultured with oocytes (35 to 56 oocytes/sample; 18 h). Ova were observed for cleavage approximately 42 h after co-culture, and further development was evaluated on day 8. At first evaluation, cleavage rates were 18 and 46% for droplet and control groups (P < 0.01); semen had 34 to 70% and 0 to 12% droplet spermatozoa. For 10 of 15 droplet bulls, <10% of ova were cleaved whereas cleavage rate was >15% for all control bulls. At second evaluation, only three droplet bulls still had >30% of spermatozoa with a proximal droplet. Cleavage rates increased accordingly; only four droplet bulls had <10% cleaved ova and 10 had >34% cleaved ova. Three control bulls had <10% cleaved ova and nine had > or = 34% cleaved ova. Considering all 60 ejaculates, correlation between percentage of spermatozoa with a proximal droplet and percentage of cleaved ova was -0.49 (P < 0.0 1). Correlations between percentages of motile or normal spermatozoa in field evaluations and outcome in IVF were 0.28 and 0.52. Laboratory evaluations of spermatozoa concomitant with preparation for IVF

  2. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. PMID:26677790

  3. Specific glycoconjugates are present at the oolemma of the fertilization site in the egg of Discoglossus pictus (Anurans) and bind spermatozoa in an in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Maturi, G; Infante, V; Carotenuto, R; Focarelli, R; Caputo, M; Campanella, C

    1998-12-01

    In the egg of the anuran Discoglossus pictus, the site of fertilization is restricted to the central portion of an animal hemisphere indentation (the dimple). Previous studies showed that the acrosome reaction of D. pictus sperm is triggered in the jelly, and yet sperm arrive at the dimple surface with the plasma membrane at an early stage of vesiculation. Reactivity of the dimple surface with specific lectins suggests that fucose might be utilized as a marker of glycoproteins located at the dimple surface. In this paper, proteins of the egg surface were labeled with the membrane impermeable sulfo-NHS-biotin. Four main bands of 200, 230, 260, and 270 kDa labeled only at the dimple surface, although they were detected in the cortex of the whole egg. The 270-kDa band reacted with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin only in the cortex of the dimple, suggesting that this band is differently glycosylated according to its localization. The alpha-l-fucose-specific lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin I was utilized both in lectin blotting and in affinity chromatography and cross-reacted with the 200- and 270/260-kDa bands. Furthermore, two polypeptides were obtained by exposure of intact eggs to lysylendoproteinase C. They were also reactive to Ulex europaeus agglutinin I. The 200- and 270/260-kDa bands were eluted from the acrylamide gels and adsorbed to polystyrene beads. An assay for sperm binding to 200-kDa glycoprotein-bound beads was developed. Sperm stuck to the beads before but not after Ca-ionophore treatment. When the beads were coated with the 270/260-kDa glycoproteins, binding occurred after ionophore treatment. In these assays, the 200- and 270/260-kDa glycoproteins competitively inhibited sperm binding to the beads coated with the corresponding glycoprotein. These results indicate that the assayed glycoproteins, located either in the glycocalyx or in the plasma membrane of the fertilization site, are involved in sperm binding. PMID:9851854

  4. In vitro and in vivo fertilization potential of cryopreserved spermatozoa from bull epididymides stored for up to 30 hours at ambient temperature (18 °C-20 °C).

    PubMed

    Bertol, Melina Andrea Formighieri; Weiss, Romildo Romualdo; Kozicki, Luiz Ernandes; Abreu, Ana Claudia Machinski Rangel de; Pereira, João Filipi Scheffer; da Silva, Jonathan Jesus

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the viability and in vivo and in vitro fertilization potential post-thaw sperm collected at different times postorchiectomy from bull epididymides (EP) at 18 °C to 20 °C, with those of semen collected by electroejaculation (EJ) from the same bulls. Semen samples were collected by EJ from 10 Zebu bulls and cryopreserved. A week later 20 epididymides from these bulls were obtained by orchiectomy and randomly divided into five groups (G) to be maintained at ambient temperature for 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 hours before sperm recovery by retrograde flow. The sperm were cryopreserved, and post-thaw parameters were determined by both computer-assisted sperm analysis and morphologic analysis. In vitro fertilization of oocytes was performed to assess the cleavage rate, blastocyst rate, total number of cells, and hatching rate of embryos. The G30 sperm samples were also used for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) of Zebu heifers (n = 10). The results of post-thaw sperm viability showed that total and progressive motility and plasma membrane integrity were lower in sperm in which cryopreservation was delayed for 30 hours, showing a negative correlation of these parameters with delay before cryopreservation. In all groups, it was possible to obtain viable embryos, and embryos from G6 samples had more cells than the other groups. The greatest embryo production rates were observed in G6, G12 and G18 (27.2 to 32.2%) and it was significantly lower in G24 and G30 samples. For EJ, many individual variations were observed in embryo production potential between bulls. G30 samples, with only 5.2% of post-thaw progressive motility, were able to fertilize and produced a pregnancy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time in vitro embryos up to 8 days of development and a pregnancy after FTAI have been produced with sperm from bull epididymides that had been stored at 18 °C to 20 °C for up to 30 hours. PMID:27156681

  5. Impaired fertility in T-stock female mice after superovulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A J; Bishop, J B; Marchetti, F; Zudova, D

    2003-12-05

    Superovulation of female mice with exogenous gonadotrophins is routinely used for increasing the number of eggs ovulated by each female in reproductive and developmental studies. We report an unusual effect of superovulation on fertilization in mice. In vivo matings of superovulated T-stock females with B6C3F1 males resulted in a 2-fold reduction (P<0.001) in the frequencies of fertilized eggs compared to control B6C3F1 matings. In addition, {approx}22 hr after mating only 15% of fertilized eggs recovered in T-stock females had reached the metaphase stage of the first cleavage division versus 87% in B6C3F1 females (P < 0.0001). Matings with T-stock males did not improve the reproductive performance of T-stock females. To investigate the possible cause(s) for the impaired fertilization and zygotic development, the experiments were repeated using in vitro fertilization. Under these conditions, the frequencies of fertilized eggs were not different in superovulated T-stock and B6C3F1 females (51.7% {+-} 6.0 and 64.5% {+-}3.8, P=0.10). There was a 7-fold increase in the frequencies of fertilized T-stock eggs that completed the first cell cycle of development after in vitro versus in vivo fertilization. These results rule out an intrinsic deficiency of the T-stock oocyte as the main reason for the impaired fertility after in vivo matings and suggest that superovulation of T-stock females induces a hostile oviductal and uterine environment with dramatic effects on fertilization and zygotic development.

  6. Education and fertility in Iran.

    PubMed

    Darabi, K F

    1976-01-01

    Studies providing evidence concerning literacy's relationship to fertility in Iran are reviewed. Reliable demographic data are unavailable for Iran before the 1st census in 1956. The 1966 census revealed a reversal of the normally expected larger female population, with a sex ratio of 107 men for every 100 women. The female population in Iran is accorded low status; only 29.6% of the population over the age of 10 was literate according to the 1966 census. A negative relationship between literacy or levels of education and fertility seems to have become a basic tenet of demographic theory. The hypothesis that as a woman's education increases she has fewer children has been confirmed in numerous studies, and, in response to this information, the Iranian government has sponsored several projects which incorporate family planning education into literacy projects. In view of the associations noted in other studies of the relationship between education and fertility, it seems wise to examine the effects of education on fertility in Iran. None of the studies reviewed give conclusive evidence that literacy is unrelated to fertility in Iran. Several of the studies reveal built-in biases: the husbands in Siassi's study were all military personnel; Gulick interviewed women who were already attending family planning clinics; Edlefsen and Liberman made some highly abstract and speculative predictions, and Lieberman et al. were basically measuring incomes instead of education. All of the studies do, however, give some indication of an irregular effect of education on fertility in Iran and swggest the need for further study of this variable. PMID:12334804

  7. [Ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Case of Artavia Murillo et al (in vitro fertilization) v. Costa Rica; new hopes for the reproductive freedom in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Brena, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Modern reproductive technology has not been completely accepted and, especially in-vitro fertilization, IVF has generated serious social, political and legal controversies in Latin America. We may distinguish two trends that show us the oppositions; on one hand, the primacy of the embryo's live and its protection during artificial reproductive process and on the other, the primacy of liberal access to assisted reproduction techniques. The debate came to the fore, after a ruling by the Costa Rica's Constitutional Chamber who banned de IVF in 2000. The damaged couples after fulfilling the process toward the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, present a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The Court's sentence and its arguments will be the subject of these comments as well that will allow to considered that both of them should be considered as a very important step towards the construction of a secular liberal vision over the assisted reproduction in Latin America. PMID:24340830

  8. Predictive value of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows on the day of hCG by 2D doppler in in-vitro fertilization cycles: A prospective clinical study from a tertiary care unit

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neeta; Bahadur, Anupama; Mittal, Suneeta; Malhotra, Neena; Bhatt, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of endometrial thickness, pattern and sub-endometrial blood flows measured by 2D power Doppler ultrasound to predict pregnancy during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, non-randomized clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study. A total of 101 infertile women were recruited from our IVF-ET program from January to December, 2009. Women with tubal factor, male factor and unexplained infertility were included in the study. RESULTS: The mean age was 35 years and mean duration of infertility was 8 years. Seventy five (74.25%) patients had primary infertility and 26 (25.74%) had secondary infertility. The mean endometrial thickness was 8.1 mm and endometrial blood flow was in Zone I in 18 patients, 28 patients had blood flow in Zone II and 54 had in Zone III. Overall, 27 (26.73%) patients conceived and in these women the endometrial thickness was between 6 and 12 mm. CONCLUSIONS: With a thin endometrium (≤7 mm) and no-triple-line endometrial pattern coexisting in an in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) candidate, cryopreservation should be recommended. With a thin endometrium and a good texture (triple-line), other prognostic factors, such as embryo quality, should be taken into account. The endometrial vascularity has a useful predictive value on the implantation rate in IVF cycles irrespective of the morphological appearance of the endometrium. However, further study is needed to make a definitive conclusion. PMID:21772737

  9. Effect of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate on cryopreserved epididymal cat sperm intracellular ATP concentration, sperm quality, and in vitro fertilizing ability.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, Paweena; Arya, Nlin; Comizzoli, Pierre; Chatdarong, Kaywalee

    2015-09-15

    Intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is essential for supporting sperm function in the fertilization process. During cryopreservation, damage of sperm mitochondrial membrane usually leads to compromised production of intracellular ATP. Recently, extracellular ATP (ATPe) was introduced as a potent activator of sperm motility and fertilizing ability. This study aimed to evaluate (1) levels of intracellular ATP in frozen-thawed epididymal cat sperm after incubation with ATPe and (2) effects of ATPe on epididymal cat sperm parameters after freezing and thawing. Eighteen male cats were included. For each replicate, epididymal sperm from two cats were pooled to one sample (N = 9). Each pooled sample was cryopreserved with the Tris-egg yolk extender into three straws. After thawing, the first and second straws were incubated with 0-, 1.0-, or 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes and evaluated for sperm quality at 10 minutes, 1, 3, and 6 hours after thawing and fertilizing ability. The third straw was evaluated for intracellular ATP concentration in control and with 2.5-mM ATPe treatment. Higher concentration of intracellular sperm ATP was observed in the samples treated with 2.5-mM ATPe compared to the controls (0.339 ± 0.06 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm vs. 0.002 ± 0.003 μg/2 × 10(6) sperm, P ≤ 0.05). In addition, incubation with 2.5-mM ATPe for 10 minutes promoted sperm motility (56.7 ± 5.0 vs. 53.3 ± 4.4%, P ≤ 0.05) and progressive motility (3.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P ≤ 0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (36.4 ± 5.5 vs. 28.7 ± 4.8%, P ≤ 0.05), and blastocyst rate (36.1 ± 7.0 and 28.8 ± 7.4%, P ≤ 0.05) compared with the controls. In contrast, ATPe remarkably interfered acrosome integrity after 6 hours of postthawed incubation. In sum, the present finding that optimal incubation time of postthaw epididymal cat sperm under proper ATPe condition might constitute a rationale for the studies on other endangered wild felids regarding sperm quality and embryo

  10. Fertility preservation in gynecological cancers.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Shakuntala; Kutchi, Imran

    2013-03-21

    For cancers of reproductive system in women, fertility preservation is complex. Fertility is also affected by therapies, however prevention is possible. Radiotherapy affects gonads, uterus, and subsequent pregnancy outcomes in all ages. However, degree and damage depend on dose, irradiation field, and age at the time of exposure. Ovarian transposition is considered if ovarian involvement is unlikely. Gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy are related to agent's type, cumulative doses, age, and ovarian reserve. Some agents are highly toxic. Rendering follicular development quiescent by suppression of gonadotropins does reduce the ovarian damage. Simple or radical trachelectomy can be used in early cervical cancer. Fertility saving surgery is possible only in early stage low grade epithelial cancers of the ovary, however, in germ cell tumors even in advanced stages it may be possible to preserve fertility. There are no standard recommendations for endometrial cancer. Embryo, oocyte, and ovarian tissue cryopreservation are possible. The human embryo is very resistant to damage. In view of these possibilities, it is advocated that attention to long term health and quality of life in gonadotoxic therapy must be incorporated into plans as early as possible. PMID:24453519

  11. Selected sperm traits are simultaneously altered after scrotal heat stress and play specific roles in in vitro fertilization and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lucio, Aline C; Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Martins, Muller C; Braga, Lucas S; Miglio, Luisa; Alves, Bruna G; Silva, Thiago H; Jacomini, José O; Beletti, Marcelo E

    2016-09-01

    Improvements in the estimation of male fertility indicators require advances in laboratory tests for sperm assessment. The aims of the present work were (1) to apply a multivariate analysis to examine sperm set of alterations and interactions and (2) to evaluate the importance of sperm parameters on the outcome of standard IVF and embryonic development. Bulls (n = 3) were subjected to scrotal insulation, and ejaculates were collected before (preinsulation = Day 0) and through 56 days (Days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56) of the experimental period. Sperm head morphometry and chromatin variables were assessed by a computational image analysis, and IVF was performed. Scrotal heat stress induced alterations in all evaluated sperm head features, as well as cleavage and blastocyst rates. A principal component analysis revealed three main components (factors) that represented almost 89% of the cumulative variance. In addition, an association of factor scores with cleavage (factor 1) and blastocyst (factor 3) rates was observed. In conclusion, several sperm traits were simultaneously altered as a result of a thermal insult. These sperm traits likely play specific roles in IVF and embryonic development. PMID:27087533

  12. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  13. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options. PMID:26835612

  14. Effects of α-tocopherol and freezing rates on the quality and heterologous in vitro fertilization capacity of stallion sperm after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos Franco, J S; Faheem, M; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2016-09-01

    The effects of supplementation of α-tocopherol and different freezing rates (FRs) on the ability of stallion sperm to fertilize bovine oocytes with intact zona pellucida were investigated, in an attempt to develop a model to assess cryopreserved sperm function. Semen was obtained from four purebred Lusitano stallions (n = 4). Each ejaculate was subjected to cryopreservation with a commercial extender (Ghent, Minitub Iberia, Spain), without any supplementation (control) or supplemented with 2-mM α-tocopherol. The semen was exposed to two different FRs between 5 °C and -15 °C: slow (5 °C/min) and moderate (10 °C/min). After thawing, the viability (SYBR®-14 and propidium iodide [PI]), mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'tetraethylbenzimidazolyl carbocyanine iodine) and membrane lipid peroxidation (C11-BODIPY(581/591)) of each sample were determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, the heterologous IVF rate was measured to evaluate the fertilization capacity of postthaw semen in the four different treatments. For both extenders, the viability was higher for spermatozoa cooled slowly (39.40 ± 2.17 vs. 17.59 ± 2.25-control; 31.96 ± 2.19 vs. 11.46 ± 1.34-Tocopherol; P < 0.05). The α-tocopherol extender improved (P < 0.05) postthaw lipid peroxidation (10.28 ± 0.70 vs. 15.40 ± 0.95-slow FR; 10.14 ± 0.40 vs. 13.48 ± 0.34-moderate FR); however, it did not improve viability and mitochondrial membrane potential. Regarding the IVF rate, in the moderate FR, α-tocopherol supplementation reported a higher percentage of IVF (20.50 ± 2.11; P < 0.05), comparing with the control (14.00 ± 1.84). Regarding the slow FR, no significance differences were observed for percentage of IVF between the two extenders and the FRs. However, it seems that the α-tocopherol supplementation improved the IVF rate. In conclusion, this research reported that bovine oocytes intact zona pellucida can be used to evaluate the

  15. Efficient in vitro direct shoot organogenesis and regeneration of fertile plants from embryo explants of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Lacroix, B; Assoumou, Y; Sangwan, R S

    2003-08-01

    An efficient protocol has been developed for direct shoot organogenesis from embryo axes derived from mature seeds of two different landraces of Bambara groundnut. Multiple shoots were initiated on several media containing different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). Efficient regeneration occurred when the embryo axes were first plated for 6 days on a medium containing high concentrations of BAP (1 mg/l) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l) and then cut transversely and transferred onto a medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP. Shoot regeneration frequency was 100% and from five to eight shoots per explant were obtained. The importance of using embryo explants and cytokinins in the culture media, with respect to controlling the development of a highly organogenic system, was demonstrated. Histological studies revealed that proliferating buds originated directly from the superficial layers of the explants without an intermediate callus phase. The regenerated shoots were rooted on a medium containing 1 mg/l NAA and then transferred to the greenhouse. Flow cytometric analyses and chloroplast counts of guard cells suggested that the regenerants were diploid. All were morphologically normal and fertile. The short duration, high efficiency and low frequency of somaclonal variation of this system make it well suited for wider biotechnological applications of Bambara groundnut-a neglected and under-utilized crop. PMID:12910367

  16. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Marianowski, Piotr; Dąbrowski, Filip A; Zyguła, Aleksandra; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development. PMID:26942190

  17. Do We Pay Enough Attention to Culture Conditions in Context of Perinatal Outcome after In Vitro Fertilization? Up-to-Date Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Adverse perinatal outcomes in singleton IVF pregnancies have been most often explained by parental underlying diseases and so far laboratory conditions during embryo culture are still not explored well. The following review discusses the current state of knowledge on the influence of IVF laboratory procedures on the possible perinatal outcome. The role of improved media for human embryo culture is unquestionable. Addition of certain components to culture media and their effect on embryo survival and implantation rates have been taken into consideration recently and studied on animal model. Impact of media on perinatal outcome in IVF offspring has also been studied. It has been discovered that epigenetic changes and neonatal birth weight are probably associated with the use of specific culture media, as is the relation between placental size and its influence on perinatal outcome. There are still questions in the discussion about duration of embryo culture (cleavage stage versus blastocyst transfer). Some of the IVF methods, such as in vitro maturation of oocytes and freezing/thawing procedures, also require well-powered randomized controlled trials in order to define their exact impact on perinatal outcome. Constant further research is needed to assess the impact of laboratory environment on fetal and postnatal development. PMID:26942190

  18. Relationship between the length of cell cycles, cleavage pattern and developmental competence in bovine embryos generated by in vitro fertilization or parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to study the kinetics of initial cell divisions in relation with the cleavage patterns in viable (with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage) and non-viable bovine embryos and parthenotes. The kinetics of in vitro development and cleavage patterns were observed by time lapse cinematography. The length of the first and second but not third cell cycle differed significantly between the viable and non-viable embryos after IVF or parthenogenesis. Viable embryos had significantly shorter first and second cell cycles than non-viable ones. The presence of fragments, protrusions and unequally-sized blastomeres was associated with an extended one-cell stage and reduced ability to develop to the blastocyst stage; however, the lengths of the second and third cell cycles were not altered. Oocytes showing direct division from one cell to 3 or 4 blastomeres showed similar developmental ability and embryonic cell numbers to those showing normal division, although, with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. Our results suggest that the differences in the first cell cycles between viable and non-viable embryos were not sperm-related, whereas direct cleavage of 1-cell embryos to 3 or more blastomeres and protrusion formation are related to sperm-driven factors. The length of the first and second cell cycles and the cleavage pattern should be examined simultaneously to predict developmental competence of embryos at early cleavage stages. PMID:20035110

  19. PERCHLORATE IDENTIFICATION IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate has contaminated groundwater, drinking water, and soils at several locations in the United States. The primary source of contamination at sites that have been investigated to date seems to be from industrial and military operations that use perchlorate as an oxidizing...

  20. Hispanic Assimilation and Fertility in New Destinations

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Johnson, Kenneth M.; Turner, Richard N.; Churilla, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates comparative patterns of fertility in new Hispanic destinations and established gateways using pooled cross-sectional data from the 2005–2009 microdata files of the American Community Survey. Changing Hispanic fertility provides a useful indicator of cultural incorporation. Analyses show that high fertility among Hispanics has been driven in part by the Mexican-origin and other new immigrant populations (e.g., noncitizens, those with poor English language skills, etc.). However, high fertility rates among Hispanics – and Mexican-origin Hispanics in particular – cannot be explained entirely by socio-demographic characteristics that place them at higher risk of fertility. For 2005–2009, Hispanic fertility rates were 48 percent higher than fertility among whites; they were roughly 25 percent higher after accounting for differences in key social characteristics, such as age, nativity, county of origin, and education. Contrary to most previous findings of spatial assimilation among in-migrants, fertility rates among Hispanics in new destinations exceeded fertility in established gateways by 18 percent. In the multivariate analyses, Hispanics in new destinations were roughly 10 percent more likely to have had a child in the past year than those living in established gateways. Results are consistent with sub-cultural explanations of Hispanic fertility and raise new questions about the spatial patterning of assimilation and the formation of ethnic enclaves outside traditional settlement areas. PMID:23325987