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Sample records for fever borrelia binds

  1. Fibronectin-Binding Protein of Borrelia hermsii Expressed in the Blood of Mice with Relapsing Fever

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Eric R. G.; Marcsisin, Renee A.; Campeau Miller, Shelley A.; Hue, Fong; Phillips, April; AuCoin, David P.

    2014-01-01

    To identify and characterize surface proteins expressed by the relapsing fever (RF) agent Borrelia hermsii in the blood of infected mice, we used a cell-free filtrate of their blood to immunize congenic naive mice. The resultant antiserum was used for Western blotting of cell lysates, and gel slices corresponding to reactive bands were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, followed by a search of the proteome database with the peptides. One of the immunogens was identified as the BHA007 protein, which is encoded by a 174-kb linear plasmid. BHA007 had sequence features of lipoproteins, was surface exposed by the criteria of in situ protease susceptibility and agglutination of Vtp− cells by anti-BHA007 antibodies, and was not essential for in vitro growth. BHA007 elicited antibodies during experimental infection of mice, but immunization with recombinant protein did not confer protection against needle-delivered infection. Open reading frames (ORFs) orthologous to BHA007 were found on large plasmids of other RF species, including the coding sequences for the CihC proteins of Borrelia duttonii and B. recurrentis, but not in Lyme disease Borrelia species. Recombinant BHA007 bound both human and bovine fibronectin with Kd (dissociation constant) values of 22 and 33 nM, respectively, and bound to C4-binding protein with less affinity. The distant homology of BHA007 and its orthologs to BBK32 proteins of Lyme disease species, as well as to previously described BBK32-like proteins in relapsing fever species, indicates that BHA007 is a member of a large family of multifunctional proteins in Borrelia species that bind to fibronectin as well as other host proteins. PMID:24686059

  2. Relapsing Fever Borreliae in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The study of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. Accordingly, Borrelia hispanica, Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. The recent sequencing of three relapsing fever Borrelia genomes in our laboratory prompted the development of more specific tools and a reappraisal of the epidemiology in Africa. Five additional potential species still need to be cultured from clinical and vector sources in East Africa to further assess their uniqueness. Here, we review the molecular evidence of relapsing fever borreliae in hosts and ectoparasites in Africa and explore the diversity, geographical distribution, and vector association of these pathogens for Africans and travelers to Africa. PMID:23926141

  3. Borrelia hispanica Relapsing Fever, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Sarih, M’hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle

    2009-01-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  4. Borrelia hispanica relapsing fever, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Sarih, M'hammed; Garnier, Martine; Boudebouch, Najma; Bouattour, Ali; Rihani, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Gern, Lise; Postic, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel

    2009-10-01

    We found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern Morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. Molecular detection specific for the 16S rRNA gene identified Borrelia hispanica. The noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species. PMID:19861058

  5. Relapsing Fever Borreliae: A Global Review.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Sally J

    2015-12-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae were notorious and feared infectious agents that earned their place in history through their devastating impact as causes of both epidemic and endemic infection. They are now considered more as an oddity, and their burden of infection is largely overshadowed by other infections such as malaria, which presents in a similar clinical way. Despite this, they remain the most common bacterial infection in some developing countries. Transmitted by soft ticks or lice, these fascinating spirochetes have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to survive within their diverse environments. PMID:26593261

  6. African Relapsing Fever Borreliae Genomospecies Revealed by Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Pontarotti, Pierre; Yoosuf, Niyaz; Drancourt, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relapsing fever borreliae are vector-borne bacteria responsible for febrile infection in humans in North America, Africa, Asia, and in the Iberian Peninsula in Europe. Relapsing fever borreliae are phylogenetically closely related, yet they differ in pathogenicity and vectors. Their long-term taxonomy, based on geography and vector grouping, needs to be re-apprised in a genomic context. We therefore embarked into genomic analyses of relapsing fever borreliae, focusing on species found in Africa. Results: Genome-wide phylogenetic analyses group Old World Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia hispanica, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis in one clade, and New World Borrelia turicatae and Borrelia hermsii in a second clade. Accordingly, average nucleotide identity is 99% among B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, and B. crocidurae and 96% between latter borreliae and B. hispanica while the similarity is 86% between Old World and New World borreliae. Comparative genomics indicates that the Old World relapsing fever B. duttonii, B. recurrentis, B. crocidurae, and B. hispanica have a 2,514-gene pan genome and a 933-gene core genome that includes 788 chromosomal and 145 plasmidic genes. Analyzing the role that natural selection has played in the evolution of Old World borreliae species revealed that 55 loci were under positive diversifying selection, including loci coding for membrane, flagellar, and chemotaxis proteins, three categories associated with adaption to specific niches. Conclusion: Genomic analyses led to a reappraisal of the taxonomy of relapsing fever borreliae in Africa. These analyses suggest that B. crocidurae, B. duttonii, and B. recurrentis are ecotypes of a unique genomospecies, while B. hispanica is a distinct species. PMID:25229054

  7. Blood-Borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a Patient with Prolonged Fever in Oran, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Mouffok, Nadjet; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    To improve the knowledge base of Borrelia in north Africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in Oran, Algeria, between January and December 2012 for Borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. A sequence indicative of a new Borrelia sp. named Candidatus Borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. Further multispacer sequence typing indicated this Borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. In silico comparison of Candidatus B. algerica spacer sequences with those of Borrelia hispanica and Borrelia garinii revealed 94% and 89% similarity, respectively. Candidatus B. algerica is a new relapsing fever Borrelia sp. detected in Oran. Further studies may help predict its epidemiological importance. PMID:26416117

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi bind to epithelial cell proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, R D

    1994-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to mammalian cells in vitro but neither the ligand(s) nor the receptor(s) has (have) been clearly established. Using an in vitro attachment-inhibition assay, a B. burgdorferi attachment mechanism has been identified. Heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate reduced the attachment of virulent B. burgdorferi strain 297 to HeLa cells by approximately 60%. In addition, virulent, but not avirulent, B. burgdorferi strains B31, N40, and HB19 demonstrated heparin attachment-inhibition. Attachment to Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in heparan sulfate proteoglycans was reduced by 68% compared to attachment to wild-type cells and was identical to attachment at maximum heparin inhibition to the wild-type cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cell monolayers with heparitinase, heparinase, and chondroitinase ABC, but not with chondroitinase AC, reduced borrelial attachment by approximately 50%. A moderately high affinity, low copy number, promiscuous B. burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan receptor was demonstrated by equilibrium binding studies. A 39-kD polypeptide, purified by heparin affinity chromatography from Triton X-100 extracts derived from virulent borrelia, was a candidate for this receptor. These studies indicate that one mode of B. burgdorferi attachment to eukaryotic cells is mediated by a borrelial glycosaminoglycan receptor attaching to surface-exposed proteoglycans on mammalian cells. Images PMID:8113413

  9. Mapping the Ligand-Binding Region of Borrelia hermsii Fibronectin-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Christiane; Bomans, Katharina; Habicht, Jüri; Simon, Markus M.; Wallich, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogenic microorganisms express fibronectin-binding molecules that facilitate their adherence to the extracellular matrix and/or entry into mammalian cells. We have previously described a Borrelia recurrentis gene, cihC that encodes a 40-kDa surface receptor for both, fibronectin and the complement inhibitors C4bp and C1-Inh. We now provide evidence for the expression of a group of highly homologues surface proteins, termed FbpA, in three B. hermsii isolates and two tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, B. parkeri and B. turicatae. When expressed in Escherichia coli or B. burgdorferi, four out of five proteins were shown to selectively bind fibronectin, whereas none of five proteins were able to bind the human complement regulators, C4bp and C1-Inh. By applying deletion mutants of the B. hermsii fibronectin-binding proteins a putative high-affinity binding site for fibronectin was mapped to its central region. In addition, the fibronectin-binding proteins of B. hermsii were found to share sequence homology with BBK32 of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi with similar function suggesting its involvement in persistence and/or virulence of relapsing fever spirochetes. PMID:23658828

  10. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) in asylum seekers from Eritrea, the Netherlands, July 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilting, K R; Stienstra, Y; Sinha, B; Braks, M; Cornish, D; Grundmann, H

    2015-01-01

    Two patients from Eritrea, recently arrived in the Netherlands, presented with fever and were investigated for malaria. Bloodfilms showed spirochetes but no blood parasites. Louse-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis was diagnosed. Treatment was complicated by severe Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions in both patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of B. recurrentis infection in migrant populations who travel under crowded conditions, especially after passing through endemic areas such as Ethiopia and neighbouring countries. PMID:26250069

  11. Detection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California.

    PubMed

    Mun, Jeomhee; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Lane, Robert S

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether host-seeking nymphs and adults of the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, the primary vector of Lyme disease spirochetes in far-western North America, are infected naturally with relapsing-fever group spirochetes in Mendocino County, California. Relapsing-fever group borreliae were detected in four (1.7%) of 234 nymphal and two (0.7%) of 282 adult host-seeking I. pacificus ticks by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and flagellin genes, respectively, exhibiting 99 and 98.5% sequence homology to Borrelia miyamotoi Fukunaga. Phylogenetic analysis based on these two genes revealed that the borreliae detected in these ticks belong to the relapsing-fever group and that these are closely related to, if not identical with, B. miyamotoi. PMID:16506458

  12. Molecular identification of Borrelia genus in questing hard ticks from Portugal: Phylogenetic characterization of two novel Relapsing Fever-like Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Maia, Carla; Lopes, Nádia; Fingerle, Volker; Vieira, M Luísa

    2016-06-01

    In the last decades, several studies have reported pathogenic species of Borrelia related to those that cause Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (RF), but unexpectedly suggesting their transmission by hard ticks, known vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species, rather than by soft ticks. This study was designed to update the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. species in ticks from several districts of mainland Portugal, where Ixodes ricinus had been previously described. Ticks (a total of 2915 specimens) were collected in seven districts throughout the country, and analyzed using molecular methods. Three nested-PCR protocols, targeting the flagellin gene (flaB), the intergenic spacer region (IGS) located between 5S and 23S rRNA, and the glpQ gene, and a conventional PCR targeting the 16S rRNA, were used for Borrelia DNA detection. Borrelia DNA was detected in 3% of the ticks from Braga, Vila Real, Lisboa, Setúbal, Évora and Faro districts. The obtained amplicons were sequenced and analyzed by BLASTn, and 15/63 (24%) matched with homologous sequences from Borrelia lusitaniae and 15/63 (24%) with B. garinii, being these the most prevalent species. DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. valaisiana and B. afzelii were detected in 7/63 (11%), 6/63 (10%), and 2/63 (3%) of the specimens, respectively. Unexpectedly, DNA sequence (flaB) analysis from eight (13%) samples, two from Rhipicephalus sanguineus and six from Haemaphysalis punctata tick species, revealed high homology with RF-like Borrelia. Phylogenetic analyses obtained from three genetic markers (16S rRNA, flaB, and glpQ) confirmed their congruent inclusion in a strongly supported RF cluster, where they segregated in two subgroups which differ from the other Relapsing Fever species. Therefore, the results confirm the circulation of multiple species of B. burgdorferi s.l. over a wide geographic range, covering most of the Portuguese mainland territory. Surprisingly, the obtained data

  13. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Webster, Larry S.; Marques, Adriana R.; Spano, Robyn; Rood, Michael; Burns, Joe; Hu, Renjie

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. We describe a patient who had an illness consistent with relapsing fever after exposure in the mountains near Los Angeles, California, USA. The patient’s convalescent-phase serum was seropositive for B. hermsii but negative for several other vector-borne bacterial pathogens. Investigations at the exposure site showed the presence of O. hermsi ticks infected with B. hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. PMID:19624916

  14. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  15. Conversion of a linear to a circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii.

    PubMed Central

    Ferdows, M S; Serwer, P; Griess, G A; Norris, S J; Barbour, A G

    1996-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia have genomes composed of both linear and circular replicons. We characterized the genomic organization of B. burgdorferi, B. hermsii, B. turicatae, and B. anserina with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. All four species contained a linear chromosome approximately 1 Mb in size and multiple linear plasmids in the 16- to 200-kb size range. Plasmids 180 and 170 kb in size, present in the relapsing fever agents B. hermsii and B. turicatae but not in the other two species, behaved as linear duplex DNA molecules under different electrophoretic conditions. A variant of strain HSI of B. hermsii had a 180-kb circular instead of linear plasmid. There were no detectable differences in the growth rates or in the expression of cellular proteins between cells bearing linear forms and those bearing circular forms of the plasmid. The conversion to a circular conformation of monomeric length was demonstrated by the introduction of strand breaks with irradiation, restriction endonuclease analysis, and direct observation of the DNA molecules by fluorescent microscopy. Consideration of different models for the replication of linear DNA suggests that circular intermediates may be involved in the replication of linear replicons in Borrelia spp. PMID:8550515

  16. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari found among wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis spp. ticks in Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunglee; Takano, Ai; Taylor, Kyle; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Konnai, Satoru; Kawabata, Hiroki; Tsubota, Toshio

    2014-10-01

    A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks. PMID:25108784

  17. Chromosome and Linear Plasmid Sequences of a 2015 Human Isolate of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Borrelia turicatae.

    PubMed

    Kingry, Luke C; Batra, Dhwani; Replogle, Adam; Sexton, Christopher; Rowe, Lori; Stermole, Benjamin M; Christensen, Anna M; Schriefer, Martin E

    2016-01-01

    The sequences of the complete linear chromosome and 7 linear plasmids of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae are presented in this report. The 925,547 bp of chromosome and 380,211 bp of plasmid sequence were predicted to contain a total of 1,131 open reading frames, with an average G+C content of 29.7%. PMID:27417836

  18. Chromosome and Linear Plasmid Sequences of a 2015 Human Isolate of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochete, Borrelia turicatae

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Dhwani; Replogle, Adam; Sexton, Christopher; Rowe, Lori; Stermole, Benjamin M.; Christensen, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    The sequences of the complete linear chromosome and 7 linear plasmids of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae are presented in this report. The 925,547 bp of chromosome and 380,211 bp of plasmid sequence were predicted to contain a total of 1,131 open reading frames, with an average G+C content of 29.7%. PMID:27417836

  19. Insights into Borrelia miyamotoi infection from an untreated case demonstrating relapsing fever, monocytosis and a positive C6 Lyme serology.

    PubMed

    Sudhindra, Praveen; Wang, Guiqing; Schriefer, Martin E; McKenna, Donna; Zhuge, Jian; Krause, Peter J; Marques, Adriana R; Wormser, Gary P

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient from the United States with PCR- and serology-confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection who recovered without antibiotics. Our findings suggest that B. miyamotoi infection may cause relapsing fever, blood monocytosis and antibody reactivity to the C6 peptide. Further studies are required to better define the spectrum of clinical and laboratory findings for this emerging tick-transmitted infection. PMID:27412815

  20. Tick Surveillance for Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Hokkaido, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Takuya; Andoh, Masako; Maeda, Ken; Watarai, Masahisa; Sato, Kozue; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013, a total of 4325 host-seeking adult ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes were collected from various localities of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. Tick lysates were subjected to real-time PCR assay to detect borrelial infection. The assay was designed for specific detection of the Relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi and for unspecific detection of Lyme disease-related spirochetes. Overall prevalence of B. miyamotoi was 2% (71/3532) in Ixodes persulcatus, 4.3% (5/117) in Ixodes pavlovskyi and 0.1% (1/676) in Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks were significantly higher than in I. ovatus. Co-infections with Lyme disease-related spirochetes were found in all of the tick species. During this investigation, we obtained 6 isolates of B. miyamotoi from I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi by culture in BSK-M medium. Phylogenetic trees of B. miyamotoi inferred from each of 3 housekeeping genes (glpQ, 16S rDNA, and flaB) demonstrated that the Hokkaido isolates were clustered with Russian B. miyamotoi, but were distinguishable from North American and European B. miyamotoi. A multilocus sequence analysis using 8 genes (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA) suggested that all Japanese B. miyamotoi isolates, including past isolates, were genetically clonal, although these were isolated from different tick and vertebrate sources. From these results, B. miyamotoi-infected ticks are widely distributed throughout Hokkaido. Female I. persulcatus are responsible for most human tick-bites, thereby I. persulcatus is likely the most important vector of indigenous relapsing fever from tick bites in Hokkaido. PMID:25111141

  1. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. PMID:27284141

  2. Chromosome and Plasmids of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Agent Borrelia hermsii.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Alan G

    2016-01-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Borrelia hermsii bears its multiple paralogous genes for variable antigens on several linear plasmids. Application of combined long-read and short-read next-generation sequencing provided complete sequences for antigen-encoding plasmids as well as other linear and circular plasmids and the linear chromosome of the genome. PMID:27284141

  3. Hypercholesterolemia and ApoE deficiency result in severe infection with Lyme disease and relapsing-fever Borrelia

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Alvaro; Monzón, Javier D.; Coleman, James L.; Garcia-Monco, Juan C.; Benach, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    The Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing-fever (Borrelia hispanica) agents have distinct infection courses, but both require cholesterol for growth. They acquire cholesterol from the environment and process it to form cholesterol glycolipids that are incorporated onto their membranes. To determine whether higher levels of serum cholesterol could enhance the organ burdens of B. burgdorferi and the spirochetemia of B. hispanica in laboratory mice, apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice that produce large amounts of serum cholesterol were infected with both spirochetes. Both apoE- and LDLR-deficient mice infected with B. burgdorferi had an increased number of spirochetes in the joints and inflamed ankles compared with the infected wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that mutations in cholesterol transport that result in high serum cholesterol levels can affect the pathogenicity of B. burgdorferi. In contrast, elevated serum cholesterol did not lead to an increase in the spirochetemia of B. hispanica. In the LDLR-deficient mice, the course of infection was indistinguishable from the WT mice. However, infection of apoE-deficient mice with B. hispanica resulted in a longer spirochetemia and increased mortality. Together, these results argue for the apoE deficiency, and not hypercholesterolemia, as the cause for the increased severity with B. hispanica. Serum hyperlipidemias are common human diseases that could be a risk factor for increased severity in Lyme disease. PMID:25870274

  4. Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia elongate through zones of peptidoglycan synthesis that mark division sites of daughter cells.

    PubMed

    Jutras, Brandon Lyon; Scott, Molly; Parry, Bradley; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2016-08-16

    Agents that cause Lyme disease, relapsing fever, leptospirosis, and syphilis belong to the phylum Spirochaetae-a unique lineage of bacteria most known for their long, spiral morphology. Despite the relevance to human health, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of spirochete growth. Here, using quantitative microscopy to track peptidoglycan cell-wall synthesis, we found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi displays a complex pattern of growth. B. burgdorferi elongates from discrete zones that are both spatially and temporally regulated. In addition, some peptidoglycan incorporation occurs along the cell body, with the notable exception of a large region at the poles. Newborn cells inherit a highly active zone of peptidoglycan synthesis at midcell that contributes to elongation for most of the cell cycle. Concomitant with the initiation of nucleoid separation and cell constriction, second and third zones of elongation are established at the 1/4 and 3/4 cellular positions, marking future sites of division for the subsequent generation. Positioning of elongation zones along the cell is robust to cell length variations and is relatively precise over long distances (>30 µm), suggesting that cells ‟sense" relative, as opposed to absolute, cell length to establish zones of peptidoglycan synthesis. The transition from one to three zones of peptidoglycan growth during the cell cycle is also observed in relapsing fever Borrelia. However, this mode of growth does not extend to representative species from other spirochetal genera, suggesting that this distinctive growth mode represents an evolutionary divide in the spirochete phylum. PMID:27506799

  5. BBA70 of Borrelia burgdorferi Is a Novel Plasminogen-binding Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Koenigs, Arno; Hammerschmidt, Claudia; Jutras, Brandon L.; Pogoryelov, Denys; Barthel, Diana; Skerka, Christine; Kugelstadt, Dominik; Wallich, Reinhard; Stevenson, Brian; Zipfel, Peter F.; Kraiczy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi lacks endogenous, surface-exposed proteases. In order to efficiently disseminate throughout the host and penetrate tissue barriers, borreliae rely on recruitment of host proteases, such as plasmin(ogen). Here we report the identification of a novel plasminogen-binding protein, BBA70. Binding of plasminogen is dose-dependent and is affected by ionic strength. The BBA70-plasminogen interaction is mediated by lysine residues, primarily located in a putative C-terminal α-helix of BBA70. These lysine residues appear to interact with the lysine-binding sites in plasminogen kringle domain 4 because a deletion mutant of plasminogen lacking that domain was unable to bind to BBA70. Bound to BBA70, plasminogen activated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator was able to degrade both a synthetic chromogenic substrate and the natural substrate fibrinogen. Furthermore, BBA70-bound plasmin was able to degrade the central complement proteins C3b and C5 and inhibited the bacteriolytic effects of complement. Consistent with these functional activities, BBA70 is located on the borrelial outer surface. Additionally, serological evidence demonstrated that BBA70 is produced during mammalian infection. Taken together, recruitment and activation of plasminogen could play a beneficial role in dissemination of B. burgdorferi in the human host and may possibly aid the spirochete in escaping the defense mechanisms of innate immunity. PMID:23861404

  6. Complement Receptor 3 Binds the Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Proteins OspA and OspB in an iC3b-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rodolfo C.; Murgia, Rossella; Cinco, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of borreliae within the vertebrate host depends on the fate of interactions between the spirochetes and target cells. The present work demonstrates the direct binding of the Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface proteins OspA and OspB to CR3 and that this binding is independent of iC3b. PMID:16113335

  7. Identification of conserved antigens for early serodiagnosis of relapsing fever Borrelia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Hammer, Carl H.; Zhao, Ming; Robinson, Mary Ann; Schwan, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii is a blood-borne pathogen transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Since spirochaete clearance in mice is associated with an IgM-mediated response, an immunoproteomic analysis was used to identify proteins reactive with IgM. We report that IgM from both mice and human patients infected with B. hermsii not only reacted with the previously identified variable membrane proteins but also identified candidate antigens including heat-shock proteins, an adhesin protein, ABC transporter proteins, flagellar proteins, housekeeping proteins, an immune evasion protein, and proteins with unknown function. Furthermore, IgM reactivity to recombinant glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase was detected during early spirochaete infection and prior to a detectable IgG response. Lastly, a conserved hypothetical protein was produced in Escherichia coli and tested with immune serum against B. hermsii and Borrelia recurrentis. These results identify a much larger set of immunoreactive proteins, and could help in the early serodiagnosis of this tick-borne infection. PMID:19443544

  8. Borreliacidal activity of Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA) binding small molecules by manganese transport inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wagh, Dhananjay; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Liu, Song; Kim, Kwang-Min; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, utilizes manganese (Mn) for its various metabolic needs. We hypothesized that blocking Mn transporter could be a possible approach to inhibit metabolic activity of this pathogen and eliminate the infection. We used a combination of in silico protein structure prediction together with molecular docking to target the Borrelia metal transporter A (BmtA), a single known Mn transporter in Borrelia and screened libraries of FDA approved compounds that could potentially bind to the predicted BmtA structure with high affinity. Tricyclic antihistamines such as loratadine, desloratadine, and 3-hydroxydesloratadine as well as yohimbine and tadalafil demonstrated a tight binding to the in silico folded BmtA transporter. We, then, tested borreliacidal activity and dose response of the shortlisted compounds from this screen using a series of in vitro assays. Amongst the probed compounds, desloratadine exhibited potent borreliacidal activity in vitro at and above 78 μg/mL (250 μM). Borrelia treated with lethal doses of desloratadine exhibited a significant loss of intracellular Mn specifically and a severe structural damage to the bacterial cell wall. Our results support the possibility of developing a novel, targeted therapy to treat Lyme disease by targeting specific metabolic needs of Borrelia. PMID:25709405

  9. Glycosaminoglycan binding by Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin BBK32 specifically and uniquely promotes joint colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Pin; Chen, Qiang; Ritchie, Jennifer A.; Dufour, Nicholas P.; Fischer, Joshua R.; Coburn, Jenifer; Leong, John M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Microbial pathogens that colonize multiple tissues commonly produce adhesive surface proteins that mediate attachment to cells and/or extracellular matrix in target organs. Many of these ‘adhesins’ bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand-binding activity. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces BBK32, first identified as a fibronectin-binding adhesin that promotes skin and joint colonization. BBK32 also binds to glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which, like fibronectin is ubiquitously present on cell surfaces. To determine which binding activity is relevant for BBK32-promoted infectivity, we generated a panel of BBK32 truncation and internal deletion mutants, and identified variants specifically defective for binding to either fibronectin or GAG. These variants promoted bacterial attachment to different mammalian cell types in vitro, suggesting that fibronectin and GAG binding may play distinct roles during infection. Intravenous inoculation of mice with a high-passage non-infectious B. burgdorferi strain that produced wild type BBK32 or BBK32 mutants defective for GAG or fibronectin binding, revealed that only GAG-binding activity was required for significant localization to joints at 60 minutes post-infection. An otherwise infectious B. burgdorferi strain producing BBK32 specifically deficient in fibronectin binding was fully capable of both skin and joint colonization in the murine model, whereas a strain producing BBK32 selectively attenuated for GAG binding colonized the inoculation site but not knee or tibiotarsus joints. Thus, the BBK32 fibronectin- and GAG-binding activities are separable in vivo, and BBK32-mediated GAG binding, but not fibronectin binding, contributes to joint colonization. PMID:25486989

  10. Endemic Foci of the Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia crocidurae in Mali, West Africa, and the Potential for Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, Tom G.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Lopez, Job E.; Fischer, Robert J.; Raffel, Sandra J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Safronetz, David; Sogoba, Nafomon; Maïga, Ousmane; Traoré, Sékou F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are maintained in endemic foci that involve a diversity of small mammals and argasid ticks in the genus Ornithodoros. Most epidemiological studies of tick-borne relapsing fever in West Africa caused by Borrelia crocidurae have been conducted in Senegal. The risk for humans to acquire relapsing fever in Mali is uncertain, as only a few human cases have been identified. Given the high incidence of malaria in Mali, and the potential to confuse the clinical diagnosis of these two diseases, we initiated studies to determine if there were endemic foci of relapsing fever spirochetes that could pose a risk for human infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated 20 villages across southern Mali for the presence of relapsing fever spirochetes. Small mammals were captured, thin blood smears were examined microscopically for spirochetes, and serum samples were tested for antibodies to relapsing fever spirochetes. Ornithodoros sonrai ticks were collected and examined for spirochetal infection. In total, 11.0% of the 663 rodents and 14.3% of the 63 shrews tested were seropositive and 2.2% of the animals had active spirochete infections when captured. In the Bandiagara region, the prevalence of infection was higher with 35% of the animals seropositive and 10% infected. Here also Ornithodoros sonrai were abundant and 17.3% of 278 individual ticks tested were infected with Borrelia crocidurae. Fifteen isolates of B. crocidurae were established and characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. Conclusions/Significance The potential for human tick-borne relapsing fever exists in many areas of southern Mali. PMID:23209863

  11. Structure of decorin binding protein B from Borrelia burgdorferi and its interactions with glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    Decorin-binding proteins (DBPs), DBPA and DBPB, are surface lipoproteins on Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. DBPs bind to the connective tissue proteoglycan decorin and facilitate tissue colonization by the bacterium. Although structural and biochemical properties of DBPA are well understood, little is known about DBPB. In current work, we determined the solution structure of DBPB from strain B31 of B. burgdorferi and characterized its interactions with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Our structure shows that DBPB adopts the same topology as DBPA, but possesses a much shorter terminal helix, resulting in a longer unstructured C-terminal tail, which is also rich in basic amino acids. Characterization of DBPB-GAG interactions reveals that, despite similar GAG affinities of DBPA and DBPB, the primary GAG-binding sites in DBPB are different from DBPA. In particular, our results indicate that lysines in the C-terminus of DBPB are vital to DBPB's ability to bind GAGs whereas C-terminal tail for DBPA from strain B31 only plays a minor role in facilitating GAG bindings. Furthermore, the traditional GAG-binding pocket important to DBPA-GAG interactions is only secondary to DBPB's GAG-binding ability. PMID:26275806

  12. Integrin binding by Borrelia burgdorferi P66 facilitates dissemination but is not required for infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Ristow, Laura C.; Bonde, Mari; Lin, Yi-Pin; Sato, Hiromi; Curtis, Michael; Wesley, Erin; Hahn, Beth L.; Fang, Juan; Wilcox, David A.; Leong, John M.; Bergström, Sven; Coburn, Jenifer

    2015-01-01

    Summary P66, a Borrelia burgdorferi surface protein with porin and integrin-binding activities, is essential for murine infection. The role of P66 integrin-binding activity in B. burgdorferi infection was investigated and found to affect transendothelial migration. The role of integrin binding, specifically, was tested by mutation of two amino acids (D205A,D207A) or deletion of seven amino acids (Del202–208). Neither change affected surface localization or channel-forming activity of P66, but both significantly reduced binding to αvβ3. Integrin-binding deficient B. burgdorferi strains caused disseminated infection in mice at 4 weeks post-subcutaneous inoculation, but bacterial burdens were significantly reduced in some tissues. Following intravenous inoculation, the Del202–208 bacteria were below the limit of detection in all tissues assessed at 2 weeks post-inoculation, but bacterial burdens recovered to wild-type levels at 4 weeks post-inoculation. The delay in tissue colonization correlated with reduced migration of the Del202–208 strains across microvascular endothelial cells, similar to Δp66 bacteria. These results indicate that integrin binding by P66 is important to efficient dissemination of B. burgdorferi, which is critical to its ability to cause disease manifestations in incidental hosts and to its maintenance in the enzootic cycle. PMID:25604835

  13. Genetic control of the innate immune response to Borrelia hermsii influences the course of relapsing fever in inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Vivian M; Petrich, Annett; Alugupalli, Kishore R; Marty-Roix, Robin; Moter, Annette; Leong, John M; Boyartchuk, Victor L

    2010-02-01

    Host susceptibility to infection is controlled in large measure by the genetic makeup of the host. Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia include nearly 40 species of vector-borne spirochetes that are capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts, causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is associated with high-level bacteremia, as well as hematologic manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia (i.e., low platelet numbers) and anemia. To facilitate studies of genetic control of susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii infection, we performed a systematic analysis of the course of infection using immunocompetent and immunocompromised inbred strains of mice. Our analysis revealed that sensitivity to B. hermsii infections is genetically controlled. In addition, whereas the role of adaptive immunity to relapsing fever-causing spirochetes is well documented, we found that innate immunity contributes significantly to the reduction of bacterial burden. Similar to human infection, the progression of the disease in mice was associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. Histological and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of infected tissues indicated that red blood cells (RBCs) were removed by tissue-resident macrophages, a process that could lead to anemia. Spirochetes in the spleen and liver were often visualized associated with RBCs, lending support to the hypothesis that direct interaction of B. hermsii spirochetes with RBCs leads to clearance of bacteria from the bloodstream by tissue phagocytes. PMID:19995898

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA Is a Laminin-Binding Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh; Brissette, Catherine A.; Bowman, Amy; Stevenson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi BmpA outer surface protein plays a significant role in mammalian infection by the Lyme disease spirochete and is an important antigen for the serodiagnosis of human infection. B. burgdorferi adheres to host extracellular matrix components, including laminin. The results of our studies indicate that BmpA and its three paralogous proteins, BmpB, BmpC, and BmpD, all bind to mammalian laminin. BmpA did not bind mammalian type I or type IV collagens or fibronectin. BmpA-directed antibodies significantly inhibited the adherence of live B. burgdorferi to laminin. The laminin-binding domain of BmpA was mapped to the carboxy-terminal 80 amino acids. Solubilized collagen inhibited BmpA-laminin binding, suggesting interactions through the collagen-binding domains of laminin. These results, together with previous data, indicate that BmpA and its paralogs are targets for the development of preventative and curative therapies for Lyme disease. PMID:19703983

  15. The Borrelia hermsii Factor H Binding Protein FhbA Is Not Required for Infectivity in Mice or for Resistance to Human Complement In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Lindy M.; Miller, Daniel P.; Mallory, Katherine L.; Tegels, Brittney K.; Earnhart, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The primary causative agent of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America is Borrelia hermsii. It has been hypothesized that B. hermsii evades complement-mediated destruction by binding factor H (FH), a host-derived negative regulator of complement. In vitro, B. hermsii produces a single FH binding protein designated FhbA (FH binding protein A). The properties and ligand binding activity of FhbA suggest that it plays multiple roles in pathogenesis. It binds plasminogen and has been identified as a significant target of a B1b B cell-mediated IgM response in mice. FhbA has also been explored as a potential diagnostic antigen for B. hermsii infection in humans. The ability to test the hypothesis that FhbA is a critical virulence factor in vivo has been hampered by the lack of well-developed systems for the genetic manipulation of the relapsing fever spirochetes. In this report, we have successfully generated a B. hermsii fhbA deletion mutant (the B. hermsii YORΔfhbA strain) through allelic exchange mutagenesis. Deletion of fhbA abolished FH binding by the YORΔfhbA strain and eliminated cleavage of C3b on the cell surface. However, the YORΔfhbA strain remained infectious in mice and retained resistance to killing in vitro by human complement. Collectively, these results indicate that B. hermsii employs an FhbA/FH-independent mechanism of complement evasion that allows for resistance to killing by human complement and persistence in mice. PMID:24866803

  16. Variable Tick Protein in Two Genomic Groups of the Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia hermsii in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Porcella, Stephen F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Anderson, Donald E.; Gilk, Stacey D.; Bono, James L.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2005-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. When its tick vector, Ornithodoros hermsi, acquires these spirochetes from the blood of an infected mammal, the bacteria switch their outer surface from one of many bloodstream variable major proteins (Vmps) to a unique protein, Vtp (Vsp33). Vtp may be critical for successful tick transmission of B. hermsii; however, the gene encoding this protein has been described previously in only one isolate. Here we identified and sequenced the vtp gene in 31 isolates of B. hermsii collected over 40 years from localities throughout much of its known geographic distribution. Seven major Vtp types were found. Little or no sequence variation existed within types, but between them significant variation was observed, similar to the pattern of diversity described for the outer surface protein C (OspC) gene in Lyme disease spirochetes. The pattern of sequence relatedness among the Vtp types was incongruent in two branches compared to two genomic groups identified among the isolates by multilocus sequence typing of the 16S rRNA, flaB, gyrB, and glpQ genes. Therefore, both horizontal transfer and recombination within and between the two genomic groups were responsible for some of the variation observed in the vtp gene. O. hermsi ticks were capable of transmitting spirochetes in the newly identified genomic group. Therefore, given the longevity of the tick vector and persistent infection of spirochetes in ticks, these arthropods rather than mammals may be the likely host where the exchange of spirochetal DNA occurs. PMID:16177341

  17. Expression of the Tick-Associated Vtp Protein of Borrelia hermsii in a Murine Model of Relapsing Fever

    PubMed Central

    Marcsisin, Renee A.; Lewis, Eric R. G.; Barbour, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii, a spirochete and cause of relapsing fever, is notable for its immune evasion by multiphasic antigenic variation within its vertebrate host. This is based on a diverse repertoire of surface antigen genes, only one of which is expressed at a time. Another major surface protein, the Variable Tick Protein (Vtp), is expressed in the tick vector and is invariable at its genetic locus. Given the limited immune systems of ticks, the finding of considerable diversity among the Vtp proteins of different strains of B. hermsii was unexpected. We investigated one explanation for this diversity of Vtp proteins, namely expression of the protein in mammals and a consequent elicitation of a specific immune response. Mice were infected with B. hermsii of either the HS1 or CC1 strain, which have antigenically distinctive Vtp proteins but otherwise have similar repertoires of the variable surface antigens. Subsequently collected sera were examined for antibody reactivities against Vtp and other antigens using Western blot analysis, dot blot, and protein microarray. Week-6 sera of infected mice contained antibodies that were largely specific for the Vtp of the infecting strain and were not attributable to antibody cross-reactivities. The antibody responses of the mice infected with different strains were otherwise similar. Further evidence of in vivo expression of the vtp gene was from enumeration of cDNA sequence reads that mapped to a set of selected B. hermsii genes. This measure of transcription of the infecting strain’s vtp gene was ~10% of that for the abundantly-expressed, serotype-defining variable antigen gene but similar to that of genes known for in vivo expression. The findings of Vtp expression in a vertebrate host and elicitation of a specific anti-Vtp antibody response support the view that balancing selection by host adaptive immunity accounts in part for the observed diversity of Vtp proteins. PMID:26918760

  18. The BBA33 lipoprotein binds collagen and impacts Borrelia burgdorferi pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Hui; Weening, Eric H.; Barbu, Elena Magda; Hyde, Jenny A.; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi , the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, adapts to the mammalian hosts by differentially expressing several genes in the BosR and Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS dependent pathways, resulting in a distinct protein profile relative to that seen for survival in the Ixodes spp. tick. Previous studies indicate that a putative lipoprotein, BBA33, is produced in an RpoS-dependent manner under conditions that mimic the mammalian component of the borrelial lifecycle. However, the significance and function for BBA33 is not known. Given its linkage to the BosR/Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS regulatory cascade, we hypothesized that BBA33 facilitates B. burgdorferi infection in the mammalian host. The deletion of bba33 eliminated B. burgdorferi infectivity in C3H mice, which was rescued by genetic complementation with intact bba33. With regard to function, a combinatorial peptide approach, coupled with subsequent in vitro binding assays, indicated that BBA33 binds to collagen type VI and, to a lesser extent, collagen type IV. Whole cell binding assays demonstrated BBA33-dependent binding to human collagen type VI. Taken together, these results suggest that BBA33 interacts with collagenous structures and may function as an adhesin in a process that is required to prevent bacterial clearance. PMID:25560615

  19. The BBA33 lipoprotein binds collagen and impacts Borrelia burgdorferi pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Hui; Weening, Eric H; Barbu, Elena Magda; Hyde, Jenny A; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T

    2015-04-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, adapts to the mammalian hosts by differentially expressing several genes in the BosR and Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS dependent pathways, resulting in a distinct protein profile relative to that seen for survival in the Ixodes spp. tick. Previous studies indicate that a putative lipoprotein, BBA33, is produced in an RpoS-dependent manner under conditions that mimic the mammalian component of the borrelial lifecycle. However, the significance and function for BBA33 is not known. Given its linkage to the BosR/Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS regulatory cascade, we hypothesized that BBA33 facilitates B. burgdorferi infection in the mammalian host. The deletion of bba33 eliminated B. burgdorferi infectivity in C3H mice, which was rescued by genetic complementation with intact bba33. With regard to function, a combinatorial peptide approach, coupled with subsequent in vitro binding assays, indicated that BBA33 binds to collagen type VI and, to a lesser extent, collagen type IV. Whole cell binding assays demonstrated BBA33-dependent binding to human collagen type VI. Taken together, these results suggest that BBA33 interacts with collagenous structures and may function as an adhesin in a process that is required to prevent bacterial clearance. PMID:25560615

  20. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Membrane Protein That Binds Integrin α3β1

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  1. BB0172, a Borrelia burgdorferi outer membrane protein that binds integrin α3β1.

    PubMed

    Wood, Elaine; Tamborero, Silvia; Mingarro, Ismael; Esteve-Gassent, Maria D

    2013-08-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystemic disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Upon infection, some B. burgdorferi genes are upregulated, including members of the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) protein family, which facilitate B. burgdorferi adherence to extracellular matrix components of the host. Comparative genome analysis has revealed a new family of B. burgdorferi proteins containing the von Willebrand factor A (vWFA) domain. In the present study, we characterized the expression and membrane association of the vWFA domain-containing protein BB0172 by using in vitro transcription/translation systems in the presence of microsomal membranes and with detergent phase separation assays. Our results showed evidence of BB0172 localization in the outer membrane, the orientation of the vWFA domain to the extracellular environment, and its function as a metal ion-dependent integrin-binding protein. This is the first report of a borrelial adhesin with a metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif that is similar to those observed in eukaryotic integrins and has a similar function. PMID:23687274

  2. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in hard ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) parasitizing bats in Poland.

    PubMed

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Stańczak, Joanna; Biernat, Beata; Górz, Andrzej; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    A total of 491 Ixodes vespertilionis and 8 Ixodes ricinus collected from bats and cave walls in southern Poland between 2010 and 2012 were examined by the polymerase chain reaction for tick-transmitted pathogens. PCR analysis for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum yielded negative results for all I. vespertilionis. DNA of Rickettsia helvetica was detected in three specimens of I. ricinus attached to Rhinolophus hipposideros or Myotis myotis, while Borrelia garinii was found in one tick parasitizing Myotis daubentonii. These pathogens were recorded for the first time in hard ticks that parasitized bats. PMID:26833325

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi EbfC defines a newly-identified, widespread family of bacterial DNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Sean P.; Bykowski, Tomasz; Cooley, Anne E.; Burns, Logan H.; Babb, Kelly; Brissette, Catherine A.; Bowman, Amy; Rotondi, Matthew; Miller, M. Clarke; DeMoll, Edward; Lim, Kap; Fried, Michael G.; Stevenson, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, encodes a novel type of DNA-binding protein named EbfC. Orthologs of EbfC are encoded by a wide range of bacterial species, so characterization of the borrelial protein has implications that span the eubacterial kingdom. The present work defines the DNA sequence required for high-affinity binding by EbfC to be the 4 bp broken palindrome GTnAC, where ‘n’ can be any nucleotide. Two high-affinity EbfC-binding sites are located immediately 5′ of B. burgdorferi erp transcriptional promoters, and binding of EbfC was found to alter the conformation of erp promoter DNA. Consensus EbfC-binding sites are abundantly distributed throughout the B. burgdorferi genome, occurring approximately once every 1 kb. These and other features of EbfC suggest that this small protein and its orthologs may represent a distinctive type of bacterial nucleoid-associated protein. EbfC was shown to bind DNA as a homodimer, and site-directed mutagenesis studies indicated that EbfC and its orthologs appear to bind DNA via a novel α-helical ‘tweezer’-like structure. PMID:19208644

  4. CspA-Mediated Binding of Human Factor H Inhibits Complement Deposition and Confers Serum Resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi▿

    PubMed Central

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Vuppala, Santosh R.; Siegel, Corinna; Kraiczy, Peter; Akins, Darrin R.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi has developed efficient mechanisms for evading the innate immune response during mammalian infection and has been shown to be resistant to the complement-mediated bactericidal activity of human serum. It is well recognized that B. burgdorferi expresses multiple lipoproteins on its surface that bind the human complement inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FH/FHL-1). The binding of FH/FHL-1 on the surface of B. burgdorferi is thought to enhance its ability to evade serum-mediated killing during the acute phase of infection. One of the key B. burgdorferi FH/FHL-1 binding proteins identified thus far was designated CspA. While it is known that CspA binds FH/FHL-1, it is unclear how the interaction between CspA and FH/FHL-1 specifically enhances serum resistance. To better understand how CspA mediates serum resistance in B. burgdorferi, we inactivated cspA in a virulent strain of B. burgdorferi. An affinity ligand blot immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence revealed that the CspA mutant does not efficiently bind human FH to its surface. Consistent with the lack of FH binding, the CspA mutant was also highly sensitive to killing by human serum. Additionally, the deposition of complement components C3, C6, and C5b-9 was enhanced on the surface of the CspA mutant compared to that of the wild-type strain. The combined data lead us to conclude that the CspA-mediated binding of human FH confers serum resistance by directly inhibiting complement deposition on the surface of B. burgdorferi. PMID:19451251

  5. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

  6. Inactivation of Genes for Antigenic Variation in the Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia hermsii Reduces Infectivity in Mice and Transmission by Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Battisti, James M.; Fischer, Robert J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii, a causative agent of relapsing fever of humans in western North America, is maintained in enzootic cycles that include small mammals and the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. In mammals, the spirochetes repeatedly evade the host’s acquired immune response by undergoing antigenic variation of the variable major proteins (Vmps) produced on their outer surface. This mechanism prolongs spirochete circulation in blood, which increases the potential for acquisition by fast-feeding ticks and therefore perpetuation of the spirochete in nature. Antigenic variation also underlies the relapsing disease observed when humans are infected. However, most spirochetes switch off the bloodstream Vmp and produce a different outer surface protein, the variable tick protein (Vtp), during persistent infection in the tick salivary glands. Thus the production of Vmps in mammalian blood versus Vtp in ticks is a dominant feature of the spirochete’s alternating life cycle. We constructed two mutants, one which was unable to produce a Vmp and the other was unable to produce Vtp. The mutant lacking a Vmp constitutively produced Vtp, was attenuated in mice, produced lower cell densities in blood, and was unable to relapse in animals after its initial spirochetemia. This mutant also colonized ticks and was infectious by tick-bite, but remained attenuated compared to wild-type and reconstituted spirochetes. The mutant lacking Vtp also colonized ticks but produced neither Vtp nor a Vmp in tick salivary glands, which rendered the spirochete noninfectious by tick bite. Thus the ability of B. hermsii to produce Vmps prolonged its survival in blood, while the synthesis of Vtp was essential for mammalian infection by the bite of its tick vector. PMID:24699793

  7. Inactivation of genes for antigenic variation in the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii reduces infectivity in mice and transmission by ticks.

    PubMed

    Raffel, Sandra J; Battisti, James M; Fischer, Robert J; Schwan, Tom G

    2014-04-01

    Borrelia hermsii, a causative agent of relapsing fever of humans in western North America, is maintained in enzootic cycles that include small mammals and the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. In mammals, the spirochetes repeatedly evade the host's acquired immune response by undergoing antigenic variation of the variable major proteins (Vmps) produced on their outer surface. This mechanism prolongs spirochete circulation in blood, which increases the potential for acquisition by fast-feeding ticks and therefore perpetuation of the spirochete in nature. Antigenic variation also underlies the relapsing disease observed when humans are infected. However, most spirochetes switch off the bloodstream Vmp and produce a different outer surface protein, the variable tick protein (Vtp), during persistent infection in the tick salivary glands. Thus the production of Vmps in mammalian blood versus Vtp in ticks is a dominant feature of the spirochete's alternating life cycle. We constructed two mutants, one which was unable to produce a Vmp and the other was unable to produce Vtp. The mutant lacking a Vmp constitutively produced Vtp, was attenuated in mice, produced lower cell densities in blood, and was unable to relapse in animals after its initial spirochetemia. This mutant also colonized ticks and was infectious by tick-bite, but remained attenuated compared to wild-type and reconstituted spirochetes. The mutant lacking Vtp also colonized ticks but produced neither Vtp nor a Vmp in tick salivary glands, which rendered the spirochete noninfectious by tick bite. Thus the ability of B. hermsii to produce Vmps prolonged its survival in blood, while the synthesis of Vtp was essential for mammalian infection by the bite of its tick vector. PMID:24699793

  8. Fever

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation. PMID:20305990

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies for the Diagnosis of Borrelia crocidurae.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nappez, Claude; Azza, Saïd; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing fever borreliae, produced by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species, cause mild to deadly bacteremia and miscarriage. In the perspective of developing inexpensive assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae, we produced 12 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Borrelia crocidurae and characterized the two exhibiting the highest titers. P3A10 MAb reacts with the 35.6-kDa flagellin B (flaB) of B. crocidurae while P6D9 MAb recognizes a 35.1-kDa variable-like protein (Vlp) in B. crocidurae and a 35.2-kDa Vlp in Borrelia duttonii. Indirect immunofluorescence assay incorporating relapsing fever and Lyme group borreliae and 11 blood-borne organisms responsible for fever in West Africa confirmed the reactivity of these two MAbs. Combining these two MAbs in indirect immunofluorescence assays detected relapsing fever borreliae including B. crocidurae in ticks and the blood of febrile Senegalese patients. Both antibodies could be incorporated into inexpensive and stable formats suited for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of relapsing fever. These first-ever MAbs directed against African relapsing fever borreliae are available for the scientific community to promote research in this neglected field. PMID:26598566

  10. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor infections may cause mild or short-term temperature elevations. Temperatures of 103° and above are considered ...

  11. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens. PMID:25082003

  12. Common and Unique Contributions of Decorin-Binding Proteins A and B to the Overall Virulence of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanlin; Xu, Qilong; Seemanaplli, Sunita V.; McShan, Kristy; Liang, Fang Ting

    2008-01-01

    As an extracellular bacterium, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi resides primarily in the extracellular matrix and connective tissues and between host cells during mammalian infection, where decorin and glycosaminoglycans are abundantly found, so its interactions with these host ligands potentially affect various aspects of infection. Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps) A and B, encoded by a 2-gene operon, are outer surface lipoproteins with similar molecular weights and share approximately 40% identity, and both bind decorin and glycosaminoglycans. To investigate how DbpA and DbpB contribute differently to the overall virulence of B. burgdorferi, a dbpAB mutant was modified to overproduce the adhesins. Overproduction of either DbpA or DbpB resulted in restoration of the infectivity of the mutant to the control level, measured by 50% infectious dose (ID50), indicating that the two virulence factors are interchangeable in this regard. Overproduction of DbpA also allowed the mutant to disseminate to some but not all distal tissues slightly slower than the control, but the mutant with DbpB overproduction showed severely impaired dissemination to all tissues that were analyzed. The mutant with DbpA overproduction colonized all tissues, albeit generating bacterial loads significantly lower than the control in heart and joint, while the mutant overproducing DbpB remained severely defective in heart colonization and registered bacterial loads substantially lower than the control in joint. Taken together, the study indicated that DbpA and DbpB play a similar role in contribution to infectivity as measured by ID50 value but contribute differently to dissemination and tissue colonization. PMID:18833332

  13. Sequence Analysis and Serological Responses against Borrelia turicatae BipA, a Putative Species-Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Wilder, Hannah K.; Boyle, William; Drumheller, L. Brock; Thornton, Justin A.; Willeford, Bridget; Morgan, Timothy W.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Relapsing fever spirochetes are global yet neglected pathogens causing recurrent febrile episodes, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pregnancy complications. Given these nonspecific clinical manifestations, improving diagnostic assays for relapsing fever spirochetes will allow for identification of endemic foci and expedite proper treatment. Previously, an antigen designated the Borrelia immunogenic protein A (BipA) was identified in the North American species Borrelia hermsii. Thus far, BipA appears unique to relapsing fever spirochetes. The antigen remains unidentified outside of these pathogens, while interspecies amino acid identity for BipA in relapsing fever spirochetes is only 24–36%. The current study investigated the immunogenicity of BipA in Borrelia turicatae, a species distributed in the southern United States and Latin America. Methodology/Principal Findings bipA was amplified from six isolates of Borrelia turicatae, and sequence analysis demonstrated that the gene is conserved among isolates. A tick transmission system was developed for B. turicatae in mice and a canine, two likely vertebrate hosts, which enabled the evaluation of serological responses against recombinant BipA (rBipA). These studies indicated that BipA is antigenic in both animal systems after infection by tick bite, yet serum antibodies failed to bind to B. hermsii rBipA at a detectable level. Moreover, mice continued to generate an antibody response against BipA one year after the initial infection, further demonstrating the protein's potential toward identifying endemic foci for B. turicatae. Conclusions/Significance These initial studies support the hypothesis that BipA is a spirochete antigen unique to a relapsing fever Borrelia species, and could be used to improve efforts for identifying B. turicatae endemic regions. PMID:24069498

  14. Decorin Binding Proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi Promote Arthritis Development and Joint Specific Post-Treatment DNA Persistence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Jemiina; Jaatinen, Annukka; Söderström, Mirva; Viljanen, Matti K.; Hytönen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Decorin binding proteins A and B (DbpA and B) of Borrelia burgdorferi are of critical importance for the virulence of the spirochete. The objective of the present study was to further clarify the contribution of DbpA and B to development of arthritis and persistence of B. burgdorferi after antibiotic treatment in a murine model of Lyme borreliosis. With that goal, mice were infected with B. burgdorferi strains expressing either DbpA or DbpB, or both DbpA and B, or with a strain lacking the adhesins. Arthritis development was monitored up to 15 weeks after infection, and bacterial persistence was studied after ceftriaxone and immunosuppressive treatments. Mice infected with the B. burgdorferi strain expressing both DbpA and B developed an early and prominent joint swelling. In contrast, while strains that expressed DbpA or B alone, or the strain that was DbpA and B deficient, were able to colonize mouse joints, they caused only negligible joint manifestations. Ceftriaxone treatment at two or six weeks of infection totally abolished joint swelling, and all ceftriaxone treated mice were B. burgdorferi culture negative. Antibiotic treated mice, which were immunosuppressed by anti-TNF-alpha, remained culture negative. Importantly, among ceftriaxone treated mice, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected by PCR uniformly in joint samples of mice infected with DbpA and B expressing bacteria, while this was not observed in mice infected with the DbpA and B deficient strain. In conclusion, these results show that both DbpA and B adhesins are crucial for early and prominent arthritis development in mice. Also, post-treatment borrelial DNA persistence appears to be dependent on the expression of DbpA and B on B. burgdorferi surface. Results of the immunosuppression studies suggest that the persisting material in the joints of antibiotic treated mice is DNA or DNA containing remnants rather than live bacteria. PMID:25816291

  15. Further structural insights into the binding of complement factor H by complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 (CspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter; Zipfel, Peter F.; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi has evolved many mechanisms of evading the different immune systems across its range of reservoir hosts, including the capture and presentation of host complement regulators factor H and factor H-like protein-1 (FHL-1). Acquisition is mediated by a family of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), of which the atomic structure of CspA (BbCRASP-1) is known and shows the formation of a homodimeric species which is required for binding. Mutagenesis studies have mapped a putative factor H binding site to a cleft between the two subunits. Presented here is a new atomic structure of CspA which shows a degree of flexibility between the subunits which may be critical for factor H scavenging by increasing access to the binding interface and allows the possibility that the assembly can clamp around the bound complement regulators. PMID:23722839

  16. [Diseases produced by Borrelia].

    PubMed

    Escudero-Nieto, Raquel; Guerrero-Espejo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is a multi-organ infection with dermatological, rheumatological, neurological, and cardiac manifestations. The main characteristic is a skin lesion, named erythema migrans. Relapsing fever, caused by numerous species of Borrelia, is characterized by a periodic cycle of acute and afebrile episodes. The serological diagnosis of these infections has limited value in sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Lyme borreliosis is usually diagnosed by recognition of a characteristic clinical picture with serological confirmation, and the diagnosis of relapsing fever relies on direct observation of spirochetes in peripherical blood. The elected treatment is almost always tetracycline for the young or for adults but not for pregnant women, although betalactamic (such as penicillin or 3rd generation cephalosporin for the central nervous system) or macrolides are indicated in several situations. The prognosis, with adequate treatment, is good. In the majority of Spanish regions, due to the low incidence of these diseases, the prophylactic antimicrobial treatment after a tick bite is not indicated. PMID:15826549

  17. The Borrelia afzelii outer membrane protein BAPKO_0422 binds human factor-H and is predicted to form a membrane-spanning β-barrel

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adam; Brown, Gemma; Stejskal, Lenka; Laity, Peter R.; Bingham, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The deep evolutionary history of the Spirochetes places their branch point early in the evolution of the diderms, before the divergence of the present day Proteobacteria. As a spirochete, the morphology of the Borrelia cell envelope shares characteristics of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A thin layer of peptidoglycan, tightly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane, is surrounded by a more labile outer membrane (OM). This OM is rich in lipoproteins but with few known integral membrane proteins. The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) domain is an eight-stranded membrane-spanning β-barrel, highly conserved among the Proteobacteria but so far unknown in the Spirochetes. In the present work, we describe the identification of four novel OmpA-like β-barrels from Borrelia afzelii, the most common cause of erythema migrans (EM) rash in Europe. Structural characterization of one these proteins (BAPKO_0422) by SAXS and CD indicate a compact globular structure rich in β-strand consistent with a monomeric β-barrel. Ab initio molecular envelopes calculated from the scattering profile are consistent with homology models and demonstrate that BAPKO_0422 adopts a peanut shape with dimensions 25×45 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm). Deviations from the standard C-terminal signature sequence are apparent; in particular the C-terminal phenylalanine residue commonly found in Proteobacterial OM proteins is replaced by isoleucine/leucine or asparagine. BAPKO_0422 is demonstrated to bind human factor H (fH) and therefore may contribute to immune evasion by inhibition of the complement response. Encoded by chromosomal genes, these proteins are highly conserved between Borrelia subspecies and may be of diagnostic or therapeutic value. PMID:26181365

  18. BB0347, from the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, Is Surface Exposed and Interacts with the CS1 Heparin-Binding Domain of Human Fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Gaultney, Robert A.; Gonzalez, Tammy; Floden, Angela M.; Brissette, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, codes for several known fibronectin-binding proteins. Fibronectin a common the target of diverse bacterial pathogens, and has been shown to be essential in allowing for the development of certain disease states. Another borrelial protein, BB0347, has sequence similarity with these other known fibronectin-binding proteins, and may be important in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Herein, we perform an initial characterization of BB0347 via the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. We found that BB0347 is expressed, produced, and presented on the outer surface of intact B. burgdorferi. We also demonstrate that BB0347 has the potential to be important in Lyme disease progression, and have begun to characterize the nature of the interaction between human fibronectin and this bacterial protein. Further work is needed to define the role of this protein in the borrelial infection process. PMID:24086600

  19. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, anneals ssDNA complexed with its cognate ssDNA-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu Hui; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-01-01

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. The hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. Deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. The telomere resolvase, ResT, forms the hairpin telomeres from replicated telomere intermediates in a reaction with similarities to those promoted by type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. ResT has also been shown to possess DNA single-strand annealing activity. We report here that ResT promotes single-strand annealing of both free DNA strands and ssDNA complexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB). The annealing of complementary strands bound by SSB requires a ResT–SSB interaction that is mediated by the conserved amphipathic C-terminal tail of SSB. These properties of ResT are similar to those demonstrated for the recombination mediator protein, RecO, of the RecF pathway. Borrelia burgdorferi is unusual in lacking identifiable homologs of the RecFOR proteins. We propose that ResT may provide missing RecFOR functions. PMID:27131360

  20. The Borrelia burgdorferi telomere resolvase, ResT, anneals ssDNA complexed with its cognate ssDNA-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu Hui; Kobryn, Kerri

    2016-06-20

    Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia possess unusual genomes that consist in a linear chromosome and multiple linear and circular plasmids. The linear replicons are terminated by covalently closed hairpin ends, referred to as hairpin telomeres. The hairpin telomeres represent a simple solution to the end-replication problem. Deoxyribonucleic acid replication initiates internally and proceeds bidirectionally toward the hairpin telomeres. The telomere resolvase, ResT, forms the hairpin telomeres from replicated telomere intermediates in a reaction with similarities to those promoted by type IB topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases. ResT has also been shown to possess DNA single-strand annealing activity. We report here that ResT promotes single-strand annealing of both free DNA strands and ssDNA complexed with single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB). The annealing of complementary strands bound by SSB requires a ResT-SSB interaction that is mediated by the conserved amphipathic C-terminal tail of SSB. These properties of ResT are similar to those demonstrated for the recombination mediator protein, RecO, of the RecF pathway. Borrelia burgdorferi is unusual in lacking identifiable homologs of the RecFOR proteins. We propose that ResT may provide missing RecFOR functions. PMID:27131360

  1. Decorin-binding proteins A and B confer distinct mammalian cell type-specific attachment by Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Joshua R.; Parveen, Nikhat; Magoun, Loranne; Leong, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Host cell binding is an essential step in colonization by many bacterial pathogens, and the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, which colonizes multiple tissues, is capable of attachment to diverse cell types. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitously expressed on mammalian cells and are recognized by multiple B. burgdorferi surface proteins. We previously showed that B. burgdorferi strains differ in the particular spectrum of GAGs that they recognize, leading to differences in the cultured mammalian cell types that they efficiently bind. The molecular basis of these binding specificities remains undefined, due to the difficulty of analyzing multiple, potentially redundant cell attachment pathways and to the paucity of genetic tools for this pathogen. In the current study, we show that the expression of decorin-binding protein (Dbp) A and/or DbpB, two B. burgdorferi surface proteins that bind GAGs, is sufficient to convert a high-passage nonadherent B. burgdorferi strain into one that efficiently binds 293 epithelial cells. Epithelial cell attachment was mediated by dermatan sulfate, and, consistent with this GAG-binding specificity, these recombinant strains did not bind EA-Hy926 endothelial cells. The GAG-binding properties of bacteria expressing DbpB or DbpA were distinguishable, and DbpB but not DbpA promoted spirochetal attachment to C6 glial cells. Thus, DbpA and DbpB may each play central but distinct roles in cell type-specific binding by Lyme disease spirochetes. This study illustrates that transformation of high-passage B. burgdorferi strains may provide a relatively simple genetic approach to analyze virulence-associated phenotypes conferred by multiple bacterial factors. PMID:12773620

  2. Acylated proteins in Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia anserina, and Borrelia coriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Sambri, V; Stefanelli, C; Rossoni, C; La Placa, M; Cevenini, R

    1993-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia anserina, and Borrelia coriaceae produced several lipoproteins identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of bacteria grown in [3H]palmitate. Five major acylated proteins were demonstrated by sequential alkaline and acid hydrolysis. High-pressure liquid chromatography of isolated proteins confirmed that covalently bound radioactivity was represented by fatty acids. Images PMID:8285697

  3. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Borrelia bissettii Borrelia valaisiana and Borrelia spielmanii

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett C. M.; Qiu W.-G.; Kraiczy P.; Mongodin E. F.; Luft B. J.; Casjens S. R.

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for decades that human Lyme disease is caused by the three spirochete species Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. Recently, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia spielmanii, and Borrelia bissettii have been associated with Lyme disease. We report the complete genome sequences of B. valaisiana VS116, B. spielmanii A14S, and B. bissettii DN127.

  5. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Martin; Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Margos, Gabriele; Pürner, Friedrich; Zühl, Jürgen; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Rack-Hoch, Anita; von Both, Ulrich; Hauptvogel, Katja; Schönberger, Katharina; Hautmann, Wolfgang; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2015-01-01

    We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures. PMID:26538532

  6. Purine Salvage Pathways among Borrelia Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, Jonas; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Guyard, Cyril; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2007-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects on two relapsing fever spirochetes, Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia turicatae, revealed differences in genes involved in purine metabolism and salvage compared to those in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The relapsing fever spirochetes contained six open reading frames that are absent from the B. burgdorferi genome. These genes included those for hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt), adenylosuccinate synthase (purA), adenylosuccinate lyase (purB), auxiliary protein (nrdI), the ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase alpha subunit (nrdE), and the ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase beta subunit (nrdF). Southern blot assays with multiple Borrelia species and isolates confirmed the presence of these genes in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes but not in B. burgdorferi and related species. TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that the chromosomal genes (hpt, purA, and purB) were transcribed in vitro and in mice. Phosphoribosyltransferase assays revealed that, in general, B. hermsii exhibited significantly higher activity than did the B. burgdorferi cell lysate, and enzymatic activity was observed with adenine, hypoxanthine, and guanine as substrates. B. burgdorferi showed low but detectable phosphoribosyltransferase activity with hypoxanthine even though the genome lacks a discernible ortholog to the hpt gene in the relapsing fever spirochetes. B. hermsii incorporated radiolabeled hypoxanthine into RNA and DNA to a much greater extent than did B. burgdorferi. This complete pathway for purine salvage in the relapsing fever spirochetes may contribute, in part, to these spirochetes achieving high cell densities in blood. PMID:17502392

  7. Assessment of decorin-binding protein A to the infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the murine models of needle and tick infection

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Jon S; Hagman, Kayla E; Norgard, Michael V

    2008-01-01

    Background Decorin-binding proteins (Dbps) A and B of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, are surface-exposed lipoproteins that presumably bind to the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, decorin. B. burgdorferi infects various tissues including the bladder, heart, joints, skin and the central nervous system, and the ability of B. burgdorferi to bind decorin has been hypothesized to be important for this disseminatory pathogenic strategy. Results To determine the role of DbpBA in the infectious lifecycle of B. burgdorferi, we created a DbpBA-deficient mutant of B. burgdorferi strain 297 and compared the infectious phenotype of the mutant to the wild-type strain in the experimental murine model of Lyme borreliosis. The mutant strain exhibited a 4-log decrease in infectivity, relative to the wild-type strain, when needle inoculated into mice. Upon complementation of the DbpBA-mutant strain with DbpA, the wild-type level of infectivity was restored. In addition, we demonstrated that the DbpBA-deficient mutant was able to colonize Ixodes scapularis larval ticks after feeding on infected mice and persist within the ticks during the molt to the nymphal state. Moreover, surprisingly, the DbpBA-mutant strain was capable of being transmitted to naïve mice via tick bite, giving rise to infected mice. Conclusion These results suggest that DbpBA is not required for the natural tick-transmission process to mammals, despite inferences from needle-inoculation experiments implying a requirement for DbpBA during mammalian infection. The combined findings also send a cautionary note regarding how results from needle-inoculation experiments with mice should be interpreted. PMID:18507835

  8. Periplasmic Flagellar Export Apparatus Protein, FliH, Is Involved in Post-Transcriptional Regulation of FlaB, Motility and Virulence of the Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    Guyard, Cyril; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Dahlstrom, Eric; Sturdevant, Daniel; Ricklefs, Stacy M.; Martens, Craig; Hayes, Stanley F.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Hansen, Bryan T.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2013-01-01

    Spirochetes are bacteria characterized in part by rotating periplasmic flagella that impart their helical or flat-wave morphology and motility. While most other bacteria rely on a transcriptional cascade to regulate the expression of motility genes, spirochetes employ post-transcriptional mechanism(s) that are only partially known. In the present study, we characterize a spontaneous non-motile mutant of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii that was straight, non-motile and deficient in periplasmic flagella. We used next generation DNA sequencing of the mutant’s genome, which when compared to the wild-type genome identified a 142 bp deletion in the chromosomal gene encoding the flagellar export apparatus protein FliH. Immunoblot and transcription analyses showed that the mutant phenotype was linked to the posttranscriptional deficiency in the synthesis of the major periplasmic flagellar filament core protein FlaB. Despite the lack of FlaB, the amount of FlaA produced by the fliH mutant was similar to the wild-type level. The turnover of the residual pool of FlaB produced by the fliH mutant was comparable to the wild-type spirochete. The non-motile mutant was not infectious in mice and its inoculation did not induce an antibody response. Trans-complementation of the mutant with an intact fliH gene restored the synthesis of FlaB, a normal morphology, motility and infectivity in mice. Therefore, we propose that the flagellar export apparatus protein regulates motility of B. hermsii at the post-transcriptional level by influencing the synthesis of FlaB. PMID:24009690

  9. Laboratory Cultivation and Maintenance of Borrelia miyamotoi.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brandee L; Brissette, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever tick-borne pathogen found in Ixodes spp. (hard) ticks. In vitro culturing has proven difficult despite initial reports of cultures maintained in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly-II (BSK-II) medium. The ability to culture in vitro opens many avenues for investigating the genetics and physiology of bacterial species. This unit describes methods for the maintenance and cultivation of B. miyamotoi in liquid medium. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27517334

  10. BosR (BB0647) Controls the RpoN-RpoS Regulatory Pathway and Virulence Expression in Borrelia burgdorferi by a Novel DNA-Binding Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, the alternative σ factor σ54 (RpoN) directly activates transcription of another alternative σ factor, σS (RpoS) which, in turn, controls the expression of virulence-associated membrane lipoproteins. As is customary in σ54-dependent gene control, a putative NtrC-like enhancer-binding protein, Rrp2, is required to activate the RpoN-RpoS pathway. However, recently it was found that rpoS transcription in Bb also requires another regulator, BosR, which was previously designated as a Fur or PerR homolog. Given this unexpected requirement for a second activator to promote σ54-dependent gene transcription, and the fact that regulatory mechanisms among similar species of pathogenic bacteria can be strain-specific, we sought to confirm the regulatory role of BosR in a second virulent strain (strain 297) of Bb. Indeed, BosR displayed the same influence over lipoprotein expression and mammalian infectivity for strain Bb 297 that were previously noted for Bb strain B31. We subsequently found that recombinant BosR (rBosR) bound to the rpoS gene at three distinct sites, and that binding occurred despite the absence of consensus Fur or Per boxes. This led to the identification of a novel direct repeat sequence (TAAATTAAAT) critical for rBosR binding in vitro. Mutations in the repeat sequence markedly inhibited or abolished rBosR binding. Taken together, our studies provide new mechanistic insights into how BosR likely acts directly on rpoS as a positive transcriptional activator. Additional novelty is engendered by the facts that, although BosR is a Fur or PerR homolog and it contains zinc (like Fur and PerR), it has other unique features that clearly set it apart from these other regulators. Our findings also have broader implications regarding a previously unappreciated layer of control that can be involved in σ54–dependent gene regulation in bacteria. PMID:21347346

  11. Laboratory Diagnosis of Tick-Borne African Relapsing Fevers: Latest Developments.

    PubMed

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases are responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia hispanica circulate alongside at least six species that have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualized using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright-Giemsa or acridine orange stains. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: multispacer sequence typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorized pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against B. crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper, we

  12. Laboratory Diagnosis of Tick-Borne African Relapsing Fevers: Latest Developments

    PubMed Central

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases are responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia hispanica circulate alongside at least six species that have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualized using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright–Giemsa or acridine orange stains. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: multispacer sequence typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorized pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against B. crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper, we

  13. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Diagnostic of Relapsing Fevers in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elbir, Haitham; Henry, Mireille; Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Tall, Adama; Socolovschi, Cristina; Cutler, Sally J.; Bilcha, Kassahum D.; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Steven C.; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens causing mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. The closely related Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis and Borrelia hispanica are rarely diagnosed at the species level, hampering refined epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the relapsing fevers. It would be hugely beneficial to have simultaneous detection and identification of Borrelia to species level directly from clinical samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a multiplex real-time PCR protocol targeting the 16S rRNA gene detecting all four Borrelia, the glpQ gene specifically detecting B. crocidurae, the recN gene specifically detecting B. duttonii/B. recurrentis and the recC gene specifically detecting B. hispanica. Compared to combined 16S rRNA gene and flaB gene sequencing as the gold standard, multiplex real-time PCR analyses of 171 Borrelia-positive and 101 Borrelia-negative control blood specimens yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity for B. duttonii/B. recurrentis and B. hispanica and 99% sensitivity and specificity for B. crocidurae. Conclusions/Significance The multiplex real-time PCR developed in this study is a rapid technique for both molecular detection and speciation of relapsing fever borreliae from blood in Africa. It could be incorporated in point-of-care laboratory to confirm diagnosis and provide evidence of the burden of infection attributed to different species of known or potentially novel relapsing fever borreliae. PMID:23390560

  14. Crystal Structure of Neurotropism-Associated Variable Surface Protein 1 (VSP1) of Borrelia Turicatae

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson,C.; Yung, B.; Barbour, A.; Zuckert, W.

    2006-01-01

    Vsp surface lipoproteins are serotype-defining antigens of relapsing fever spirochetes that undergo multiphasic antigenic variation to allow bacterial persistence in spite of an immune response. Two isogenic serotypes of Borrelia turicatae strain Oz1 differ in their Vsp sequences and in disease manifestations in infected mice: Vsp1 is associated with the selection of a neurological niche, while Vsp2 is associated with blood and skin infection. We report here crystal structures of the Vsp1 dimer at 2.7 and 2.2 Angstroms. The structures confirm that relapsing fever Vsp proteins share a common helical fold with OspCs of Lyme disease-causing Borrelia. The fold features an inner stem formed by highly conserved N and C termini and an outer 'dome' formed by the variable central residues. Both Vsp1 and OspC structures possess small water-filled cavities, or pockets, that are lined largely by variable residues and are thus highly variable in shape. These features appear to signify tolerance of the Vsp-OspC fold for imperfect packing of residues at its antigenic surface. Structural comparison of Vsp1 with a homology model for Vsp2 suggests that observed differences in disease manifestation may arise in part from distinct differences in electrostatic surface properties; additional predicted positively charged surface patches on Vsp2 compared to Vsp1 may be sufficient to explain the relative propensity of Vsp2 to bind to acidic glycosaminoglycans.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Tubex TF (Inhibition Magnetic Binding Immunoassay) for Typhoid Fever in Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Menka; Gill, Karamjit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in endemic countries like India. Various serological tests for the diagnosis of typhoid fever are available commercially. We assessed the usefulness of rapid test based on magnetic particle separation to detect Immunoglobulin against Salmonella typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide. Aim Aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of widal test, typhidot and tubex TF test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in an endemic country like India. Materials and Methods Serum samples collected from 50 patients of typhoid fever, 50 patients of non typhoid fever and 100 normal healthy individuals residing in Amritsar were subjected to widal test, typhidot test and tubex TF test as per manufacturer’s instructions. Data collected was assessed to find sensitivity and specificity of these tests in an endemic area. Results Significant widal test results were found positive in 68% of patients of typhoid fever and only 4% of non typhoid fever patients. Typhidot (IgM or IgG) was positive in 72% of typhoid fever patients and 10% and 6% in non typhoid fever and normal healthy individuals respectively. Tubex TF showed higher sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 96-99% which was higher than typhidot and comparable to widal test. Conclusion This was the first evaluation of rapid tubex TF test in northern India. In countries which can afford high cost of test, tubex TF should be recommended for the diagnosis in acute stage of the disease in clinical setting. However, there is urgent need for a highly specific and sensitive test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in clinical settings in endemic areas. PMID:26676104

  16. Borrelia miyamotoi–Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person

    PubMed Central

    Lobenstein, Sabine; Hermann, Beate; Margos, Gabriele; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly recognized human pathogen in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes. We investigated a case of B. miyamotoi infection of the central nervous system resembling B. burgdorferi–induced Lyme neuroborreliosis and determined that this emergent agent of central nervous system infection can be diagnosed with existing methods. PMID:27533748

  17. Borrelia miyamotoi-Associated Neuroborreliosis in Immunocompromised Person.

    PubMed

    Boden, Katharina; Lobenstein, Sabine; Hermann, Beate; Margos, Gabriele; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly recognized human pathogen in the relapsing fever group of spirochetes. We investigated a case of B. miyamotoi infection of the central nervous system resembling B. burgdorferi-induced Lyme neuroborreliosis and determined that this emergent agent of central nervous system infection can be diagnosed with existing methods. PMID:27533748

  18. Adherence of Borrelia burgdorferi to granulocytes of different animal species.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, B; Kopp, P A; Schmitt, M; Blobel, H

    1997-04-01

    Adherence of 4 Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi strains (z7/22, z7/27, z7/41, PBi) to polymorphonuclear granulocytes from different domestic animals (horses, cattle, sheep, dogs) was investigated. All 4 strains adhered to the granulocytes. Binding assays indicated that the adherence occurred between structures on the surface of the borreliae ("binding-sites") and on the membranes of the granulocytes ("receptors"). The "receptors" consisted of 4 fractions (A, B, C, and D) with components differing in molecular weight (MW) and binding activity for proteins on the surface of B. burgdorferi. Fraction A (MW 80000) had the highest binding activity for B. burgdorferi. PMID:9144911

  19. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Leal, Gabriel M; Leal, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

  20. Binding of a fluorescence reporter and a ligand to an odorant-binding protein of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Gabriel M.; Leal, Walter S.

    2015-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), also named pheromone-binding proteins when the odorant is a pheromone, are essential for insect olfaction. They solubilize odorants that reach the port of entry of the olfactory system, the pore tubules in antennae and other olfactory appendages. Then, OBPs transport these hydrophobic compounds through an aqueous sensillar lymph to receptors embedded on dendritic membranes of olfactory receptor neurons. Structures of OBPs from mosquito species have shed new light on the mechanism of transport, although there is considerable debate on how they deliver odorant to receptors. An OBP from the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, binds the hydrophobic moiety of a mosquito oviposition pheromone (MOP) on the edge of its binding cavity. Likewise, it has been demonstrated that the orthologous protein from the malaria mosquito binds the insect repellent DEET on a similar edge of its binding pocket. A high school research project was aimed at testing whether the orthologous protein from the yellow fever mosquito, AaegOBP1, binds DEET and other insect repellents, and MOP was used as a positive control. Binding assays using the fluorescence reporter N-phenyl-1-naphtylamine (NPN) were inconclusive. However, titration of NPN fluorescence emission in AaegOBP1 solution with MOP led to unexpected and intriguing results. Quenching was observed in the initial phase of titration, but addition of higher doses of MOP led to a stepwise increase in fluorescence emission coupled with a blue shift, which can be explained at least in part by formation of MOP micelles to house stray NPN molecules. PMID:25671088

  1. Diversity and Distribution of Borrelia hermsii

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Porcella, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    Borrelia hermsii is the most common cause of tickborne relapsing fever in North America. DNA sequences of the 16S–23S rDNA noncoding intergenic spacer (IGS) region were determined for 37 isolates of this spirochete. These sequences distinguished the 2 genomic groups of B. hermsii identified previously with other loci. Multiple IGS genotypes were identified among isolates from an island, which suggested that birds might play a role in dispersing these spirochetes in nature. In support of this theory, all stages of the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi fed successfully on birds in the laboratory and advanced in their life cycle. B. hermsii produced a detectable spirochetemia in 1 chicken inoculated subcutaneously. Additional work is warranted to explore the role of birds as enzootic hosts for this relapsing fever spirochete. PMID:17552097

  2. A structural DNA binding protein of African swine fever virus with similarity to bacterial histone-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Borca, M V; Irusta, P M; Kutish, G F; Carillo, C; Afonso, C L; Burrage, A T; Neilan, J G; Rock, D L

    1996-01-01

    Here we describe an African swine fever virus (ASFV) protein encoded by the open reading frame 5-AR that shares structural and functional similarities with the family of bacterial histone-like proteins which include histone-like DNA binding proteins, integration host factor, and Bacillus phage SPO1 transcription factor, TF1. The ASFV 5-AR gene was cloned by PCR and expressed in E. coli. Monospecific antiserum prepared to the 5-AR bacterial expression product specifically immunoprecipitated a protein of approximately 11.6 kDa from ASFV infected swine macrophages at late times post infection. Additionally, the 5-AR expression product was strongly recognized by ASFV convalescent pig serum, indicating its antigenicity during natural infection. Cloned p11.6 bound both double and single stranded DNA-cellulose columns. Consistent with a DNA binding function, immunoelectronmicroscopy localized p11.6 to the virion nucleoid, To our knowledge, p11.6 is the first bacterial histone-like DNA-binding protein found in an animal virus or eukaryotic cell system. PMID:8634022

  3. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. PMID:25843811

  4. Relapsing fever in pregnancy: analysis of high-risk factors.

    PubMed

    Melkert, P W

    1988-10-01

    The diagnosis of tick-borne relapsing fever was established in 27 pregnant patients by demonstration of Borrelia spirochaetes in a thick blood smear and the borrelia index was estimated to calculate the density of the spirochaetaemia. Clinical findings are described and compared with those reported from Rwanda. The results suggest that the density of the spirochaetaemia and the gestational age are the main high-risk factors. PMID:3191046

  5. African Swine Fever Virus Protein A238L Interacts with the Cellular Phosphatase Calcineurin via a Binding Domain Similar to That of NFAT

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, James E.; Abrams, Charles C.; Dixon, Linda K.

    2000-01-01

    The African swine fever virus protein A238L inhibits activation of NFAT transcription factor by binding calcineurin and inhibiting its phosphatase activity. NFAT controls the expression of many immunomodulatory proteins. Here we describe a 14-amino-acid region of A238L that is needed and sufficient for binding to calcineurin. By introducing mutations within this region, we have identified a motif (PxIxITxC/S) required for A238L binding to calcineurin; a similar motif is found in NFAT proteins. Peptides corresponding to this domain of A238L bind calcineurin but do not inhibit its phosphatase activity. Binding of A238L to calcineurin stabilizes the A238L protein in cells. Although A238L-mediated suppression of NF-κB-dependent gene expression occurs by a different mechanism, the A238L-calcineurin interaction may be required to stabilize A238L. PMID:11000210

  6. Transovarial transmission of Borrelia spirochetes by Ixodes scapularis: a summary of the literature and recent observations.

    PubMed

    Rollend, Lindsay; Fish, Durland; Childs, James E

    2013-02-01

    Transovarial transmission (TOT) of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), the agent of Lyme disease, by the Ixodes persulcatus group of hard ticks (Ixodidae) has frequently been reported in the literature since the discovery of Lyme disease 1982. Evidence for and against TOT by B. burgdorferi has led to uncertainty and confusion in the literature, causing misconceptions that may have public health consequences. In this report, we review the published information implicating B. burgdorferi as a bacterium transovarially transmitted among ticks of the Ixodes persulcatus group and present new data indicating the transovarially transmitted agent is actually Borrelia miyamotoi. B. miyamotoi, first described in 1995, is antigenically and phylogenetically related to B. burgdorferi, although more closely related to the relapsing fever-group Borrelia typically transmitted by soft ticks (Argasidae). Borrelia infections of unfed larvae derived from egg clutches of wild-caught Ixodes scapularis are demonstrated to result from transovarial transmission of B. miyamotoi, not B. burgdorferi. The presence of this second Borrelia species, apparently sympatric with B. burgdorferi worldwide also may explain other confusing observations reported on Borrelia/Ixodes relationships. PMID:23238242

  7. Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Retain Infectivity After Prolonged in vitro Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Schrumpf, Merry E.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Policastro, Paul F.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Borrelia hermsii and Borrelia burgdorferi, two closely related spirochetes, are the etiological agents of tick-borne relapsing fever and Lyme disease, respectively. Previous studies have shown the loss of infectivity of B. burgdorferi is associated with in vitro cultivation. This diminished infectivity of B. burgdorferi has occurred as early as three in vitro passages, and the loss of plasmids have been observed with these less virulent to noninfective cultures. The effects of long-term in vitro cultivation on B. hermsii have not been investigated. However, understanding the degree of genomic degradation during in vitro cultivation is important for investigating pathogenic mechanisms of spirochetes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of continuous in vitro cultivation on the genomic composition and infectivity of B. hermsii and B. turicatae. We report that all seven isolates of B. hermsii and the one isolate of B. turicatae examined retained infectivity in mice after 1 year of continuous in vitro cultivation. Furthermore, there were few apparent differences in the plasmid profiles after long-term cultivation. Two isolates of B. hermsii remained infective after high passage despite losing a portion of the 200-kb linear plasmid containing the fhbA gene encoding the factor H binding protein. Also, sequence analysis of multiple B. hermsii isolates demonstrated two types of fhbA with complete congruence with the two genomic groups of B. hermsii spirochetes. Therefore, these results suggest that relapsing fever spirochetes are genetically stable during in vitro cultivation, and the fhbA-containing segment of DNA that is lost during cultivation is not required for infection. PMID:18637723

  8. Early Cytokine Release in Response to Live Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Spirochetes Is Largely Complement Independent

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Bergström, Sven; Forsberg, Pia; Jonsson, Nina; Ernerudh, Jan; Ekdahl, Kristina N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive. Methods Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade. Results 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher amounts of factor H resulting in significantly lower C3 binding. 3) Both Borrelia strains were efficiently phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes, with substantial inhibition by complement blockade at the levels of C3 and C5. 4) The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF, CCL20, and CXCL8, together with the anti-inflammatory IL-10, were increased the most (by>10-fold after exposure to Borrelia). 5) Both strains induced a similar release of cytokines and chemokines, which in contrast to the phagocytosis, was almost totally unaffected by complement blockade. Conclusions Our results show that complement activation plays an important role in the process of phagocytosis but not in the subsequent cytokine release in response to live Borrelia spirochetes. PMID:25265036

  9. Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story.

    PubMed

    Norris, Steven J

    2006-06-01

    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dai et al. provide the most complete description to date of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fever spirochaete, Borrelia hermsii. This elaborate, plasmid-encoded system involves an expression site that can acquire either variable large protein (vlp) or variable small protein (vsp) surface lipoprotein genes from 59 different archival copies. The archival vlp and vsp genes are arranged in clusters on at least five different plasmids. Gene conversion occurs through recombination events at upstream homology sequences (UHS) found in each gene copy, and at downstream homology sequences (DHS) found periodically among the vlp/vsp archival genes. Previous studies have shown that antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia not only permits the evasion of host antibody responses, but can also result in changes in neurotropism and other pathogenic properties. The vlsE antigenic variation locus of Lyme disease spirochaetes, although similar in sequence to the relapsing fever vlp genes, has evolved a completely different antigenic variation mechanism involving segmental recombination from a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes. These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes. PMID:16796669

  10. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  11. Q fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever is antibiotics. For early-stage Q fever, doxycycline is the recommended antibiotic. If you have the ... fever. Your health care provider may prescribe both doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. You may need to take antibiotics ...

  12. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Borrelia, and Babesia species in Ixodes ricinus sampled in northeastern, central, and insular areas of Italy.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lyda R; Gabrielli, Simona; Iori, Albertina; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating in Italy, carried/transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, one of the most abundant tick species in the country. A total of 447 specimens sampled in five areas of northeastern, central and insular Italy were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae, borreliae and babesiae. Several rickettsial species of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern and other zoonotic pathogens were found, such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Babesia venatorum. These findings confirm a wide distribution of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan species in Italy, and highlight the sanitary importance of I. ricinus, often recorded as feeding on humans. PMID:25784072

  13. Louse-borne relapsing fever in a refugee from Somalia arriving in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Darcis, Gilles; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Bontems, Sebastien; Sauvage, Anne-Sophie; Meuris, Christelle; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Leonard, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) in a refugee from Somalia who had arrived in Belgium a few days earlier. He complained of myalgia and secondarily presented fever. Blood smears revealed spirochetes later identified as Borrelia recurrentis. LBRF should be considered in countries hosting refugees, particularly those who transit through endemic regions. PMID:27356309

  14. The bdr gene families of the Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes: potential influence on biology, pathogenesis, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D M; Carlyon, J A; Theisen, M; Marconi, R T

    2000-01-01

    Species of the genus Borrelia cause human and animal infections, including Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and epizootic bovine abortion. The borrelial genome is unique among bacterial genomes in that it is composed of a linear chromosome and a series of linear and circular plasmids. The plasmids exhibit significant genetic redundancy and carry 175 paralogous gene families, most of unknown function. Homologous alleles on different plasmids could influence the organization and evolution of the Borrelia genome by serving as foci for interplasmid homologous recombination. The plasmid-carried Borrelia direct repeat (bdr) gene family encodes polymorphic, acidic proteins with putative phosphorylation sites and transmembrane domains. These proteins may play regulatory roles in Borrelia. We describe recent progress in the characterization of the Borrelia bdr genes and discuss the possible influence of this gene family on the biology, pathogenesis, and evolution of the Borrelia genome. PMID:10756144

  15. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, D

    1985-09-01

    Relapsing fever is caused by the Borrelia species of spirochetes. Louse-born epidemics of the disease may occur but the endemic disease is usually transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodorus). Transplacental infection was suggested more than 75 years ago (1) but has been rarely documented (2). We describe a case of neonatal relapsing fever where maternal infection was the probable cause of the premature delivery and infection in the infant. PMID:2415056

  16. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1, an Interferon-Induced GTPase, Exerts an Antiviral Activity against Classical Swine Fever Virus Depending on Its GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Jiahui; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Su; Zhang, Lingkai; Xia, Shui-Li; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) pathway upon infection, resulting in the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which define the antiviral state of the host. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease endangering the pig industry in many countries. However, anti-CSFV ISGs are poorly documented. Here we screened 20 ISGs that are commonly induced by type I IFNs against CSFV in lentivirus-delivered cell lines, resulting in the identification of guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) as a potent anti-CSFV ISG. We observed that overexpression of GBP1, an IFN-induced GTPase, remarkably suppressed CSFV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous GBP1 expression by small interfering RNAs significantly promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GBP1 acted mainly on the early phase of CSFV replication and inhibited the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV. In addition, we found that GBP1 was upregulated at the transcriptional level in CSFV-infected PK-15 cells and in various organs of CSFV-infected pigs. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays revealed that GBP1 interacted with the NS5A protein of CSFV, and this interaction was mapped in the N-terminal globular GTPase domain of GBP1. Interestingly, the K51 of GBP1, which is crucial for its GTPase activity, was essential for the inhibition of CSFV replication. We showed further that the NS5A-GBP1 interaction inhibited GTPase activity, which was critical for its antiviral effect. Taking our findings together, GBP1 is an anti-CSFV ISG whose action depends on its GTPase activity. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only a few host restriction factors against CSFV

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Warren R.

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the clinical presentation of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi varies greatly between different parts of the world. A growing number of European and Asian isolates of Lyme borreliae, differing from the American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, have been identified in several different disorders. In light of the increasing number of reports describing an association between various cutaneous disorders and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and the controversy that still remains over where Borrelia burgdorferi is truly pathogenic in these diseases, this review of the literature assesses the significance of these reports in substantiating these hypotheses, as such associations are important both diagnostically and therapeutically. PMID:22916311

  18. A hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome requires gC1qR/p32 for efficient cell binding and infection

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun; Kwon, Young-Chan; Kim, Soo-In; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

    2008-11-25

    Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a pathogenic hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). HTNV infection is mediated by {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. We used protein blots of Vero E6 cell homogenates to demonstrate that radiolabeled HTNV virions bind to gC1qR/p32, the acidic 32-kDa protein known as the receptor for the globular head domain of complement C1q. RNAi-mediated suppression of gC1qR/p32 markedly reduced HTNV binding and infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, transient expression of either simian or human gC1qR/p32 rendered non-permissive CHO cells susceptible to HTNV infection. These results suggest an important role for gC1qR/p32 in HTNV infection and pathogenesis.

  19. Characterization of a Novel Relapsing Fever Spirochete in the Midgut, Coxal Fluid, and Salivary Glands of the Bat Tick Carios kelleyi

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Gill, James S.; Piesman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bat ticks, Carios kelleyi, from Iowa were examined for the presence of relapsing fever group borreliae. A novel spirochete was characterized by DNA sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplicons for the 16S rRNA, flaB, and glpQ genes in either triturated tick pools or single ticks. All loci and the concatenated DNA sequence of 3,289 bases identified the Carios bacterium as a relapsing fever spirochete most closely related to, but distinct from, Borrelia turicatae. Spirochetes reactive with a Borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody were observed microscopically in the coxal fluid and salivary glands from one tick. These data confirm the presence of a novel species of relapsing fever spirochete in bat ticks and the potential for new enzootic foci for endemic relapsing fever that warrants further investigation. The name Borrelia johnsonii is proposed for this novel spirochete in honor of Dr. Russell C. Johnson. PMID:19281412

  20. Molecular Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mónica; Parreira, Ricardo; Lopes, Nádia; Maia, Carla; Carreira, Teresa; Sousa, Carmelita; Faria, Sofia; Campino, Lenea; Vieira, M Luísa

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, has been found recently in Ixodes ricinus ticks; however, little is known about its spatial distribution and potential local impact on human health. A total of 640 ticks (447 nymphs and 193 adults) collected throughout Portugal were analyzed using two nested PCR protocols, one targeting the flagellin gene and the other the internal transcribed space region between the 5S and the 23S rRNA. As a result, B. miyamotoi was detected, for the first time, in one guesting I. ricinus nymph collected in the Lisboa district. In addition, a prevalence of 11% (71/640) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato was obtained. Even though no human relapsing fever cases due to infection by B. miyamotoi have been reported yet in Portugal, surveillance must be improved to provide better insight into the prevalence and distribution of this spirochete in ticks. PMID:26273814

  1. T-Cell Memory Responses Elicited by Yellow Fever Vaccine are Targeted to Overlapping Epitopes Containing Multiple HLA-I and -II Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Andréa Barbosa; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Braga-Neto, Ulisses; Dhalia, Rafael; Silva, Ana Maria; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Montenegro, Silvia M. L.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2013-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines (YF-17D-204 and 17DD) are considered to be among the safest vaccines and the presence of neutralizing antibodies is correlated with protection, although other immune effector mechanisms are known to be involved. T-cell responses are known to play an important role modulating antibody production and the killing of infected cells. However, little is known about the repertoire of T-cell responses elicited by the YF-17DD vaccine in humans. In this report, a library of 653 partially overlapping 15-mer peptides covering the envelope (Env) and nonstructural (NS) proteins 1 to 5 of the vaccine was utilized to perform a comprehensive analysis of the virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses. The T-cell responses were screened ex-vivo by IFN-γ ELISPOT assays using blood samples from 220 YF-17DD vaccinees collected two months to four years after immunization. Each peptide was tested in 75 to 208 separate individuals of the cohort. The screening identified sixteen immunodominant antigens that elicited activation of circulating memory T-cells in 10% to 33% of the individuals. Biochemical in-vitro binding assays and immunogenetic and immunogenicity studies indicated that each of the sixteen immunogenic 15-mer peptides contained two or more partially overlapping epitopes that could bind with high affinity to molecules of different HLAs. The prevalence of the immunogenicity of a peptide in the cohort was correlated with the diversity of HLA-II alleles that they could bind. These findings suggest that overlapping of HLA binding motifs within a peptide enhances its T-cell immunogenicity and the prevalence of the response in the population. In summary, the results suggests that in addition to factors of the innate immunity, “promiscuous” T-cell antigens might contribute to the high efficacy of the yellow fever vaccines. PMID:23383350

  2. Genetics of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Brisson, Dustin; Drecktrah, Dan; Eggers, Christian H.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The spirochetes in the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies group cycle in nature between tick vectors and vertebrate hosts. The current assemblage of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, of which three species cause Lyme disease in humans, originated from a rapid species radiation that occurred near the origin of the clade. All of these species share a unique genome structure that is highly segmented and predominantly composed of linear replicons. One of the circular plasmids is a prophage that exists as several isoforms in each cell and can be transduced to other cells, likely contributing to an otherwise relatively anemic level of horizontal gene transfer, which nevertheless appears to be adequate to permit strong natural selection and adaptation in populations of B. burgdorferi. Although the molecular genetic toolbox is meager, several antibiotic-resistant mutants have been isolated, and the resistance alleles, as well as some exogenous genes, have been fashioned into markers to dissect gene function. Genetic studies have probed the role of the outer membrane lipoprotein OspC, which is maintained in nature by multiple niche polymorphisms and negative frequency-dependent selection. One of the most intriguing genetic systems in B. burgdorferi is vls recombination, which generates antigenic variation during infection of mammalian hosts. PMID:22974303

  3. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

    DOEpatents

    Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Dunn, John J.

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  4. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. ... Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death. VHFs ...

  5. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from areas that have a dengue fever epidemic, the risk of contracting dengue fever is small for international travelers./p> Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, ... Nile Virus First Aid: Vomiting Are Insect Repellents With DEET ...

  6. Rheumatic fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ASO test) Complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (EKG) Sedimentation rate (ESR -- a test that measures inflammation ... criteria include: Fever High ESR Joint pain Abnormal EKG You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic fever ...

  7. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Button Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases NIAID Home Health & ... NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Dengue Fever > Understanding Dengue Fever Understanding Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  8. Valley Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  9. Interaction between Borrelia burgdorferi and endothelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Szczepanski, A; Furie, M B; Benach, J L; Lane, B P; Fleit, H B

    1990-05-01

    During the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi spreads hematogenously from the site of a tick bite to several tissues throughout the body. The specific mechanism of spirochete emigration is presently unknown. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we found that Borrelia burgdorferi bound to the endothelial cells and to the subendothelial matrix. Low passage isolates adhered 22-30-fold greater than a strain maintained in culture continuously. Spirochete binding to subendothelial matrix was inhibited 48-63% by pretreatment of the matrix with anti-fibronectin antiserum. Spirochete migration across endothelial monolayers cultured on amniotic membrane was increased when the monolayers were damaged by chemical or physical means. Electron microscopic examination of spirochete-endothelial interactions demonstrated the presence of spirochetes in the intercellular junctions between endothelial cells as well as beneath the monolayers. Scanning electron microscopy identified a mechanism of transendothelial migration whereby spirochetes pass between cells into the amniotic membrane at areas where subendothelium is exposed. PMID:2332509

  10. Q fever.

    PubMed

    Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii causing acute and chronic clinical manifestations. The name "Q fever" derives from "Query fever" and was given in 1935 following an outbreak of febrile illness in an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. C burnetii is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism (class B by the Centers for Disease Control). PMID:18755387

  11. Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in Nature and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Peter J.; Fish, Durland; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Barbour, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete that is transmitted by the same hard-bodied (ixodid) tick species that transmit the agents of Lyme disease. It was discovered in 1994 in Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Japan. B. miyamotoi species phylogenetically cluster with the relapsing fever group spirochetes, which usually are transmitted by soft-bodied (argasid) ticks or lice. B. miyamotoi infects at least six Ixodes tick species in North America and Eurasia that transmit Lyme disease group spirochetes and may use small rodents and birds as reservoirs. Human cases of B. miyamotoi infection were first reported in 2011 in Russia and subsequently in the United States, Europe, and Japan. These reports document the public health importance of B. miyamotoi, as human B. miyamotoi infection appears to be comparable in frequency to babesiosis or human granulocytic anaplasmosis in some areas and may cause severe disease, including meningoencephalitis. The most common clinical manifestations of B. miyamotoi infection are fever, fatigue, headache, chills, myalgia, arthralgia, and nausea. Symptoms of B. miyamotoi infection generally resolve within a week of the start of antibiotic therapy. B. miyamotoi infection should be considered in patients with acute febrile illness who have been exposed to Ixodes ticks in a region where Lyme disease occurs. Because clinical manifestations are non-specific, etiologic diagnosis requires confirmation by blood smear examination, PCR, antibody assay, in vitro cultivation, and/or isolation by animal inoculation. Antibiotics that have been used effectively include doxycycline for uncomplicated B. miyamotoi infection in adults and ceftriaxone or penicillin G for meningoencephalitis. PMID:25700888

  12. Transmission Dynamics of Borrelia turicatae from the Arthropod Vector

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, William K.; Wilder, Hannah K.; Lawrence, Amanda M.; Lopez, Job E.

    2014-01-01

    Background With the global distribution, morbidity, and mortality associated with tick and louse-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to understand the dynamics of vector colonization by the bacteria and transmission to the host. Tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes are blood-borne pathogens transmitted through the saliva of soft ticks, yet little is known about the transmission capability of these pathogens during the relatively short bloodmeal. This study was therefore initiated to understand the transmission dynamics of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae from the vector Ornithodoros turicata, and the subsequent dissemination of the bacteria upon entry into murine blood. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the minimum number of ticks required to transmit spirochetes, one to three infected O. turicata were allowed to feed to repletion on individual mice. Murine infection and dissemination of the spirochetes was evaluated by dark field microscopy of blood, quantitative PCR, and immunoblotting against B. turicatae protein lysates and a recombinant antigen, the Borrelia immunogenic protein A. Transmission frequencies were also determined by interrupting the bloodmeal 15 seconds after tick attachment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on infected salivary glands to detect spirochetes within acini lumen and excretory ducts. Furthermore, spirochete colonization and dissemination from the bite site was investigated by feeding infected O. turicata on the ears of mice, removing the attachment site after engorment, and evaluating murine infection. Conclusion/Significance Our findings demonstrated that three ticks provided a sufficient infectious dose to infect nearly all animals, and B. turicatae was transmitted within seconds of tick attachment. Spirochetes were also detected in acini lumen of salivary glands by SEM. Upon host entry, B. turicatae did not require colonization of the bite site to establish murine

  13. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631) and rabbits (n = 20) were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs. Results Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus), and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP), ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP), and rabbit ear biopsies (5%) comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations. Conclusions Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species that serves as a

  14. Borrelia infection in small mammals in West Africa and its relationship with tick occurrence inside burrows.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Granjon, Laurent; Bâ, Khalilou; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Mady; Trape, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques. A total of 4358 small mammals belonging to 38 species and 7 families were collected, including 3225 specimens collected in areas where the occurrence of Ornithodoros sonrai tick in rodent burrows was documented, and 1133 in areas where this tick was absent. In areas with O. sonrai, Borrelia infection was demonstrated in 287 of 3109 (9.2%) small mammals tested, and none was documented in 1004 animals tested from other areas. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Rhipicephalus, Hyaloma and Argas ticks in burrows and the distribution of Borrelia infection in small mammals. The 287 specimens infected by Borrelia belonged to 15 rodent and shrew species, including three Saharo-Sahelian species - Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus occiduus and Gerbillus tarabuli - identified as reservoirs for TBRF with a distribution restricted to this area. In Sudan and Sudano-Sahelian areas, Arvicanthis niloticus, Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys huberti were the main reservoir of infection. Although most small mammals species collected had a large distribution in West and Central Africa, the fact that only animals collected in areas with O. sonrai were found infected suggest that this tick is the only vector of TBRF in rodents and insectivores in this part of Africa. PMID:26327444

  15. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P<0.05). The growth of B. afzelii species was weaker in comparison to the other two species at 23, 28, 33 and 37°C (P<0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the growth of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto at 28, 33, and 37°C (P>0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  16. Comparison of Growth of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Stricto at Five Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Veinović, Gorana; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva; Strle, Franc; Cerar, Tjaša

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, a fastidious bacterium that replicates slowly and requires special conditions to grow in the laboratory. Borrelia isolation from clinical material is a golden standard for microbiological diagnosis of borrelial infection. Important factors that affect in vitro borrelia growth are temperature of incubation and number of borrelia cells in the sample. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of temperature on borrelia growth and survival by evaluation and comparison of growth of 31 different borrelia strains at five different temperatures and to determine the influence of different inoculums on borrelia growth at different temperatures. Borreliae were cultured in the MKP medium; the initial and final number of spirochetes was determined by dark field microscopy using Neubauer counting chamber. The growth of borrelia was defined as final number of cells/mL after three days of incubation. For all three Borrelia species, the best growth was found at 33°C, followed by 37, 28, and 23°C, while no growth was detected at 4°C (P<0.05). The growth of B. afzelii species was weaker in comparison to the other two species at 23, 28, 33 and 37°C (P<0.05), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the growth of B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto at 28, 33, and 37°C (P>0.05), respectively. Inoculum had statistically significant influence on growth of all three Borrelia species at all tested temperatures except at 4°C. PMID:27310556

  17. Diversity of Ixodes-borne Borrelia species--clinical, pathogenetic, and diagnostic implications and impact on vaccine development.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Alje P

    2002-01-01

    Among Borrelia spirochetes carried by hard ticks belonging to the various Ixodes species, at least 10 species can be distinguished. Of these, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto is involved in human Lyme borreliosis in North America and Europe, and Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in human disease in Europe and Asia. The pathogenetic significance of the other species is uncertain. Although some of the Borrelia species are restricted to certain tick species, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Lyme borreliosis in Europe, can be infested by at least five different species, including all three pathogenic species. There is evidence that different Borrelia species are preferentially found in different hosts: In Europe, B. afzelii is frequently found in small mammals, whereas B. garinii and Borrelia valaisiana are often found in birds. This could very well be related to differential sensitivity of these species to complement-mediated bactericidal activity of different hosts. Borrelial complement regulator acquiring proteins, among them OspE or Erp proteins, bind to host factor H and related proteins, and this binding protects against activation of complement by the spirochetal surface. The binding is different for proteins originating from different species and is also depending on the host origin of factor H. In Europe, B. garinii is mainly found in neuroborreliosis, whereas in skin disease B. afzelii is more frequently found. The reason is unclear. The majority of human sera cross-react between proteins of different Borrelia species, but some sera react only with proteins from one of the species. This holds especially for reactivity with OspC. A vaccine against B. burgdorferi sensu stricto has been licensed, but was recently redrawn from the market because of commercial reasons. A vaccine protecting against all three pathogenic species is not yet available. PMID:12804166

  18. "Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica" Detected from a Febrile Traveller Returning to Germany from Vacation in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wächtler, Martin; Margos, Gabriele; Ruske, Sabine; Jung, Jette; Löscher, Thomas; Wendtner, Clemens; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A 26 year-old female patient presented to the Tropical Medicine outpatient unit of the Ludwig Maximilians-University in Munich with febrile illness after returning from Southern Africa, where she contracted a bite by a large mite-like arthropod, most likely a soft-tick. Spirochetes were detected in Giemsa stained blood smears and treatment was started with doxycycline for suspected tick-borne relapsing fever. The patient eventually recovered after developing a slight Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction during therapy. PCR reactions performed from EDTA-blood revealed a 16S rRNA sequence with 99.4% similarity to both, Borrelia duttonii, and B. parkeri. Further sequences obtained from the flagellin gene (flaB) demonstrated genetic distances of 0.066 and 0.097 to B. parkeri and B. duttonii, respectively. Fragments of the uvrA gene revealed genetic distance of 0.086 to B. hermsii in genetic analysis and only distant relations with classic Old World relapsing fever species. This revealed the presence of a novel species of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes that we propose to name “Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica”, as it was contracted from an arthropod bite in the Kalahari Desert belonging to both, Botswana and Namibia, a region where to our knowledge no relapsing fever has been described so far. Interestingly, the novel species shows more homology to New World relapsing fever Borrelia such as B. parkeri or B. hermsii than to known Old World species such as B. duttonii or B. crocidurae. PMID:27031729

  19. "Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica" Detected from a Febrile Traveller Returning to Germany from Vacation in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Fingerle, Volker; Pritsch, Michael; Wächtler, Martin; Margos, Gabriele; Ruske, Sabine; Jung, Jette; Löscher, Thomas; Wendtner, Clemens; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    A 26 year-old female patient presented to the Tropical Medicine outpatient unit of the Ludwig Maximilians-University in Munich with febrile illness after returning from Southern Africa, where she contracted a bite by a large mite-like arthropod, most likely a soft-tick. Spirochetes were detected in Giemsa stained blood smears and treatment was started with doxycycline for suspected tick-borne relapsing fever. The patient eventually recovered after developing a slight Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction during therapy. PCR reactions performed from EDTA-blood revealed a 16S rRNA sequence with 99.4% similarity to both, Borrelia duttonii, and B. parkeri. Further sequences obtained from the flagellin gene (flaB) demonstrated genetic distances of 0.066 and 0.097 to B. parkeri and B. duttonii, respectively. Fragments of the uvrA gene revealed genetic distance of 0.086 to B. hermsii in genetic analysis and only distant relations with classic Old World relapsing fever species. This revealed the presence of a novel species of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes that we propose to name "Candidatus Borrelia kalaharica", as it was contracted from an arthropod bite in the Kalahari Desert belonging to both, Botswana and Namibia, a region where to our knowledge no relapsing fever has been described so far. Interestingly, the novel species shows more homology to New World relapsing fever Borrelia such as B. parkeri or B. hermsii than to known Old World species such as B. duttonii or B. crocidurae. PMID:27031729

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Disease Progression in Rhesus Macaques Infected With Borrelia turicatae by Tick Bite

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Vinet-Oliphant, Heather; Wilder, Hannah K.; Brooks, Christopher P.; Grasperge, Britton J.; Morgan, Timothy W.; Stuckey, Kerstan J.; Embers, Monica E.

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of disease caused by tick- and louse-borne relapsing fever due to Borrelia infection is cyclic febrile episodes, which in humans results in severe malaise and may lead to death. To evaluate the pathogenesis of relapsing fever due to spirochetes in an animal model closely related to humans, disease caused by Borrelia turicatae after tick bite was compared in 2 rhesus macaques in which radiotelemetry devices that recorded body temperatures in 24-hour increments were implanted. The radiotelemetry devices enabled real-time acquisition of core body temperatures and changes in heart rates and electrocardiogram intervals for 28 consecutive days without the need to constantly manipulate the animals. Blood specimens were also collected from all animals for 14 days after tick bite, and spirochete densities were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The complexity of disease caused by relapsing-fever spirochetes was demonstrated in the nonhuman primates monitored in real time. The animals experienced prolonged episodes of hyperthermia and hypothermia; disruptions in their diurnal patterns and repolarization of the heart were also observed. This is the first report of the characterizing disease progression with continuous monitoring in an animal model of relapsing fever due to Borrelia infection. PMID:24879799

  1. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePlus

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  2. Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) as hosts for Borrelia spp. in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Mun, Jeomhee; Parker, John M; White, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of infection of Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) with Borrelia spp. was evaluated in an area of northwestern California (USA) where Lyme disease is endemic and the relapsing-fever group spirochete Borrelia coriaceae is enzootic, and in a far-removed comparison area having a disparate climate and lower density of vector ticks. Blood samples collected from both deer herds in 1987, 1988, and from 2000-02 were assayed for borrelial infection with microscopic and molecular methods. Serum specimens from two (5%) of 39 deer from the Dye Creek Preserve in Tehama County versus 13 (20%) of 64 animals from the Hopland Research and Extension Center (HREC) in Mendocino County, California were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test positive for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. DNA sequencing analyses revealed that eight animals were infected with B. bissettii, six with three unclassified genotypes, and one with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. One serum sample (2%) from HREC was positive for a relapsing-fever group spirochete that had a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 99% with the C053 type strain of B. coriaceae. Spirochetes undetermined to geno-species were detected in thick-blood drops prepared from three (8%) of 36 deer from the HREC by direct immunofluorescence. Adults of the hippoboscid flies Lipoptena depressa (n=73) and Neolipoptena ferrisi (n=24), the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) (n=22), and the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) (n=1) that had been removed from deer from both study areas in 2002 were PCR test negative for borreliae. The occurrence of diverse borreliae in deer from northern California confounds and, consequently, reduces the utility of borrelial serosurveys for detecting specific genospecies, unless they are complemented by more specific assays (e.g., immunoblotting, PCR/sequencing analysis). PMID:15827217

  3. Multiple and Diverse vsp and vlp Sequences in Borrelia miyamotoi, a Hard Tick-Borne Zoonotic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on chromosome sequences, the human pathogen Borrelia miyamotoi phylogenetically clusters with species that cause relapsing fever. But atypically for relapsing fever agents, B. miyamotoi is transmitted not by soft ticks but by hard ticks, which also are vectors of Lyme disease Borrelia species. To further assess the relationships of B. miyamotoi to species that cause relapsing fever, I investigated extrachromosomal sequences of a North American strain with specific attention on plasmid-borne vsp and vlp genes, which are the underpinnings of antigenic variation during relapsing fever. For a hybrid approach to achieve assemblies that spanned more than one of the paralogous vsp and vlp genes, a database of short-reads from next-generation sequencing was supplemented with long-reads obtained with real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules. This yielded three contigs of 31, 16, and 11 kb, which each contained multiple and diverse sequences that were homologous to vsp and vlp genes of the relapsing fever agent B. hermsii. Two plasmid fragments had coding sequences for plasmid partition proteins that differed from each other from paralogous proteins for the megaplasmid and a small plasmid of B. miyamotoi. One of 4 vsp genes, vsp1, was present at two loci, one of which was downstream of a candiate prokaryotic promoter. A limited RNA-seq analysis of a population growing in the blood of mice indicated that of the 4 different vsp genes vsp1 was the one that was expressed. The findings indicate that B. miyamotoi has at least four types of plasmids, two or more of which bear vsp and vlp gene sequences that are as numerous and diverse as those of relapsing fever Borrelia. The database and insights from these findings provide a foundation for further investigations of the immune responses to this pathogen and of the capability of B. miyamotoi for antigenic variation. PMID:26785134

  4. Rheumatic Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... always tell your doctor or dentist about your history of rheumatic fever before you have a surgical or dental procedure. Such procedures may cause bacteria to enter the bloodstream and infect your heart ...

  5. Lassa Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... an acute viral illness that occurs in west Africa. The illness was discovered in 1969 when two ... Lassa fever is endemic in parts of west Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria; however, ...

  6. Typhoid fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly caused due to a bacteria called Salmonella typhi ( S typhi ). Causes S typhi is spread through contaminated ... as food handlers. Alternative Names Enteric fever Images Salmonella typhi organism Fly Digestive system organs References Harris ...

  7. Dengue fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti , which is found in tropic and ... Clothing, mosquito repellent, and netting can help reduce the risk of mosquito bites that can spread dengue fever and ...

  8. Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat. This can trigger a type of allergy called hay fever. Symptoms can include Sneezing, often ... to use distilled or sterilized water with saline. Allergy shots can help make you less sensitive to ...

  9. Q Fever

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M.; Raoult, D.

    1999-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution with the exception of New Zealand. The disease is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a strictly intracellular, gram-negative bacterium. Many species of mammals, birds, and ticks are reservoirs of C. burnetii in nature. C. burnetii infection is most often latent in animals, with persistent shedding of bacteria into the environment. However, in females intermittent high-level shedding occurs at the time of parturition, with millions of bacteria being released per gram of placenta. Humans are usually infected by contaminated aerosols from domestic animals, particularly after contact with parturient females and their birth products. Although often asymptomatic, Q fever may manifest in humans as an acute disease (mainly as a self-limited febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis) or as a chronic disease (mainly endocarditis), especially in patients with previous valvulopathy and to a lesser extent in immunocompromised hosts and in pregnant women. Specific diagnosis of Q fever remains based upon serology. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antiphase II antibodies are detected 2 to 3 weeks after infection with C. burnetii, whereas the presence of IgG antiphase I C. burnetii antibodies at titers of ≥1:800 by microimmunofluorescence is indicative of chronic Q fever. The tetracyclines are still considered the mainstay of antibiotic therapy of acute Q fever, whereas antibiotic combinations administered over prolonged periods are necessary to prevent relapses in Q fever endocarditis patients. Although the protective role of Q fever vaccination with whole-cell extracts has been established, the population which should be primarily vaccinated remains to be clearly identified. Vaccination should probably be considered in the population at high risk for Q fever endocarditis. PMID:10515901

  10. A Novel Surface Antigen of Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Can Discriminate between Relapsing Fever and Lyme Borreliosis▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Raffel, Sandra J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous immunoproteome analysis of Borrelia hermsii, candidate antigens that bound IgM antibodies from mice and patients infected with relapsing fever spirochetes were identified. One candidate that was identified is a hypothetical protein with a molecular mass of 57 kDa that we have designated Borrelia immunogenic protein A (BipA). This protein was further investigated as a potential diagnostic antigen for B. hermsii given that it is absent from the Borrelia burgdorferi genome. The bipA locus was amplified and sequenced from 39 isolates of B. hermsii that had been acquired from western North America. bipA was also expressed as a recombinant fusion protein. Serum samples from mice and patients infected with B. hermsii or B. burgdorferi were used to confirm the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein in patients infected with relapsing fever spirochetes. Lastly, in silico and experimental analysis indicated that BipA is a surface-exposed lipoprotein in B. hermsii. These findings enhance the capabilities of diagnosing infection with relapsing fever spirochetes. PMID:20147497

  11. Tickborne Relapsing Fever, Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Joshua; Fischer, Robert J.; McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    In July 2013, a resident of the Bitterroot Valley in western Montana, USA, contracted tickborne relapsing fever caused by an infection with the spirochete Borrelia hermsii. The patient’s travel history and activities before onset of illness indicated a possible exposure on his residential property on the eastern side of the valley. An onsite investigation of the potential exposure site found the vector, Ornithodoros hermsi ticks, and 1 chipmunk infected with spirochetes, which on the basis of multilocus sequence typing were identical to the spirochete isolated from the patient. Field studies in other locations found additional serologic evidence and an infected tick that demonstrated a wider distribution of spirochetes circulating among the small mammal populations. Our study demonstrates that this area of Montana represents a previously unrecognized focus of relapsing fever and poses a risk for persons of acquiring this tickborne disease. PMID:25625502

  12. Relapsing fever borreliosis in Eurasia--forgotten, but certainly not gone!

    PubMed

    Assous, M V; Wilamowski, A

    2009-05-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) has been reported in Eurasia and attributed mainly to Borrelia persica, although other entities have also been described. Ornithodoros tholozani is the most important tick vector, found in India and Kashmir, the southern countries of the former USSR, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Turkey, Israel, Egypt, and Cyprus. It inhabits caves, ruins, and burrows of rodents and small mammals. In the northern countries, O. tholozani also lives in houses and cowsheds. In Israel, 30-60% of caves were found to be infested. PCR studies of Borrelia infection of O. tholozani ticks collected in caves showed very variable rates, ranging from less than 2% to 40%. The number of human cases reported varies among countries, from eight cases per year in Israel to 72 cases per year in Iran. The incubation period is 5-9 days. The fever attacks last from several hours to 4 days, and are accompanied by chills, headache, nausea and vomiting, sweating, abdominal pain, arthralgia, and cough; complications are rare. Other described Borrelia species are Borrelia caucasica, Borrelia latyschewii, Borrelia microtii, and Borrelia baltazardi. The classic taxonomy based on the co-speciation concept is very complex and very confusing. For this reason, 16S rRNA and flaB genes were used for taxonomic clarification. Sequencing of Israeli TBRF flaB genes, from human and tick samples, has demonstrated a third cluster corresponding to the Eurasia strains, in addition to both New World and Old World clusters. Thin and thick blood smears remain the most frequently used methods for laboratory diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 80%. PCR-based diagnosis is the most sensitive method, and has the advantage of allowing species identification. PMID:19489923

  13. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa and South America. Yellow fever is spread through the bite of an infected ...

  14. Dengue fever (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dengue fever, or West Nile fever, is a mild viral illness transmitted by mosquitoes which causes fever, ... second exposure to the virus can result in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening illness.

  15. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  16. Multilocus sequence analysis of Borrelia bissettii strains from North America reveals a new Borrelia species, Borrelia kurtenbachii

    PubMed Central

    Margos, Gabriele; Hojgaard, Andrias; Lane, Robert S.; Cornet, Muriel; Fingerle, Volker; Rudenko, Nataliia; Ogden, Nicholas; Aanensen, David M.; Fish, Durland; Piesman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA), we investigated the phylogenetic relationship of spirochaete strains from North America previously assigned to the genospecies Borrelia bissettii. We amplified internal fragments of 8 housekeeping genes (clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA) located on the main linear chromosome by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the 8 loci showed that the B. bissettii clade consisted of 4 closely related clusters which included strains from California (including the type strain DN127-Cl9-2/p7) and Colorado that were isolated from Ixodes pacificus, I. spinipalpis, or infected reservoir hosts. Several strains isolated from I. scapularis clustered distantly from B. bissettii. Genetic distance analyses confirmed that these strains are more distant to B. bissettii than they are to B. carolinensis, a recently described Borrelia species, which suggests that they constitute a new Borrelia genospecies. We propose that it be named Borrelia kurtenbachii sp. nov. in honour of the late Klaus Kurtenbach. The data suggest that ecological differences between B. bissettii and the new Borrelia genospecies reflect different transmission cycles. In view of these findings, the distinct vertebrate host-tick vector associations and the distributions of B. bissettii and B. kurtenbachii require further investigation. PMID:21157575

  17. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts of Africa ... How can I prevent yellow fever?Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. ... only at designated vaccination centers. After getting the vaccine, you ...

  18. Maternal mortality in a rural Tanzanian hospital: fatal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in a case of relapsing fever in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven-Spaan, Ilona; Melkert, Peter; Nelissen, Ellen; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2013-10-01

    Relapsing fever is a disease caused by one of the species of Borrelia. It is often misdiagnosed as malaria and can have fatal complications such as the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR) after the commencement of treatment with antibiotics. A 19-year-old Tanzanian woman was admitted after a term home delivery that day. She presented with a 2 day history of fever, headache, general body malaise and vomiting. She was misdiagnosed as having severe malaria and was treated with quinine. The blood slide showed Borrelia duttoni. The patient continued treatment with procaine penicillin fortified for relapsing fever. Several hours later the woman died, probably due to JHR. This case of a patient with relapsing fever who died from a JHR stresses the importance of adequate diagnosis and treatment which should include careful monitoring, especially for the first hours after starting antibiotics. PMID:23976777

  19. Orchid Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    Exotic, captivating, and seductive, orchids have long fascinated plant lovers. They first attracted the attention of Westerners in the 17th century, when explorers brought back samples from South America and Asia. By the mid-1800s, orchid collecting had reached a fever pitch, not unlike that of the Dutch tulip craze of the 1630s, with rich (and…

  20. Dengue Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi tissue morphologies and imaging methodologies.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A B

    2013-08-01

    This manuscript offers an image presentation of diverse forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes which are not spiral or corkscrew shaped. Explanations are offered to justify the legitimacy of tissue forms of Borrelia which may confuse the inexperienced microscopic examiner and which may lead to the misdiagnosis of non-spiral forms as artifacts. Images from the author's personal collection of Borrelia burgdorferi images and a few select images of Borrelia burgdorferi from the peer-reviewed published literature are presented. A commentary justifying each of the image profiles and a survey of the imaging modalities utilized provides the reader with a frame of reference. Regularly spiraled Borrelia are rarely seen in solid tissues. A variety of straightened, undulating, and clipped-off profiles are demonstrated, and the structural basis for each image is explained. Tissue examination is a diagnostic tool and a quality control for judging the eradication or the persistence of borreliosis following attempts to eradicate the infection with antibiotic therapy. The presence or absence of chronic Lyme borreliosis may be objectively adjudicated by tissue examinations which demonstrate or which fail to show pathogenic microbes in patients who have received a full course of antibiotics. PMID:23479042

  2. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Borrelia afzelii and Two Borrelia garinii Lyme Disease Agent Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Dunn, John J.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Schutzer, Steve E.

    2011-01-01

    Human Lyme disease is commonly caused by several species of spirochetes in the Borrelia genus. In Eurasia these species are largely Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi, and B. bavariensis sp. nov. Whole-genome sequencing is an excellent tool for investigating and understanding the influence of bacterial diversity on the pathogenesis and etiology of Lyme disease. We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. afzelii isolates ACA-1 and PKo and B. garinii isolates PBr and Far04. PMID:22123755

  3. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Borrelia afzelii and Two Borrelia garinii Lyme Disease Agent Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W.-G.; Luft, B. J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Human Lyme disease is commonly caused by several species of spirochetes in the Borrelia genus. In Eurasia these species are largely Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi, and B. bavariensis sp. nov. Whole-genome sequencing is an excellent tool for investigating and understanding the influence of bacterial diversity on the pathogenesis and etiology of Lyme disease. We report here the whole-genome sequences of four isolates from two of the Borrelia species that cause human Lyme disease, B. afzelii isolates ACA-1 and PKo and B. garinii isolates PBr and Far04.

  4. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice - A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 106, 1 x 104, 1 x 102 and 4 x 100 spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 106, 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 104 and 1 x 102 borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species. PMID:26890814

  5. Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeester, T. R.; Coipan, E. C.; van Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.; Takken, W.; Sprong, H.

    2016-04-01

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

  6. Characterization of a DNA Adenine Methyltransferase Gene of Borrelia hermsii and Its Dispensability for Murine Infection and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    James, Allison E.; Rogovskyy, Artem S.; Crowley, Michael A.; Bankhead, Troy

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases have been implicated in the regulation of virulence genes in a number of pathogens. Relapsing fever Borrelia species harbor a conserved, putative DNA methyltransferase gene on their chromosome, while no such ortholog can be found in the annotated genome of the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi. In the relapsing fever species Borrelia hermsii, the locus bh0463A encodes this putative DNA adenine methyltransferase (dam). To verify the function of the BH0463A protein product as a Dam, the gene was cloned into a Dam-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Restriction fragment analysis subsequently demonstrated that complementation of this E. coli mutant with bh0463A restored adenine methylation, verifying bh0463A as a Dam. The requirement of bh0463A for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence was then investigated by genetically disrupting the gene. The dam- mutant was capable of infecting immunocompetent mice, and the mean level of spirochetemia in immunocompetent mice was not significantly different from wild type B. hermsii. Collectively, the data indicate that dam is dispensable for B. hermsii viability, infectivity, and persistence. PMID:27195796

  7. Hemolytic activity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L R; Austin, F E

    1992-01-01

    Zones of beta-hemolysis occurred around colonies of Borrelia burgdorferi grown on Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium containing agarose and horse blood. Blood plates were inoculated with either the infective strain Sh-2-82 or noninfective strain B-31 in an overlay and incubated in a candle jar. Both strains of B. burgdorferi displayed beta-hemolysis after 1 to 2 weeks of incubation. The hemolytic activity diffused out from the borrelial colonies, eventually resulting in lysis of the entire blood plate. Hemolysis was most pronounced with horse blood and was less intense with bovine, sheep, and rabbit blood. Hemolysis was enhanced by hot-cold incubation, which is typical of phospholipase-like activities in other bacteria. Further characterization of the borrelial hemolysin by using a spectrophotometric assay revealed its presence in the supernatant fluids of stationary-phase cultures. Detection of the borrelial hemolytic activity was dependent on activation of the hemolysin by the reducing agent cysteine. This study provides the first evidence of hemolytic activity associated with B. burgdorferi. Images PMID:1639493

  8. Q fever.

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, L G

    1993-01-01

    Q fever is an acute febrile illness first described in 1935 and now seen in many parts of the world. Human infection follows exposure to animals, especially domestic livestock. Recent outbreaks in metropolitan areas have implicated cats as the carrier of disease to humans. The etiologic agent, Coxiella burnetti, belongs to the family Rickettsiaceae, although it has distinct genetic characteristics and modes of transmission. Most recent attention has been focused on a number of large outbreaks of Q fever associated with medical research involving pregnant sheep. Although most infections are self-limited, some patients require prolonged treatment. Recent vaccines have had encouraging success in the prevention of disease in individuals at high risk of exposure. PMID:8358703

  9. Zika fever.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. PMID:26993436

  10. Typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. PMID:25458731

  11. Complement Evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: Serum-Resistant Strains Promote C3b Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Alitalo, Antti; Meri, Taru; Rämö, Lasse; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Heikkilä, Tero; Seppälä, Ilkka J. T.; Oksi, Jarmo; Viljanen, Matti; Meri, Seppo

    2001-01-01

    The most characteristic features of the Lyme disease pathogens, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) group, are their ability to invade tissues and to circumvent the immune defenses of the host for extended periods of time, despite elevated levels of borrelia-specific antibodies in serum and other body fluids. Our aim in the present study was to determine whether B. burgdorferi is able to interfere with complement (C) at the level of C3 by accelerating C3b inactivation and thus to inhibit the amplification of the C cascade. Strains belonging to different genospecies (Borrelia garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, and Borrelia afzelii) were compared for their sensitivities to normal human serum and abilities to promote factor I-mediated C3b degradation. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii strains were found to be serum resistant. When the spirochetes were incubated with radiolabeled C3b, factor I-mediated degradation of C3b was observed in the presence of C-resistant B. afzelii (n = 3) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (n = 1) strains but not in the presence of C-sensitive B. garinii (n = 7) strains or control bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis). Immunoblotting and radioligand binding analyses showed that the C-resistant strains had the capacity to acquire the C inhibitors factor H and factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) from growth medium and human serum. A novel surface protein with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa was found to preferentially bind to the N terminus region of factor H. Thus, the serum-resistant B. burgdorferi s.l. strains can circumvent C attack by binding the C inhibitors factor H and FHL-1 to their surfaces and promoting factor I-mediated C3b degradation. PMID:11349031

  12. Differential associations of Borrelia species with European badgers (Meles meles) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Wodecka, Beata; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S; Nowak-Chmura, Magdalena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-07-01

    European badgers and raccoon dogs and their associated ticks and lice were assayed for the presence of Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever-group spirochete DNA in western Poland. Analyses of blood, ear-biopsy and liver samples revealed that 25% of 28 raccoon dogs and 12% of 34 badgers were PCR positive for borreliae. Borrelia garinii was the dominant species in raccoon dogs (62.5%), followed by B. afzelii (25%) and B. valaisiana (12.5%). PCR-positive badgers were infected only with B. afzelii. A total of 351 attached ticks was recovered from 23 (82%) of the raccoon dogs and 13 (38%) of the badgers. Using a nested PCR targeting the ITS2 fragments of Ixodes DNA, four Ixodes species were identified: I. ricinus, I. canisuga, I. hexagonus, and one provisionally named I. cf. kaiseri. Ixodes canisuga and I. ricinus prevailed on both host species. The highest infection prevalence was detected in I. ricinus, followed by I. canisuga and I. cf. kaiseri. Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii accounted for 61.6% and 30.1% of the infections detected in all PCR-positive ticks, respectively. Four other Borrelia species (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae and B. miyamotoi) were detected only in I. ricinus from raccoon dogs. Moreover, Borrelia DNA, mostly B. garinii, was detected in 57 (81.4%) of 70 Trichodectes melis lice derived from 12 badgers. The detection of B. afzelii in one-half of PCR-positive biopsies reconfirms previous associations of this species with mammalian hosts, whereas the high prevalence of B. garinii in feeding lice and I. ricinus ticks (including larvae) demonstrates that both carnivores serve as hosts for B. garinii. The lack of B. garinii DNA in the tissues of badgers versus its prevalence in raccoon-dog biopsies, however, incriminates only the latter carnivore as a potential reservoir host. PMID:27263838

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi mutant lacking Osp: biological and immunological characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Sadziene, A; Thomas, D D; Barbour, A G

    1995-01-01

    All Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates characterized to date have one or a combination of several major outer surface proteins (Osps). Mutants of B. burgdorferi lacking Osps were selected with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies at a frequency of 10(-6) to 10(-5). One mutant that lacked OspA, -B, -C, and -D was further characterized. It was distinguished from the OspA+B+ cells by its (i) autoaggregation and slower growth rate, (ii) decreased plating efficiency on solid medium, (iii) serum and complement sensitivity, and (iv) diminished capacity to adhere to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The Osp-less mutant was unable to evoke a detectable immune response after intradermal live cell immunization even though mutant survived in mouse skin for the same duration as wild-type cells. Polyclonal mouse serum raised against Osp-less cells inhibited growth of the mutant but not of wild-type cells, an indication that other antigens are present on the surface of the Osp-less mutant. Two types of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with growth-inhibiting properties for mutant cells were identified. The first type bound to a 13-kDa surface protein of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and of B. afzelii. The MIC of the Fab fragment of one MAb of this type was 0.2 micrograms/ml. The second type of MAb to the Osp-less mutant did not bind to B. burgdorferi components by Western blotting (immunoblotting) but did not bind to unfixed, viable cells in immunofluorescence and growth inhibition assays. These studies revealed possible functions Osp proteins in borrelias, specifically serum resistance, and indicated that in the absence of Osp proteins, other antigens are expressed or become accessible at the cell surface. PMID:7890424

  14. The dynamic proteome of Lyme disease Borrelia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    The proteome of the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-borne agent of Lyme disease, has been characterized by two different approaches using mass spectrometry, providing a launching point for future studies on the dramatic changes in protein expression that occur during transmission of the bacterium between ticks and mammals. PMID:16563176

  15. GlpQ: an antigen for serological discrimination between relapsing fever and Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, T G; Schrumpf, M E; Hinnebusch, B J; Anderson, D E; Konkel, M E

    1996-01-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is caused by numerous Borrelia species maintained in nature by Ornithodoros tick-mammal cycles. Serological confirmation is based on either an immunofluorescence assay or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole cells or sonicated Borrelia hermsii as the antigen. However, antigenic variability of this bacterium's outer surface proteins and antigens shared with the Lyme disease spirochete (B. burgdorferi), may cause both false-negative and false-positive results when testing sera of patients suspected to have either relapsing fever or Lyme disease. To develop a specific serological test for relapsing fever, we created a genomic DNA library of B. hermsii, screened transformed Escherichia coli cells for immunoreactivity with high-titered (> or = 1:2,048) human anti-B. hermsii antiserum, and selected an immunoreactive clone (pSPR75) expressing a 39-kDa protein. DNA sequencing, subcloning, and serum adsorption experiments identified the immunoreactive protein as a homolog of GlpQ, a glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase identified previously in E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacillus subtilis. Serum samples from humans and mice infected with B. hermsii or other species of relapsing fever spirochetes contained antibodies recognizing GlpQ, whereas serum samples from Lyme disease and syphilis patients were nonreactive. Serologic tests based on this antigen will identify people exposed previously to relapsing fever spirochetes and help clarify the distribution of relapsing fever and Lyme disease in situations in which the occurrence of their causative agents is uncertain. PMID:8880505

  16. Multiplex 5′ Nuclease-Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Relapsing Fever in a Large Tanzanian Cohort ▿

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Clemens, Emily G.; Schachterle, Steve E.; Mtove, George A.; Sullivan, David J.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Relapsing fever (RF) is caused by tick- and louse-borne Borrelia spp., is characterized by recurrent fever, and is often misdiagnosed as malaria. Because of submicroscopic bacteremia, microscopy can be insensitive between febrile bouts. We designed a multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to distinguish RF Borrelia from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The assay specifically (100%) amplified pathogenic RF Borrelia (1 copy/reaction). We then tested blood from participants within a Tanzanian cohort assessed at scheduled intervals and with fever. Among 8,617 blood samples from 2,057 participants surveyed routinely, 7 (0.08%) samples and 7 (0.3%) participants had RF DNA (median, 4.4 × 103 copies/ml). Of 382 samples from 310 febrile persons, 15 (3.9%) samples from 13 (4.2%) participants had RF DNA (median, 7.9 × 102 copies/ml). Five (1.3%) samples from 4 (1.3%) participants were found to harbor Borrelia by microscopy. We conclude that multiplex qPCR holds promise for improved clinical diagnosis and epidemiologic assessment of RF. PMID:21775542

  17. The Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution of Relapsing Fever Borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a Review of the Ornithodoros erraticus Complex (Acari: Ixodida)

    PubMed Central

    Trape, Jean-François; Diatta, Georges; Arnathau, Céline; Bitam, Idir; Sarih, M’hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Bouattour, Ali; Elguero, Eric; Vial, Laurence; Mané, Youssouph; Baldé, Cellou; Pugnolle, Franck; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mahé, Gil; Granjon, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Relapsing fever is the most frequent bacterial disease in Africa. Four main vector / pathogen complexes are classically recognized, with the louse Pediculus humanus acting as vector for B. recurrentis and the soft ticks Ornithodoros sonrai, O. erraticus and O. moubata acting as vectors for Borrelia crocidurae, B. hispanica and B. duttonii, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in West, North and Central Africa. Methods And Findings From 2002 to 2012, we conducted field surveys in 17 African countries and in Spain. We investigated the occurrence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 282 study sites. We collected 1,629 small mammals that may act as reservoir for Borrelia infections. Using molecular methods we studied genetic diversity among Ornithodoros ticks and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals. Of 9,870 burrows investigated, 1,196 (12.1%) were inhabited by Ornithodoros ticks. In West Africa, the southern and eastern limits of the vectors and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals were 13°N and 01°E, respectively. Molecular studies revealed the occurrence of nine different Ornithodoros species, including five species new for science, with six of them harboring Borrelia infections. Only B. crocidurae was found in West Africa and three Borrelia species were identified in North Africa: B. crocidurae, B. hispanica, and B. merionesi. Conclusions Borrelia Spirochetes responsible for relapsing fever in humans are highly prevalent both in Ornithodoros ticks and small mammals in North and West Africa but Ornithodoros ticks seem absent south of 13°N and small mammals are not infected in these regions. The number of Ornithodoros species acting as vector of relapsing fever is much higher than previously known. PMID:24223812

  18. Psychogenic fever, functional fever, or psychogenic hyperthermia?

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Berend

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever reflects a phenomenon where core body temperature is high (up to 41°C) or low-grade high (37–38°C) during either acute or chronic stress. Underlying mechanisms are distinct from infection-induced fever and involve the central and sympathetic nervous systems. Psychogenic fever appears a complex psychological, physiological and endocrinological phenomenon.

  19. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    PubMed Central

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events. PMID:26553505

  20. Virulence of recurrent infestations with Borrelia-infected ticks in a Borrelia-amplifying bird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.

  1. Persisting atypical and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local inflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith; Kasas, Sandor; Zurn, Anne D; McCall, Sherman; Yu, Sheng; McGeer, Patrick L

    2008-01-01

    Background The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We investigated whether a similar situation may occur in Lyme neuroborreliosis. Method Atypical forms of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes were induced exposing cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi (strains B31 and ADB1) to such unfavorable conditions as osmotic and heat shock, and exposure to the binding agents Thioflavin S and Congo red. We also analyzed whether these forms may be induced in vitro, following infection of primary chicken and rat neurons, as well as rat and human astrocytes. We further analyzed whether atypical forms similar to those induced in vitro may also occur in vivo, in brains of three patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis. We used immunohistochemical methods to detect evidence of neuroinflammation in the form of reactive microglia and astrocytes. Results Under these conditions we observed atypical cystic, rolled and granular forms of these spirochetes. We characterized these abnormal forms by histochemical, immunohistochemical, dark field and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. The atypical and cystic forms found in the brains of three patients with neuropathologically confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis were identical to those induced in vitro. We also observed nuclear fragmentation of the infected astrocytes using the TUNEL method. Abundant HLA-DR positive microglia and GFAP positive reactive astrocytes were present in the cerebral cortex. Conclusion The results indicate that atypical extra- and intracellular pleomorphic and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and local neuroinflammation occur in the brain in chronic Lyme neuroborreliosis. The persistence of these more resistant spirochete forms, and their intracellular location in neurons and glial cells, may explain the long latent stage and persistence of Borrelia infection

  2. [Clinical aspects of Borrelia burgdorferi infections].

    PubMed

    Neubert, U

    1989-08-15

    Skin lesions due to Borrelia burgdorferi-like erythema migrans, lymphadenosis cutis benigna, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans - are hall-marks of a systemic infection, which tends to a chronically relapsing course. Even if the skin lesions are missing, or disappear spontaneously, the infection may persist and affect other organs. This presumption is supported by the outcome of a long-term follow-up study on seropositive forest workers. In association with meningopolyneuritis (Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth disease) and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans - myositis and fasciitis have been recently reported as further possible manifestations of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Borrelial infection during pregnancy should promptly be treated with antibiotics in high dosages, in order to prevent maternal-fetal transmission of borrelial organisms resulting in stillbirth or congenital defects of the newborn. PMID:2678790

  3. Antigenically variable Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from cottontail rabbits and Ixodes dentatus in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Magnarelli, L A; LeFebvre, R B; Andreadis, T G; McAninch, J B; Perng, G C; Johnson, R C

    1989-01-01

    Spirochetes were isolated from 71 subadult Ixodes dentatus removed from cottontail rabbits captured in Millbrook, N.Y., and in New York, N.Y. Spirochetes were also cultured from kidney tissues of six rabbits. While all isolates reacted with monoclonal antibody H9724, which identifies the spirochetes as borreliae, more than half did not bind with antibody H5332 and even fewer reacted with H3TS, both of which were produced to outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles of three isolates differed from one another and from all previously characterized B. burgdorferi strains from humans, ticks, and wildlife in North America. The 12 periplasmic flagella that originated subterminally from each pointed end of a rabbit Borellia isolate contrasted with the 11 or fewer flagella for B. burgdorferi reported previously from North America. Although DNA homology and restriction endonuclease analysis also revealed differences among a rabbit kidney isolate, an I. dentatus isolate, and B. burgdorferi B31, similarities were sufficient to lead us to conclude that the borreliae in rabbits and I. dentatus are B. burgdorferi. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers of sera from humans with diagnosed Lyme disease to rabbit tick B. burgdorferi were often similar to one another and to those recorded for a reference B. burgdorferi strain. Images PMID:2913024

  4. Is Localized Scleroderma Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi?

    PubMed

    Zinchuk, Alexander N; Kalyuzhna, Lidiya D; Pasichna, Iryna A

    2016-09-01

    Despite considerable achievements in the study of localized scleroderma, the etiology of the disease has not been investigated completely. Borrelia burgdorferi-the agent of Lyme disease-is suggested to be one of the possible etiological factors of localized scleroderma. However, among scientists, this hypothesis is quite controversial. We have conducted investigations of the level of IgM and IgG class antibodies to B. burgdorferi in the serum of patients with localized scleroderma. To rationally substantiate the role of B. burgdorferi in the occurrence of localized scleroderma, thirty-two patients with localized scleroderma treated at an in-patient department were examined. The level of anti-Borrelia antibodies was determined in ELISA. Diagnostic levels of IgM and/or IgG were detected in 18.8% of patients with localized scleroderma, which is more than in the population (p < 0.01). Positive levels of anti-Borrelia antibodies in patients with localized scleroderma confirm the borreliosis nature of the disease, requiring conduction of complex antimicrobial treatment. PMID:27387068

  5. First isolation of Borrelia lusitaniae from a human patient.

    PubMed

    Collares-Pereira, M; Couceiro, S; Franca, I; Kurtenbach, K; Schäfer, S M; Vitorino, L; Gonçalves, L; Baptista, S; Vieira, M L; Cunha, C

    2004-03-01

    The first human isolate of Borrelia lusitaniae recovered from a Portuguese patient with suspected Lyme borreliosis is described. This isolate, from a chronic skin lesion, is also the first human isolate of Borrelia in Portugal. Different phenotypic and molecular methods are used to characterize it. PMID:15004107

  6. First Isolation of Borrelia lusitaniae from a Human Patient

    PubMed Central

    Collares-Pereira, M.; Couceiro, S.; Franca, I.; Kurtenbach, K.; Schäfer, S. M.; Vitorino, L.; Gonçalves, L.; Baptista, S.; Vieira, M. L.; Cunha, C.

    2004-01-01

    The first human isolate of Borrelia lusitaniae recovered from a Portuguese patient with suspected Lyme borreliosis is described. This isolate, from a chronic skin lesion, is also the first human isolate of Borrelia in Portugal. Different phenotypic and molecular methods are used to characterize it. PMID:15004107

  7. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice--A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-02-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4), 1 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(0) spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species. PMID:26890814

  8. Tickborne Relapsing Fever Diagnosis Obscured by Malaria, Togo

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrand, Annika; Bunikis, Ignas; Larsson, Christer; Tsogbe, Kodjo; Schwan, Tom G.; Nilsson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Given the prevalence of relapsing fever (RF) in Senegal, this disease may cause illness and death in other areas of West Africa. We performed a cross-sectional, clinic-based study to investigate the presence of RF in Togo during 2002–2004. Blood samples from patients with fever were examined for RF spirochetes by microscopy, PCR, and DNA sequencing of amplicons and for antibodies to the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase antigen. Although no spirochetes were seen in blood smears, ≈10% of the patients were positive by PCR and ≈13% were seropositive for spirochetes. DNA sequencing demonstrated that Borrelia crocidurae and B. duttonii were present. Most patients were treated for malaria whether or not plasmodia were observed. Thus, many RF patients originally had a misdiagnosis of malaria, which resulted in ineffective treatment. The inability of microscopic analysis to detect spirochetes compared with PCR demonstrates the need for tests with greater sensitivity. PMID:17370524

  9. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Carolan, Heather E.; Rounds, Megan A.; Honig, Vaclav; Mothes, Benedikt; Haag, Heike; Nolte, Oliver; Luft, Ben J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Ecker, David J.; Schutzer, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen. To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan. We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%. These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside. PMID:25280366

  10. A Short-Term Borrelia burgdorferi Infection Model Identifies Tissue Tropisms and Bloodstream Survival Conferred by Adhesion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, is able to persist in the joint, heart, skin, and central nervous system for the lifetime of its mammalian host. Borrelia species achieve dissemination to distal sites in part by entry into and travel within the bloodstream. Much work has been performed in vitro describing the roles of many B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in adhesion to host cell surface proteins and extracellular matrix components, although the biological relevance of these interactions is only beginning to be explored in vivo. A need exists in the field for an in vivo model to define the biological roles of B. burgdorferi adhesins in tissue-specific vascular interactions. We have developed an in vivo model of vascular interaction of B. burgdorferi in which the bacteria are injected intravenously and allowed to circulate for 1 h. This model has shown that the fibronectin binding protein BB0347 has a tropism for joint tissue. We also have shown an importance of the integrin binding protein, P66, in binding to vasculature of the ear and heart. This model also revealed unexpected roles for Borrelia adhesins BBK32 and OspC in bacterial burdens in the bloodstream. The intravenous inoculation model of short-term infection provides new insights into critical B. burgdorferi interactions with the host required for initial survival and tissue colonization. PMID:26015482

  11. Large Scale Spatial Risk and Comparative Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Kerry; Bonilla, Denise; Kjemtrup, Anne; Vilcins, Inger-Marie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Hui, Lucia; Sola, Milagros; Quintana, Miguel; Kramer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a newly described emerging pathogen transmitted to people by Ixodes species ticks and found in temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. There is limited understanding of large scale entomological risk patterns of B. miyamotoi and of Borreila burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss), the agent of Lyme disease, in western North America. In this study, B. miyamotoi, a relapsing fever spirochete, was detected in adult (n = 70) and nymphal (n = 36) Ixodes pacificus ticks collected from 24 of 48 California counties that were surveyed over a 13 year period. Statewide prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (sl), which includes B. burgdorferi ss, and B. miyamotoi were similar in adult I. pacificus (0.6% and 0.8%, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sl was almost 2.5 times higher than B. miyamotoi in nymphal I. pacificus (3.2% versus 1.4%). These results suggest similar risk of exposure to B. burgdorferi sl and B. miyamotoi from adult I. pacificus tick bites in California, but a higher risk of contracting B. burgdorferi sl than B. miyamotoi from nymphal tick bites. While regional risk of exposure to these two spirochetes varies, the highest risk for both species is found in north and central coastal California and the Sierra Nevada foothill region, and the lowest risk is in southern California; nevertheless, tick-bite avoidance measures should be implemented in all regions of California. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate entomologic risk for B. miyamotoi and B. burgdorferi for both adult and nymphal I. pacificus, an important human biting tick in western North America. PMID:25333277

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

  13. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fever with Renal Syndrome Hendra Virus Disease Kyasanur Forest Disease Lassa Fever Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis (LCM) Marburg Hemorrhagic ... the rodent species carrying several of the New World arenaviruses, live in geographically restricted areas. Therefore, the ...

  14. Colorado tick fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediately by using tweezers, pulling carefully and steadily. Insect repellent may be helpful. Alternative Names Mountain tick fever; ... chap 51. Read More Acute Encephalitis Fever Incidence Insect bites and stings Update Date 12/7/2014 Updated by: Jatin ...

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  16. Haemorrhagic Fevers, Viral

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, dengue, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur forest disease). Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015 All information on Ebola virus disease Ebola features map Dashboard - Progress update ...

  17. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. Symptoms due to Streptobacillus moniliformis may include: Chills Fever Joint pain, redness, or swelling Rash Symptoms due to Spirillum minus may include: Chills Fever Open sore at the site of the ...

  18. Genomic Characteristics of Chinese Borrelia burgdorferi Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xuexia; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Chen, Chen; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    In China, B. burgdorferi, B.garinii, B. afzelii and B. yangtze sp. nov have been reported; B.garinii and B. afzelii are the main pathogenic genotypes. But until now only one Chinese strain was reported with whole genome sequence. In order to further understand the genomic characteristics and diversity of Chinese Borrelia strains, 5 isolates from China were sequenced and compared with the whole genome sequences of strains in other areas. The results showed a high degree of conservation within the linear chromosome of Chinese strains, whereas plasmid showed a much larger diversity according to the majority genomic information of plasmids. The genome sequences of the five Chinese strains were compared with the corresponding reference strains, respectively, according to the genospecies. Pairwise analysis demonstrates that there are only 70 SNPs between the genomes of CS4 and B31. However, there are many more SNPs between the genomes of QX-S13 and VS116, PD91 and PBi, FP1 and PKo, R9 and Pko, respectively. Gene comparison showed some important different genes. OspA was one of the important different genes. Comparative genomic studies have found that OspA gene sequences of PD91 and R9 had great differences compared with the sequence of B31. OspA gene sequence of R9 had a 96bp deletion; OspA gene of PD91 had two deletions: 9bp and 10 bp. To conclude, we showed the genomic characteristics of four genotype Chinese B. burgdorferi strains. The genomic sequence of B. yangtze sp. nov and differences from B. valaisiana were first reported. Comparative analysis of Chinese strains with the different Borrelia species from other areas will help us to understand evolution and pathogenesis of Chinese Borrelia burgdorferi strains. PMID:27093540

  19. Borrelia infection and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Melbye, Mads; Munksgaard, Lars; Smedby, Karin Ekström; Rostgaard, Klaus; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T.; Roos, Göran; Hansen, Mads; Adami, Hans-Olov; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Reports of the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in malignant lymphomas have raised the hypothesis that infection with B burgdorferi may be causally related to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) development. We conducted a Danish-Swedish case-control study including 3055 NHL patients and 3187 population controls. History of tick bite or Borrelia infection was ascertained through structured telephone interviews and through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serum analyses for antibodies against B burgdorferi in a subset of 1579 patients and 1358 controls. Statistical associations with risk of NHL, including histologic subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression. Overall risk of NHL was not associated with self-reported history of tick bite (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.1), Borrelia infection (OR = 1.3 [0.96-1.8]) or the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies (OR = 1.3 [0.9-2.0]). However, in analyses of NHL subtypes, self-reported history of B burgdorferi infection (OR = 2.5 [1.2-5.1]) and seropositivity for anti-Borrelia antibodies (OR = 3.6 [1.8-7.4]) were both associated with risk of mantle cell lymphoma. Notably, this specific association was also observed in persons who did not recall Borrelia infection yet tested positive for anti-Borrelia antibodies (OR = 4.2 [2.0-8.9]). Our observations suggest a previously unreported association between B burgdorferi infection and risk of mantle cell lymphoma. PMID:18424667

  20. Annexin 2 is a host protein binding to classical swine fever virus E2 glycoprotein and promoting viral growth in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Shi, Zixue; Guo, Huancheng; Qu, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a key determinant and major immunogen for viral entry and immunity, but little is known about its interaction with host proteins. In a previous study, we showed by proteomic analysis that cellular membrane protein annexin 2 (Anx2) was up-regulated in PK-15 cells following CSFV infection, but its function in CSFV replication remains unknown. In the present study we observed the interaction of Anx2 with CSFV E2 following infection of PK-15 cells by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), mass spectrometry, Western blot and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The interaction between CSFV E2 and Anx2 was further confirmed in an E2-expressing PK-15 cell line, in which up-regulation of Anx2 was also observed, indicating that E2 alone can interact with, and increase, the expression of Anx2 protein. Further studies showed that siRNA-mediated knock-down and plasmid-mediated over-expression of Anx2 in PK-15 cells inhibited and increased CSFV replication and proliferation respectively. Remarkably, treatment of PK-15 cells with Anx2-specific polyclonal antibody prior to virus infection significantly inhibited CSFV multiplication, indicating that Anx2 is a cellular membrane protein likely associated with CSFV entry into cells. In conclusion, Anx2 is the novel host protein identified to interact with CSFV E2 and promote CSFV multiplication. These observations provide support for the potential use of Anx2 as a cellular target for the development of novel anti-CSFV therapies. PMID:25701745

  1. Colony formation and morphology in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Kurtti, T J; Munderloh, U G; Johnson, R C; Ahlstrand, G G

    1987-11-01

    Two strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, B31 and 297, formed colonies when plated onto Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium solidified with agarose (1.3%) and incubated in a candle jar at 34 degrees C. Colonies differing in morphology were observed in both strains after 2 to 3 weeks of incubation. Strain B31 colonies were either compact, round (mean diameter, 0.43 mm), and restricted to the surface of the agarose medium or diffuse (mean diameter, 1.80 mm) and penetrating into the solid medium. Strain 297 colonies (mean diameter, 1.43 mm) either showed a raised center surrounded by a diffuse ring of spirochetes or consisted of numerous small spirochetal aggregates. Both colony types expanded into the agarose medium. Scanning electron and light microscopy confirmed that the colonies were formed by spirochetes. Twisted tangles of intertwined spirochetes were visible on the surface, with numerous spherical bodies among them, especially in the central regions. At the periphery, the borreliae were more loosely packed, and individual coils were discernible. PMID:3693538

  2. Membrane topology of Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J D; Bourell, K W; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1995-01-01

    A critical issue regarding the molecular architectures of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, the agents of venereal syphilis and Lyme disease, respectively, concerns the membrane topologies of their major lipoprotein immunogens. A related question is whether these lipid-modified membrane proteins form intramembranous particles during freeze fracture electron microscopy. To address these issues, native borrelial and treponemal lipoproteins were reconstituted into liposomes of diverse composition. The importance of the covalently associated lipids for membrane association of lipoproteins was revealed by the observation that nonlipidated recombinant forms of both B. burgdorferi OspA and the T. pallidum 47-kDa immunogen (Tpp47) showed very weak or no binding to model bilayer vesicles. In contrast to control liposomes reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin or bovine rhodopsin, two well-characterized transmembrane proteins, none of the lipoprotein-liposomes contained particles when examined by freeze fracture electron microscopy. To extend these findings to prokaryotic lipoproteins with relatively amphiphilic polypeptides, similar experiments were conducted with a recombinant nonlipidated form of Escherichia coli TraT, a lipoprotein which has putative transmembrane domains. The nonlipidated TraT oligomers bound vesicles derived from E. coli lipids but, surprisingly, did not form particles in the freeze-fractured liposomes. These findings support (i) a proposed topology of spirochetal lipoproteins in which the polypeptide is extrinsic to the membrane surface and (ii) the contention that particles visualized in freeze-fractured spirochetal membranes represent poorly characterized transmembrane proteins. PMID:7790053

  3. [Relapsing fever: an almost forgotten disease in focus again].

    PubMed

    Wieser, Andreas; Löscher, Thomas; Schunk, Mirjam; Seilmaier, Michael; Balzer, Lukas; Margos, Gabriele; von Both, Ulrich; Schulzki, Thomas; Kopf, Sabine; Hoch, Martin; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Introduction | Relapsing fevers, transmitted by arthropods, are rarely encountered in Germany, thus they are often not considered as differential diagnosis in febrile patients. In the last months, more than fourty cases of louse-borne relapsing fever were diagnosed in asylum seekers in Germany. Some of the patients had to be admitted to intensive care units, one patient died despite therapy. Pathogen, disease and diagnosis | The causative agents are spirochetes of the genus borrelia, which can reach high densities in patient blood. Depending on the vector and the region, different species are prevalent worldwide. For diagnosis, appropriate techniques include direct detection by microscopy or PCR from EDTA-blood. Ordering such tests should not be delayed when there is suspicion for relapsing fever. Besides, malaria can also be excluded with microscopy of blood smears. Therapy | First-line antibiotics include tetracyclines and penicillin, acquired resistance has not yet been observed. Frequently patients develop a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction shortly after initiation of therapy, requiring hospitalization or intensive care treatment. Managing the treatment exclusively in an outpatient setting is not recommended. Especially in migrants with febrile illness, relapsing fever is an important differential diagnosis. PMID:27404930

  4. The Enolase of Borrelia burgdorferi Is a Plasminogen Receptor Released in Outer Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, A.; Coleman, J. L.; Kuhlow, C. J.; Crowley, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    The agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, has a number of outer membrane proteins that are differentially regulated during its life cycle. In addition to their physiological functions in the organism, these proteins also likely serve different functions in invasiveness and immune evasion. In borreliae, as well as in other bacteria, a number of membrane proteins have been implicated in binding plasminogen. The activation and transformation of plasminogen into its proteolytically active form, plasmin, enhances the ability of the bacteria to disseminate in the host. Outer membrane vesicles of B. burgdorferi contain enolase, a glycolytic-cycle enzyme that catalyzes 2-phosphoglycerate to form phosphoenolpyruvate, which is also a known plasminogen receptor in Gram-positive bacteria. The enolase was cloned, expressed, purified, and used to generate rabbit antienolase serum. The enolase binds plasminogen in a lysine-dependent manner but not through ionic interactions. Although it is present in the outer membrane, microscopy and proteinase K treatment showed that enolase does not appear to be exposed on the surface. However, enolase in the outer membrane vesicles is accessible to proteolytic degradation by proteinase K. Samples from experimentally and tick-infected mice and rabbits as well as from Lyme disease patients exhibit recognition of enolase in serologic assays. Thus, this immunogenic plasminogen receptor released in outer membrane vesicles could be responsible for external proteolysis in the pericellular environment and have roles in nutrition and in enhancing dissemination. PMID:22083700

  5. Autophagy suppresses host adaptive immune responses toward Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Buffen, Kathrin; Oosting, Marije; Li, Yang; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy increased the Borrelia burgdorferi induced innate cytokine production in vitro, but little is known regarding the effect of autophagy on in vivo models of Borrelia infection. Here, we showed that ATG7-deficient mice that were intra-articular injected with Borrelia spirochetes displayed increased joint swelling, cell influx, and enhanced interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 production by inflamed synovial tissue. Because both interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 are linked to the development of adaptive immune responses, we examine the function of autophagy on Borrelia induced adaptive immunity. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with autophagy inhibitors showed an increase in interleukin-17, interleukin-22, and interferon-γ production in response to exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi. Increased IL-17 production was dependent on IL-1β release but, interestingly, not on interleukin-23 production. In addition, cytokine quantitative trait loci in ATG9B modulate the Borrelia induced interleukin-17 production. Because high levels of IL-17 have been found in patients with confirmed, severe, chronic borreliosis, we propose that the modulation of autophagy may be a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy in patients with persistent Lyme disease. PMID:27101991

  6. Variable Major Proteins as Targets for Specific Antibodies against Borrelia miyamotoi.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Alex; Koetsveld, Joris; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Wickel, Melvin; Deponte, Kathleen; Bleijlevens, Boris; Jahfari, Seta; Sprong, Hein; Karan, Lyudmila S; Sarksyan, Denis S; van der Poll, Tom; Bockenstedt, Linda K; Bins, Adriaan D; Platonov, Alexander E; Fikrig, Erol; Hovius, Joppe W

    2016-05-15

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete in Ixodes ticks that has been recently identified as a human pathogen causing hard tick-borne relapsing fever (HTBRF) across the Northern Hemisphere. No validated serologic test exists, and current serologic assays have low sensitivity in early HTBRF. To examine the humoral immune response against B. miyamotoi, we infected C3H/HeN mice with B. miyamotoi strain LB-2001 expressing variable small protein 1 (Vsp1) and demonstrated that spirochetemia was cleared after 3 d, coinciding with anti-Vsp1 IgM production. Clearance was also observed after passive transfer of immune sera to infected SCID mice. Next, we showed that anti-Vsp1 IgG eliminates Vsp1-expressing B. miyamotoi, selecting for spirochetes expressing a variable large protein (VlpC2) resistant to anti-Vsp1. The viability of Asian isolate B. miyamotoi HT31, expressing Vlp15/16 and Vlp18, was also unaffected by anti-Vsp1. Finally, in nine HTBRF patients, we demonstrated IgM reactivity to Vsp1 in two and against Vlp15/16 in four ∼1 wk after these patients tested positive for B. miyamotoi by PCR. Our data show that B. miyamotoi is able to express various variable major proteins (VMPs) to evade humoral immunity and that VMPs are antigenic in humans. We propose that serologic tests based on VMPs are of additional value in diagnosing HTBRF. PMID:27076681

  7. Complications of pregnancy and transplacental transmission of relapsing-fever borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Christer; Andersson, Marie; Guo, Betty P; Nordstrand, Annika; Hagerstrand, Inga; Carlsson, Sara; Bergstrom, Sven

    2006-11-15

    Relapsing-fever borreliosis caused by Borrelia duttonii is a common cause of complications of pregnancy, miscarriage, and neonatal death in sub-Saharan Africa. We established a murine model of gestational relapsing fever infection for the study of the pathological development of these complications. We demonstrate that B. duttonii infection during pregnancy results in intrauterine growth retardation, as well as placental damage and inflammation, impaired fetal circulation, and decreased maternal hemoglobin levels. We show that spirochetes frequently cross the maternal-fetal barrier, resulting in congenital infection. Furthermore, we compared the severity of infection in pregnant and nonpregnant mice and show that pregnancy has a protective effect. This model closely parallels the consequences of human gestational infection, and our results provide insight into the mechanisms behind the complications of pregnancy that have been reported in human relapsing-fever infection. PMID:17054065

  8. Q fever - a review.

    PubMed

    Marrie, T J

    1990-08-01

    Q or "query" fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 10(9)/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates.Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989.A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. PMID:17423643

  9. Biomechanics of Borrelia burgdorferi Vascular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ebady, Rhodaba; Niddam, Alexandra F; Boczula, Anna E; Kim, Yae Ram; Gupta, Nupur; Tang, Tian Tian; Odisho, Tanya; Zhi, Hui; Simmons, Craig A; Skare, Jon T; Moriarty, Tara J

    2016-09-01

    Systemic dissemination of microbes is critical for progression of many infectious diseases and is associated with most mortality due to bacterial infection. The physical mechanisms mediating a key dissemination step, bacterial association with vascular endothelia in blood vessels, remain unknown. Here, we show that endothelial interactions of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi under physiological shear stress mechanistically resemble selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. Specifically, these interactions are mediated by transfer of mechanical load along a series of adhesion complexes and are stabilized by tethers and catch bond properties of the bacterial adhesin BBK32. Furthermore, we found that the forces imposed on adhesive bonds under flow may be small enough to permit active migration driven by bacterial flagellar motors. These findings provide insight into the biomechanics of bacterial-vascular interactions and demonstrate that disseminating bacteria and circulating host immune cells share widely conserved mechanisms for interacting with endothelia under physiological shear stress. PMID:27568563

  10. Mecillinam in enteric fever.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Brennand, J

    1979-01-01

    Twelve consecutive patients with enteric fever entered a trial of 14 days' treatment with mecillinam. Only three patients became afebrile within three days; four continued unimproved with fever and toxaemia for seven to nine days, when treatment was changed to chloramphenicol with good results. In one case the fever did not settle until the 13th day, and five days later the patient had a clinical relapse. Although all organisms recovered were fully sensitive to mecillinam, this drug is not an effective or consistent treatment for enteric fever. PMID:218670

  11. [Fever in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  12. Immunologic and genetic analyses of VmpA of a neurotropic strain of Borrelia turicatae.

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid, D; Pennington, P M; Kerentseva, T A; Bergström, S; Barbour, A G

    1997-01-01

    In mice infected with serotype A but not serotype B of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia turicatae, early invasion of the brain occurs. Serotypes A and B are further distinguished by the abundant surface protein they produce: VmpA and VmpB, respectively. Western blotting with monoclonal antibodies, one-dimensional peptide mapping, and partial amino acid sequencing demonstrated regions of the VmpA protein that differed from VmpB. Oligonucleotide primers based on the partial amino acid sequences of unique regions were used to amplify a portion of the VmpA gene (vmpA) by PCR, and the product was used as a probe in Southern blot and Northern blot analyses. These experiments showed that (i) expression of the vmpA sequence was determined at the level of transcription and (ii) the vmpA sequence was in two locations in serotype A and one location in serotype B. The vmpA gene at the expression-linked locus of serotype A was cloned and sequenced. An open reading frame would encode a polypeptide of 214 amino acids. The polypeptide expressed by Escherichia coli was bound by VmA-specific but not VmpB-specific antibody. Primer extension analysis identified a consensus sigma70-type promoter for vmpA at the expression locus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that VmpA is homologous to small Vmp (Vsp) proteins of B. hermsii and to OspC proteins of B. burgdorferi. These findings indicate that a function of the Vsp-OspC family of proteins of Borrelia spp. may be differential localization in organs, including the brain, during infection. PMID:9234797

  13. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Jahfari, S; Herremans, T; Platonov, A E; Kuiper, H; Karan, L S; Vasilieva, O; Koopmans, M P G; Hovius, J W R; Sprong, H

    2014-01-01

    Substantial exposure to Borrelia miyamotoi occurs through bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands, which also transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct evidence for B. miyamotoi infection in European populations is scarce. A flu-like illness with high fever, resembling human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has been attributed to B. miyamotoi infections in relatively small groups. Borrelia miyamotoi infections associated with chronic meningoencephalitis have also been described in case reports. Assuming that an IgG antibody response against B. miyamotoi antigens reflects (endured) infection, the seroprevalence in different risk groups was examined. Sera from nine out of ten confirmed B. miyamotoi infections from Russia were found to be positive with the recombinant antigen used, and no significant cross-reactivity was observed in secondary syphilis patients. The seroprevalence in blood donors was set at 2.0% (95% CI 0.4–5.7%). Elevated seroprevalences in individuals with serologically confirmed, 7.4% (2.0–17.9%), or unconfirmed, 8.6% (1.8–23%), Lyme neuroborreliosis were not significantly different from those in blood donors. The prevalence of anti-B. miyamotoi antibodies among forestry workers was 10% (5.3–16.8%) and in patients with serologically unconfirmed but suspected human granulocytic anaplasmosis was 14.6% (9.0–21.8%); these were significantly higher compared with the seroprevalence in blood donors. Our findings indicate that infections with B. miyamotoi occur in tick-exposed individuals in the Netherlands. In addition, B. miyamotoi infections should be considered in patients reporting tick bites and febrile illness with unresolved aetiology in the Netherlands, and other countries where I. ricinus ticks are endemic. PMID:25356364

  14. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Jahfari, S; Herremans, T; Platonov, A E; Kuiper, H; Karan, L S; Vasilieva, O; Koopmans, M P G; Hovius, J W R; Sprong, H

    2014-09-01

    Substantial exposure to Borrelia miyamotoi occurs through bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands, which also transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct evidence for B. miyamotoi infection in European populations is scarce. A flu-like illness with high fever, resembling human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has been attributed to B. miyamotoi infections in relatively small groups. Borrelia miyamotoi infections associated with chronic meningoencephalitis have also been described in case reports. Assuming that an IgG antibody response against B. miyamotoi antigens reflects (endured) infection, the seroprevalence in different risk groups was examined. Sera from nine out of ten confirmed B. miyamotoi infections from Russia were found to be positive with the recombinant antigen used, and no significant cross-reactivity was observed in secondary syphilis patients. The seroprevalence in blood donors was set at 2.0% (95% CI 0.4-5.7%). Elevated seroprevalences in individuals with serologically confirmed, 7.4% (2.0-17.9%), or unconfirmed, 8.6% (1.8-23%), Lyme neuroborreliosis were not significantly different from those in blood donors. The prevalence of anti-B. miyamotoi antibodies among forestry workers was 10% (5.3-16.8%) and in patients with serologically unconfirmed but suspected human granulocytic anaplasmosis was 14.6% (9.0-21.8%); these were significantly higher compared with the seroprevalence in blood donors. Our findings indicate that infections with B. miyamotoi occur in tick-exposed individuals in the Netherlands. In addition, B. miyamotoi infections should be considered in patients reporting tick bites and febrile illness with unresolved aetiology in the Netherlands, and other countries where I. ricinus ticks are endemic. PMID:25356364

  15. Malignant Mediterranean spotted fever

    PubMed Central

    Lunge, Snehal Balvant; Patil, Vaibhav; Ambar, Sameer; Naik, Vishwas

    2015-01-01

    Fever with rash is one of the most common causes of referral to a dermatologist. A plethora of conditions need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. They may be broadly classified into infectious causes, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders. Here we present a rare case of rickettsial fever with cardiac involvement in an elderly male patient with no comorbidities. PMID:26904440

  16. Rat-bite fever.

    PubMed

    van Nood, E; Peters, S H A

    2005-09-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with fever, arthralgias and a skin rash. She possessed nine pet rats, and denied that she had been bitten. Blood culture was positive for Streptobacillus moniliformis, which can cause rat-bite fever. The patient fully recovered after treatment with clarithromycin. PMID:16186643

  17. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...

  18. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  19. Specific adherence of Borrelia burgdorferi extracellular vesicles to human endothelial cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Shoberg, R J; Thomas, D D

    1993-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi produces extracellular vesicles which contain some of the outer surface proteins of the bacterium (e.g., OspA and OspB). Borrelial vesicles, isolated by differential centrifugation and filtration, were tested for the ability to bind to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells in culture. The recently described lipoprotein OspD was expressed on vesicles. Vesicles exhibited differential expression of OspB and OspD in a relationship with passage number and medium serum supplement type, respectively. Qualitative immunoblotting analyses demonstrated dose-dependent, passage number-dependent adsorption of vesicles by HUVE cells. This adsorption was demonstrated to be dependent upon a borrelial component of the vesicle and not due to the presence of minor contamination with intact spirochetes. Quantitative experiments examining inhibition of B. burgdorferi-HUVE association as a function of prior vesicle-HUVE association demonstrated dependence upon (i) a borrelial component(s) in the vesicle, (ii) low passage number, and (iii) vesicle protein concentration. However, vesicle pretreatment of the HUVE cell monolayer was not requisite for this inhibition. Vesicles from highly passaged borrelias were noninhibitory for B. burgdorferi-HUVE cell association, regardless of the serum used to supplement the medium. The use of vesicles as a tool for studying B. burgdorferi pathogenesis and/or physiology is proposed. Images PMID:8359911

  20. Global ecology and epidemiology of Borrelia garinii spirochetes

    PubMed Central

    Comstedt, Pär; Jakobsson, Tobias; Bergström, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-transmitted infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.). In Europe, three different Borrelia species are the main causative agents of LB: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. The latter depends heavily on birds as its main reservoir hosts. In fact, birds can act both as biological carriers of Borrelia and transporters of infected ticks. The seasonal migration of many bird species not only aid in the spread of B. garinii to new foci but also influence the high level of diversity found within this species. B. garinii have been isolated not only from terrestrial birds in Europe, but also from seabirds worldwide, and homology between isolates in these two different infection cycles suggests an overlap and exchange of strains. In addition, it has been shown that birds can maintain and spread B. garinii genotypes associated with LB in humans. This review article discusses the importance of birds in the ecology and epidemiology of B. garinii spirochetes. PMID:22957111

  1. Short-term stability of Borrelia garinii in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Berenová, Dagmar; Krsek, Daniel; Šípková, Lenka; Lukavská, Alena; Malý, Marek; Kurzová, Zuzana; Hořejší, Jan; Kodym, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the optimal conditions for short-term storage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for direct diagnosis of Lyme disease. A mixture of Borrelia-negative CSFs spiked with a defined amount of cultured Borrelia garinii was used. Borrelia stability was investigated over 7 days at four different temperatures [room temperature (RT), +4, -20 and -70 °C]. Quantitative changes in CSF Borrelia were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and morphological changes in the spirochetes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These qPCR results were statistically evaluated. We found +4 °C to be an optimal temperature for short-term storage of CSF samples intended for TEM observation. There was no significant difference between the temperatures tested in the average quantity of Borrelia measured by qPCR. On the contrary, electron optical diagnosis of frozen samples and samples stored at RT showed destructive morphological changes and decreased spirochete counts. Our results show that optimal conditions for the pre-analytical phase of investigation of one type of material can differ depending on the diagnostic method employed. PMID:26104540

  2. Transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks.

    PubMed

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I; Ionică, Angela M; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%-100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

  3. Transstadial Transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D’Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I.; Ionică, Angela M.; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%–100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity. PMID:25695663

  4. Serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection was previously detected

    PubMed Central

    UESAKA, Karin; MAEZAWA, Masaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    A serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs was performed in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection in dogs was detected in 2011. A total of 314 serum samples were collected from dogs that visited three animal hospitals in Sapporo from 2012 to 2014. The two-step evaluation method, involving screening ELISA followed by Western blot analysis, was used to detect antibodies against Borrelia species. A total of 34 samples were positive by ELISA. Among those 34 samples, 32 were positive for Borrelia spp. by Western blot. These findings suggest that the 32 dogs (10.2%) generated antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, such as B. garinii or B. afzelii. Antibody positivity was 7.6% and 13.3% for dogs living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Dogs with a history of tick infestation showed a positive rate of 16.7%, which was higher, although not significantly, than the 6.7% among dogs without a history. PMID:26522809

  5. Serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection was previously detected.

    PubMed

    Uesaka, Karin; Maezawa, Masaki; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    A serological survey of Borrelia infection of dogs was performed in Sapporo, Japan, where Borrelia garinii infection in dogs was detected in 2011. A total of 314 serum samples were collected from dogs that visited three animal hospitals in Sapporo from 2012 to 2014. The two-step evaluation method, involving screening ELISA followed by Western blot analysis, was used to detect antibodies against Borrelia species. A total of 34 samples were positive by ELISA. Among those 34 samples, 32 were positive for Borrelia spp. by Western blot. These findings suggest that the 32 dogs (10.2%) generated antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, such as B. garinii or B. afzelii. Antibody positivity was 7.6% and 13.3% for dogs living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Dogs with a history of tick infestation showed a positive rate of 16.7%, which was higher, although not significantly, than the 6.7% among dogs without a history. PMID:26522809

  6. Yellow fever: an update.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  7. Intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, J M; Burgess, E C; Wachal, M D; Steinberg, H

    1993-06-01

    To determine whether intrauterine transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi could exist in dogs, 10 female Beagles were inoculated intradermally with approximately 1,000 B burgdorferi on day 1 of proestrus; inoculation was repeated every 2 weeks during the gestation period. Ten female control Beagles were similarly inoculated with phosphate-buffered saline solution. Prior to the start of the study, all females and 3 males used for breeding were seronegative for B burgdorferi on the basis of results of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoblot (western analysis. Similarly, results of culture of blood for B burgdorferi were negative. All 20 of the females were bred naturally. Blood samples were collected weekly for serologic testing and culture. Blood samples were obtained from live pups on day 1 of life, then weekly until pups were 6 weeks old when they were euthanatized. Tissues were obtained for culture and testing by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 10 spirochete-inoculated (SI) females, 8 became infected with B burgdorferi as evidenced by spirochete culture results and/or PCR-detected B burgdorferi DNA in the tissues of females or their pups. Of the 10 SI females, 8 delivered litters (3 to 7 pups) that had at least 1 neonatal or 6-week-old pup with B burgdorferi DNA-positive tissues (by PCR), and spirochetes were cultured from tissues from pups of 2 litters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8323057

  8. Rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodid ticks.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Andreadis, T G; Stafford, K C; Holland, C J

    1991-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of hard-bodied ticks were collected in Connecticut and tested by direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining methods for rickettsiae and Borrelia burgdorferi. Of the 609 Ixodes dammini ticks examined, 59 (9.7%) harbored rickettsialike microorganisms in hemocytes (blood cells). These bacteria reacted with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of with fluorescein-conjugated antiserum to Ehrlichia canis, the etiologic agent of canine ehrlichiosis. Prevalence of infection ranged from 6.8 to 12.7% for males and females, respectively. Although the specific identities of the hemocytic rickettsialike organisms are unknown, they share antigens with ehrlichiae. Electron microscopy revealed rickettsiae in ovarian tissues of I. dammini that also had infected hemocytes. Rickettsialike organisms were also observed in the hemocytes of 5 (6.9%) of 73 Dermacentor variabilis ticks. In analyses for B. burgdorferi, 146 (23.7%) of 617 I. dammini ticks harbored these spirochetes in midguts. Hemocytic rickettsialike microorganisms coexisted with B. burgdorferi in 36 (6.7%) of the 537 nymphs and adults of I. dammini examined. I. dammini, with its broad host range, has the potential to acquire multiple microorganisms. Images PMID:1757551

  9. Is fever beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Fever, the regulation of body temperature at an elevated level, is a common response to infection throughout the vertebrates, as well as in many species of invertebrate animals. It is probable that fever evolved as an adaptive response to infection hundreds of millions of years ago. Many components of the nonspecific and specific host response to infection are enhanced by small elevations in temperature. Perhaps more important, studies of bacterial- and viral-infected animals have shown that, in general, moderate fevers decrease morbidity and increase survival rate. PMID:3488621

  10. Renal lesions associated with Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Grauer, G F; Burgess, E C; Cooley, A J; Hagee, J H

    1988-07-15

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection was diagnosed serologically in a dog with lethargy, stiffness, and anorexia. Treatment with ampicillin and chloramphenicol did not alleviate the signs. Azotemia, proteinuria, cylindruria, pyuria, and hematuria developed over a 3-month period. Antibody titer for B burgdorferi remained high (1:8,192) during this time. Renal histopathologic findings included severe, chronic, diffuse, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and moderate chronic, multifocal, interstitial nephritis. Borrelia burgdorferi organisms were identified in renal tissue and in urine by results of immunofluorescent studies and bacteriologic culture, respectively. PMID:3403355

  11. Blackbirds Turdus merula as competent reservoirs for Borrelia turdi and Borrelia valaisiana in Portugal: evidence from a xenodiagnostic experiment.

    PubMed

    Norte, Ana C; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Maria S; Ramos, Jaime A; Gern, Lise

    2013-08-01

    To confirm that thrushes, such as blackbirds Turdus merula, play a role as reservoir for some Borrelia genospecies, we performed a xenodiagnostic experiment with blackbirds captured in a mixed wood located in Western Portugal where Borrelia turdi, an uncommon genospecies in Europe, was the most prevalent genospecies associated with birds. Two out of five birds harboured B. turdi infected Ixodes frontalis at the time of capture. Four out of five birds transmitted spirochaetes to Ixodes ricinus xenodiagnostic ticks: two birds transmitted Borrelia valaisiana to 25.7% and 10.5% of ticks, and two transmitted B. turdi to 6.4% and 5.4% of ticks. Our results showed that blackbirds transmit B. valaisiana and B. turdi to I. ricinus feeding larvae, acting as reservoir hosts for these genospecies in nature. PMID:23864576

  12. Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outbreak resources, VHF information for specific groups, virus ecology, references... RVF Distribution Map Rift Valley Fever Transmission ... Outbreaks Outbreak Summaries RVF Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  13. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > ...

  14. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

  15. Q fever - early

    MedlinePlus

    ... burnetii , which live in domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, birds, and cats. Some wild animals and ticks also carry the bacteria. You can get Q fever by drinking raw (unpasteurized) milk, or after breathing ...

  16. Hay Fever Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fall hay fever symptoms. While avoiding the allergens that trigger symptoms is the best way to ... before you first come into contact with spring allergens, the medication can prevent the release of histamine ...

  17. Polymer fume fever.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Taro; Hamada, Osamu; Sasaki, Akinori; Ikeda, Mari

    2012-01-01

    A 29-year-old Japanese man presented with fever, dyspnoea and non-productive cough after massive inhalation of evaporant from a polytetrafluoroethylene-coated cooking pan. Chest CT scan showed diffuse interstitial infiltration in both lungs. Based on the patient history, images and the pan he brought to the hospital, polymer fume fever was strongly suspected. His symptoms dramatically improved over the following 2 days after admission. PMID:23230259

  18. Geographic Differences in Genetic Locus Linkages for Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Travinsky, Bridgit; Bunikis, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Borrelia burdorferi genotype in the northeastern United States is associated with Lyme borreliosis severity. Analysis of DNA sequences of the outer surface protein C gene and rrs-rrlA intergenic spacer from extracts of Ixodes spp. ticks in 3 US regions showed linkage disequilibrium between the 2 loci within a region but not consistently between regions. PMID:20587192

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi Infection and Cutaneous Lyme Disease, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Torres, Javier; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; de Martino, Sylvie; Lipsker, Dan; Velázquez, Edmundo; Ramon, Guillermo; Onofre, Muñoz; Jaulhac, Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Four patients who had received tick bites while visiting forests in Mexico had skin lesions that met the case definition of erythema migrans, or borrelial lymphocytoma. Clinical diagnosis was supported with histologic, serologic, and molecular tests. This study suggests the Borrelia burgdorferi infection is in Mexico. PMID:18258006

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi visualized in Ixodes scapularis tick excrement by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Brandt, Kevin S; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-11-01

    The enzootic cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, involves Ixodes spp. ticks and vertebrates. Resident tick Borrelia, harbored inside the midgut, are eventually expelled with the tick's saliva into the vertebrate host when a tick consumes a blood meal. During this 4- to 5-day feeding period I. scapularis will defecate onto the host's skin. Previously we detected borrelial DNA in tick feces throughout engorgement. In this study we report the microscopic examination for B. burgdorferi in nymphal excrement. Using immunofluorescence assays, we observed Borrelia in all mouse skin and capsule fecal swabs tested, although we could not culture the spirochetes. These results update our previous analysis by revealing that spirochetes can also be visualized in tick excrement. Furthermore, the results emphasize that borrelial contamination by defecation is a possibility, and that caution should be exercised by researchers investigating pathogen/host/vector interactions. The biological significance of the presence of non-culturable Borrelia in tick feces during engorgement is unclear. PMID:22651382

  1. Serologic Evidence for Borrelia hermsii Infection in Rodents on Federally Owned Recreational Areas in California

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jessica R.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF. PMID:23488454

  2. A case of canine borreliosis in Iran caused by Borrelia persica.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Darush; Rakhshanpoor, Alaleh; Cutler, Sally Jane; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever is an endemic disease in Iran, with most cases attributed to infection by Borrelia persica, which is transmitted by Ornithodoros tholozani soft ticks. Here, we report spirochetemia in blood of a puppy residing in Tehran, Iran. The causative species was identified by use of highly discriminative IGS sequencing; the 489 bp IGS sequence obtained in our study showed 99% identity (100% coverage) when compared with B. persica sequences derived from clinical cases or from O. tholozani ticks. Our IGS sequence also showed 99% similarity over 414 bp (85% coverage) with a strain from a domestic dog, and 96% over 328 bp (69% coverage) with a strain from a domestic cat. Pet-keeping in cosmopolitan cities like Tehran has become increasingly popular in recent years. Animals are often transported into the city in cages or cardboard boxes that might also harbor minute tick larvae and/or early stages of the nymphs bringing them into the urban environment. This may pose a threat to household members who buy and keep these puppies and as a result may come into close contact with infected ticks. PMID:26776536

  3. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection--Case study.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Reginato, Alice; Miglio, Arianna; Vardi, Doron M; Stefanetti, Valentina; Coletti, Mauro; Bazzica, Chiara; Pepe, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors' knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk. PMID:26094517

  4. Delayed Invasion of the Kidney and Brain by Borrelia crocidurae in Plasminogen-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrand, Annika; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Ny, Annelii; Bergström, Sven

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia crocidurae is an etiologic agent of relapsing fever in Africa and is transmitted to humans by the bite of soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. The role of the plasminogen (Plg) activation system for the pathogenicity of B. crocidurae was investigated by infection of Plg-deficient (plg−/−) and Plg wild-type (plg+/+) mice. No differences in spirochetemia were observed between the plg−/− and plg+/+ mice. However, signs indicative of brain invasion, such as neurological symptoms and/or histopathological changes, were more common in plg+/+ mice. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated infection of spirochetes in kidney interstitium and brain as soon as 2 days postinoculation. Lower numbers of extravascular spirochetes in plg−/− mice during the first days of infection suggested a less efficient invasion mechanism in these mice than in the plg+/+ mice. The invasion of the kidneys in plg−/− mice produced no significant inflammation, as seen by quantitative immunohistochemistry of the CD45 common leukocyte marker. However, significant kidney inflammation was observed with infection in the plg+/+ mice. In brain, inflammation was more severe in plg+/+ mice than in plg−/− mice, and the numbers of CD45+ cells increased significantly with duration of infection in the plg+/+ mice. The results show that invasion of brain and kidney occurs as early as 2 days after inoculation. Also, Plg is not required for establishment of spirochetemia by the organism, whereas it is involved in the invasion of organs. PMID:11500461

  5. Serologic evidence for Borrelia hermsii infection in rodents on federally owned recreational areas in California.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Curtis L; Payne, Jessica R; Schwan, Tom G

    2013-06-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic in mountainous regions of the western United States. In California, the principal agent is the spirochete Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros hermsi. Humans are at risk of TBRF when infected ticks leave an abandoned rodent nest in quest of a blood meal. Rodents are the primary vertebrate hosts for B. hermsii. Sciurid rodents were collected from 23 sites in California between August, 2006, and September, 2008, and tested for serum antibodies to B. hermsii by immunoblot using a whole-cell sonicate and a specific antigen, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ). Antibodies were detected in 20% of rodents; seroprevalence was highest (36%) in chipmunks (Tamias spp). Seroprevalence in chipmunks was highest in the Sierra Nevada (41%) and Mono (43%) ecoregions and between 1900 and 2300 meters elevation (43%). The serological studies described here are effective in implicating the primary vertebrate hosts involved in the maintenance of the ticks and spirochetes in regions endemic for TBRF. PMID:23488454

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of nlpH, encoding a novel, surface-exposed, polymorphic, plasmid-encoded 33-kilodalton lipoprotein of Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, M

    1996-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato organisms, comprising B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii, are tick-borne pathogens causing Lyme borreliosis in humans. To identify putative virulence determinants, a B. afzelii DNA library was screened for Congo red dye binding, a property associated with virulence in pathogenic bacteria. One clone was found to carry a 663-nucleotide-long open reading frame encoding a Congo red dye-binding protein with a calculated molecular mass of 25,660 Da. The amino acid sequence deduced from its nucleotide sequence was found to include a consensus bacterial lipidation site present at residues 15 to 18 (Leu-Ser-Gly-Cys). The lipoprotein nature was demonstrated by incorporation of radioactive palmitate; hence, this protein has been termed NlpH, for new lipoprotein H. NlpH is located on the surface of B. afzelii, and the nlpH gene is found on a circular plasmid. The nlpH gene is also found in B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii. Immediately upstream of nlpH is located a smaller reading frame encoding a polypeptide containing the casein kinase II phosphorylation recognition sequence, (Ser/Thr)-X-Y-(Glu/Asp), repeated 10 times. PMID:8932298

  7. Tickborne relapsing fever in a mother and newborn child--Colorado, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-16

    Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial infection caused by certain species of Borrelia spirochetes and transmitted through the bite of Ornithodoros ticks. Clinical illness is characterized by relapsing fever, myalgias, and malaise. On May 10, 2011, CDC and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment were notified of two patients with TBRF: a young woman and her newborn child. This report summarizes the clinical course of these patients and emphasizes the importance of considering a diagnosis of TBRF among patients with compatible clinical symptoms and residence or travel in a TBRF-endemic area. Pregnant women and neonates are at increased risk for TBRF-associated complications and require prompt diagnosis and treatment for optimal clinical outcomes. Public health follow-up of reported TBRF cases should include a search for persons sharing an exposure with the patient and environmental investigation with remediation measures to prevent additional infections. PMID:22419050

  8. Recurrent Fever in Children

    PubMed Central

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  9. Recurrent Fever in Children.

    PubMed

    Torreggiani, Sofia; Filocamo, Giovanni; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Children presenting with recurrent fever may represent a diagnostic challenge. After excluding the most common etiologies, which include the consecutive occurrence of independent uncomplicated infections, a wide range of possible causes are considered. This article summarizes infectious and noninfectious causes of recurrent fever in pediatric patients. We highlight that, when investigating recurrent fever, it is important to consider age at onset, family history, duration of febrile episodes, length of interval between episodes, associated symptoms and response to treatment. Additionally, information regarding travel history and exposure to animals is helpful, especially with regard to infections. With the exclusion of repeated independent uncomplicated infections, many infective causes of recurrent fever are relatively rare in Western countries; therefore, clinicians should be attuned to suggestive case history data. It is important to rule out the possibility of an infectious process or a malignancy, in particular, if steroid therapy is being considered. After excluding an infectious or neoplastic etiology, immune-mediated and autoinflammatory diseases should be taken into consideration. Together with case history data, a careful physical exam during and between febrile episodes may give useful clues and guide laboratory investigations. However, despite a thorough evaluation, a recurrent fever may remain unexplained. A watchful follow-up is thus mandatory because new signs and symptoms may appear over time. PMID:27023528

  10. Ménage à trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lauren M K; Veerman, Christiaan C; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2014-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an Ixodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in mounting a robust immune response against it. Many aspects of the DC-driven immune response to Borrelia have been examined. Recently, components of tick saliva have been identified that sabotage DC responses and aid Borrelia infection. In this review, we summarise what is currently known about the immune response of DCs to Borrelia and explore the mechanisms by which Borrelia manages to circumvent this immune response, with or without the help of tick salivary proteins. PMID:24388562

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi Oxidative Stress Regulator BosR Directly Represses Lipoproteins Primarily Expressed in the Tick during Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Dadhwal, Poonam; Cheng, Zhihui; Zianni, Michael R.; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Liang, Fang Ting; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Differential gene expression is a key strategy adopted by the Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, for adaptation and survival in the mammalian host and the tick vector. Many B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins fall into two distinct groups according to their expression patterns: one group primarily expressed in the tick and the other group primarily expressed in the mammal. Here, we show that the Fur homologue in this bacterium, also known as Borrelia oxidative stress regulator (BosR), is required for repression of outer surface protein A (OspA) and OspD in the mammal. Furthermore, BosR binds directly to sequences upstream of the ospAB operon and the ospD gene through recognition of palindromic motifs similar to those recognized by other Fur homologues but with a 1-bp variation in the spacer length. Putative BosR-binding sites have been identified upstream of 156 B. burgdorferi genes. Some of these genes share the same expression pattern as ospA and ospD. Most notably, 12 (67%) of the 18 genes previously identified in a genome-wide microarray study to be most significantly repressed in the mammal are among the putative BosR regulon. These data indicate that BosR may directly repress transcription of many genes that are down-regulated in the mammal. PMID:23869590

  12. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Schwabe, Arthur D.; Terasaki, Paul I.; Barnett, Eugene V.; Territo, Mary C.; Klinenberg, James R.; Peters, Robert S.

    1977-01-01

    The success of colchicine therapy in the management of familial Mediterranean fever has provided new direction to investigations into the pathogenesis of this disease. Examination of HLA antigen frequencies in 53 patients with familial Mediterranean fever and appropriate controls, as well as various immunologic studies have yielded no significant differences. However, B lymphocyte typing and assays for immune complexes, lymphokines and prostaglandins may be of potential interest. Preliminary studies indicate that leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever release increased amounts of lysozyme (P<0.01), when subjected to high temperatures, and of both lysozyme and myeloperoxidase at low osmotic concentrations. The known and potential effects of colchicine on leukocyte and cellular metabolism, and the current status of colchicine prophylaxis are reviewed. In patients receiving an optimum colchicine dose of 1.5 to 1.8 mg per day, side effects have been minimal and the frequency of attacks has been decreased significantly. PMID:878470

  13. Pathogenesis of Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Nadezhda E.; Walker, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host’s immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  14. Pathogenesis of Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nadezhda E; Walker, David H

    2012-10-01

    Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus (family Arenaviridae), is the etiological agent of Lassa fever, a severe human disease that is reported in more than 100,000 patients annually in the endemic regions of West Africa with mortality rates for hospitalized patients varying between 5-10%. Currently, there are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans. Here, we review the published literature on the life cycle of Lassa virus with the specific focus put on Lassa fever pathogenesis in humans and relevant animal models. Advancing knowledge significantly improves our understanding of Lassa virus biology, as well as of the mechanisms that allow the virus to evade the host's immune system. However, further investigations are required in order to design improved diagnostic tools, an effective vaccine, and therapeutic agents. PMID:23202452

  15. Whole genome sequence of an unusual Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Casjens, S.R.; Dunn, J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Mongodin, E. F.; Qiu, W. G.; Luft, B. J.; Schutzer, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Human Lyme disease is caused by a number of related Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. We report here the complete genome sequence of Borrelia sp. isolate SV1 from Finland. This isolate is to date the closest known relative of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, but it is sufficiently genetically distinct from that species that it and its close relatives warrant its candidacy for new-species status. We suggest that this isolate should be named 'Borrelia finlandensis.'

  16. Chikungunya fever from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouta; Matumoto, Kentaro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Moi, Meng Ling; Kotaki, Akira; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2010-01-01

    An adult Malaysian woman returned to Japan from Kuala Lumpur and had onset of dengue fever-like symptoms including high fever, malaise and arthritis in early January 2009. Serum obtained on the following day was tested at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, where it was determined to be positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA. IgM antibody against CHIKV was negative on January 6 and sero-converted to be positive on January 14, confirming a recent CHIKV infection. Except for arthralgia, all her symptoms resolved uneventfully within 10 days. PMID:20190493

  17. Fever in honeybee colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starks, P. T.; Blackie, Caroline A.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    Honeybees, Apis spp., maintain elevated temperatures inside their nests to accelerate brood development and to facilitate defense against predators. We present an additional defensive function of elevating nest temperature: honeybees generate a brood-comb fever in response to colonial infection by the heat-sensitive pathogen Ascosphaera apis. This response occurs before larvae are killed, suggesting that either honeybee workers detect the infection before symptoms are visible, or that larvae communicate the ingestion of the pathogen. This response is a striking example of convergent evolution between this "superorganism" and other fever-producing animals.

  18. Transcriptional Profiling the 150 kb Linear Megaplasmid of Borrelia turicatae Suggests a Role in Vector Colonization and Initiating Mammalian Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Hannah K.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Barbour, Alan G.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Vaisvil, Benjamin; Kapatral, Vinayak; Schmitt, Daniel P.; Schwan, Tom G.; Lopez, Job E.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is key for survival as vector-borne pathogens transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature change is an environmental signal inducing alterations in gene expression of tick-borne spirochetes. While plasmids are often associated with adaptation, complex genomes of relapsing fever spirochetes have hindered progress in understanding the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. We utilized recent advances in genome sequencing to generate the most complete version of the Borrelia turicatae 150 kb linear megaplasmid (lp150). Additionally, a transcriptional analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) in lp150 was conducted and identified regions that were up-regulated during in vitro cultivation at tick-like growth temperatures (22°C), relative to bacteria grown at 35°C and infected murine blood. Evaluation of the 3’ end of lp150 identified a cluster of ORFs that code for putative surface lipoproteins. With a microbe’s surface proteome serving important roles in pathogenesis, we confirmed the ORFs expression in vitro and in the tick compared to spirochetes infecting murine blood. Transcriptional evaluation of lp150 indicates the plasmid likely has essential roles in vector colonization and/or initiating mammalian infection. These results also provide a much needed transcriptional framework to delineate the molecular mechanisms utilized by relapsing fever spirochetes during their enzootic cycle. PMID:26845332

  19. Transcriptional Profiling the 150 kb Linear Megaplasmid of Borrelia turicatae Suggests a Role in Vector Colonization and Initiating Mammalian Infection.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Hannah K; Raffel, Sandra J; Barbour, Alan G; Porcella, Stephen F; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Vaisvil, Benjamin; Kapatral, Vinayak; Schmitt, Daniel P; Schwan, Tom G; Lopez, Job E

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation is key for survival as vector-borne pathogens transmit between the arthropod and vertebrate, and temperature change is an environmental signal inducing alterations in gene expression of tick-borne spirochetes. While plasmids are often associated with adaptation, complex genomes of relapsing fever spirochetes have hindered progress in understanding the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. We utilized recent advances in genome sequencing to generate the most complete version of the Borrelia turicatae 150 kb linear megaplasmid (lp150). Additionally, a transcriptional analysis of open reading frames (ORFs) in lp150 was conducted and identified regions that were up-regulated during in vitro cultivation at tick-like growth temperatures (22°C), relative to bacteria grown at 35°C and infected murine blood. Evaluation of the 3' end of lp150 identified a cluster of ORFs that code for putative surface lipoproteins. With a microbe's surface proteome serving important roles in pathogenesis, we confirmed the ORFs expression in vitro and in the tick compared to spirochetes infecting murine blood. Transcriptional evaluation of lp150 indicates the plasmid likely has essential roles in vector colonization and/or initiating mammalian infection. These results also provide a much needed transcriptional framework to delineate the molecular mechanisms utilized by relapsing fever spirochetes during their enzootic cycle. PMID:26845332

  20. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  1. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  2. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  3. BosR Functions as a Repressor of the ospAB Operon in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanlin; Dadhwal, Poonam; Li, Xin; Liang, Fang Ting

    2014-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, must abundantly produce outer surface lipoprotein A (OspA) in the tick vector but downregulate OspA in mammals in order to evade the immune system and maintain its natural enzootic cycle. Here, we show that BosR binds two regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and that increasing BosR expression leads to downregulation of OspA. Both regulatory sequences, cisI and cisII, showed strong BosR-binding and cisII bound much tighter than cisI. A promoterless bosR gene fused with an inducible promoter was introduced into an rpoS mutant and a wild-type strain to assess RpoS-independent and -dependent downregulation of OspA by BosR. With the induction of BosR expression, OspA expression was reduced more significantly in the RpoS-deficient than wild-type background, but not completely repressed. In the presence of constitutive expression of OspC, DbpA and DbpB, increasing BosR production resulted in complete repression of OspA in the RpoS mutant. Taken together, the study clearly demonstrated BosR serves as a repressor that binds both regulatory elements of the ospAB operon and shuts off expression. PMID:25271631

  4. Three-day fever.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J

    2015-08-01

    Three-day fever is a viral disease caused by an Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, transmitted by arthropod vectors. It is common in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it affects mainly domestic cattle and buffaloes, especially in intensive dairy or fattening production systems. It is of economic importance because it reduces milk production and fertility and causes abortion. The disease is generally benign. It manifests in several susceptible subjects simultaneously, with a sudden episode of fever accompanied by muscle involvement with arthritis, stiffness of the limbs, and lameness, followed by rapid recovery. The presence of a serofibrinous exudate in the joints is indicative of the disease. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of pathognomonic signs. Epidemiological factors (proliferation of arthropod vectors), associated with a short-lived fever and the presence of many immature neutrophils, point strongly to three-day fever. In the absence of any specific treatment, the symptoms are treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Medical prophylaxis currently uses live attenuated vaccines, pending the development of recombinant vaccines, which are giving promising results. PMID:26601454

  5. Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal viral disease of ruminant species, particularly cattle, bison, and deer. Clinical signs vary between species. Two major epidemiologic types of MCF exist, and are defined by the ruminant species that serve as natural reservoir hosts for infection...

  6. Rift Valley Fever Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develo...

  7. Concepts of fever.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, P A

    1998-09-28

    If asked to define fever, most physicians would offer a thermal definition, such as "fever is a temperature greater than...." In offering their definition, many would ignore the importance of the anatomic site at which temperature measurements are taken, as well as the diurnal oscillations that characterize body temperature. If queried about the history of clinical thermometry, few physicians could identify the source or explain the pertinacity of the belief that 98.6 degrees F (37.0 degrees C) has special meaning vis-à-vis normal body temperature. Fewer still could cite the origin of the thermometer or trace the evolution of modern concepts of clinical thermometry. Although many would have some knowledge of the fundamentals of thermoregulation and the role played by exogenous and endogenous pyrogens in the induction of fever, few would have more than a superficial knowledge of the broad biological activities of pyrogenic cytokines or know of the existence of an equally complex and important system of endogenous cryogens. A distinct minority would appreciate the obvious paradoxes inherent in an enlarging body of data concerned with the question of fever's adaptive value. The present review considers many of these issues in the light of current data. PMID:9759682

  8. Cytokines and fever.

    PubMed

    Conti, Bruno; Tabarean, Iustin; Andrei, Cristina; Bartfai, Tamas

    2004-05-01

    Cytokines are highly inducible, secreted proteins mediating intercellular communication in the nervous and immune system. Fever is the multiphasic response of elevation and decline of the body core temperature regulated by central thermoregulatory mechanisms localized in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. The discovery that several proinflammatory cytokines act as endogenous pyrogens and that other cytokines can act as antipyretic agents provided a link between the immune and the central nervous systems and stimulated the study of the central actions of cytokines. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) as well as the antiinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) have been most investigated for their pyrogenic or antipyretic action. The experimental evidence demonstrating the role of these secreted proteins in modulating the fever response is as follows: 1) association between cytokine levels in serum and CSF and fever; 2) finding of the presence of cytokine receptors on various cell types in the brain and demonstration of the effects of pharmacological application of cytokines and of their neutralizing antibodies on the fever response; 3) fever studies on cytokine- and cytokine receptor- transgenic models. Studies on the peripheral and the central action of cytokines demonstrated that peripheral cytokines can communicate with the brain in several ways including stimulation of afferent neuronal pathways and induction of the synthesis of a non cytokine pyrogen, i.e. PGE2, in endothelial cells in the periphery and in the brain. Cytokines synthesized in the periphery may act by crossing the blood brain barrier and acting directly via neuronal cytokine receptors. The mechanisms that ultimately mediate the central action of cytokines and of LPS on the temperature-sensitive neurons in the preoptic hypothalamic region involved in

  9. The incidence of scarlet fever.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, E. M.; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempted to find the incidence of scarlet fever in the Oxford region, including the proportion of patients from whom Streptococcus pyogenes could be isolated. General practitioners collected throat swabs from patients with suspected scarlet fever. The swabs were examined for viral and bacterial pathogens. Children admitted to hospital were used as controls. Twenty-five of 105 patients with suspected scarlet fever grew Str. pyogenes; M type 4 was the commonest type. The clinical diagnosis of scarlet fever was not always confirmed by throat culture. The annual incidence of scarlet fever was estimated to be 0.3 cases per 1000 per year. PMID:6358344

  10. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    PubMed

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. PMID:27404939

  11. [Diagnostic aspects of Borrelia-infections in dogs].

    PubMed

    Hovius, K E; Houwers, D J

    2007-08-15

    This paper discusses the problem of diagnosing borreliosis (Lyme disease) in dogs. A prospective cohort study in the Kempen district, a known Borrelia focus in The Netherlands, showed that dogs with the presumptive symptoms of borreliosis, episodic malaise and lameness, had significantly higher and longer lasting anti-Borrelia IgG titers than asymptomatic dogs. A small part of these dogs also had antibodies directed against the IR6 (C6) antigen which indicates persistent active Borrelia infection. A few typical case histories are presented. Dogs with episodic malaise and lameness with persistent high IgG titers are suspect of suffering from borreliosis. IR6 antibodies make this diagnosis likely. Initially, such patients should be treated with doxycyclin (10 mg/kg 1dd) for 10 days. If the symptoms recurr within a few months, a longer treatment (eg 6 weeks) should be considered. Bernese mountain dogs were strongly over-represented among the borreliosis patients in the cohort study and most high titered samples among those submitted for--diagnostic--serology appear to come from this breed, which suggests that these dogs have difficulties with clearing this tick-borne infection. PMID:17849909

  12. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in the Pacific Northwest: An Underdiagnosed Illness?

    PubMed Central

    Fihn, Stephan; Larson, Eric B.

    1980-01-01

    Some 30 cases of tick-borne relapsing fever due to Borrelia are known to have occurred between 1965 and 1978 in the Pacific Northwest. This disease was found more frequently in young men with a history of wilderness exposure during the summer months. Recurrent fever was the most common symptom with temperatures reaching higher than 39.5° C (103.1° F) in all cases, and many patients had three or more febrile episodes. Splenomegaly was the second most common finding reported. Diagnosis of relapsing fever was made in 20 cases by identifying spirochetes on peripheral blood smears. In ten remaining cases the diagnosis was made on clinical and epidemiologic grounds. Information regarding therapy was available in 21 cases. Ten patients received a tetracycline drug and all had a prompt response without relapse. Two of the patients died, a 68-year-old woman with possible myocardial involvement and a newborn infant with infection acquired in utero and meningeal involvement. The diagnosis was often delayed in spite of outpatient evaluation and admittance to hospital, probably because borreliosis was not considered in the differential diagnosis. Because tick-borne relapsing fever is eventually a self-limited disease in most patients, it is probably not recognized often enough. Awareness of this disease and examination of the peripheral blood smear for spirochetes will lead to earlier diagnosis. Prompt initiation of tetracycline therapy should reduce morbidity associated with borreliosis. ImagesFigure 3. PMID:7415171

  13. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii DNAs in patient with Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease).

    PubMed

    Schwarzova, Katarina; Kozub, Peter; Szep, Zoltan; Golovchenko, Marina; Rudenko, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Determination of the causative agent of erythema-like skin lesions in case of nonspecific superficial perivascular dermatitis was supported by histological examination and led to the latter diagnosis of Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans (Flegel disease) in patient. The presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patient serum was confirmed by a routine ELISA method and verified by Western blot technique. Skin biopsy and blood specimens were analyzed by PCR and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Western blot method revealed IgG antibody response against two specific antigens, 17 and 83 kDa proteins. The recombinant test detected IgG antibody response against p100 and p41 antigens. The sequence analysis of amplicons from the selected genomic loci obtained from skin biopsy and serum samples revealed the presence of two species from B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex as a co-infection in this patient-B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) and Borrelia garinii. PMID:26769152

  14. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp

    PubMed Central

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  15. Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas.

    PubMed

    Sapi, E; Balasubramanian, K; Poruri, A; Maghsoudlou, J S; Socarras, K M; Timmaraju, A V; Filush, K R; Gupta, K; Shaikh, S; Theophilus, P A S; Luecke, D F; MacDonald, A; Zelger, B

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)-IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues. PMID:27141311

  16. A boy with a tight skin: Borrelia-associated early-onset morphea.

    PubMed

    Verberkt, Roos M; Janssen, Matthijs; Wesseling, Judit

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with morphea caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We re-emphasise an immunohistochemical method, focus floating microscopy (FFM), to detect Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in tissue sections. Focus floating microscopy (FFM) proved to be more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nearly equally specific. PMID:24093617

  17. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Moura, Rodrigo Assunção; Nunes, Mônica; Carreira, Teresa; Vidotto, Odilon; Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil. PMID:26273276

  18. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in humans in a rural area of Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Moura, Rodrigo Assunção; Nunes, Mônica; Carreira, Teresa; Vidotto, Odilon; Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the detection of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in Brazilian individuals using PCR and DNA sequencing. Our results suggest that these species are emerging pathogens in this country, and additional studies are necessary to determine the epidemiological characteristics of this disease in Brazil. PMID:26273276

  19. Genome Sequence of Borrelia chilensis VA1, a South American Member of the Lyme Borreliosis Group

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weihua; Ojaimi, Caroline; Fallon, John T.; Travisany, Dante; Maass, Alejandro; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia chilensis strain VA1 is a recently described South American member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex from Chile. Whole-genome sequencing analysis determined its linear chromosome and plasmids lp54 and cp26, confirmed its membership in the Lyme borreliosis group, and will open new research avenues regarding its pathogenic potential. PMID:25676758

  20. Variable exposure and immunological response to Lyme disease Borrelia among North Atlantic seabird species

    PubMed Central

    Staszewski, V; McCoy, K.D; Boulinier, T

    2008-01-01

    Colonial seabirds often breed in large aggregations. These individuals can be exposed to parasitism by the tick Ixodes uriae, but little is known about the circulation of pathogens carried by this ectoparasite, including Lyme disease Borrelia. Here we investigated the prevalence of antibodies (Ab) against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in seabird species sampled at eight locations across the North Atlantic. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, we found that the prevalence of anti-Borrelia Ab in adult seabirds was 39.6% on average (over 444 individuals), but that it varied among colonies and species. Common guillemots showed higher seroprevalence (77.1%±5.9) than black-legged kittiwakes (18.6%±6.7) and Atlantic puffins (22.6%±6.3). Immunoblot-banding patterns of positive individuals, reflecting the variability of Borrelia antigens against which Ab were produced, also differed among locations and species, and did not tightly match the prevalence of Borrelia phylogroups previously identified in ticks collected from the same host individuals. These results represent the first report of the widespread prevalence of Ab against Borrelia within an assemblage of seabird species and demonstrate that Borrelia is an integrated aspect in the interaction between seabirds and ticks. More detailed studies on the dynamics of Borrelia within and among seabird species at different spatial scales will now be required to better understand the implications of this interaction for seabird ecology and the epidemiology of Lyme disease. PMID:18577503

  1. Evidence of In Vivo Existence of Borrelia Biofilm in Borrelial Lymphocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Sapi, E.; Balasubramanian, K.; Poruri, A.; Maghsoudlou, J. S.; Socarras, K. M.; Timmaraju, A. V.; Filush, K. R.; Gupta, K.; Shaikh, S.; Theophilus, P. A. S.; Luecke, D. F.; MacDonald, A.; Zelger, B.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, has grown into a major public health problem. We recently identified a novel morphological form of B. burgdorferi, called biofilm, a structure that is well known to be highly resistant to antibiotics. However, there is no evidence of the existence of Borrelia biofilm in vivo; therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. Archived skin biopsy tissues from borrelial lymphocytomas (BL) were reexamined for the presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato using Borrelia-specific immunohistochemical staining (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)–IHC, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent and atomic force microscopy methods. Our morphological and histological analyses showed that significant amounts of Borrelia-positive spirochetes and aggregates exist in the BL tissues. Analyzing structures positive for Borrelia showed that aggregates, but not spirochetes, expressed biofilm markers such as protective layers of different mucopolysaccharides, especially alginate. Atomic force microscopy revealed additional hallmark biofilm features of the Borrelia/alginate-positive aggregates such as inside channels and surface protrusions. In summary, this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in human infected skin tissues. PMID:27141311

  2. Cooperation of Doxycycline with Phytochemicals and Micronutrients Against Active and Persistent Forms of Borrelia sp.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Niedzwiecki, Alexandra; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemicals and micronutrients represent a growing theme in antimicrobial defense; however, little is known about their anti-borreliae effects of reciprocal cooperation with antibiotics. A better understanding of this aspect could advance our knowledge and help improve the efficacy of current approaches towards Borrelia sp. In this study, phytochemicals and micronutrients such as baicalein, luteolin, 10-HAD, iodine, rosmarinic acid, and monolaurin, as well as, vitamins D3 and C were tested in a combinations with doxycycline for their in vitro effectiveness against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii. Anti-borreliae effects were evaluated according to checkerboard assays and supported by statistical analysis. The results showed that combination of doxycycline with flavones such as baicalein and luteolin exhibited additive effects against all morphological forms of studied Borrelia sp. Doxycycline combined with iodine demonstrated additive effects against spirochetes and biofilm, whereas with fatty acids such as monolaurin and 10-HAD it produced FICIs of indifference. Additive anti-spirochetal effects were also observed when doxycycline was used with rosmarinic acid and both vitamins D3 and C. Antagonism was not observed in any of the cases. This data revealed the intrinsic anti-borreliae activity of doxycycline with tested phytochemicals and micronutrients indicating that their addition may enhance efficacy of this antibiotic in combating Borrelia sp. Especially the addition of flavones balcalein and luteolin to a doxycycline regimen could be explored further in defining more effective treatments against these bacteria. PMID:27570483

  3. Dengue fever: natural management.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Tahir, Madeha; Irfan, Muhammad; Raza Bukhari, Syeda Fiza; Ahmed, Bilal; Hanif, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1-4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Dengue virus infections can present with a spacious range of clinical signs, from a mild feverish illness to a life-threatening shock syndrome. Till now, there is no approved vaccine or drug against this virus. Therefore, there is an urgent need of development of alternative solutions for dengue. Several plant species have been reported with anti-dengue activity. Many herbal/natural drugs, most of which are commonly used as nutritional components, have been used as antiviral, larvicidal, mosquitocidal and mosquito repellents that may be used against dengue. The objective of this review article was to provide current approaches for the treatment and management/prevention of dengue fever by targeting viral proteins involved in replication cycle of the virus and different developmental stages of mosquito. PMID:25730815

  4. African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents--Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:19967933

  5. Understanding rheumatic fever.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Pedro Ming; Pereira, Rosa Rodrigues; Guilherme, Luiza

    2012-05-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the recent findings on rheumatic fever, we intend to propose a new physiopathologic model for this disease. A Medline search was performed for all articles containing the terms rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in title or abstract from 1970 to 2011. Best evidence qualitative technique was used to select the most relevant. The scientific interest on rheumatic fever has notably diminished throughout the twentieth century as evidenced by the comparison of the proportion of articles in which RF was a subject in 1950 (0.26%) and today (0.03%) [Pubmed]. However, RF remains a major medical and social problem in the developing world and in the so-called hotspots, where it still causes around 500.000 deaths each year, not too different from the pre-antibiotic era. The role of genetic factors in RF susceptibility is discussed. Familiar aggregation, similarity of disease patterns between siblings, identical twin, and HLA correlation studies are evidence for a genetic influence on RF susceptibility. The suspect-involved genes fall mainly into those capable of immunologic mediation. Molecular mimicry explains the triggering of RF, but an intense and sustained inflammation is needed to cause sequels. Also, RF patients vary greatly in terms of symptoms. It is likely that a genetic background directing immune response towards a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pattern contributes to these features. The recent findings on rheumatic fever provide important insight on its physiopathology that helps understanding this prototype post-infectious autoimmune disease giving insights on other autoimmune conditions. PMID:21953302

  6. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  7. Fever in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K.C.; Robson, W. Lane M.

    1992-01-01

    The most common cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) is infectious disease, followed less frequently by collagen vascular disease, and malignancy. Most children with FUO have a common disorder that is atypical in presentation. A history and physical examination are vital and should be repeated until a diagnosis is established. Specific laboratory tests and diagnostic imaging studies should be ordered based on the clinical evaluation. Children with FUO have a better prognosis than adults; most can expect full recovery. PMID:21221316

  8. Development of Genetic System to Inactivate a Borrelia turicatae Surface Protein Selectively Produced within the Salivary Glands of the Arthropod Vector

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Job E.; Wilder, Hannah K.; Hargrove, Reid; Brooks, Christopher P.; Peterson, Karin E.; Beare, Paul A.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Borrelia turicatae, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, is an example of a pathogen that can adapt to disparate conditions found when colonizing the mammalian host and arthropod vector. However, little is known about the genetic factors necessary during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle, therefore we developed a genetic system to transform this species of spirochete. We also identified a plasmid gene that was up-regulated in vitro when B. turicatae was grown in conditions mimicking the tick environment. This 40 kilodalton protein was predicted to be surface localized and designated the Borrelia repeat protein A (brpA) due to the redundancy of the amino acid motif Gln-Gly-Asn-Val-Glu. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using RNA from B. turicatae infected ticks and mice indicated differential regulation of brpA during the tick-mammalian infectious cycle. The surface localization was determined, and production of the protein within the salivary glands of the tick was demonstrated. We then applied a novel genetic system for B. turicatae to inactivate brpA and examined the role of the gene product for vector colonization and the ability to establish murine infection. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate the complexity of protein production in a population of spirochetes within the tick. Additionally, the development of a genetic system is important for future studies to evaluate the requirement of specific B. turicatae genes for vector colonization and transmission. PMID:24205425

  9. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and co-infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    May, K; Jordan, D; Fingerle, V; Strube, C

    2015-12-01

    To obtain initial data on Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in Hamburg, Germany, 1400 questing ticks were collected by flagging at 10 different public recreation areas in 2011 and analysed using probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The overall rate of infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. was 34.1%; 30.0% of adults were infected (36.7% of females and 26.0% of males), as were 34.5% of nymphs. Significant differences in tick infection rates were observed between the spring and summer/autumn months, as well as among sampling locations. Borrelia genospecies identification by reverse line blotting was successful in 43.6% of positive tick samples. The most frequent genospecies was Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis, followed by Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia bissettii and Borrelia lusitaniae. Based on previously published data, co-infection of Borrelia and Rickettsiales spp. was determined in 25.8% of ticks. Overall, 22.9% of ticks were co-infected with Rickettsia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), 1.7% with Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 1.2% with both pathogens. Study results show a high prevalence of Borrelia-positive ticks in recreation areas in the northern German city of Hamburg and the potential health risk to humans in these areas should not be underestimated. PMID:26096626

  11. Q fever — a review

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Q or “query” fever is a zoonosis caused by the organism Coxiella burnetii. Cattle, sheep and goats are the most common reservoirs of this organism. The placenta of infected animals contains high numbers (up to 109/g) of C. burnetii. Aerosols occur at the time of parturition and man becomes infected following inhalation of the microorganism. The spectrum of illness in man is wide and consists of acute and chronic forms. Acute Q fever is most often a self-limited flu-like illness but may include pneumonia, hepatitis, or meningoencephalitis. Chronic Q fever almost always means endocarditis and rarely osteomyelitis. Chronic Q fever is not known to occur in animals other than man. An increased abortion and stillbirth rate are seen in infected domestic ungulates. Four provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Alberta) reported cases of Q fever in 1989. A vaccine for Q fever has recently been licensed in Australia. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423643

  12. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  13. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to devleop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:9665979

  14. Typhoid Fever, Below the Belt

    PubMed Central

    Raveendran, Kamakshi Mahadevan

    2016-01-01

    Genital ulcers occur due to infective, inflammatory, malignant and drug-related causes. In tropical countries such as India, such ulcers are due to parasitic, tubercular, rickettsial and bacterial (sexually transmitted infections) aetiologies. Typhoid fever is endemic in the tropics. Except “rose spots”, skin manifestations in typhoid fever are unusual, and they are missed due to pigmented skin. Patients do not often complain of genital ulcers due to shame or fear. Genital examination is not routinely performed in typhoid fever. We describe scrotal ulcers as the presenting symptom of typhoid fever, which subsided with appropriate therapy. PMID:26894114

  15. Yellow fever vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200 000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10–14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2–8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO. PMID

  16. [Maculopathy and dengue fever].

    PubMed

    Jellab, B; Fardeau, C; Lehoang, P

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 20 year old female who presented a bilateral decrease in vision. Detailed history revealed that 15 days before the onset of symptoms, the patient presented a dengue fever during her stay in Martinique. On initial examination, the fundus exam revealed a bilateral loss of foveal reflection. The optical coherence tomography demonstrated the macular edema and the dengue serology was postive. The patient received an interferon2a-based therapy. The macular edema disappeared and we noticed a partial but fast improvement of visual acuity 12 days after the treatment initiation. PMID:24923080

  17. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Ling, Feng; Chai, Chengliang; Lu, Ye; Yu, Xianghua; Lin, Junfen; Sun, Jimin; Chang, Yue; Ye, Xiaodong; Gu, Shiping; Pang, Weilong; Wang, Chengwei; Zheng, Xiaohua; Jiang, Jianmin; Chen, Zhiping; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-02-01

    To explore the tick distribution and prevalence of Borrelia in Zhejiang Province, we performed a survey in nine sites. A total of 447 adult ticks of 11 species were captured and the dominant tick species were Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis and the abundance of tick species in different areas varied significantly. Overall, 4.70% of the ticks were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Borrelia. The average PCR positive rates were 5.19% for H. longicornis, 3.45% for Amblyomma testudinarium, 1.06% for I. sinensis, 5.00% for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and 19.44% for Ixodes granulatus, respectively. No Borrelia DNA was detected in Rhiphicephalus haemaphysaloides, Haemaphysalis yeni, Dermacentor taiwanensis, Haemaphysalis hystricis, Hyalomna asiaticum, and Ixodes ovatus. The prevalence of Borrelia was significantly different among tick species and the prevalence in I. granulatus was significantly higher than that in other tick species. Of note, experimentally confirmed vectors for B. burgdorferi s.l. including I. sinensis and I. granulatus were found in Zhejiang Province. Two species of B. burgdorferi s.l. exist in Zhejiang Province of which 12 sequences were most similar to the sequence of Borrelia garinii and nine sequences were most similar to the sequence of Borrelia valaisiana or Borrelia yangtze sp. nov. PMID:25548382

  18. Borrelia infection in Ixodes pararicinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nava, Santiago; Barbieri, Amalia M; Maya, Leticia; Colina, Rodney; Mangold, Atilio J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from Uruguay. Also, this genospecies is closely related to two genospecies known from USA, Borrelia americana and the Borrelia sp. genospecies 1. The epidemiological risk that implies the infection with Borrelia in I. paracinus ticks from Argentina appears to be low because the genospecies detected is not suspected of having clinical relevance and there are no records of Ixodes ticks biting humans in the southern cone of South America. Further studies are needed to assess accurately if there is risk of borreliosis transmitted by ticks in South America. PMID:24979685

  19. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in Ixodes ricinus ticks from four localities in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Vögerl, Maria; Zubriková, Dana; Pfister, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a larger survey a total of 599 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from four locations (Neustadt an der Waldnaab, Amberg, Poppenricht and Lintach) in the north of the Upper Palatinate in Bavaria were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. l.) species using the 5S-23S intergenic spacer of rRNA gene as a target in a nested PCR (Rijpkema et al., 1995) and a sequencing method. Overall, 15.8% ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s. I. Borrelia afzelii (43.1%) was the predominant genospecies, followed by Borrelia valaisiana (14.7%), Borrelia garinii (13.7%) and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (6.3%). Also Borrelia spielmanii was found (1.1%). Of the infected ticks, 21.1% harbored multiple infections with B. burgdorferi s. I. The highest number of infected ticks was found in Amberg (22.5%) and the lowest number in Neustadt an der Waldnaab (11.9%). In Poppenricht and Lintach, the numbers of infected ticks were 12% and 18.7%, respectively. Human pathogenic Borrelia species were found to be prevalent at each study site thus representing the potential risk for people living and visiting these areas. PMID:23045802

  20. Whole-Genome Sequences of Thirteen Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer S. E.; Dunn J.; Fraser-Liggett, C. M.; Casjens, S. R.; Qiu, W.-G.; Mongodin, E. F.; Luft, B. J.

    2011-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease in North America and Eurasia. The first complete genome sequence of B. burgdorferi strain 31, available for more than a decade, has assisted research on the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Because a single genome sequence is not sufficient to understand the relationship between genotypic and geographic variation and disease phenotype, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 13 additional B. burgdorferi isolates that span the range of natural variation. These sequences should allow improved understanding of pathogenesis and provide a foundation for novel detection, diagnosis, and prevention strategies.

  1. [A mild blackwater fever].

    PubMed

    Bouldouyre, M-A; Dia, D; Carmoi, T; Fall, K Ba; Chevalier, B; Debonne, J-M

    2006-06-01

    We report a highly probable case of moderately severe blackwater fever. A French woman, living in Guinea Bissau, was used to taking self-medication halofantrine for malaria. On this occasion, she felt unusual chills and pyrexia after a non documented bout of malaria, followed by nausea, then jaundice with dark-red urines despite another treatment with halofantrine. A sepsis was eliminated by two negatives thick peripheral blood drop examinations. Hemolysis was noted with 8.1 g/dl of hemoglobin, Coombs positive, and LDH at 1,452 IU/l, associated to renal failure with 34 ml per minute of clearance. The outcome was favourable with rehydration. Blackwater fever has been described with the three aminoalcohols, but mainly in severe presentations. Clinicians are not familiar with this disease, even though it has major therapeutic implications: quinine, halofantrine, and mefloquine become strictly contra-indicated. Moderate forms may be unknown, and this observation should be taken into account to prevent mistreatment in future patients. PMID:16806779

  2. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhatnagar, Shinjini

    Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21.6 million illnesses and 216,500 deaths globally in 2000, affecting all ages. There is also one case of paratyphoid fever for every four of typhoid. The global emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and of strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is of great concern. We discuss the occurrence of poor clinical response to fluoroquinolones despite disc sensitivity. Developments are being made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, and genomic and proteomic studies reveal the possibility of new targets for diagnosis and treatment. Further, we review guidelines for use of diagnostic tests and for selection of antimicrobials in varying clinical situations. The importance of safe water, sanitation, and immunisation in the presence of increasing antibiotic resistance is paramount. Routine immunisation of school-age children with Vi or Ty21a vaccine is recommended for countries endemic for typhoid. Vi vaccine should be used for 2-5 year-old children in highly endemic settings. PMID:16125594

  3. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in North Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.

  4. [Genetic fever syndromes. Hereditary recurrent (periodic) fever syndromes].

    PubMed

    Neudorf, U; Lainka, E; Kallinich, T; Holzinger, D; Roth, J; Föll, D; Niehues, T

    2013-05-01

    Genetic fever syndromes or hereditary recurrent fever syndromes (HRF) are considered to be part of the autoinflammatory diseases (AID) which result from errors in the innate immune system. Patients typically have self-limiting episodes of fever and high levels of inflammation markers. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant. The diseases of the HRF include familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome, hyper-IgD syndrome and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes. The disease known as deficiency of interleukin 1 (IL1) receptor antagonist does not fully belong to this group because fever is not a typical symptom. The therapy depends on the type and severity of the disease. Effective prophylaxis is possible for FMF. Biologicals, especially IL1 blocking agents are highly effective in very severe fever syndromes. In order to collect more information on AID, to establish a biobank and coordinate research in this field the AID-Net project was founded. Currently 606 patients with AID are registered of whom 381 have HRF. PMID:23552978

  5. Notes from the Field: Tickborne Relapsing Fever Outbreak at an Outdoor Education Camp - Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jefferson M; Schumacher, Mare; Peoples, Marie; Souders, Nina; Horn, Kimberly; Fox, Lisa; Scott, Michele; Brady, Shane; Weiss, Joli; Komatsu, Ken; Nieto, Nathan

    2015-06-19

    Tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a bacterial infection characterized by recurring episodes of fever, headache, muscle and joint aches, and nausea. In North America, TBRF primarily is caused by Borrelia hermsii spirochetes transmitted by Ornithodoros hermsii ticks. Once infected, these soft ticks are infectious for life and transmit the spirochete to sleeping humans quickly (possibly within 30 seconds) during short feeds (15-90 minutes). On August 10, 2014, the Coconino County Public Health Services District in Arizona was notified by a local hospital that five high school students who attended the same outdoor education camp had been hospitalized with fever, headache, and myalgias. Hantavirus infection initially was suspected because of reported exposure to rodent droppings, but after detecting spirochetes on peripheral blood smears from all five hospitalized students, TBRF was diagnosed. The camp was instructed to close immediately, and the health department, in collaboration with local university experts, investigated to identify additional cases, determine the cause, and prevent further infections. A total of 11 cases (six confirmed and five probable) were identified. PMID:26086637

  6. [Case of Borrelia brainstem encephalitis presenting with severe dysphagia].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuji; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2010-04-01

    We report the case of a 30-year-old man who developed severe dysphagia owing to neuroborreliosis. He showed dysphagia, diplopia, hiccups, and walking difficulty Neurological examination revealed mild disturbance of consciousness, diplopia on left lateral gaze, left-side-dominant blephaloptosis, gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus on left lateral gaze, mild bilateral muscle weakness, palatoplegia, dysphagia, dysarthria, and truncal ataxia An increased pharyngeal reflex caused dysphagia in this patient. An EEG revealed intermittent high amplitude slow wave activity. However, head MRI, blood count, serum chemistry, and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed no abnormality. Initially, brainstem encephalitis with unknown etiology was diagnosed. The hiccups, diplopia, and ptosis were improved by corticosteroid therapy, but other symptoms were refractory to corticosteroid therapy and IVIg. After these immunotherapies, anti-Borrelia IgG and IgM antibodies were found to be positive, and symptoms, including dysphagia, were improved by doxycycline and cefotaxime. Because the clinical symptoms of Borrelia infection are widely variable, neuroborreliosis should be considered in patients with brainstem encephalitis refractory to conventional immunotherapies. PMID:20411811

  7. Case Report: Bilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction due to Borrelia Burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Basunaid, Suhail; van der Grinten, Chris; Cobben, Nicole; Otte, Astrid; Sprooten, Roy; Gernot, Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Summary: In this case report we describe a rare case of bilateral diaphragmatic dysfunction due to Lyme disease. Case report: A 62-years-old male presented to the hospital because of flu-like symptoms. During initial evaluation a bilateral diaphragmatic weakness with orthopnea and nocturnal hypoventilation was observed, without a known aetiology. Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis was confirmed by fluoroscopy with a positive sniff test. The patient was referred to our centre for chronic non-invasive nocturnal ventilation (cNPPV). Subsequent investigations revealed evidence of anti- Borrelia seroactivity in EIA-IgG and IgG-blot, suggesting a recent infection with Lyme disease, and resulted in a 4-week treatment with oral doxycycline. The symptoms of nocturnal hypoventilation were successfully improved with cNPPV. However, our patient still shows impaired diaphragmatic function but he is no longer fully dependent on nocturnal ventilatory support.     Conclusion: Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diaphragmatic dysfunction. It is a tick-borne illness caused by one of the three pathogenic species of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, present in Europe. A delay in recognizing the symptoms can negatively affect the success of treatment. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is considered a treatment option for patients with diaphragmatic paralysis. PMID:25671085

  8. RpoS Regulates Essential Virulence Factors Remaining to Be Identified in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qilong; Shi, Yanlin; Dadhwal, Poonam; Liang, Fang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the RpoN-RpoS regulatory network was revealed in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi a decade ago, both upstream and downstream of the pathway have been intensively investigated. While significant progress has been made into understanding of how the network is regulated, most notably, discovering a relationship of the network with Rrp2 and BosR, only three crucial virulence factors, including outer surface protein C (OspC) and decorin-binding proteins (Dbps) A and B, are associated with the pathway. Moreover, for more than 10 years no single RpoS-controlled gene has been found to be critical for infection, raising a question about whether additional RpoS-dependent virulence factors remain to be identified. Methodology/Principal Findings The rpoS gene was deleted in B. burgdorferi; resulting mutants were modified to constitutively express all the known virulence factors, OspC, DbpA and DbpB. This genetic modification was unable to restore the rpoS mutant with infectivity. Conclusions/Significance The inability to restore the rpoS mutant with infectivity by simultaneously over-expressing all the three virulence factors allows us to conclude RpoS also regulates essential genes that remain to be identified in B. burgdorferi. PMID:23300893

  9. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, James J.; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T.; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  10. Evidence that BosR (BB0647) Is a Positive Autoregulator in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in nature through a complex tick-mammalian life cycle. During its transit between ticks and mammalian hosts, B. burgdorferi must dramatically alter its outer surface profile in order to interact with and adapt to these two diverse niches. It has been established that the regulator BosR (BB0647) in B. burgdorferi plays important roles in modulating borrelial host adaptation. However, to date, how bosR expression itself is controlled in B. burgdorferi remains largely unknown. Previously, it has been shown that DNA sequences upstream of BosR harbor multiple sites for the binding of recombinant BosR, suggesting that BosR may influence its own expression in B. burgdorferi However, direct experimental evidence supporting this putative autoregulation of BosR has been lacking. Here, we investigated the expression of bosR throughout the tick-mammal life cycle of B. burgdorferi via quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. Our data indicated that bosR is expressed not only during mouse infection, but also during the tick acquisition, intermolt, and transmission phases. Further investigation revealed that bosR expression in B. burgdorferi is influenced by environmental stimuli, such as temperature shift and pH change. By employing luciferase reporter assays, we also identified two promoters potentially driving bosR transcription. Our study offers strong support for the long-postulated function of BosR as an autoregulator in B. burgdorferi. PMID:27324485

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi, Host-Derived Proteases, and the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Grab, Dennis J.; Perides, George; Dumler, J. Stephen; Kim, Kee Jun; Park, Jinho; Kim, Yuri V.; Nikolskaia, Olga; Choi, Kyoung Seong; Stins, Monique F.; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2005-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of Lyme disease in humans are attributed in part to penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by Borrelia burgdorferi. However, how the spirochetes cross the BBB remains an unresolved issue. We examined the traversal of B. burgdorferi across the human BBB and systemic endothelial cell barriers using in vitro model systems constructed of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) and EA.hy 926, a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line grown on Costar Transwell inserts. These studies showed that B. burgdorferi differentially crosses human BMEC and HUVEC and that the human BMEC form a barrier to traversal. During the transmigration by the spirochetes, it was found that the integrity of the endothelial cell monolayers was maintained, as assessed by transendothelial electrical resistance measurements at the end of the experimental period, and that B. burgdorferi appeared to bind human BMEC by their tips near or at cell borders, suggesting a paracellular route of transmigration. Importantly, traversal of B. burgdorferi across human BMEC induces the expression of plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator receptors, and matrix metalloproteinases. Thus, the fibrinolytic system linked by an activation cascade may lead to focal and transient degradation of tight junction proteins that allows B. burgdorferi to invade the CNS. PMID:15664945

  12. The cyclic-di-GMP signaling pathway in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Elizabeth A.; Sultan, Syed Z.; Motaleb, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    In nature, the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi cycles between the unrelated environments of the Ixodes tick vector and mammalian host. In order to survive transmission between hosts, B. burgdorferi must be able to not only detect changes in its environment, but also rapidly and appropriately respond to these changes. One manner in which this obligate parasite regulates and adapts to its changing environment is through cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. c-di-GMP has been shown to be instrumental in orchestrating the adaptation of B. burgdorferi to the tick environment. B. burgdorferi possesses only one set of c-di-GMP-metabolizing genes (one diguanylate cyclase and two distinct phosphodiesterases) and one c-di-GMP-binding PilZ-domain protein designated as PlzA. While studies in the realm of c-di-GMP signaling in B. burgdorferi have exploded in the last few years, there are still many more questions than answers. Elucidation of the importance of c-di-GMP signaling to B. burgdorferi may lead to the identification of mechanisms that are critical for the survival of B. burgdorferi in the tick phase of the enzootic cycle as well as potentially delineate a role (if any) c-di-GMP may play in the transmission and virulence of B. burgdorferi during the enzootic cycle, thereby enabling the development of effective drugs for the prevention and/or treatment of Lyme disease. PMID:24822172

  13. Substrate prediction of Ixodes ricinus salivary lipocalins differentially expressed during Borrelia afzelii infection.

    PubMed

    Valdés, James J; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Sima, Radek; Butterill, Philip T; Růžek, Daniel; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has provided ticks with an arsenal of bioactive saliva molecules that counteract host defense mechanisms. This salivary pharmacopoeia enables blood-feeding while enabling pathogen transmission. High-throughput sequencing of tick salivary glands has thus become a major focus, revealing large expansion within protein encoding gene families. Among these are lipocalins, ubiquitous barrel-shaped proteins that sequester small, typically hydrophobic molecules. This study was initiated by mining the Ixodes ricinus salivary gland transcriptome for specific, uncharacterized lipocalins: three were identified. Differential expression of these I. ricinus lipocalins during feeding at distinct developmental stages and in response to Borrelia afzelii infection suggests a role in transmission of this Lyme disease spirochete. A phylogenetic analysis using 803 sequences places the three I. ricinus lipocalins with tick lipocalins that sequester monoamines, leukotrienes and fatty acids. Both structural analysis and biophysical simulations generated robust predictions showing these I. ricinus lipocalins have the potential to bind monoamines similar to other tick species previously reported. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study characterized unique lipocalins that play a role in tick blood-feeding and transmission of the most important tick-borne pathogen in North America and Eurasia. PMID:27584086

  14. A case of hemifacial paresis in a patient with Lyme neuroborreliosis treated with antibiotics in whom Borrelia meningitis developed.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisao; Haratani, Koji; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Nagami, Shuhei; Katanami, Yuichi; Kawabata, Hiroki; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-07-28

    A 38-year-old man visited our hospital because of hemifacial paresis that developed 2 months after being bit by a tick. We diagnosed idiopathic peripheral facial palsy and gave the patient oral prednisolone and valacyclovir. Although the symptoms completely resolved in about 2 weeks, there was a risk of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient therefore received doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) and amoxicillin (1,000 mg 3 times daily) for 14 days. Two months later, he had symptoms of meningitis such as headache and fever accompanied by lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Viral meningitis was diagnosed and treated with parenteral acyclovir. The symptoms of meningitis improved. Tests for serum IgG antibodies against borrelia were positive. We gave the patient a diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. The patient received intravenous ceftriaxone and had no relapse. It is a rare for meningitis to develop in a patient with cranial neuropathy who received doxycycline. Lyme neuroborreliosis is a rare disease in Japan. Care should therefore be exercised in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis and evaluation of the response to treatment. PMID:27356734

  15. Acylated Cholesteryl Galactosides Are Specific Antigens of Borrelia Causing Lyme Disease and Frequently Induce Antibodies in Late Stages of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stübs, Gunthard; Fingerle, Volker; Wilske, Bettina; Göbel, Ulf B.; Zähringer, Ulrich; Schumann, Ralf R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), an infectious disease occurring in North America, Europe, and Asia in different clinical stages. B. burgdorferi sensu lato encompasses at least 12 species, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii being of highest clinical importance. Immunologic testing for LD as well as recent vaccination strategies exclusively refer to proteinaceous antigens. However, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto exhibits glycolipid antigens, including 6-O-acylated cholesteryl β-d-galactopyranoside (ACGal), and first the data indicated that this compound may act as an immunogen. Here we investigated whether B. garinii and B. afzelii also possess this antigen, and whether antibodies directed against these compounds are abundant among patients suffering from different stages of LD. Gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy showed that both B. garinii and B. afzelii exhibit ACGal in high quantities. In contrast, B. hermsii causing relapsing fever features 6-O-acylated cholesteryl β-d-glucopyranoside (ACGlc). Sera derived from patients diagnosed for LD contained antibodies against ACGal, with 80% of patients suffering from late stage disease exhibiting this feature. Antibodies reacted with ACGal from all three B. burgdorferi species tested, but not with ACGlc from B. hermsii. These data show that ACGal is present in all clinically important B. burgdorferi species, and that specific antibodies against this compound are frequently found during LD. ACGal may thus be an interesting tool for improving diagnostics as well as for novel vaccination strategies. PMID:19307181

  16. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Racsa, Lori D; Kraft, Colleen S; Olinger, Gene G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-15

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  17. Lassa fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2004-04-01

    Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044

  18. Are circulating cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha involved in chlorpyrifos-induced fever?

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1999-05-01

    Oral exposure to chlorpyrifos (CHP) in the rat results in an initial hypothermic response followed by a delayed fever. Fever from infection is mediated by the release of cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha). This study determined if the CHP-induced fever involves cytokine-mediated mechanisms similar to that of infectious fevers. Long-Evans rats were gavaged with the corn oil vehicle or CHP (10-50 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized and blood collected at various times that corresponded with the hypothermic and febrile effects of CHP. Plasma IL-6, TNF alpha, cholinesterase activity (ChE), total iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), and zinc were measured. ChE activity was reduced by approximately 50% 4 h after CHP. There was no effect of CHP on IL-6 when measured during the period of CHP-induced hypothermia or fever. TNF alpha levels nearly doubled in female rats 48 h after 25 mg/kg CHP. The changes in plasma cytokine levels following CHP were relatively small when compared to > 1000-fold increase in IL-6 and > 10-fold rise in TNF alpha following lipopolysaccharide (E. coli; 50 microg/kg; i.p.)-induced fever. This does not preclude a role of cytokines in CHP-induced fever. Nonetheless, the data suggest that the delayed fever from CHP is unique, involving mechanisms other than TNF alpha and IL-6 release into the circulation characteristic of infectious fevers. PMID:10413184

  19. Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in natural populations of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C; Magnarelli, L A

    1987-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from 111 of 237 Peromyscus leucopus captured during all seasons of the year. Borreliae were cultured from tissues of the spleen (101 mice), left kidney (76 mice), and right kidney (73 mice), from blood (12 mice), and from one fetus. Mice were infected during the winter, when immature Ixodes dammini were inactive. The prevalence of infection during the winter (less than or equal to 33%) was more than twofold lower than that during the summer (ca. 75%), a time when nymphal ticks are abundant. Overwintering, infected mice are reservoir hosts for subadult ticks that begin feeding in early spring. Twenty white-footed mice from which B. burgdorferi was isolated from tissues of spleen or kidney but not from blood were parasitized by larval I. dammini or Dermacentor variabilis which harbored borreliae. We conclude that these mice were infectious to feeding ticks, even though borreliae were not isolated from blood. PMID:3624451

  20. Sensitivity of Borrelia genospecies to serum complement from different animals and human: a host-pathogen relationship.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Mangesh R; Travnicek, Milan; Levkutova, Maria; Curlik, Jan; Revajova, Viera; Levkut, Mikulas

    2005-02-01

    Different Borrelia species and serotypes were tested for their sensitivity to serum complement from various animals and human. Complement-mediated Borrelia killing in cattle, European bison and deer was higher irrespective of the Borrelia species whereas in other animals and human it was intermediate and Borrelia species-dependent. Activation of the alternative complement pathway by particular Borrelia strain was in correlation with its sensitivity or resistance. These results support the incompetent reservoir nature of cattle, European bison, red, roe and fallow deer, at the same time present the probable reservoir nature of mouflon, dog, wolf, cat and lynx. In short, this study reviews Borrelia-host relationship and its relevance in reservoir competence nature of animals. PMID:15681146

  1. Rhombencephalitis associated with Dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Bharti, Kavita; Mehta, Mannan; Bansod, Amrit

    2016-05-01

    Dengue infection is gradually disseminating throughout the world in alarming proportions. It is a arbovirus infection,transmitted by aedes mosquitoes. It is a multi-systemic disorder associated with varied neurological complications. There is increased trend of development of neurological complications in dengue fever. The neurological complications arising due to dengue infection can be categorized into central and neuromuscular complications. The central nervous system disorders reported with dengue fever are encephalopathy,encephalitis and myelitis.Here we report a case of rhombencephalitis associated with dengue fever. The literature does not mention rhombencephalitis occurring with dengue illness. PMID:27015434

  2. A New Borrelia Species Defined by Multilocus Sequence Analysis of Housekeeping Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Margos, Gabriele; Vollmer, Stephanie A.; Cornet, Muriel; Garnier, Martine; Fingerle, Volker; Wilske, Bettina; Bormane, Antra; Vitorino, Liliana; Collares-Pereira, Margarida; Drancourt, Michel; Kurtenbach, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochetes, using a novel multilocus sequence analysis scheme, revealed that OspA serotype 4 strains (a rodent-associated ecotype) of Borrelia garinii were sufficiently genetically distinct from bird-associated B. garinii strains to deserve species status. We suggest that OspA serotype 4 strains be raised to species status and named Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. The rooted phylogenetic trees provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of LB spirochetes. PMID:19542332

  3. TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers play an important role in the recognition of Borrelia spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; Ter Hofstede, Hadewych; Sturm, Patrick; Adema, Gosse J; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2011-01-01

    After infection with Borrelia species, the risk for developing Lyme disease varies significantly between individuals. Recognition of Borrelia by the immune system is mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as TLRs. While TLR2 is the main recognition receptor for Borrelia spp., little is known about the role of TLR1 and TLR6, which both can form functionally active heterodimers with TLR2. Here we investigated the recognition of Borrelia by both murine and human TLR1 and TLR6. Peritoneal macrophages from TLR1- and TLR6- gene deficient mice were isolated and exposed to Borrelia. Human PBMCs were stimulated with Borrelia with or without specific TLR1 and TLR6 blocking using specific antibodies. Finally, the functional consequences of TLR polymorphisms on Borrelia-induced cytokine production were assessed. Splenocytes isolated from both TLR1-/- and TLR6-/- mice displayed a distorted Th1/Th2 cytokine balance after stimulation with B.burgdorferi, while no differences in pro-inflammatory cytokine production were observed. In contrast, blockade of TLR1 with specific neutralizing antibodies led to decreased cytokine production by human PBMCs after exposure to B.burgdorferi. Blockade of human TLR6 did not lead to suppression of cytokine production. When PBMCs from healthy individuals bearing polymorphisms in TLR1 were exposed to B.burgdorferi, a remarkably decreased in vitro cytokine production was observed in comparison to wild-type controls. TLR6 polymorphisms lead to a minor modified cytokine production. This study indicates a dominant role for TLR1/TLR2 heterodimers in the induction of the early inflammatory response by Borrelia spirochetes in humans. PMID:21998742

  4. Synanthropic birds influence the distribution of Borrelia species: analysis of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sverakova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich; Hromadko, Miloslav

    2011-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 835 birds and from vegetation in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Host-seeking ticks (n = 427) were infected predominantly by Borrelia afzelii (25%). Ticks (n = 1,012) from songbirds (Passeriformes) were infected commonly by Borrelia garinii (12.1%) and Borrelia valaisiana (13.4%). Juveniles of synanthropic birds, Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos), were major reservoir hosts of B. garinii. PMID:21148704

  5. Sylvatic maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales) in Northern California: untangling the web of transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, R N; Peot, M A; Lane, R S

    2006-07-01

    Lyme borreliosis is associated with several genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) (Spirochaetales), but human disease has been associated only with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner in the western United States. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of rrf-rrl amplicons from 124 tick and mammalian isolates from various habitats yielded 13 RFLP patterns. Of these patterns, six were patterns previously associated either with Borrelia bissettii Postic, Marti Ras, Lane, Hendson & Baranton or Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., and the remaining seven patterns belonged to diverse and previously uncharacterized Borrelia spp. Uncharacterized Borrelia spp. were cultured most frequently from Ixodes spinipalpis Hadwen & Nuttall and California kangaroo rats, Dipodomys californicus Merriam, inhabiting grasslands, and B. bissettii from I. spinipalpis and dusky-footed woodrats, Neotoma fuscipes Baird, associated with oak woodlands or chaparral. B. burgdorferi s.s. typically was isolated from host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls collected in dense oak woodlands, woodland-grass, or redwood forests. Although some isolates of B. burgdorferi s.s. were cultured from woodrats, there was no clear association of this human pathogen with any vertebrate host. These findings, along with recent evidence indicating that the western gray squirrel, Sciurus griseus Ord, may be an important reservoir of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Californian oak woodlands, suggest that our earlier hypothesis implicating an enzootic cycle involving woodrats and I. spinipalpis is insufficient to account for observed patterns of infection in nature. PMID:16892634

  6. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by NOD2 is central for the induction of an inflammatory reaction.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; Berende, Anneleen; Sturm, Patrick; Ter Hofstede, Hadewych J M; de Jong, Dirk J; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2010-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in the recognition of Borrelia bacteria, the causative agent of Lyme disease, but the existence and importance of additional receptors in this process has been hypothesized. In the present study, we confirmed the role played by TLR2 in the recognition of Borrelia bacteria but also demonstrated a crucial role for the intracellular peptidoglycan receptor NOD2 for sensing the spirochete. Cells from individuals who were homozygous for the loss-of-function mutation 3020insC in the NOD2 gene were defective with respect to cytokine release after stimulation with Borrelia species, and this was confirmed in peritoneal macrophages from mice lacking RICK, the adaptor molecule used by NOD2. In contrast, NOD1 played no major role in the recognition of Borrelia spirochetes. This raises the intriguing possibility that recognition of Borrelia spirochetes is exerted by TLR2 in combination with NOD2 and that both receptors are necessary for an effective induction of cytokines by Borrelia species. The interplay between TLR2 and NOD2 might not only be necessary for the induction of a proper immune response but may also contribute to inflammatory-induced pathology. PMID:20441518

  7. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on mouse endothelioma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Böggemeyer, E; Stehle, T; Schaible, U E; Hahne, M; Vestweber, D; Simon, M M

    1994-06-01

    In order to obtain more information on processes leading to Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in the host, we have developed an in vitro model to study the upregulation of cell surface expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells by spirochetes. A mouse endothelioma cell line, derived from brain capillaries, bEnd3, was used as indicator population. bEnd3 cells were incubated with preparations of viable, inactivated or sonicated spirochetes and the expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was monitored by immunocytochemistry and quantified by cell surface ELISA. We show that all three spirochetal preparations are able to upregulate cell surface expression of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on bEnd 3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetics of cell surface expression of the individual adhesion molecules in the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi showed maxima at about 50 h of incubation or later; this was distinct from results obtained with sonicated-preparations of Escherichia coli bacteria or with enterobacterial LPS where peak expression was observed between 4 h and 16 h. The fact that Borrelia burgdorferi does not contain conventional LPS suggests that the mode of induction of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells is influenced by the phenotype of bacteria. At the peak of spirochete-induced cell surface expression of adhesion molecules (approximately 50 h), bEnd3 cells were found to bind cells of a VLA-4+ B lymphoma line (L1-2) much more efficiently than untreated control cells. The binding of L1-2 cells to presensitized bEnd3 cells was significantly inhibited (more than 75%) in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to both VLA-4 and its endothelial counterreceptor VCAM-1. These findings demonstrate that Borrelia burgdorferi organisms are able to induce functionally active adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in vitro and suggest that E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 play an important role in the

  8. Diversity of Antibody Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in Experimentally Infected Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Grosenbaugh, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC. PMID:24695775

  9. Identification and function of the RNA chaperone Hfq in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Lybecker, Meghan C.; Abel, Cassandra A.; Feig, Andrew L.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hfq is a global regulatory RNA-binding protein. We have identified and characterized an atypical Hfq required for gene regulation and infectivity in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Sequence analyses of the putative B. burgdorferi Hfq protein revealed only a modest level of similarity with the Hfq from Escherichia coli, although a few key residues are retained and the predicted tertiary structure is similar. Several lines of evidence suggest that the B. burgdorferi bb0268 gene encodes a functional Hfq homolog. First, the hfqBb gene (bb0268) restores the efficient translation of an rpoS::lacZ fusion in an E. coli hfq null mutant. Second, the Hfq from B. burgdorferi binds to the small RNA DsrABb and the rpoS mRNA. Third, a B. burgdorferi hfq null mutant was generated and has a pleiotropic phenotype that includes increased cell length and decreased growth rate, as found in hfq mutants in other bacteria. The hfqBb mutant phenotype is complemented in trans with the hfq gene from either B. burgdorferi or, surprisingly, E. coli. This is the first example of a heterologous bacterial gene complementing a B. burgdorferi mutant. The alternative sigma factor RpoS and the outer membrane lipoprotein OspC, which are induced by increased temperature and required for mammalian infection, are not upregulated in the hfq mutant. Consequently, the hfq mutant is not infectious by needle inoculation in the murine model. These data suggest that Hfq plays a key role in the regulation of pathogenicity factors in B. burgdorferi and we hypothesize that the spirochete has a complex Hfq-dependent sRNA network. PMID:20815822

  10. Humidifier fever 1

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    MRC Symposium (1977).Thorax, 32, 653-663. Humidifier fever. In enclosed environments, it may be necessary to regulate temperature, ventilation, and humidity to maintain comfortable working conditions. Several systems can be used although in terms of installation and running costs a simple radiator system is far more economical than air conditioning with complete temperature and humidity control. Humidity control requires the introduction of water into a moving current of air, and in such a system baffle plates are often used to eliminate large droplets; also any unused water is usually recirculated. Organic dust drawn into the system and settling on the baffle plates and in the mixing chamber may be utilised by micro-organisms introduced from the atmosphere and from the water supply, and a biomass builds up. Microbial material is then voided into the working atmosphere by the ventilation system. Under appropriate exposure conditions susceptible individuals may succumb to an episode of humidifier fever, an influenza-like illness with pyrexia and malaise as the main symptoms, but cough, chest tightness, dyspnoea and weight loss may also be seen. The episodes usually occur after absence from work for a few days and have been termed `Monday sickness'. Individuals are often able to return to work the next day and appear refractory to further exposure. The disease is of the winter months probably due to the larger amount (up to 90%) of fresh air drawn into the humidifier during the summer. In the blood of exposed subjects precipitins are usually present to extracts of baffle plate material and recirculating water although they are not necessarily indicative of disease. Skin tests may be positive and inhalation challenge has reproduced the disease in susceptible individuals. Many organisms may be isolated from baffle plates and recirculating water but only amoeba extracts have produced consistently positive reactions with sera from affected individuals. Remedial actions

  11. Q Fever in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  12. Fever in Infants and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... later? Yes Slightly larger bumps may be from MEASLES. Small "sandpaper" bumps may be from SCARLET FEVER, ... in the treatment of viral infections such as measles. If your child has measles, make sure he ...

  13. [Persistent fever of dental origin].

    PubMed

    Pernice, L; Ribault, J Y; Fourestier, J; Gacon, J; Quilichini, R; Aubert, L; Chaffanjon, P; Roubaudi, G

    1990-01-01

    Based on 5 cases of unexplained prolonged fever, the authors stress the need to systematically look for a dental focus of infection. They discuss the difficulties in determining the site of the probable causal focus and stress the uncertain pathogenic relationship between the dental focus of infection and the fever. The extraction of infected teeth leads to a cure, however, the functional disadvantages of multiple extractions need to be carefully taken into account. PMID:2130447

  14. [The fever of international travel].

    PubMed

    Hristea, Adriana; Luka, A I; Aramă, Victoria; Moroti, Ruxandra

    2008-01-01

    Between 20 and 70 percent of the 50 million people who travel from the industrialized world to the developing world each year report some illness associated with their travel. Although most illness reported by travellers are mild, 20-70% of travellers become ill enough to seek medical attention, either during or immediately after travel. The full spectrum of health complaints is unknown. Nevertheless the usual presentation of a returned traveller is a particular syndrome-fever, respiratory infection, diarrhoea, eosinophilia, or skin and soft tissue infection- or screening for asymptomatic infection. The most common diseases diagnosed in returning travellers are more often of cosmopolitan than exotic origin. However, fever in returned travelers always should raise suspicion for a severe or potentially life-threatening tropical infection. Therefore, fever in a returned traveller requires prompt investigation focused on infections that are life-threatening, treatable or transmissible. Careful assessment of the travel history, likely incubation period, exposure history, associated signs and symptoms, duration of fever, immunization status, use or non-use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and degree of compliance with the prescribed regimen, if used, helps to establish the diagnosis. Determining an approximate incubation period can be particularly helpful in ruling out possible causes of fever. Malaria is the most important cause of fever in the returned traveller. While most travel-related infections present within 6 months of return, some infections with long latent periods or potential for lifetime persistence might be seen in those who have lived abroad. PMID:20201239

  15. Yellow Fever Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Comer, K M

    1991-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an endemic tickborne disease found throughout the United States and other regions of the world. Exposure may result in a spectrum of disease from subclinical infection to severe or fatal multiorgan collapse. The disease is maintained in nature in Ixodid tick vectors and their hosts. The most important ticks in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni. Small mammals are the natural reservoirs in the wild. Dogs become infected when a tick harboring Rickettsia rickettsii feeds on the dog. Dogs do not develop sufficient rickettsemia to act as a reservoir in the transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii. Thus, although dogs act as sentinels to the presence of the disease, they cannot directly transmit infection. Signs in early stages of disease often are nonspecific. The most characteristic laboratory abnormality is thrombocytopenia, but serologic testing is necessary for confirmation of infection. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective antibiotics to treat infection. Treatment should continue for 14 to 21 days to allow host immune defenses to develop and eradicate the organism. Prevention requires avoidance of tick-infested areas and rapid removal of ticks should exposure occur. PMID:2014623

  17. Bullying Borrelia: when the culture of science is under attack.

    PubMed

    Auwaerter, Paul G; Melia, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although Lyme disease responds to short courses of antibiotics, tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi has been advanced by some as a frequent explanation for medically unexplained symptoms such as continual fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. Often called "chronic Lyme disease" by adherents of this philosophy, it is loosely defined, and practitioners liberally prescribe nostrums, including prolonged antimicrobial therapies, in a belief that this eradicates suspected infection. Perhaps due to the lack of supportive data, proponents of this theory have developed their own meetings, literature, activist groups, and substantial internet activities to advance their views. Forces motivating this movement are explored, as are tactics used to advance non-scientific ideas that have included legal action and garnering legislative endorsement. While neither logical nor evidence-based, "chronic Lyme disease" harnesses corrosive energies that taint modern medicine and society. PMID:23303970

  18. Susceptibility of selected rodent species from Colorado to Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Ubico, S R; McLean, R G; Cooksey, L M

    1996-04-01

    To determine the susceptibility of some common Colorado (USA) rodent species to Borrelia burgdorferi, pregnant Peromyscus maniculatus, Tamias minimus, and Spermophilus lateralis were trapped in May 1990 and kept in quarantine until their young were old enough to be used in the experiment. Six to eight 8-wk-old individuals of each of the Colorado species and, for comparison, eight laboratory raised P. leucopus were subcutaneously inoculated with > or = 10(5) spirochetes in 0.1 ml in July 1990. Tissue specimens were collected for isolation from these animals through April 1991. Spirochetes were isolated from blood, ear, bladder, kidney, spleen, liver, and eye in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly (BSK) medium from P. maniculatus, P. leucopus and T. minimus. Spirochetes were isolated from at least one tissue from all of these animals and no isolations were obtained from any of the S. lateralis. Thus, three of the four rodent species tested are susceptible to, and could harbor, B. burgdorferi. PMID:8722268

  19. Persister Development by Borrelia burgdorferi Populations In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Caskey, John R; Embers, Monica E

    2015-10-01

    Doxycycline is an antibiotic commonly used to treat Lyme disease and other bacterial infections. The MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for Borrelia burgdorferi have been investigated by different groups but were experimentally established in this study as a function of input cell density. We demonstrated that B. burgdorferi treated in the stationary phase has a higher probability of regrowth following removal of antibiotic. In addition, we determined experimentally and mathematically that the spirochetes which persist posttreatment do not have a longer lag phase but exhibit a lower growth rate than untreated spirochetes. Finally, we found that treating the spirochetes by pulse-dosing did not eliminate growth or reduce the persister population in vitro. From these data, we propose that B. burgdorferi persister development is stochastic and driven by slowed growth. PMID:26248368

  20. Lipid Exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Jameson T.; Toledo, Alvaro M.; LaRocca, Timothy J.; Coleman, James L.; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or 3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. PMID:23326230

  1. Nanoscopic Localization of Surface-Exposed Antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Lemgruber, Leandro; Sant'Anna, Celso; Griffths, Caron; Abud, Yuri; Mhlanga, Musa; Wallich, Reinhard; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2015-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks. Successful infection of vertebrate hosts necessitates sophisticated means of the pathogen to escape the vertebrates' immune system. One strategy employed by Lyme disease spirochetes to evade adaptive immunity involves a highly coordinated regulation of the expression of outer surface proteins that is vital for infection, dissemination, and persistence. Here we characterized the expression pattern of bacterial surface antigens using different microscopy techniques, from fluorescent wide field to super-resolution and immunogold-scanning electron microscopy. A fluorescent strain of B. burgdorferi spirochetes was labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against various bacterial surface antigens. Our results indicate that OspA is more evenly distributed over the surface than OspB and OspC that were present as punctate areas. PMID:25739645

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and Lyme disease in children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Sabatini, Caterina; Tagliaferri, Laura; Principi, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that frequently affects children. It is caused by a group of related spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, that are transmitted by ticks belonging to species of the genus Ixodes. The clinical characteristics of Lyme disease in pediatrics resemble those observed in adults, although the symptoms may last for a shorter time and the outcome may be better. However, identifying Lyme disease in children can be significantly more difficult because some of its signs and symptoms can be similar to those of other common pediatric clinical manifestations. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to childhood Lyme disease is frequently not codified, and guidelines specifically prepared for adults are used for children without having been validated. This review of the currently available data will evaluate what may be the best approach to the diagnosis and treatment of B. burgdorferi infection and disease in the pediatric population. PMID:23141587

  3. Bullying Borrelia: When the Culture of Science is Under Attack

    PubMed Central

    Auwaerter, Paul G.; Melia, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Although Lyme disease responds to short courses of antibiotics, tick-borne Borrelia burgdorferi has been advanced by some as a frequent explanation for medically unexplained symptoms such as continual fatigue, musculoskeletal pains, and subjective neurocognitive dysfunction. Often called “chronic Lyme disease” by adherents of this philosophy, it is loosely defined, and practitioners liberally prescribe nostrums, including prolonged antimicrobial therapies, in a belief that this eradicates suspected infection. Perhaps due to the lack of supportive data, proponents of this theory have developed their own meetings, literature, activist groups, and substantial internet activities to advance their views. Forces motivating this movement are explored, as are tactics used to advance non-scientific ideas that have included legal action and garnering legislative endorsement. While neither logical nor evidence-based, “chronic Lyme disease” harnesses corrosive energies that taint modern medicine and society. PMID:23303970

  4. Enhancement of Borrelia burgdorferi PCR by uracil N-glycosylase.

    PubMed Central

    Loewy, Z G; Mecca, J; Diaco, R

    1994-01-01

    Uracil DNA glycosylases are DNA repair enzymes present in virtually every organism. These enzymes function by excising from DNA uracil residues resulting from either misincorporation of dUMP residues by a DNA polymerase or deamination of cytosine. Recently, the enzyme has been exploited in PCRs as a means for controlling carryover contamination from previously amplified DNA. When the enzyme is used in amplifications of Borrelia burgdorferi target sequences, we have observed an enhancement in signal detected by a microwell plate DNA hybridization assay. This increase in signal is dependent upon the length of the target, is titratable with enzyme concentration, and has been observed with amplifications performed with both symmetric and asymmetric PCR profiles. The enhancement is shown to occur at the level of the target genomic DNA. PMID:8126168

  5. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in white-footed mice and Ixodes dammini at Fort McCoy, Wis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Duray, P H; Magnarelli, L A

    1987-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was isolated from 15 of 17 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and 54 of 82 subadult Ixodes dammini from Fort McCoy, Wis. Of the 47 isolates tested, all reacted in indirect fluorescent-antibody tests with monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface protein of B. burgdorferi (approximate molecular weight, 31,000) and flagellins that are common to all Borrelia species. Indirect fluorescent-antibody reactions were variable when an antibody that binds to a surface protein with an approximate molecular weight of 34,000 was tested. The major proteins of isolates from ticks and mice had approximate molecular weights of 31,000, 34,000, and 41,000. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi were present (titer, greater than or equal to 1:64) in 16 of 97 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The mean number of subadult I. dammini on mice captured in June 1986 was 6.5, and the mean number of adult I. dammini on deer killed in November 1986 was 5.9. The presence of ticks and the high prevalence of I. dammini and mice infected with B. burgdorferi establish that Fort McCoy is an area in which the Lyme disease agent is highly endemic, even though there have been relatively few documented cases in humans. The low number of reported cases in humans may be a result of National Guard and reserve unit personnel returning home to civilian life and having symptoms expressed subsequently, or it could be due to misdiagnosis or nonreporting. Images PMID:3305566

  6. Fever in Children and Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Rajeshwar; Agarwal, Dipti

    2016-01-01

    Fever is the most common symptom in children and can be classified as fever with or without focus. Fever without focus can be less than 7 d and is subclassified as fever without localizing signs and fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO is defined as a temperature greater than 38.3 °C, for more than 3 wk or failure to reach a diagnosis after 1 wk of inpatient investigations. The most common causes of FUO in children are infections, connective tissue disorders and neoplasms. Infectious diseases most commonly implicated in children with FUO are salmonellosis, tuberculosis, malaria and rickettsial diseases. Juvenile rheumatic arthritis is the connective tissue disease frequently associated with FUO. Malignancy is the third largest group responsible for FUO in children. Diagnostic approach of FUO includes detailed history and examination supported with investigations. Age, history of contact, exposure to wild animals and medications should be noted. Examination should include, apart from general appearance, presence of sweating, rashes, tonsillitis, sinusitis and lymph node enlargement. Other signs such as abdominal tenderness and hepatosplenomegly should be looked for. The muscles and bones should be carefully examined for connective tissue disorders. Complete blood count, blood smear examination and level of acute phase reactants should be part of initial investigations. Radiological imaging is useful aid in diagnosing FUO. Trials of antimicrobial agents should not be given as they can obscure the diagnosis of the disease in FUO. PMID:25724501

  7. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    PubMed

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360

  8. Discovery and Targeted Proteomics on Cutaneous Biopsies Infected by Borrelia to Investigate Lyme Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Gilles; Boeuf, Amandine; Westermann, Benoît; Jaulhac, Benoît; Lipsker, Dan; Carapito, Christine; Boulanger, Nathalie; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most important vector-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere and represents a major public health challenge with insufficient means of reliable diagnosis. Skin is rarely investigated in proteomics but constitutes in the case of Lyme disease the key interface where the pathogens can enter, persist, and multiply. Therefore, we investigated proteomics on skin samples to detect Borrelia proteins directly in cutaneous biopsies in a robust and specific way. We first set up a discovery gel prefractionation-LC-MS/MS approach on a murine model infected by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto that allowed the identification of 25 Borrelia proteins among more than 1300 mouse proteins. Then we developed a targeted gel prefractionation-LC-selected reaction monitoring (SRM) assay to detect 9/33 Borrelia proteins/peptides in mouse skin tissue samples using heavy labeled synthetic peptides. We successfully transferred this assay from the mouse model to human skin biopsies (naturally infected by Borrelia), and we were able to detect two Borrelia proteins: OspC and flagellin. Considering the extreme variability of OspC, we developed an extended SRM assay to target a large set of variants. This assay afforded the detection of nine peptides belonging to either OspC or flagellin in human skin biopsies. We further shortened the sample preparation and showed that Borrelia is detectable in mouse and human skin biopsies by directly using a liquid digestion followed by LC-SRM analysis without any prefractionation. This study thus shows that a targeted SRM approach is a promising tool for the early direct diagnosis of Lyme disease with high sensitivity (<10 fmol of OspC/mg of human skin biopsy). PMID:25713121

  9. Retrospective clinical and molecular analysis of conditioned laboratory dogs (Canis familiaris) with serologic reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii.

    PubMed

    Scorpio, Diana G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Tunin, Richard S; Barat, Nicole C; Garyu, Justin W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2008-09-01

    Dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys), Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii. These diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. Hematologic abnormalities can include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In biomedical research, diseases such as canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever may cause morbidity among exposed dogs and confound research results. Random-source dogs are susceptible to these diseases because of their increased risk of arthropod exposure. Nonpurpose bred, randomly selected conditioned dogs (n = 21) were examined; blood samples were taken for hematology, biochemistry analysis, tickborne pathogen serology, and PCR. Of these, 2 dogs (10% of the population) presented with illness characterized by fever, malaise, lameness, or hemostatic abnormalities, and 15 (71%) had antibodies to one or more tickborne pathogens. No specific hematologic or biochemical differences were apparent between seronegative dogs and seropositive dogs reactive to all 3 pathogens. E. canis and B. burgdorferi PCR of tissues and blood were negative for all dogs. PCR amplification of several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genes yielded no positive samples. From this cohort of dogs, serologic and molecular results indicate prior exposure without active infection or clinical disease. Exposure to and potential for infection with these bacteria and other pathogens may contribute to blood and tissue alterations that could confound experiments and lead to misinterpretation of data in canine models. PMID:18947166

  10. Retrospective Clinical and Molecular Analysis of Conditioned Laboratory Dogs (Canis familiaris) with Serologic Reactions to Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii

    PubMed Central

    Scorpio, Diana G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Tunin, Richard S; Barat, Nicole C; Garyu, Justin W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are susceptible to different tickborne infections, including members of the Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia canis, E. ewingii, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys), Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia rickettsii. These diseases can manifest with clinical signs including fever, anorexia, malaise, lameness, rash, and bleeding episodes; however, these signs are nonpathognomonic, and infections can occur in the absence of clinical signs. Hematologic abnormalities can include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia and hypergammaglobulinemia. In biomedical research, diseases such as canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever may cause morbidity among exposed dogs and confound research results. Random-source dogs are susceptible to these diseases because of their increased risk of arthropod exposure. Nonpurpose bred, randomly selected conditioned dogs (n = 21) were examined; blood samples were taken for hematology, biochemistry analysis, tickborne pathogen serology, and PCR. Of these, 2 dogs (10% of the population) presented with illness characterized by fever, malaise, lameness, or hemostatic abnormalities, and 15 (71%) had antibodies to one or more tickborne pathogens. No specific hematologic or biochemical differences were apparent between seronegative dogs and seropositive dogs reactive to all 3 pathogens. E. canis and B. burgdorferi PCR of tissues and blood were negative for all dogs. PCR amplification of several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genes yielded no positive samples. From this cohort of dogs, serologic and molecular results indicate prior exposure without active infection or clinical disease. Exposure to and potential for infection with these bacteria and other pathogens may contribute to blood and tissue alterations that could confound experiments and lead to misinterpretation of data in canine models. PMID:18947166

  11. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever. PMID:26105678

  12. Borrelia-induced cytokine production is mediated by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) but is Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 independent.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Marije; Buffen, Kathrin; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Verschueren, Ineke C; Koentgen, Frank; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2015-12-01

    Although it is known that Borrelia species express sugar-like structures on their outer surface, not much is known about the role of these structures in immune recognition by host cells. Fungi, like Candida albicans, are mainly recognized by C-type lectin receptors, in specific Dectin-1 and Dectin-2. In this study we assessed the role of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in the recognition process of Borrelia spirochetes. Using specific inhibitors against these receptors on human cells did not influenced cytokine production. Individuals carrying a SNP leading to an early stop codon in the DECTIN-1 gene also did not lead to differential induction of Borrelia-dependent cytokines. After injection of live Borrelia into knee joints of Dectin-2 deficient mice a trend towards lower inflammation was observed. Inhibition of Syk in human cells resulted in lower cytokine production after Borrelia stimulation. In conclusion, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 seem not to play a major role in Borrelia recognition or Borrelia-induced inflammation. However, Syk seems to be involved in Borrelia-induced cytokine production. PMID:26297607

  13. Sadfly fever: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Özkale, Yasemin; Özkale, Murat; Kiper, Pinar; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Erol, İlknur

    2016-01-01

    Sandfly fever, also known as ‘three-day fever’ or ‘pappataci fever’ or ‘Phlebotomus fever’ is a viral infection that causes self-limited influenza-like symptoms and characterized by a rapid onset. The disease occurs commonly in endemic areas in summer months and especially in August during which sandflies are active. In this article, two siblings who presented with high fever, redness in the eyes, headache, weakness, malaise and inability to walk, who were found to have increased liver function tests and creatine kinase levels and who were diagnosed with sadfly fever with positive sadfly IgM and IgG antibodies are reported because of the rarity of this disease. PMID:27489469

  14. Management of acute childhood fevers.

    PubMed

    Teuten, Polly; Paul, Siba Prosad; Heaton, Paul Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Feverish illnesses commonly affect children and are the second most frequent reason for a child to be admitted to hospital. Most cases are viral in origin, usually with a good prognosis. Fever can be caused by severe and rapidly progressive illness which needs urgent referral to hospital for potentially life-saving treatment, and community practitioners must be able to identify such cases showing 'red flag'features. The fear of serious disease among parents and carers may result in 'fever phobia' leading to minor illnesses being managed inappropriately. Community practitioners are well placed to reassure and support families, and to provide education regarding the facts about fever, the appropriate use of antipyretic medication, how to avoid dehydration, and the beneficial role of immunisation in preventing infection. PMID:26387247

  15. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in different genera of mosquitoes (Culicidae) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Melaun, Christian; Zotzmann, Sina; Santaella, Vanesa Garcia; Werblow, Antje; Zumkowski-Xylander, Helga; Kraiczy, Peter; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. Some stages of the borrelial transmission cycle in ticks (transstadial, feeding and co-feeding) can potentially occur also in insects, particularly in mosquitoes. In the present study, adult as well as larval mosquitoes were collected at 42 different geographical locations throughout Germany. This is the first study, in which German mosquitoes were analyzed for the presence of Borrelia spp. Targeting two specific borrelial genes, flaB and ospA encoding for the subunit B of flagellin and the outer surface protein A, the results show that DNA of Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia garinii could be detected in ten Culicidae species comprising four distinct genera (Aedes, Culiseta, Culex, and Ochlerotatus). Positive samples also include adult specimens raised in the laboratory from wild-caught larvae indicating that transstadial and/or transovarial transmission might occur within a given mosquito population. PMID:26631488

  16. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Lauren J; Panas, Michael W; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J; Binder, Steven R; Rebman, Alison W; Montoya, Jose G; Soloski, Mark J; Steere, Allen C; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M; Aucott, John N; Robinson, William H

    2015-12-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  17. BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Wager, Beau; Shaw, Dana K; Groshong, Ashley M; Blevins, Jon S; Skare, Jon T

    2015-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of BB0744 following experimental infection. A combination of bioluminescent imaging, cultivation of infected tissues, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi bacteria were attenuated in the ability to colonize heart tissue, as well as skin locations distal to the site of infection. Furthermore, qPCR indicated a significantly reduced spirochetal load in distal skin and joint tissue infected with Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi. Complementation with bb0744 restored infectivity, indicating that the defect seen in Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi was due to the loss of BB0744. Taken together, these results suggest that BB0744 is necessary for tissue tropism, particularly in heart tissue, alters the ability of B. burgdorferi to disseminate efficiently, or both. Additional studies are warranted to address the mechanism employed by BB0744 that alters the pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi. PMID:26150534

  18. Two CheW coupling proteins are essential in a chemosensory pathway of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Jun; Tu, Youbin; Xu, Hongbin; Charon, Nyles W.; Li, Chunhao

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In the model organism Escherichia coli, the coupling protein CheW, which bridges the chemoreceptors and histidine kinase CheA, is essential for chemotaxis. Unlike the situation in E. coli, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has three cheW homologues (cheW1, cheW2, and cheW3). Here, a comprehensive approach is utilized to investigate the roles of the three cheWs in chemotaxis of B. burgdorferi. First, genetic studies indicated that both the cheW1 and cheW3 genes are essential for chemotaxis, as the mutants had altered swimming behaviors and were non-chemotactic. Second, immunofluorescence and cryo-electron tomography studies suggested that both CheW1 and CheW3 are involved in the assembly of chemoreceptor arrays at the cell poles. In contrast to cheW1 and cheW3, cheW2 is dispensable for chemotaxis and assembly of the chemoreceptor arrays. Finally, immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the three CheWs interact with different CheAs: CheW1 and CheW3 interact with CheA2 whereas CheW2 binds to CheA1. Collectively, our results indicate that CheW1 and CheW3 are incorporated into one chemosensory pathway that is essential for B. burgdorferi chemotaxis. Although many bacteria have more than one homologue of CheW, to our knowledge, this report provides the first experimental evidence that two CheW proteins co-exist in one chemosensory pathway and that both are essential for chemotaxis. PMID:22780444

  19. Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Mao, Rong; Delanoy, Michelle; Flanagan, John J.; Binder, Steven R.; Rebman, Alison W.; Montoya, Jose G.; Soloski, Mark J.; Steere, Allen C.; Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Arnaboldi, Paul M.; Aucott, John N.

    2015-01-01

    The current standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease in the United States is serologic detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a two-tiered testing algorithm; however, this scheme has limited sensitivity for detecting early Lyme disease. Thus, there is a need to improve diagnostics for Lyme disease at the early stage, when antibiotic treatment is highly efficacious. We examined novel and established antigen markers to develop a multiplex panel that identifies early infection using the combined sensitivity of multiple markers while simultaneously maintaining high specificity by requiring positive results for two markers to designate a positive test. Ten markers were selected from our initial analysis of 62 B. burgdorferi surface proteins and synthetic peptides by assessing binding of IgG and IgM to each in a training set of Lyme disease patient samples and controls. In a validation set, this 10-antigen panel identified a higher proportion of early-Lyme-disease patients as positive at the baseline or posttreatment visit than two-tiered testing (87.5% and 67.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Equivalent specificities of 100% were observed in 26 healthy controls. Upon further analysis, positivity on the novel 10-antigen panel was associated with longer illness duration and multiple erythema migrans. The improved sensitivity and comparable specificity of our 10-antigen panel compared to two-tiered testing in detecting early B. burgdorferi infection indicates that multiplex analysis, featuring the next generation of markers, could advance diagnostic technology to better aid clinicians in diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease. PMID:26447113

  20. BB0744 Affects Tissue Tropism and Spatial Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Beau; Shaw, Dana K.; Groshong, Ashley M.; Blevins, Jon S.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, produces a variety of proteins that promote survival and colonization in both the Ixodes species vector and various mammalian hosts. We initially identified BB0744 (also known as p83/100) by screening for B. burgdorferi strain B31 proteins that bind to α1β1 integrin and hypothesized that, given the presence of a signal peptide, BB0744 may be a surface-exposed protein. In contrast to this expectation, localization studies suggested that BB0744 resides in the periplasm. Despite its subsurface location, we were interested in testing whether BB0744 is required for borrelial pathogenesis. To this end, a bb0744 deletion was isolated in a B. burgdorferi strain B31 infectious background, complemented, and queried for the role of BB0744 following experimental infection. A combination of bioluminescent imaging, cultivation of infected tissues, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) demonstrated that Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi bacteria were attenuated in the ability to colonize heart tissue, as well as skin locations distal to the site of infection. Furthermore, qPCR indicated a significantly reduced spirochetal load in distal skin and joint tissue infected with Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi. Complementation with bb0744 restored infectivity, indicating that the defect seen in Δbb0744 mutant B. burgdorferi was due to the loss of BB0744. Taken together, these results suggest that BB0744 is necessary for tissue tropism, particularly in heart tissue, alters the ability of B. burgdorferi to disseminate efficiently, or both. Additional studies are warranted to address the mechanism employed by BB0744 that alters the pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi. PMID:26150534

  1. Leukemoid Reaction in Chikungunya Fever

    PubMed Central

    Charaniya, Riyaz; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Tansir, Ghazal; Sasmal, Gargi

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya is a viral illness caused by an arbovirus which is transmitted by Aedes mosquito. Fever and polyarthralgia are hallmark of this viral illness. Viral infections are generally associated with leucopenia and bacterial infections with leukocytosis. Leukemoid Reaction (LR) is defined by reactive increase in leukocyte count of more than 50,000/cu mm with increase in mature leukocytes on peripheral blood. Leukocytosis is common in Chikungunya but leukemoid reaction has not been reported in medical literature. Our patient presented with high grade fever and symmetrical polyarthritis. Blood investigation showed Leukemoid reaction and after extensive work up a diagnosis of chikungunya was made. PMID:27437276

  2. Structural and functional analysis of BB0689 from Borrelia burgdorferi, a member of the bacterial CAP superfamily.

    PubMed

    Brangulis, Kalvis; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Petrovskis, Ivars; Akopjana, Inara; Kazaks, Andris; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-12-01

    Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease and is transmitted from infected Ixodes ticks to a mammalian host after a tick bite. The outer surface protein BB0689 from B. burgdorferi is up-regulated when the tick feeds, which indicates a potential role for BB0689 in Lyme disease pathogenesis. We have determined the crystal structure of BB0689, which revealed that the protein belongs to the CAP superfamily. Though the CAP domain is widespread in all three cellular domains of life, thus far the CAP domain has been studied only in eukaryotes, in which it is usually linked to certain other domains to form a multi-domain protein and is associated with the mammalian reproductive tract, the plant response to pathogens, venom allergens from insects and reptiles, and the growth of human brain tumors. Though the exact function of the isolated CAP domain remains ambiguous, several functions, including the binding of cholesterol, lipids and heparan sulfate, have been recently attributed to different CAP domain proteins. In this study, the bacterial CAP domain structure was analyzed and compared with the previously solved crystal structures of representative CAPs, and the function of BB0689 was examined. To determine the potential function of BB0689 and ascertain whether the functions that have been attributed to the CAP domain proteins are conserved, the binding of previously reported CAP domain interaction partners was analyzed, and the results suggested that BB0689 has a unique function that is yet to be discovered. PMID:26407658

  3. BGA66 and BGA71 facilitate complement resistance of Borrelia bavariensis by inhibiting assembly of the membrane attack complex.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Claudia; Klevenhaus, Yvonne; Koenigs, Arno; Hallström, Teresia; Fingerle, Volker; Skerka, Christine; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Zipfel, Peter F; Wallich, Reinhard; Kraiczy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia (B.) bavariensis exhibits a marked tropism for nervous tissues and frequently causes neurological manifestations in humans. The molecular mechanism by which B. bavariensis overcomes innate immunity, in particular, complement remains elusive. In contrast to other serum-resistant spirochetes, none of the B. bavariensis isolates investigated bound complement regulators of the alternative (AP) and classical pathway (CP) or proteolytically inactivated complement components. Focusing on outer surface proteins BGA66 and BGA71, we demonstrated that both molecules either inhibit AP, CP and terminal pathway (TP) activation, or block activation of the CP and TP respectively. Both molecules bind complement components C7, C8 and C9, and thereby prevent assembly of the terminal complement complex. This inhibitory activity was confirmed by the introduction of the BGA66 and BGA71 encoding genes into a serum-sensitive B. garinii strain. Transformed spirochetes producing either BGA66 or BGA71 overcome complement-mediated killing, thus indicating that both proteins independently facilitate serum resistance of B. bavariensis. The generation of C-terminally truncated proteins as well as a chimeric BGA71 protein lead to the localization of the complement-interacting binding site within the N-terminus. Collectively, our data reveal a novel immune evasion strategy of B. bavariensis that is directed against the activation of the TP. PMID:26434356

  4. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  5. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) [PDF - 2 pages] Virus Ecology Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups ... Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Outbreak Distribution Map Resources Virus Ecology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  6. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  7. [Suspected syphilis during pregnancy due to cross reactions in Borrelia infection].

    PubMed

    Enders, G; Biber, M; Baier, R; Hlobil, H; Wellensiek, H J

    1988-09-30

    A weakly positive titre (1:20) in the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test and a highly positive titre (1:1280) in the fluorescence Treponema antibody absorption test, but negative result for IgM antibodies, were found in the serum of a 23-year-old pregnant woman. The cardiolipin microflocculation test was at first borderline positive, but negative on repeat. In the absence of a history of syphilis tests for Borrelia antibodies were performed. Those for antibodies against B. burgdorferi were highly positive in the ELISA test (550 units), in the indirect Borrelia immunofluorescence test 1:1280 for IgG antibodies and 1:160 for IgM antibodies. In the Borrelia-specific indirect haemagglutination test, which measures both IgG and IgM antibodies, the titres were 1:640 to 1:1280. These results confirmed the presence of an infection with B. burgdorferi and not with Treponema pallidum. PMID:3048959

  8. In vitro activities of faropenem, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem against Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Rebecca; Freyer, Alexandra; Bittner, Thomas; Schäfer, Volker; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2007-07-01

    Little is known about the in vitro activity of penems and carbapenems against the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Here, faropenem, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem as well as the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone and tobramycin were tested in vitro against 11 isolates of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. On a microg/mL basis, ertapenem was the most potent carbapenem (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range: 0.015-0.125 microg/mL), with in vitro activity comparable with that of ceftriaxone against Borrelia. These findings are supported by the results of time-kill experiments in a Borrelia afzelii skin isolate, demonstrating a >3 log10 unit (99.9%) reduction of the inoculum after 96 h of exposure to either drug at a concentration of three log2 unit dilutions above the respective MIC. PMID:17512703

  9. Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. is widely distributed in Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Margos, Gabriele; Wilske, Bettina; Sing, Andreas; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Cao, Wu-Chun; Chu, Chenyi; Scholz, Holger; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Fingerle, Volker

    2013-11-01

    Since the original description of Borrelia bavariensis sp. nov. in 2009, additional samples available from humans and ticks from Europe and Mongolia, respectively, have been used to further characterize Borrelia strains belonging to this group of spirochaetes that utilize rodents as reservoir hosts. These investigations suggested the presence of related strains in Europe and Asia and confirmed their status as representing a distinct species. Furthermore, samples that were investigated by researchers from China and Japan confirm the ecological relationship of members of this proposed species with rodents and suggest that it has a wide distribution in Eurasia. Here, we use phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses to validate B. bavariensis sp. nov. as a species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species complex. The type strain is PBi(T) ( = DSM 23469(T) = BAA-2496(T)). PMID:23838444

  10. The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update.

    PubMed

    Goc, Anna; Rath, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease. Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments. PMID:27536352

  11. How do Lyme Borrelia Organisms Cause Disease? The Quest for Virulence Determinants#

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease Borrelia are invasive, nontoxigenic, persistent pathogens, and little is known about their mechanisms of pathogenesis. In our laboratory, a signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) library of over 4,000 Borrelia burgdorferi transposon mutants has been constructed and is being screened for infectivity in mice. In this manner, a global view of the virulence determinants (factors required for full infectivity) is being developed. Additionally, the mechanisms of immune evasion involving the VMP-like system (vls) are under analysis, and cryo-electron microscopy is providing a detailed view of the three-dimensional structure of B. burgdorferi. These approaches will contribute to the improved understanding of how Lyme disease Borrelia cause disease. PMID:23091573

  12. The anti-borreliae efficacy of phytochemicals and micronutrients: an update

    PubMed Central

    Goc, Anna; Rath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring substances have been used for centuries to fight against various pathogens. They serve as a source for new chemical entities or provide options to already existing therapeutics. While there is an increasing interest in studying antimicrobial properties of naturally derived agents, little is known about their effects against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative pathogens of Lyme disease. A better understanding of this aspect could advance knowledge about pathophysiology of these bacteria and help improve the efficacy of current approaches against Lyme disease. Here, we review all naturally occurring substances scientifically evaluated to date, including plant extracts, their metabolites, and micronutrients, against vegetative (spirochetes) and latent (rounded bodies, biofilm) forms of Borrelia sp. This summary reveals the potent anti-borreliae activity of several of these natural compounds indicating their potential in enhancing the efficacy of current treatments for Lyme disease, and offering new options to already existing therapeutic regiments. PMID:27536352

  13. Yellow Fever Outbreak, Southern Sudan, 2003

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Clayton O.; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A.; Gibson, Georgina V.F.; Sang, Rosemary C.; Sow, Abdourahmane; Swanepoel, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In May 2003, an outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic fever, caused by yellow fever virus, occurred in southern Sudan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus belonged to the East African genotype, which supports the contention that yellow fever is endemic in East Africa with the potential to cause large outbreaks in humans. PMID:15498174

  14. First report of Q fever in Oman.

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, E. M.; Johnston, W. J.; Al Dhahry, S. H.; El-Khatim, H. S.; John, V.; Musa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Although serologic evidence suggests the presence of Q fever in humans and animals in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, acute Q fever has not been reported on the Arabian Peninsula. We report the first two cases of acute Q fever in Oman. PMID:10653575

  15. Reactivity of dog sera to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi by ELISA and immunoblot analysis.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Levy, S A; Ijdo, J W; Wu, C; Padula, S J; Fikrig, E

    2001-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with separate preparations of 10 purified recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto were used to test sera from 36 dogs not vaccinated with whole cells of this agent and from five dogs vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi bacteria. All dogs lived in tick-infested areas of Connecticut and south-eastern New York state, USA. The non-vaccinated dogs had limb or joint disorder, lameness and fever during the period 1984-1991 and had antibodies to B. burgdorferi, as determined by a polyvalent ELISA with whole-cell antigen. In re-analyses of sera for total immunoglobulins in ELISAs with recombinant antigens, reactions were most frequently recorded when outer-surface protein (Osp) F, protein (p)35, p37, p39 and p-41G (a flagellin component) were tested separately. Western immunoblots of a subset of 16 sera, positive by ELISA with whole-cell antigen and representing a range of antibody titres (640-40960), verified immune responses to these or other lysed whole-cell antigens. Sera from vaccinated dogs contained antibodies to OspA, OspB, p22, p37 and p41-G. Therefore, serological reactions to OspF, p35 and p39 were the most important indicators of natural exposure to B. burgdorferi. Serum reactivities to these recombinant antigens in ELISAs can be used to help identify possible natural infections of canine borreliosis in dogs not vaccinated with whole-cell B. burgdorferi and to provide information on the geographic distribution of this bacterium. PMID:11599738

  16. Blackwater fever in children, Burundi.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Trentini, Laura; Nkurunziza, Innocent; Corachan, Manuel; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2005-07-01

    Blackwater fever is characterized by acute intravascular hemolysis with hemoglobinuria in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Its pathogenesis and management are still debated. Nine cases of this syndrome occurred in 2003 at Kiremba Hospital in Burundi in children receiving multiple quinine treatments. PMID:16022794

  17. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  18. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi BBK32 Inhibits the Classical Pathway by Blocking Activation of the C1 Complement Complex.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Zhi, Hui; Wager, Beau; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens that traffic in blood, lymphatics, or interstitial fluids must adopt strategies to evade innate immune defenses, notably the complement system. Through recruitment of host regulators of complement to their surface, many pathogens are able to escape complement-mediated attack. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a number of surface proteins that bind to factor H related molecules, which function as the dominant negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement. Relatively less is known about how B. burgdorferi evades the classical pathway of complement despite the observation that some sensu lato strains are sensitive to classical pathway activation. Here we report that the borrelial lipoprotein BBK32 potently and specifically inhibits the classical pathway by binding with high affinity to the initiating C1 complex of complement. In addition, B. burgdorferi cells that produce BBK32 on their surface bind to both C1 and C1r and a serum sensitive derivative of B. burgdorferi is protected from killing via the classical pathway in a BBK32-dependent manner. Subsequent biochemical and biophysical approaches localized the anti-complement activity of BBK32 to its globular C-terminal domain. Mechanistic studies reveal that BBK32 acts by entrapping C1 in its zymogen form by binding and inhibiting the C1 subcomponent, C1r, which serves as the initiating serine protease of the classical pathway. To our knowledge this is the first report of a spirochetal protein acting as a direct inhibitor of the classical pathway and is the only example of a biomolecule capable of specifically and noncovalently inhibiting C1/C1r. By identifying a unique mode of complement evasion this study greatly enhances our understanding of how pathogens subvert and potentially manipulate host innate immune systems. PMID:26808924

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi BBK32 Inhibits the Classical Pathway by Blocking Activation of the C1 Complement Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wager, Beau; Höök, Magnus; Skare, Jon T.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens that traffic in blood, lymphatics, or interstitial fluids must adopt strategies to evade innate immune defenses, notably the complement system. Through recruitment of host regulators of complement to their surface, many pathogens are able to escape complement-mediated attack. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, produces a number of surface proteins that bind to factor H related molecules, which function as the dominant negative regulator of the alternative pathway of complement. Relatively less is known about how B. burgdorferi evades the classical pathway of complement despite the observation that some sensu lato strains are sensitive to classical pathway activation. Here we report that the borrelial lipoprotein BBK32 potently and specifically inhibits the classical pathway by binding with high affinity to the initiating C1 complex of complement. In addition, B. burgdorferi cells that produce BBK32 on their surface bind to both C1 and C1r and a serum sensitive derivative of B. burgdorferi is protected from killing via the classical pathway in a BBK32-dependent manner. Subsequent biochemical and biophysical approaches localized the anti-complement activity of BBK32 to its globular C-terminal domain. Mechanistic studies reveal that BBK32 acts by entrapping C1 in its zymogen form by binding and inhibiting the C1 subcomponent, C1r, which serves as the initiating serine protease of the classical pathway. To our knowledge this is the first report of a spirochetal protein acting as a direct inhibitor of the classical pathway and is the only example of a biomolecule capable of specifically and noncovalently inhibiting C1/C1r. By identifying a unique mode of complement evasion this study greatly enhances our understanding of how pathogens subvert and potentially manipulate host innate immune systems. PMID:26808924

  1. PCR in laboratory diagnosis of human Borrelia burgdorferi infections.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B L

    1997-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the United States and endemic in parts of Europe and Asia, is currently based on serology with known limitations. Direct demonstration of Borrelia burgdorferi by culture may require weeks, while enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antigen detection often lack sensitivity. The development of the PCR has offered a new dimension in the diagnosis. Capable of amplifying minute amounts of DNA into billions of copies in just a few hours, PCR facilitates the sensitive and specific detection of DNA or RNA of pathogenic organisms. This review is restricted to applications of PCR methods in the diagnosis of human B. burgdorferi infections. In the first section, methodological aspects, e.g., sample preparation, target selection, primers and PCR methods, and detection and control of inhibition and contamination, are highlighted. In the second part, emphasis is placed on diagnostic aspects, where PCR results in patients with dermatological, neurological, joint, and ocular manifestations of the disease are discussed. Here, special attention is given to monitoring treatment efficacy by PCR tests. Last, specific guidelines on how to interpret PCR results, together with the advantages and limitations of these new techniques, are presented. PMID:8993863

  2. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi in host mice in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed Central

    Lord, R D; Lord, V R; Humphreys, J G; McLean, R G

    1994-01-01

    Host mice (Peromyscus leucopus and Peromyscus maniculatus) were sampled throughout the state of Pennsylvania to determine the geographical and ecological distribution of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. All 67 counties of the state were sampled. A total of 1,619 mice were captured from a total of 157 sites during the period 1990 to 1993 for an overall capture rate of 29.69%. A total of 112 (6.92%) isolations of B. burgdorferi were made. The distribution of isolations revealed the reason for the correlated distribution of human cases of Lyme disease in the state. Significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations were made from hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest. Nevertheless, high isolation rates from counties of the southeastern corner of the state illustrate well that hemlock habitat is not essential. Evidence suggests that in some areas, transmission between mice is occurring in some way other than through ticks as vectors. Host mice proved useful for determining the geographical and ecological distribution of B. burgdorferi. PMID:7814489

  3. Virulent strain associated outer membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed Central

    Skare, J T; Shang, E S; Foley, D M; Blanco, D R; Champion, C I; Mirzabekov, T; Sokolov, Y; Kagan, B L; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated and purified outer membrane vesicles (OMV) from Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 based on methods developed for isolation of Treponema pallidum OMV. Purified OMV exhibited distinct porin activities with conductances of 0.6 and 12.6 nano-Siemen and had no detectable beta-NADH oxidase activity indicating their outer membrane origin and their lack of inner membrane contamination, respectively. Hydrophobic proteins were identified by phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Most of these hydrophobic membrane proteins were not acylated, suggesting that they are outer membrane-spanning proteins. Identification of palmitate-labeled lipoproteins revealed that several were enriched in the OMV, several were enriched in the protoplasmic cylinder inner membrane fraction, and others were found exclusively associated with the inner membrane. The protein composition of OMV changed significantly with successive in vitro cultivation of strain B31. Using antiserum with specificity for virulent strain B31, we identified OMV antigens on the surface of the spirochete and identified proteins whose presence in OMV could be correlated with virulence and protective immunity in the rabbit Lyme disease model. These virulent strain associated outer membrane-spanning proteins may provide new insight into the pathogenesis of Lyme disease. Images PMID:7593626

  4. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  5. Pleomorphic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi induce distinct immune responses.

    PubMed

    Meriläinen, Leena; Brander, Heini; Herranen, Anni; Schwarzbach, Armin; Gilbert, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of tick-borne Lyme disease. As a response to environmental stress B. burgdorferi can change its morphology to a round body form. The role of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis has long been debated and unclear. Here, we demonstrated that round bodies were processed differently in differentiated macrophages, consequently inducing distinct immune responses compared to spirochetes in vitro. Colocalization analysis indicated that the F-actin participates in internalization of both forms. However, round bodies end up less in macrophage lysosomes than spirochetes suggesting that there are differences in processing of these forms in phagocytic cells. Furthermore, round bodies stimulated distinct cytokine and chemokine production in these cells. We confirmed that spirochetes and round bodies present different protein profiles and antigenicity. In a Western blot analysis Lyme disease patients had more intense responses to round bodies when compared to spirochetes. These results suggest that round bodies have a role in Lyme disease pathogenesis. PMID:27139815

  6. The Elastic Basis for the Shape of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Christopher; Kan, Wanxi; Motaleb, Md. Abdul; Charon, Nyles W.; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms that determine bacterial shape are in many ways poorly understood. A prime example is the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), which mechanically couples its motility organelles, helical flagella, to its rod-shaped cell body, producing a striking flat-wave morphology. A mathematical model is developed here that accounts for the elastic coupling of the flagella to the cell cylinder and shows that the flat-wave morphology is in fact a natural consequence of the geometrical and material properties of the components. Observations of purified periplasmic flagella show two flagellar conformations. The mathematical model suggests that the larger waveform flagellum is the more relevant for determining the shape of B. burgdorferi. Optical trapping experiments were used to measure directly the mechanical properties of these spirochetes. These results imply relative stiffnesses of the two components, which confirm the predictions of the model and show that the morphology of B. burgdorferi is completely determined by the elastic properties of the flagella and cell body. This approach is applicable to a variety of other structures in which the shape of the composite system is markedly different from that of the individual components, such as coiled-coil domains in proteins and the eukaryotic axoneme. PMID:19486665

  7. aadA Confers Streptomycin Resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kristi L.; Bundle, Sharyl F.; Kresge, Michele E.; Eggers, Christian H.; Samuels, D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    To enhance genetic manipulation of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we assayed the aadA gene for the ability to confer resistance to the antibiotics spectinomycin and streptomycin. Using the previously described pBSV2 as a backbone, a shuttle vector, termed pKFSS1, which carries the aadA open reading frame fused to the B. burgdorferi flgB promoter was constructed. The hybrid flgB promoter-aadA cassette confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin in both B. burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. pKFSS1 has a replication origin derived from the 9-kb circular plasmid and can be comaintained in B. burgdorferi with extant shuttle vector pCE320, which has a replication origin derived from a 32-kb circular plasmid, or pBSV2, despite the fact that pKFSS1 and pBSV2 have the same replication origin. Our results demonstrate the availability of a new selectable marker and shuttle vector for genetically dissecting B. burgdorferi at the molecular level. PMID:14594849

  8. Immunogenic integral membrane proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi are lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Brandt, M E; Riley, B S; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1990-04-01

    The pathogenic spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi contains a set of integral membrane proteins which were selectively extracted into the detergent phase upon solubilization of intact B. burgdorferi with the nonionic detergent Triton X-114. Virtually all of these hydrophobic proteins were recognized by antibodies in pooled sera from patients with chronic Lyme arthritis, demonstrating that proteins partitioning into the detergent phase of Triton X-114 encompass the major B. burgdorferi immunogens. Furthermore, most of these immunogenic proteins, including the previously characterized OspA and OspB membrane antigens, could be biosynthetically labeled when B. burgdorferi was incubated in vitro with [3H]palmitate. The OspA and OspB antigens were radioimmunoprecipitated from [3H]palmitate-labeled detergent-phase proteins with monoclonal antibodies, and [3H]palmitate was recovered unaltered from these proteins after sequential alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The combined results provide formal confirmation that the major B. burgdorferi immunogens extracted by Triton X-114 are lipoproteins. The demonstration that B. burgdorferi integral membrane antigens are lipoproteins may explain the basis of their immunogenicity and may help to improve our understanding of the surface topology of B. burgdorferi. PMID:2318538

  9. Linear and Circular Plasmid Content in Borrelia burgdorferi Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Radha; Kalu, Ogori; Purser, Joye; Norris, Steven; Stevenson, Brian; Schwartz, Ira

    2003-01-01

    The genome of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is composed of a linear chromosome and more than 20 linear and circular plasmids. Typically, plasmid content analysis has been carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and confirmed by Southern hybridization. However, multiple plasmids of virtually identical sizes (e.g., lp28 and cp32) complicate the interpretation of such data. The present study was undertaken to investigate the complete plasmid complements of B. burgdorferi clinical isolates cultivated from patients from a single region where early Lyme disease is endemic. A total of 21 isolates obtained from the skin biopsy or blood samples of Lyme disease patients were examined for their complete plasmid complements by Southern hybridization and plasmid-specific PCR analysis. All clinical isolates harbored at least six of the nine previously characterized cp32s. Fourteen isolates harbored all B31-like linear plasmids, and seven isolates simultaneously lacked lp56, lp38, and some segments of lp28-1. The distinctive plasmid profile observed in these seven isolates was specific to organisms that had ribosomal spacer type 2 and pulsed-field gel type A, which implies a clonal origin for this genotype. The presence of nearly identical complements of multiple linear and circular plasmids in all of the human isolates suggests that these plasmids may be particularly necessary for infection, adaptation, and/or maintenance in the infected host. PMID:12819050

  10. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  11. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  12. Morphological and biochemical features of Borrelia burgdorferi pleomorphic forms

    PubMed Central

    Herranen, Anni; Schwarzbach, Armin; Gilbert, Leona

    2015-01-01

    The spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne infection in the northern hemisphere. There is a long-standing debate regarding the role of pleomorphic forms in Lyme disease pathogenesis, while very little is known about the characteristics of these morphological variants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of B. burgdorferi pleomorphic formation in different culturing conditions at physiological temperature. Interestingly, human serum induced the bacterium to change its morphology to round bodies (RBs). In addition, biofilm-like colonies in suspension were found to be part of B. burgdorferi’s normal in vitro growth. Further studies provided evidence that spherical RBs had an intact and flexible cell envelope, demonstrating that they are not cell wall deficient, or degenerative as previously implied. However, the RBs displayed lower metabolic activity compared with spirochaetes. Furthermore, our results indicated that the different pleomorphic variants were distinguishable by having unique biochemical signatures. Consequently, pleomorphic B. burgdorferi should be taken into consideration as being clinically relevant and influence the development of novel diagnostics and treatment protocols. PMID:25564498

  13. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Outbreak Among a High School Football Team at an Outdoor Education Camping Trip, Arizona, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C

    2016-09-01

    During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. PMID:27430539

  14. [Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodid ticks from Ostrava slag heaps].

    PubMed

    Jarosová, V; Rudolf, I; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z

    2009-04-01

    In 2005 and 2006, Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected on two slag (waste rock) heaps from coal mines in the Ostrava area (North Moravia/Silesia, Czech Republic), Oskar (site A) and Emma (site B), partially covered by vegetation including trees, and at a control forest site near Hlucín (site C). The mean numbers of L. ricinus nymphs and imagoes flagged per person-hour were high: 35.3 nymphs and 12.7 imagoes, at site A, 23.3 and 26.0, respectively, at site B, and 25.4 and 16.8, respectively, at control site C. Using dark-field microscopy, 100 nymphs and 100 imagoes (50 females and 50 males) from each site were examined for borreliae. The mean prevalence rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in nymphs and imagoes were 10.0% and 12.0%, respectively, at site A, 10.0% and 24.0%, respectively, at site B, and 13.0% and 17.0%, respectively, at site C. Differences in the prevalence of borreliae in nymphal and adult ticks from the slag heaps and control site were insignificant, but adult ticks from site B compared to site A contained borreliae significantly more frequently. The mean numbers of nymphs and imagoes infected with borreliae flagged per person-hour were 3.3 and 1.2, respectively at site A, 1.5 and 2.9, respectively, at site B, and 3.1 and 2.6, respectively, at site C. Isolation experiments for borreliae were carried out only in 16 ticks containing higher numbers of borreliae, with eight of these being culture-positive. The cultured borreliae were identified by PCR-RFLP as B. garinii (3 isolates: two from site B, one from site C), B. afzelii (4 isolates: one from site A, three from site B) and B. burgdorferi s.s. (one isolate from site A). Surprisingly, the results suggest that slag heaps, when covered by woody vegetation and frequented by humans, could theoretically pose roughly the same LB transmission risk to humans as common forest biotopes. PMID:19526923

  15. Detection of Lyme Disease and Q Fever Agents in Wild Rodents in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Marco; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Sozio, Giulia; Cammà, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. A pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park (Abruzzi Region, central Italy), a wide protected area where, despite sporadic reports of infection in humans and animals, eco-epidemiological data on these diseases are still not available. Rodents were trapped and released at the capture site after the collection of feeding ticks and blood samples. In all, 172 ticks were collected; the most frequent species was Ixodes acuminatus (53%). Out of 88 tick pools, 11 resulted positive for C. burnetii and 13 for B. burgdorferi s.l.; the Borrelia afzelii genospecies was identified in one Ixodes ricinus tick collected from one Apodemus sp. rodent. Out of 143 blood samples, seven Apodemus spp. and five Myodes glareolus were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and two Apodemus spp. were positive for C. burnetii. All samples (ticks and blood) were negative for F. tularensis and A. phagocytophilum. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the environment for Abruzzi Region. Data on the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. are similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries. The present work is also the first report of C. burnetii in wild rodents in Italy. C. burnetii infection has been largely investigated in Italy in ruminant farms by serology and molecular methods, but information on ecology and on the wild cycle are still lacking. Further studies including genotyping should be performed and species-specific differences between wild rodent reservoirs of Q fever and Lyme disease agents should be investigated. PMID:26134933

  16. Detection of Lyme Disease and Q Fever Agents in Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Di Domenico, Marco; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Sozio, Giulia; Cammà, Cesare

    2015-07-01

    The maintenance of tick-borne disease agents in the environment strictly depends on the relationship between tick vectors and their hosts, which act as reservoirs for these pathogens. A pilot study aimed to investigate wild rodents as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was carried out in an area of Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park (Abruzzi Region, central Italy), a wide protected area where, despite sporadic reports of infection in humans and animals, eco-epidemiological data on these diseases are still not available. Rodents were trapped and released at the capture site after the collection of feeding ticks and blood samples. In all, 172 ticks were collected; the most frequent species was Ixodes acuminatus (53%). Out of 88 tick pools, 11 resulted positive for C. burnetii and 13 for B. burgdorferi s.l.; the Borrelia afzelii genospecies was identified in one Ixodes ricinus tick collected from one Apodemus sp. rodent. Out of 143 blood samples, seven Apodemus spp. and five Myodes glareolus were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and two Apodemus spp. were positive for C. burnetii. All samples (ticks and blood) were negative for F. tularensis and A. phagocytophilum. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi s.l. in the environment for Abruzzi Region. Data on the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. are similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries. The present work is also the first report of C. burnetii in wild rodents in Italy. C. burnetii infection has been largely investigated in Italy in ruminant farms by serology and molecular methods, but information on ecology and on the wild cycle are still lacking. Further studies including genotyping should be performed and species-specific differences between wild rodent reservoirs of Q fever and Lyme disease agents should be investigated. PMID:26134933

  17. Human Antibody Neutralizes Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus, an Emerging Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiling; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenshuai; Chi, Ying; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Li, Xian; Qi, Xian; Jin, Qiu; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Mingming; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yin; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liang, Shuyi; Bao, Lin; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a newly discovered member of the Bunyaviridae family, is the causative agent of an emerging hemorrhagic fever, SFTS, in China. Currently, there are no vaccines or effective therapies against SFTS. In this study, a combinatorial human antibody library was constructed from the peripheral lymphocytes of 5 patients who had recovered from SFTS. The library was screened against purified virions for the production of single-chain variable-region fragments (ScFv). Of the 6 positive clones, one clone (monoclonal antibody [MAb] 4-5) showed neutralizing activity against SFTSV infection in Vero cells. MAb 4-5 was found to effectively neutralize all of the clinical isolates of SFTSV tested, which were isolated from patients in China from 2010 to 2012. MAb 4-5 was found to bind a linear epitope in the ectodomain of glycoprotein Gn. Its neutralizing activity is attributed to blockage of the interactions between the Gn protein and the cellular receptor, indicating that inhibition of virus-cell attachment is its main mechanism. These data suggest that MAb 4-5 can be used as a promising candidate molecule for immunotherapy against SFTSV infection. PMID:23863504

  18. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  19. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts. PMID:23722838

  20. Experimental therapies for yellow fever.

    PubMed

    Julander, Justin G

    2013-02-01

    A number of viruses in the family Flaviviridae are the focus of efforts to develop effective antiviral therapies. Success has been achieved with inhibitors for the treatment of hepatitis C, and there is interest in clinical trials of drugs against dengue fever. Antiviral therapies have also been evaluated in patients with Japanese encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis. However, no treatment has been developed against the prototype flavivirus, yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the availability of the live, attenuated 17D vaccine, thousands of cases of YF continue to occur each year in Africa and South America, with a significant mortality rate. In addition, a small number of vaccinees develop severe systemic infections with the 17D virus. This paper reviews current efforts to develop antiviral therapies, either directly targeting the virus or blocking detrimental host responses to infection. PMID:23237991

  1. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments. PMID:21171877

  2. Unusual Presentation of Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Moaz; Aleem, Numra A.; Zahid, Mohammad F.; Rahman, Arshalooz J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile illness that follows a self-limiting course. However, some patients suffer from complications, including myocarditis, due to the involvement of other organs. A child presented at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, in June 2013 with a high-grade fever, malaise and epigastric pain radiating to the chest. Positive DF antigen and immunoglobulin M assays confirmed the diagnosis of DF. Persistent bradycardia with low blood pressure led to further cardiac investigations which showed a decreased ejection fraction and raised serum cardiac enzymes, indicating myocardial damage. With supportive care and use of inotropes, the spontaneous normalisation of cardiac enzyme levels and ejection fraction was observed. The child was discharged five days after admission. This case highlights the importance of identifying myocarditis in DF patients suffering from cardiac symptoms that are not explained by other potential aetiologies. Awareness, early suspicion and supportive care are essential to ensure favourable outcomes. PMID:26909198

  3. Rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Kalhan, R; Kaur, I; Singh, R P; Gupta, H C

    1998-01-01

    A Reverse Passive Haemagglutination Test (RPHA) was designed for the detection of Salmonella typhi antigen and rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever. Two per cent fresh sheep RBC's were coated with 32 micrograms/ml of immunoglobulin. The minimal detectable level of the antigen was 1250 micrograms/ml. Cross reactions were observed with the samples of patients suffering from Salmonella paratyphi A and pseudomonas infections. The RPHA established was used for the detection of S. typhi antigen in culture broths from 100 patients with clinically suspected typhoid fever with culture and/or widal positive, 50 patients with septicemia caused by bacteria other than S. typhi and 50 normal, afebrile healthy controls. It was found that the sensitivity and specificity of this assay was 70% and 92% respectively. PMID:10773905

  4. Familial Mediterranean fever: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sönmez, Hafize Emine; Batu, Ezgi Deniz; Özen, Seza

    2016-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic autoinflammatory disease, and it is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and polyserositis. The disease is associated with mutations in the MEFV gene encoding pyrin, which causes exaggerated inflammatory response through uncontrolled production of interleukin 1. The major long-term complication of FMF is amyloidosis. Colchicine remains the principle therapy, and the aim of treatment is to prevent acute attacks and the consequences of chronic inflammation. With the evolution in the concepts about the etiopathogenesis and genetics of the disease, we have understood that FMF is more complicated than an ordinary autosomal recessive monogenic disorder. Recently, recommendation sets have been generated for interpretation of genetic testing and genetic diagnosis of FMF. Here, we have reviewed the current perspectives in FMF in light of recent recommendations. PMID:27051312

  5. Carbon storage regulator A (CsrABb) is a repressor of Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin protein FlaB

    PubMed Central

    Sze, Ching Wooen; Morado, Dustin R.; Jun, Liu; Charon, Nyles W.; Hongbin, Xu; Chunhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi lacks the transcriptional cascade control of flagellar protein synthesis common to other bacteria. Instead, it relies on a post-transcriptional mechanism to control its flagellar synthesis. The underlying mechanism of this control remains elusive. A recent study reported that the increased level of BB0184 (CsrABb; a homolog of carbon storage regulator A) substantially inhibited the accumulation of FlaB, the major flagellin protein of B. burgdorferi. In this report, we deciphered the regulatory role of CsrABb on FlaB synthesis and the mechanism involved by analyzing two mutants, csrABb− (a deletion mutant of csrABb) and csrABb+ (a mutant conditionally over-expressing csrABb). We found that FlaB accumulation was significantly inhibited in csrABb+ but was substantially increased in csrABb−. In contrast, the levels of other flagellar proteins remained unchanged. Cryo-electron tomography and immuno-fluorescence microscopic analyses revealed that the altered synthesis of CsrABb in these two mutants specifically affected flagellar filament length. The leader sequence of flaB transcript contains two conserved CsrA-binding sites, with one of these sites overlapping the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. We found that CsrABb bound to the flaB transcripts via these two binding sites, and this binding inhibited the synthesis of FlaB at the translational level. Taken together, our results indicate that CsrABb specifically regulates the periplasmic flagellar synthesis by inhibiting translation initiation of the flaB transcript. PMID:21999436

  6. Two Boundaries Separate Borrelia burgdorferi Populations in North America

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jean I.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Girard, Yvette A.; Hamer, Sarah A.; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Lane, Robert S.; Raper, Steve L.; Ogden, Nicholas H.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the spread of infectious diseases is crucial for implementing effective control measures. For this, it is important to obtain information on the contemporary population structure of a disease agent and to infer the evolutionary processes that may have shaped it. Here, we investigate on a continental scale the population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis (LB), a tick-borne disease, in North America. We test the hypothesis that the observed population structure is congruent with recent population expansions and that these were preceded by bottlenecks mostly likely caused by the near extirpation in the 1900s of hosts required for sustaining tick populations. Multilocus sequence typing and complementary population analytical tools were used to evaluate B. burgdorferi samples collected in the Northeastern, Upper Midwestern, and Far-Western United States and Canada. The spatial distribution of sequence types (STs) and inferred population boundaries suggest that the current populations are geographically separated. One major population boundary separated western B. burgdorferi populations transmitted by Ixodes pacificus in California from Eastern populations transmitted by I. scapularis; the other divided Midwestern and Northeastern populations. However, populations from all three regions were genetically closely related. Together, our findings suggest that although the contemporary populations of North American B. burgdorferi now comprise three geographically separated subpopulations with no or limited gene flow among them, they arose from a common ancestral population. A comparative analysis of the B. burgdorferi outer surface protein C (ospC) gene revealed novel linkages and provides additional insights into the genetic characteristics of strains. PMID:22729536

  7. Differential Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi Proteins during Growth In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Ramesh; Philipp, Mario T.

    1998-01-01

    In an earlier paper we described the transcriptionally regulated differential levels of expression of two lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, P35 and P7.5, during growth of the spirochetes in culture from logarithmic phase to stationary phase (K. J. Indest, R. Ramamoorthy, M. Solé, R. D. Gilmore, B. J. B. Johnson, and M. T. Philipp, Infect. Immun. 65:1165–1171, 1997). Here we further assess this phenomenon by investigating whether the expression of other antigens of B. burgdorferi, including some well-characterized ones, are also regulated in a growth-phase-dependent manner in vitro. These studies revealed 13 additional antigens, including OspC, BmpD, and GroEL, that were upregulated 2- to 66-fold and a 28-kDa protein that was downregulated 2- to 10-fold, during the interval between the logarithmic- and stationary-growth phases. Unlike with these in vitro-regulated proteins, the levels of expression of OspA, OspB, P72, flagellin, and BmpA remained unchanged throughout growth of the spirochetes in culture. Furthermore, ospAB, bmpAB, groEL, and fla all exhibited similar mRNA profiles, which is consistent with the constitutive expression of these genes. By contrast, the mRNA and protein profiles of ospC and bmpD indicated regulated expression of these genes. While bmpD exhibited a spike in mRNA expression in early stationary phase, ospC maintained a relatively higher level of mRNA throughout culture. These findings demonstrate that there are additional genes besides P7.5 and P35 whose regulated expression can be investigated in vitro and which may thus serve as models to facilitate the study of regulatory mechanisms in an organism that cycles between an arthropod and a vertebrate host. PMID:9784512

  8. Borrelia hermsii Acquisition Order in Superinfected Ticks Determines Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing of Borrelia hermsii isolates reveals its divergence into two major genomic groups (GG), but no differences in transmission efficiency or host pathogenicity are associated with these genotypes. To compare GGI and GGII in the tick-host infection cycle, we first determined if spirochetes from the two groups could superinfect the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. We infected mice with isolates from each group and fed ticks sequentially on these mice. We then fed the infected ticks on naive mice and measured GGI and GGII spirochete densities in vector and host, using quantitative PCR of genotype-specific chromosomal DNA sequences. Sequential feedings resulted in dual tick infections, showing that GGI or GGII primary acquisition did not block superinfection by a secondary agent. On transmission to naive mice at short intervals after acquisition, ticks with primary GGI and secondary GGII spirochete infections caused mixed GGI and GGII infections in mice. However, ticks with primary GGII and secondary GGI spirochete infections caused only GGII infections with all isolate pairs examined. At longer intervals after acquisition, the exclusion of GGI by GGII spirochetes declined and cotransmission predominated. We then examined GGI and GGII spirochetemia in mice following single inoculation and coinoculation by needle and found that GGI spirochete densities were reduced on multiple days when coinoculated with GGII. These findings indicate that dual GGI-GGII spirochete infections can persist in ticks and that transmission to a vertebrate host is dependent on the order of tick acquisition and the interval between acquisition and transmission events. PMID:23716615

  9. Patterns and regulation of ribosomal RNA transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Borrelia burgdorferi contains one 16S and two tandem sets of 23S-5S ribosomal (r) RNA genes whose patterns of transcription and regulation are unknown but are likely to be critical for survival and persistence in its hosts. Results RT-PCR of B. burgdorferi N40 and B31 revealed three rRNA region transcripts: 16S rRNA-alanine transfer RNA (tRNAAla); tRNAIle; and both sets of 23S-5S rRNA. At 34°C, there were no differences in growth rate or in accumulation of total protein, DNA and RNA in B31 cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK)-H whether rabbit serum was present or not. At 23°C, B31 grew more slowly in serum-containing BSK-H than at 34°C. DNA per cell was higher in cells in exponential as compared to stationary phase at either temperature; protein per cell was similar at both temperatures in both phases. Similar amounts of rRNA were produced in exponential phase at both temperatures, and rRNA was down-regulated in stationary phase at either temperature. Interestingly, a relBbu deletion mutant unable to generate (p)ppGpp did not down-regulate rRNA at transition to stationary phase in serum-containing BSK-H at 34°C, similar to the relaxed phenotype of E. coli relA mutants. Conclusions We conclude that rRNA transcription in B. burgdorferi is complex and regulated both by growth phase and by the stringent response but not by temperature-modulated growth rate. PMID:21251259

  10. Fatty acids of Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Belisle, J T; Brandt, M E; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1994-01-01

    A fundamental ultrastructural feature shared by the spirochetal pathogens Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum) and Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agents of venereal syphilis and Lyme disease, respectively, is that their most abundant membrane proteins contain covalently attached fatty acids. In this study, we identified the fatty acids covalently bound to lipoproteins of B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum and examined potential acyl donors to these molecules. Palmitate was the predominant fatty acid of both B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum lipoproteins. T. pallidum lipoproteins also contained substantial amounts of stearate, a fatty acid not typically prevalent in prokaryotic lipoproteins. In both spirochetes, the fatty acids of cellular lipids differed from those of their respective lipoproteins. To characterize phospholipids in these organisms, spirochetes were metabolically labeled with [3H]palmitate or [3H]oleate; B. burgdorferi contained only phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine, while T. pallidum contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and cardiolipin. Although palmitate predominated in the lipoproteins, there were no apparent differences in the incorporation of these two fatty acids into phospholipids (putative acyl donors). Phospholipase A1 and A2 digestion of phosphatidylcholine from B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum labeled with either [3H]palmitate or [3H]oleate also revealed that neither fatty acid was incorporated preferentially into the 1 and 2 positions (potential acyl donor sites) of the glycerol backbone. The combined findings suggest that fatty acid utilization during lipoprotein synthesis is determined largely by the fatty acid specificities of the lipoprotein acyl transferases. These findings also provide the basis for ongoing efforts to elucidate the relationship between lipoprotein acylation and the physiological functions and inflammatory

  11. Babesia microti, human babesiosis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Connecticut.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J F; Mintz, E D; Gadbaw, J J; Magnarelli, L A

    1991-01-01

    Babesia microti was isolated from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) that was captured in southeastern Connecticut in 1988, when the first human case of babesiosis acquired in Connecticut was recognized. To date, 13 cases of babesiosis have been reported in Connecticut, the largest number of human cases reported on the mainland United States. Two of nine patients quiried remembered a prior tick bite. Since Babesia parasites are known to be vectored only by ticks, we surmise that 12 of these infections were acquired via tick bites; 1 was obtained by blood transfusion (the patient was 46 years of age) from an endemically infected donor. The ages of the patients with tick-acquired babesiosis ranged from 61 to 95 years. Two patients died with active infections, and one patient died from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease soon after treatment with clindamycin and quinine. Indirect fluorescent-antibody titers of blood samples drawn at the time of hospitalization for 11 patients and at the time of active infection for 1 asymptomatic person ranged from 1:1,024 to 1:4,096. Five of eight patients with babesiosis also had significant immunoglobulin G or immunoglobulin M titers (1:640 to 1:5,120) to Borrelia burgdorferi. B. microti was isolated in Syrian hamsters inoculated with blood from 7 of 12 patients tested and was also isolated from mice captured in six towns. The peridomestic nature of the disease was demonstrated by isolating the parasite from white-footed mice captured in or near the yards of eight different patients. Of 59 mice tested, 27 were positive and 25 were coinfected with B. burgdorferi. The isolation of B. microti from a white-footed mouse captured in north-central Connecticut (West Hartford), away from the focus of human infections in southeastern Connecticut, suggests that this pathogen may spread into other areas where Ixodes dammini, the tick vector, becomes established. PMID:1757548

  12. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Cristina M; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm(-1). FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:23563637

  13. Treatment with Doxycycline of Generalized Annular Elastolytic Giant Cell Granuloma Associated with Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tas, B; Caglar, A; Ozdemir, B

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is a case of generalized annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) associated with borrelia infection and genes of p-30, p-31, p-39. A possible cross-mediated reaction from the T-cell type which might have induced the AEGCG is discussed from the concept of “heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and molecular mimicry”. PMID:26624605

  14. Lyme Borrelia positive serology associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, G; Luksa, V; Candussi, G; Rizzi, G M; Trevisan, G

    1988-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis acquired during pregnancy may be associated with stillbirth and fetal malformations. This paper reports preliminary results of a study intended to evaluate the frequency of Borrelia burgdorferi infection associated with spontaneous abortion in an endemic Italian area. PMID:3252658

  15. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Fingerle, Volker; Klier, Christiane; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008–2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID:25531140

  16. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato among Adults, Germany, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Hendrik; Fingerle, Volker; Klier, Christiane; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    To assess Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the cause of Lyme borreliosis) seropositivity in Germany, we tested serum samples from health survey (2008-2011) participants. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among women and 13.0% among men; infection risk was highest among persons >60 years of age. Public health interventions, including education about risk factors and preventive measures, are needed. PMID:25531140

  17. Bird-feeding ticks transstadially transmit Borrelia burgdorferi that infect Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J F; Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C

    1990-01-01

    Bird-feeding Ixodes dammini ticks were documented for the first time to successfully molt and transstadially pass Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the type B31 strain. Forty-six of 73 blood-engorged larvae and 50 of 66 fully-fed nymphs, removed from wild-caught birds, successfully molted. Borreliae were isolated from 21 of 78 partially- and fully-fed larvae off birds, including six specimens that molted. Spirochete-positive cultures also were obtained from 35 of 60 partially- and fully-fed nymphs that had fed from birds, including 20 nymphs that molted into adult ticks. Transstadially passed borreliae by bird-feeding larval and nymphal I. dammini were infectious to hamsters, leading us to suggest that these ticks are capable of subsequently transmitting infectious spirochetes to mammals, including humans. An isolated of B. burgdorferi, recovered from a bird-feeding larval Ixodes dentatus, was indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the B31 strain. This isolate, unlike another from I. dentatus off a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), had a protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 that reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 in western blot analysis. Thus, closely related borreliae are present in both I. dentatus and I. dammini. PMID:2304189

  18. The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Pal, Utpal; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Liu, Xianzhong; Desrosiers, Daniel C; Eggers, Christian H; Anderson, John F; Radolf, Justin D; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi survives in an enzootic cycle, and Dps proteins protect DNA against damage during starvation or oxidative stress. The role of a Dps homologue encoded by Borrelia in spirochaete survival was assessed. Dps-deficient spirochaetes were infectious in mice via needle-inoculation at the dose of 10(5) spirochaetes. Larval ticks successfully acquired Dps-deficient spirochaetes via a blood meal on mice. However, after extended periods within unfed nymphs, the Dps-deficient spirochaetes failed to be transmitted to a new host when nymphs fed. Our data suggest that Dps functions to protect the spirochaetes during dormancy in unfed ticks, and in its absence, the spirochaetes become susceptible during tick feeding. dps is differentially expressed in vivo- low in mice and high in ticks - but constitutively expressed in vitro, showing little change during growth or in response to oxidative stress. Borrelia Dps forms a dodecameric complex capable of sequestering iron. The Dps-deficient spirochaetes showed no defect in starvation and oxidative stress assays, perhaps due to the lack of iron in spirochaetes grown in vitro. Dps is critical for spirochaete persistence within ticks, and strategies to interfere with Dps could potentially reduce Borrelia populations in nature and thereby influence the incidence of Lyme disease. PMID:17181780

  19. Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in Patients from Upper Midwestern United States, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Dean A; Lovrich, Steven D; Oldenburg, Darby G; Kowalski, Todd J; Callister, Steven M

    2016-08-01

    We confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection in 7 patients who had contracted an illness while near La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA, an area where Ixodes scapularis ticks are endemic. B. miyamatoi infection should now be considered among differential diagnoses for patients from the midwestern United States who have signs and symptoms suggestive of tickborne illness. PMID:27434048

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Lyme Disease: Global Protein Comparison of Three Strains of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Yang, Xiaohua; Luft, Benjamin J.; Dunn, John J.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-04-01

    The Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease in the United States. It has been studied extensively to help understand its pathogenicity of infection and how it can persist in different mammalian hosts. We report the proteomic analysis of the archetype B. burgdorferi B31 strain and two other strains (ND40, and JD-1) having different Borrelia pathotypes using strong cation exchange fractionation of proteolytic peptides followed by high-resolution, reversed phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Protein identification was facilitated by the availability of the complete B31 genome sequence. A total of 665 Borrelia proteins were identified representing ~38 % coverage of the theoretical B31 proteome. A significant overlap was observed between the identified proteins in direct comparisons between any two strains (>72%), but distinct differences were observed among identified hypothetical and outer membrane proteins of the three strains. Such a concurrent proteomic overview of three Borrelia strains based upon only the B31 genome sequence is shown to provide significant insights into the presence or absence of specific proteins and a broad overall comparison among strains.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Cristina M.; Stefan, Razvan; Bindea, Maria; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present a method for detection of motile and immotile Borrelia burgdorferi genomic DNA, in relation with infectious and noninfectious spirochetes. An FT-IR study of DNA isolated from B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains and from positive and negative Ixodes ricinus ticks, respectively, is reported. Motile bacterial cells from the species B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii were of interest. Also, FT-IR absorbance spectra of DNA from immotile spirochetes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, in the absence and presence of different antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin V or phenoxymethylpenicillin, tetracycline, respectively) were investigated. FT-IR spectra, providing a high molecular structural information, have been analyzed in the wavenumber range 400-1800 cm-1. FT-IR signatures, spectroscopic band assignments and structural interpretations of these DNAs are reported. Spectral differences between FT-IR absorbances of DNAs from motile bacterial cells and immotile spirochetes, respectively, have been found. Particularly, alterations of the sugar-phosphate B-form chain in the case of DNA from Borrelia immotile cells, as compared with DNA from B. burgdorferi sensu lato motile cells have been observed. Based on this work, specific B. burgdorferi sensu lato and I. ricinus DNA-ligand interactions, respectively, might be further investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Borrelia miyamotoi Infection in Patients from Upper Midwestern United States, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Dean A.; Lovrich, Steven D.; Oldenburg, Darby G.; Kowalski, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    We confirmed Borrelia miyamotoi infection in 7 patients who had contracted an illness while near La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA, an area where Ixodes scapularis ticks are endemic. B. miyamatoi infection should now be considered among differential diagnoses for patients from the midwestern United States who have signs and symptoms suggestive of tickborne illness. PMID:27434048

  3. Role of outer membrane architecture in immune evasion by Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Radolf, J D

    1994-09-01

    Combined ultrastructural and molecular studies have revealed that the syphilis and Lyme-disease spirochetes, Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi, have distinctive molecular architectures. Both organisms persist in their hosts and have strategies for immune evasion that include the use of rare, poorly immunogenic surface-exposed proteins as potential virulence determinants. PMID:7812663

  4. [Amyloidosis and familial Mediterranean fever].

    PubMed

    Pras, M

    1986-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (F. M. F.) is an autosomal recessive disorder occurring most commonly in Sepharadi Jews and Armenians. Two phenotypic features characterize the disease: brief episodic febrile attacks of peritonitis, pleuritis or synovitis recurring from childhood or adolescence and the development of systemic amyloidosis. Attacks are accompanied by striking elevations of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A protein. The amyloidosis of Familial Mediterranean Fever is of the AA type, and manifest clinically as a nephropathy that passes through proteinuria, nephrotic and uremic stages to renal death. Although there is ethnic variation in the incidence of amyloidosis of F. M. F. in our patient population--predominantly Sepharadi Jews of North African extraction--an amyloidotic death at an early age is their genetic destiny. Since the introduction in 1972 of colchicine to prevent the febrile attacks, the drug has been proven and become the main stay of therapy. Today, colchicine has been shown to be effective in preventing amyloidosis as well as the febrile attacks in Familial Mediterranean Fever. End stage renal disease is not the end of the road for patients with F.M.F. because of improving outlook for dialysis and renal transplantation in these patients. PMID:2943362

  5. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  6. Treponema pallidum Lipoprotein TP0435 Expressed in Borrelia burgdorferi Produces Multiple Surface/Periplasmic Isoforms and mediates Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kamfai; Nasereddin, Thayer; Alter, Laura; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Giacani, Lorenzo; Parveen, Nikhat

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete to colonize various tissues requires the presence of surface-exposed adhesins that have been difficult to identify due to the inability to culture and genetically manipulate T. pallidum. Using a Borrelia burgdorferi-based heterologous system and gain-in-function approach, we show for the first time that a highly immunogenic lipoprotein TP0435 can be differentially processed into multiple isoforms with one variant stochastically displayed on the spirochete surface. TP0435 was previously believed to be exclusively located in T. pallidum periplasm. Furthermore, non-adherent B. burgdorferi strain expressing TP0435 acquires the ability to bind to a variety of host cells including placental cells and exhibits slow opsonophagocytosis in vitro similar to poor ex vivo phagocytosis of T. pallidum by host macrophages reported previously. This phenomenon of production of both surface and periplasmic immunogenic lipoprotein isoforms has possible implications in immune evasion of the obligate pathogen T. pallidum during infection. PMID:27161310

  7. Treponema pallidum Lipoprotein TP0435 Expressed in Borrelia burgdorferi Produces Multiple Surface/Periplasmic Isoforms and mediates Adherence.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Nasereddin, Thayer; Alter, Laura; Centurion-Lara, Arturo; Giacani, Lorenzo; Parveen, Nikhat

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete to colonize various tissues requires the presence of surface-exposed adhesins that have been difficult to identify due to the inability to culture and genetically manipulate T. pallidum. Using a Borrelia burgdorferi-based heterologous system and gain-in-function approach, we show for the first time that a highly immunogenic lipoprotein TP0435 can be differentially processed into multiple isoforms with one variant stochastically displayed on the spirochete surface. TP0435 was previously believed to be exclusively located in T. pallidum periplasm. Furthermore, non-adherent B. burgdorferi strain expressing TP0435 acquires the ability to bind to a variety of host cells including placental cells and exhibits slow opsonophagocytosis in vitro similar to poor ex vivo phagocytosis of T. pallidum by host macrophages reported previously. This phenomenon of production of both surface and periplasmic immunogenic lipoprotein isoforms has possible implications in immune evasion of the obligate pathogen T. pallidum during infection. PMID:27161310

  8. Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent Infection in a Pony Vaccinated with a Borrelia burgdorferi Recombinant OspA Vaccine and Challenged by Exposure to Naturally Infected Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yung-Fu; McDonough, Sean P.; Chang, Chao-Fu; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Yen, William; Divers, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    A pony was vaccinated with recombinant OspA vaccine (rOspA) and then exposed 3 months later to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks (Ixodes scapularis) collected in Westchester County, N.Y. At 2 weeks after tick exposure, the pony developed a high fever (105°F). Buffy coat smears showed that 20% of neutrophils contained ehrlichial inclusion bodies (morulae). Flunixin Meglumine (1 g daily) was given for 2 days, and the body temperature returned to normal. PCR for ehrlichial DNA was performed on blood samples for 10 consecutive days beginning when the pony was first febrile. This pony was monitored for another 3.5 months but developed no further clinical signs. The 44-kDa immunodominant human granulocytic ehrlichiosis antigen gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into a pCR2.1 vector. DNA sequence analysis of this gene showed it was only 8 bp different (99% identity) from the results reported by others (J.W. Ijdo et al., Infect. Immun. 66:3264–3269, 1998). Western blot analysis, growth inhibition assays, and repeated attempts to isolate B. burgdorferi all demonstrated the pony was protected against B. burgdorferi infection. These results highlight the potential for ticks to harbor and transmit several pathogens simultaneously, which further complicates the diagnosis and vaccination of these emerging tick-borne diseases. PMID:10618280

  9. Maladjusted host immune responses induce experimental cerebral malaria-like pathology in a murine Borrelia and Plasmodium co-infection model.

    PubMed

    Normark, Johan; Nelson, Maria; Engström, Patrik; Andersson, Marie; Björk, Rafael; Moritz, Thomas; Fahlgren, Anna; Bergström, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In the Plasmodium infected host, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is required to clear the parasites without inducing major host pathology. Clinical reports suggest that bacterial infection in conjunction with malaria aggravates disease and raises both mortality and morbidity in these patients. In this study, we investigated the immune responses in BALB/c mice, co-infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasites and the relapsing fever bacterium Borrelia duttonii. In contrast to single infections, we identified in the co-infected mice a reduction of L-Arginine levels in the serum. It indicated diminished bioavailability of NO, which argued for a dysfunctional endothelium. Consistent with this, we observed increased sequestration of CD8+ cells in the brain as well over expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM by brain endothelial cells. Co-infected mice further showed an increased inflammatory response through IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as inability to down regulate the same through IL-10. In addition we found loss of synchronicity of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals seen in dendritic cells and macrophages, as well as increased numbers of regulatory T-cells. Our study shows that a situation mimicking experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is induced in co-infected mice due to loss of timing and control over regulatory mechanisms in antigen presenting cells. PMID:25075973

  10. Maladjusted Host Immune Responses Induce Experimental Cerebral Malaria-Like Pathology in a Murine Borrelia and Plasmodium Co-Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Normark, Johan; Nelson, Maria; Engström, Patrik; Andersson, Marie; Björk, Rafael; Moritz, Thomas; Fahlgren, Anna; Bergström, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In the Plasmodium infected host, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory responses is required to clear the parasites without inducing major host pathology. Clinical reports suggest that bacterial infection in conjunction with malaria aggravates disease and raises both mortality and morbidity in these patients. In this study, we investigated the immune responses in BALB/c mice, co-infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasites and the relapsing fever bacterium Borrelia duttonii. In contrast to single infections, we identified in the co-infected mice a reduction of L-Arginine levels in the serum. It indicated diminished bioavailability of NO, which argued for a dysfunctional endothelium. Consistent with this, we observed increased sequestration of CD8+ cells in the brain as well over expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM by brain endothelial cells. Co-infected mice further showed an increased inflammatory response through IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as inability to down regulate the same through IL-10. In addition we found loss of synchronicity of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals seen in dendritic cells and macrophages, as well as increased numbers of regulatory T-cells. Our study shows that a situation mimicking experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is induced in co-infected mice due to loss of timing and control over regulatory mechanisms in antigen presenting cells. PMID:25075973

  11. [Combatting fever, phlegm and cough].

    PubMed

    Solar Silva, M A

    1991-03-01

    only ones that should be treated. Fever it probably the defense mechanism that has elicited the greatest treatment efforts. Lowering the fever through medication does nothing to fight the virus but makes children feel well enough to resume playing outside, thereby increasing the risk of secondary bacterial infection. Children with fevers should be kept hydrated. Only in the case of pain should medication be given to lower the fever. Aspirin should be avoided in children. An untreated fever provides information on the course of the disease: spontaneous decline followed by a rise may indicate bacterial infection. PMID:12343310

  12. Q fever--selected issues.

    PubMed

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Knap, Józef Piotr; Gaweł, Jerzy; Żakowska, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus Coxiella burnetii, belonging to the Legionellales order, Coxiellaceae family. The presented study compares selected features of the bacteria genome, including chromosome and plasmids QpH1, QpRS, QpDG and QpDV. The pathomechanism of infection--starting from internalization of the bacteria to its release from infected cell are thoroughly described. The drugs of choice for the treatment of acute Q fever are tetracyclines, macrolides and quinolones. Some other antimicrobials are also active against C. burnetii, namely, telitromycines and tigecyclines (glicylcycline). Q-VAX vaccine induces strong and long-term immunity in humans. Coxevac vaccine for goat and sheep can reduce the number of infections and abortions, as well as decrease the environmental transmission of the pathogen. Using the microarrays technique, about 50 proteins has been identified which could be used in the future for the production of vaccine against Q fever. The routine method of C. burnetii culture is proliferation within cell lines; however, an artificial culture medium has recently been developed. The growth of bacteria in a reduced oxygen (2.5%) atmosphere was obtained after just 6 days. In serology, using the IF method as positive titers, the IgM antibody level >1:64 and IgG antibody level >1:256 (against II phase antigens) has been considered. In molecular diagnostics of C. burnetii infection, the most frequently used method is PCR and its modifications; namely, nested PCR and real time PCR which detect target sequences, such as htpAB and IS1111, chromosome genes (com1), genes specific for different types of plasmids and transposase genes. Although Q fever was diagnosed in Poland in 1956, the data about the occurrence of the disease are incomplete. Comprehensive studies on the current status of Q fever in Poland, with special focus on pathogen reservoirs and vectors, the sources of infection and

  13. Assessment of the potential contribution of the highly conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C in transmission and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Earnhart, Christopher G; Rhodes, DeLacy V L; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Tegels, Brittney; Carlyon, Jason A; Pal, Utpal; Marconi, Richard T

    2014-03-01

    OspC is produced by all species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex and is required for infectivity in mammals. To test the hypothesis that the conserved C-terminal motif (C10) of OspC is required for function in vivo, a mutant B. burgdorferi strain (B31::ospCΔC10) was created in which ospC was replaced with an ospC gene lacking the C10 motif. The ability of the mutant to infect mice was investigated using tick transmission and needle inoculation. Infectivity was assessed by cultivation, qRT-PCR, and measurement of IgG antibody responses. B31::ospCΔC10 retained the ability to infect mice by both needle and tick challenge and was competent to survive in ticks after exposure to the blood meal. To determine whether recombinant OspC protein lacking the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues (rOspCΔC10) can bind plasminogen, the only known mammalian-derived ligand for OspC, binding analyses were performed. Deletion of the C10 motif resulted in a statistically significant decrease in plasminogen binding. Although deletion of the C10 motif influenced plasminogen binding, it can be concluded that the C10 motif is not required for OspC to carry out its critical in vivo functions in tick to mouse transmission. PMID:24376161

  14. Genotypic Variation and Mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes Ticks from North America and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Chris D.; Matthews, Heather E.; Schutzer, Steven; Rounds, Megan A.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Nolte, Oliver; Campbell, Scott R.; Phillipson, Curtis A.; Li, Feng; Sampath, Ranga; Ecker, David J.; Eshoo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lyme disease, caused by various species of Borrelia, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks in North America and Europe. Studies have shown the genotype of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) or the species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) affects the ability of the bacteria to cause local or disseminated infection in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a multilocus PCR electrospray mass spectrometry assay to determine the species and genotype Borrelia from ticks collected in New York, Connecticut, Indiana, Southern Germany, and California and characterized isolates from parts of the United States and Europe. These analyses identified 53 distinct genotypes of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto with higher resolution than ospC typing. Genotypes of other members of the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex were also identified and genotyped including B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, and B. valaisiana. While each site in North America had genotypes unique to that location, we found genotypes shared between individual regions and two genotypes found across the United States. Significant B. burgdorferi s.s. genotypic diversity was observed between North America and Europe: only 6.6% of US genotypes (3 of 45) were found in Europe and 27% of the European genotypes (3 of 11) were observed in the US. Interestingly, 39% of adult Ixodes scapularis ticks from North America were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.s. and 22.2% of Ixodes ricinus ticks from Germany were infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi s.l. Conclusions/Significance The presence of multiple Borrelia genotypes in ticks increases the probability that a person will be infected with more than one genotype of B. burgdorferi, potentially increasing the risks of disseminated Lyme disease. Our study indicates that the genotypic diversity of Borrelia in ticks in both North America and Europe is higher then previously reported and can have

  15. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  16. [Tick infestation and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia divergens in cattle in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Lengauer, Heidi; Just, Frank Thomas; Edelhofer, Renate; Pfister, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    During the grazing period 2002 319 cattle from 31 farms located in 6 districts of southern Bavaria were examined for the presence of ticks in 4- to 5-week intervals, and 287 serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia divergens. Ticks were detected in all 31 farms with a mean prevalence of 69%. 3218 out of 3453 collected ticks were Ixodes ricinus; 139 nymphs, 19 larvae and 77 damaged adult specimens could only be determined to the Genus level (Ixodes). The seasonal pattern revealed the highest frequencies of ticks in May/June and September. The intensity of tick infestation of positive animals was generally low. 76.5% of parasitized cattle had 1-6 ticks per day of investigation. Individual cattle showed up to 250 ticks per day. The percentage of infested animals in each herd varied within the period between 0-100%. The examination of serum samples by immunofluorescence technique (IFAT) revealed positive anti-Borrelia antibody titers (> or = 1:64) for 45.6% of the animals. The within-farm seroprevalence of borreliosis ranged from 20 to 100% in 27 of the 31 farms. A significant correlation could be detected between the number of ticks/cattle and the anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG-titer. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between the age of the animals and anti-Borrelia serum titers. For comparative reasons, 64 IFAT-positive serum samples were tested by Western blot techniques for the presence of antibodies cross-reacting with Borrelia garinii antigen. These analyses revealed that 69% of the samples reacted positively, 28% were unclear and 3% were negative. Examinations of the 287 serum samples for the presence of anti-Babesia divergens antibodies revealed one positive animal with a titer of 1:16. PMID:17009719

  17. Divergence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes could be driven by the host: diversity of Borrelia strains isolated from ticks feeding on a single bird

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The controversy surrounding the potential impact of birds in spirochete transmission dynamics and their capacity to serve as a reservoir has existed for a long time. The majority of analyzed bird species are able to infect larval ticks with Borrelia. Dispersal of infected ticks due to bird migration is a key to the establishment of new foci of Lyme borreliosis. The dynamics of infection in birds supports the mixing of different species, the horizontal exchange of genetic information, and appearance of recombinant genotypes. Methods Four Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains were cultured from Ixodes minor larvae and four strains were isolated from Ixodes minor nymphs collected from a single Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). A multilocus sequence analysis that included 16S rRNA, a 5S-23S intergenic spacer region, a 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer, flagellin, p66, and ospC separated 8 strains into 3 distinct groups. Additional multilocus sequence typing of 8 housekeeping genes, clpA, clpX, nifS, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB, and uvrA was used to resolve the taxonomic status of bird-associated strains. Results Results of analysis of 14 genes confirmed that the level of divergence among strains is significantly higher than what would be expected for strains within a single species. The presence of cross-species recombination was revealed: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto housekeeping gene nifS was incorporated into homologous locus of strain, previously assigned to B. americana. Conclusions Genetically diverse Borrelia strains are often found within the same tick or same vertebrate host, presenting a wide opportunity for genetic exchange. We report the cross-species recombination that led to incorporation of a housekeeping gene from the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strain into a homologous locus of another bird-associated strain. Our results support the hypothesis that recombination maintains a majority of sequence polymorphism within Borrelia

  18. Typhoid fever: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Palma, Natalia Carolina; Farías Molina, Solange; Calzadilla Riveras, Jeannette; Hermoso, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains a major health problem worldwide, in contrast to Chile, where this disease is an isolated finding. Clinical presentation is varied, mainly presenting with fever, malaise, abdominal discomfort, and nonspecific symptoms often confused with other causes of febrile syndrome. We report a six-year-old, male patient presenting with fever of two weeks associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, malaise, hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes. Differential diagnoses were considered and a Widal reaction and two blood cultures were requested; both came back positive, confirming the diagnosis of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi. Prior to diagnosis confirmation, empirical treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone and metronidazole, with partial response; then drug therapy was adjusted according to ciprofloxacin susceptibility testing with a favorable clinical response. We discuss diagnostic methods and treatment of enteric fever with special emphasis on typhoid fever. PMID:27392073

  19. Chronic Q Fever in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Karakousis, Petros C.; Trucksis, Michele; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Infections due to Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are uncommon in the United States. Cases of chronic Q fever are extremely rare and most often manifest as culture-negative endocarditis in patients with underlying valvular heart disease. We describe a 31-year-old farmer from West Virginia with a history of congenital heart disease and recurrent fevers for 14 months who was diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis based on an extremely high antibody titer against Coxiella burnetii phase I antigen. Despite treatment with doxycycline, he continued to have markedly elevated Coxiella burnetii phase I antibody titers for 10 years after the initial diagnosis. To our knowledge, this case represents the longest follow-up period for a patient with chronic Q fever in the United States. We review all cases of chronic Q fever reported in the United States and discuss important issues pertaining to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease. PMID:16757641

  20. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities. PMID:19712954

  1. Symptomatic co-infection with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in patient after international exposure; a challenging case in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jabłońska, Joanna; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Stańczak, Joanna; Kozłowska, Joanna; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The report presents a well-documented case of symptomatic co-infection of Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi in a Polish immunocompetent patient after travelling to Canada and the USA. PMID:27294655

  2. Imbalanced presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. multilocus sequence types in clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Coipan, E Claudia; Jahfari, Setareh; Fonville, Manoj; Oei, G Anneke; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Hovius, Joppe W R; Sprong, Hein

    2016-08-01

    In this study we used typing based on the eight multilocus sequence typing scheme housekeeping genes (MLST) and 5S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) to explore the population structure of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from patients with Lyme borreliosis (LB) and to test the association between the B. burgdorferi s.l. sequence types (ST) and the clinical manifestations they cause in humans. Isolates of B. burgdorferi from 183 LB cases across Europe, with distinct clinical manifestations, and 257 Ixodes ricinus lysates from The Netherlands, were analyzed for this study alone. For completeness, we incorporated in our analysis also 335 European B. burgdorferi s.l. MLST profiles retrieved from literature. Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia bavariensis were associated with human cases of LB while Borrelia garinii, Borrelia lusitaniae and Borrelia valaisiana were associated with questing I. ricinus ticks. B. afzelii was associated with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, while B. garinii and B. bavariensis were associated with neuroborreliosis. The samples in our study belonged to 251 different STs, of which 94 are newly described, adding to the overall picture of the genetic diversity of Borrelia genospecies. The fraction of STs that were isolated from human samples was significantly higher for the genospecies that are known to be maintained in enzootic cycles by mammals (B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, and Borrelia spielmanii) than for genospecies that are maintained by birds (B. garinii and B. valaisiana) or lizards (B. lusitaniae). We found six multilocus sequence types that were significantly associated to clinical manifestations in humans and five IGS haplotypes that were associated with the human LB cases. While IGS could perform just as well as the housekeeping genes in the MLST scheme for predicting the infectivity of B. burgdorferi s.l., the advantage of MLST is that it can also capture the differential invasiveness of the various STs. PMID:27125686

  3. Functional outcomes in patients with Borrelia burgdorferi reinfection.

    PubMed

    Jares, Tyler M; Mathiason, Michelle A; Kowalski, Todd J

    2014-02-01

    When Lyme disease is treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy in the early stages, long-term outcomes are good. However, a few patients have persistent symptoms despite appropriate therapy. Whether these patients' symptoms are any different from those of patients with reinfection is unclear. Our objective was to compare long-term symptoms and functional outcomes of patients with Borrelia burgdorferi reinfection with those of patients with only 1 episode of infection and with no history of infection. We compared outcomes of Lyme reinfection patients, characterized by recurrent erythema migrans (EM) lesions, with those of patients with 1 episode of Lyme disease (Lyme control) and with no history of Lyme disease (non-Lyme control) by retrospective medical record review and a survey consisting of a 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and a 10-item symptom questionnaire. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables and χ(2) analysis for categorical variables were used. In cases of low cell counts, Fisher's exact tests were used. Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons when ANOVA was significant. Reinfection was identified in 23/673 (3.4%) patients who had a diagnosis of Lyme disease in our health system during 2000-2004. Of the 23, 15 had long-term follow-up data and were age- and sex-matched to 45 Lyme control and 60 non-Lyme control group patients. Clinical characteristics were similar in the reinfection and Lyme control groups. SF-36 results were similar between groups for all domains except energy/vitality (VT). The SF-36 domain of VT was significantly different between groups: 63.0 vs. 54.5 vs. 64.5 in the reinfection, Lyme control, and non-Lyme control groups, respectively (p=0.047). Clinical features and long-term outcomes of patients with recurrent EM lesions were similar to those of the control groups and consistent with B. burgdorferi reinfection, not persistent infection. Patients with Lyme reinfection should be treated with

  4. Describing the Breakbone Fever: IDODEN, an Ontology for Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Mitraka, Elvira; Topalis, Pantelis; Dritsou, Vicky; Dialynas, Emmanuel; Louis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Background Ontologies represent powerful tools in information technology because they enhance interoperability and facilitate, among other things, the construction of optimized search engines. To address the need to expand the toolbox available for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases we embarked on the construction of specific ontologies. We present here IDODEN, an ontology that describes dengue fever, one of the globally most important diseases that are transmitted by mosquitoes. Methodology/Principal Findings We constructed IDODEN using open source software, and modeled it on IDOMAL, the malaria ontology developed previously. IDODEN covers all aspects of dengue fever, such as disease biology, epidemiology and clinical features. Moreover, it covers all facets of dengue entomology. IDODEN, which is freely available, can now be used for the annotation of dengue-related data and, in addition to its use for modeling, it can be utilized for the construction of other dedicated IT tools such as decision support systems. Conclusions/Significance The availability of the dengue ontology will enable databases hosting dengue-associated data and decision-support systems for that disease to perform most efficiently and to link their own data to those stored in other independent repositories, in an architecture- and software-independent manner. PMID:25646954

  5. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2012-05-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is endemic in tropical and subtropical zones and the prevalence is increasing across South-east Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific and the Americas. In recent years, the spread of unplanned urbanisation, with associated substandard housing, overcrowding and deterioration in water, sewage and waste management systems, has created ideal conditions for increased transmission of the dengue virus in tropical urban centres. While dengue infection has traditionally been considered a paediatric disease, the age distribution of dengue has been rising and more cases have been observed in adolescents and adults. Furthermore, the development of tourism in the tropics has led to an increase in the number of tourists who become infected, most of whom are adults. Symptoms and risk factors for dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue differ between children and adults, with co-morbidities and incidence in more elderly patients associated with greater risk of mortality. Treatment options for DF and DHF in adults, as for children, centre round fluid replacement (either orally or intravenously, depending on severity) and antipyretics. Further data are needed on the optimal treatment of adult patients. PMID:22668446

  6. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  7. Dengue fever complicated by hemophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Maria; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Agrawal, Bhumi; Kurup, Akhil Rajendra; Hansdak, Samuel George

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a common acute viral febrile illness in the tropics. Although the usual presentation is that of a self-limiting illness, its complications are protean. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an acute febrile illness and was diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Despite appropriate supportive therapy, the patient initially improved, but subsequently had clinical deterioration. Evaluation revealed features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. He was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and had an uneventful recovery. This case adds to the limited adult cases of virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in the literature and the need for prompt recognition and treatment of this rare complication. PMID:27274854

  8. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-01-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011–2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4–8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the

  9. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-03-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011-2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4-8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the ecosystem

  10. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... by 1 degree or more. Physical activity, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, medications, high room temperature, and ... and smiling at you Has a normal skin color Looks well when their temperature comes down Take ...

  11. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, or cystic fibrosis Recently had an immunization ... serious medical illness, such as a heart problem, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, COPD, or other chronic lung ...

  12. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    We have carried out a meticulous time-space-analysis of the incidence of yellow fever in humans in Brazil from 1954 to 1972 and especially from 1973 to 1999. This study has added to our knowledge of the epidemiology of yellow fever and enabled us to redefine epidemiological zones and determine their geographical limits. The endemic area is located within the Amazon basin; here cases are scattered and generally limited in number. However, there are also "foci of endemic emergence" within this area, where cases are less rare, although occurrence remains irregular. The epidemic area is for the most part situated outside the Amazon basin, to the north east and particularly to the south. It has been divided into two parts according to whether the occurrence of yellow fever is cyclic or sporadic. The epidemics, which are all sylvatic, follow either a circular path (in the forest area) or a linear path (in forest-galleries of the savannah area). The study of the development of the 3 main epidemics (1972-74; 1979-82; 1986-92) in the cyclic emergence area showed that, on each occasion, the yellow fever virus appeared at a particularly active outbreak site located in the "serra dos Carajás", and from there, it followed the courses of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers upstream, moving southwards during the "pre-epidemic phase" which may be visible due to the occurrence of a few cases, or may remain invisible. Subsequently the virus reached the emergence area, where it appeared in the form of epidemics. In this zone, it also followed privileged south-western pathways, moving from one hydraulic basin to another along the upstream courses of the rivers. Almost exactly the same pathways have been identified for each of the 3 epidemics studied. The distances travelled by the virus over a period of one year--when it goes rapidly--can reach several hundred kilometers. On the other hand, it may be stationary for a period of one or two consecutive years, occasionally three, remaining

  13. Fever, immunity, and molecular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Hasday, Jeffrey D; Thompson, Christopher; Singh, Ishwar S

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock response (HSR) is an ancient and highly conserved process that is essential for coping with environmental stresses, including extremes of temperature. Fever is a more recently evolved response, during which organisms temporarily subject themselves to thermal stress in the face of infections. We review the phylogenetically conserved mechanisms that regulate fever and discuss the effects that febrile-range temperatures have on multiple biological processes involved in host defense and cell death and survival, including the HSR and its implications for patients with severe sepsis, trauma, and other acute systemic inflammatory states. Heat shock factor-1, a heat-induced transcriptional enhancer is not only the central regulator of the HSR but also regulates expression of pivotal cytokines and early response genes. Febrile-range temperatures exert additional immunomodulatory effects by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and accelerating apoptosis in some cell types. This results in accelerated pathogen clearance, but increased collateral tissue injury, thus the net effect of exposure to febrile range temperature depends in part on the site and nature of the pathologic process and the specific treatment provided. PMID:24692136

  14. The OspE-Related Proteins Inhibit Complement Deposition and Enhance Serum Resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Spirochete ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kenedy, Melisha R.; Akins, Darrin R.

    2011-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, binds the host complement inhibitors factor H (FH) and FH-like protein 1 (FHL-1). Binding of FH/FHL-1 by the B. burgdorferi proteins CspA and the OspE-related proteins is thought to enhance resistance to serum-mediated killing. While previous reports have shown that CspA confers serum resistance in B. burgdorferi, it is unclear whether the OspE-related proteins are relevant in B. burgdorferi serum resistance when OspE is expressed on the borrelial surface. To assess the role of the OspE-related proteins, we overexpressed them in a serum-sensitive CspA mutant strain. OspE overexpression enhanced serum resistance of the CspA-deficient organisms. Furthermore, FH was more efficiently bound to the B. burgdorferi surface when OspE was overexpressed. Deposition of complement components C3 and C5b-9 (the membrane attack complex), however, was reduced on the surface of the OspE-overexpressing strain compared to that on the CspA mutant strain. These data demonstrate that OspE proteins expressed on the surface of B. burgdorferi bind FH and protect the organism from complement deposition and subsequent serum-mediated destruction. PMID:21282413

  15. Parental fever phobia and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M S; Naimark, L; Leduc, D G

    1985-06-01

    Parents of 202 young febrile children were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and fears concerning fever and its treatment. Forty-eight percent of the parents considered temperatures less than 38.0 degrees C to be "fevers", 43% felt that temperatures less than 40.0 degrees C could be dangerous to a child, 21% favored treatment for fevers less than 38.0 degrees C, and 15% believed that, left untreated, temperature could rise to 42.0 degrees C or higher. Fifty-three percent advocated waking a febrile child at night to administer antipyretic therapy. Young age of the child was associated with a preference for use of acetaminophen over aspirin and, unexpectedly, with a higher parental threshold for consideration of fever. The higher their child's temperature at the time they were questioned, the higher the minimum temperature that parents considered a cause for concern. Surprisingly, higher socioeconomic status was not associated with a lesser degree of fever phobia. In fact, parents of higher socioeconomic status were more concerned about the risks of brain damage or seizures as sequelae of fever than were parents of lower socioeconomic status. It is concluded that undue fear and overly aggressive treatment of fever are epidemic among parents of infants and young children, even among the highly educated and well-to-do. Considerable effort will be required on the part of pediatricians and other child health workers to reeducate these parents about the definition, consequences, and appropriate treatment of fever. PMID:4000786

  16. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  17. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever…

  18. Multicentric Castleman disease presenting with fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christiana; Lee-Miller, Cathy; Dishop, Megan K; Cost, Carrye; Wang, Michael; Asturias, Edwin J

    2014-12-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that usually manifests with nonspecific symptoms, including fever and lymphadenopathy. Treatment of pediatric MCD varies greatly. A 21-month-old child was diagnosed with MCD after presenting with fever. He had incomplete response to initial therapy directed at interleukin-6, but improved with subsequent chemotherapy. PMID:25282064

  19. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  20. Ask Dr. Sue: "Children and Fevers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1989-01-01

    Considers aspects of children's fevers. Answers questions concerning: (1) the temperature at which a fever is infectious; (2) the point at which a feverish child in care should be sent home; (3) the length of time a parent should wait before returning the child to day care; and (4) the way to take a child's temperature. (RJC)

  1. Mothers’ perceptions of fever in children

    PubMed Central

    Ravanipour, Maryam; Akaberian, Sherafat; Hatami, Gissou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fever is one of the most common symptoms for children. Most fevers are not dangerous; parents, especially mothers, nevertheless experience severe anxiety confronting children's fevers. This study aimed to explore the mothers’ perceptions of fever in their children. Materials and Methods: Mothers of hospitalized febrile children were selected by purposeful sampling method from two hospitals in Bushehr in 2012. Data saturation was reached after in-depth semi structured interviews with 12 participants. Data analysis was done by conventional content analysis method. Findings: Sense of concern, the necessity for quick action and the need for protection emerged from mothers’ views. Sense of concern came from concerns over cause of fever, child's hospitalization and possible side-effects of fever. The necessity for quick action resulted from gathering information, self-medication and referring to healthcare centres; the need for spiritual and emotional protection created the need to protect in mothers. Conclusion: Findings showed that mothers need educational, emotional and spiritual protection in order to overcome their concerns and managing their children's fever. It is recommended that an empowering model based on these findings be developed in order to strengthen mothers in dealing with fevers in order to prevent excessive concern and anxiety. PMID:25250363

  2. Prolonged and recurrent fevers in children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Some children referred for prolonged fever are actually not having elevated temperatures; the approach here requires dissection of the history and correction of health misperceptions. Others have well-documented fevers associated with clinical, laboratory, or epidemiologic findings that should point to a specific diagnosis. "Fever-of-Unknown-Origin" (FUO) is the clinical scenario of daily fever for ≥ 14 days that defies explanation after a careful history, physical examination, and basic laboratory tests. The diagnostic approach requires a meticulous fever diary, serial clinical and laboratory evaluations, vigilance for the appearance of new signs and symptoms, and targeted investigations; the pace of the work-up is determined by the severity of the illness. Approximately half of children with FUO will have a self-limited illness and will never have a specific diagnosis made; the other half will ultimately be found to have, in order, infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic conditions. Irregular, intermittent, recurrent fevers in the well-appearing child are likely to be sequential viral illnesses. Monogenic autoinflammatory diseases should be considered in those who do not fit the picture of recurrent infections and who do not have hallmarks of immune deficiency. Stereotypical febrile illnesses that recur with clockwork periodicity should raise the possibilities of cyclic neutropenia, if the cycle is approximately 21 days, or periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, the most common periodic fever in childhood. PMID:24120354

  3. Detection and Response for Rift Valley fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease that impacts domestic livestock and humans in Africa and the Middle East, and poses a threat to military operations in these areas. We describe a Rift Valley fever Risk Monitoring website, and its ability to predict risk of disease temporally and spatially. We al...

  4. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

  5. Q Fever Chronic Osteomyelitis in Two Children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina

    2015-11-01

    We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data. PMID:26226441

  6. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  7. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  8. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.

    PubMed

    Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus. PMID:25426178

  9. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice

    PubMed Central

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it’s potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice. PMID:25254165

  10. DENGUE FEVER AND DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Tantawichien, Terapong

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are re-emerging diseases that are endemic in the Tropics. The global prevalence of dengue cases has increased in South-East Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and the Americas. The increasingly widespread distribution and the rising incidence of dengue virus infections are related to increased distribution of Aedes aegypti, an increasingly urban population, and increasing air travel. Several Southeast Asian countries show that the age of the reported dengue cases has increased from 5-9 years, to older children and young adults. Dengue infection in adolescents and adults has also been recognized as a potential hazard to international travelers returning from endemic areas, especially SoutheastAsia. Dengue is one disease entity with different clinical presentations; often with unpredictable clinical evolutions and outcomes. Bleeding manifestations in adult patients, including petechiae and menorrhagia were also frequently found; however, massive hematemesis may occur in adult patients because of peptic ulcer disease and may not be associated with profound shock as previously reported in children. Although shock and plasma leakage seem to be more prevalent as age decreases, the frequency of internal hemorrhage rises as age increases. Increase in liver enzymes found in both children and adults indicated liver involvement during dengue infections. Pre-existing liver diseases in adults such as chronic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and hemoglobinopathies may aggravate the liver impairment in dengue infection. Fulminant hepatitis is a rare but well described problem in adult patients with dengue infection. Currently, no specific therapeutic agent exists for dengue. The early recognition of dengue infection, bleeding tendency, and signs of circulatory collapse would reduce mortality rates in adult patients with dengue infection. PMID:26506734

  11. Beyond Intuition: Patient Fever Symptom Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Nancy J.; Peng, Claudia; Powers, John H.; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Rosenberg, Alice; VanRaden, Mark; Wallen, Gwenyth R.

    2013-01-01

    Context Fever is an important sign of inflammation recognized by health care practitioners and family caregivers. However, few empirical data obtained directly from patients exist to support many of the long-standing assumptions about the symptoms of fever. Many of the literature-cited symptoms, including chills, diaphoresis, and malaise, have limited scientific bases, yet they often represent a major justification for antipyretic administration. Objectives To describe the patient experience of fever symptoms for the preliminary development of a fever assessment questionnaire. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 inpatients, the majority (86%) with cancer diagnoses, who had a recorded temperature of ≥38°C within approximately 12 hours before the interview. A semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit patient fever experiences. Thematic analyses were conducted by three independent research team members, and the data were verified through two rounds of consensus building. Results Eleven themes emerged. The participants reported experiences of feeling cold, weakness, warmth, sweating, nonspecific bodily sensations, gastrointestinal symptoms, headaches, emotional changes, achiness, respiratory symptoms, and vivid dreams/hallucinations. Conclusion Our data not only confirm long-standing symptoms of fever but also suggest new symptoms and a level of variability and complexity not captured by the existing fever literature. Greater knowledge of patients’ fever experiences will guide more accurate assessment of symptoms associated with fever and the impact of antipyretic treatments on patient symptoms in this common condition. Results from this study are contributing to the content validity of a future instrument that will evaluate patient outcomes related to fever interventions. PMID:23742739

  12. Borrelia garinii in Seabird Ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Lavers, Jennifer; Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Cahill, Bruce K.; Lubelczyk, Charles B.; Kinsler, Allen; Mathers, Amy J.; Rand, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    Borrelia garinii is the most neurotropic of the genospecies of B. burgdorferi sensu lato that cause Lyme disease in Europe, where it is transmitted to avian and mammalian reservoir hosts and to humans by Ixodes ricinus. B. garinii is also maintained in an enzootic cycle in seabirds by I. uriae, a tick found at high latitudes in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. To determine whether B. garinii is present in seabird ticks on the Atlantic Coast of North America, we examined 261 I. uriae ticks by polyclonal antiborrelial fluorescent antibody. Ten of 61 ticks from Gull Island, Newfoundland, were positive for borreliae by this screen. Amplicons of DNA obtained by PCR that targeted the B. garinii rrs-rrla intergenic spacer were sequenced and matched to GenBank sequences for B. garinii. The potential for introduction of this agent into the North American Lyme disease enzootic is unknown. PMID:17326943

  13. Transposon mutagenesis as an approach to improved understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and biology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tao; Troy, Erin B.; Hu, Linden T.; Gao, Lihui; Norris, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Transposon insertion provides a method for near-random mutation of bacterial genomes, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis and biology. This approach is particularly useful for organisms that are relatively refractory to genetic manipulation, including Lyme disease Borrelia. In this review, progress to date in the application of transposon mutagenesis to the study of Borrelia burgdorferi is reported. An effective Himar1-based transposon vector has been developed and used to acquire a sequence-defined library of nearly 4500 mutants in the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi B31 derivative 5A18NP1. Analysis of these transposon mutants using signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) and Tn-seq approaches has begun to yield valuable information regarding the genes important in the pathogenesis and biology of this organism. PMID:24904839

  14. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in the eastern and southern United States.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Oliver, J H; Hutcheson, H J; Boone, J L; Anderson, J F

    1992-01-01

    Serologic studies were conducted to determine whether white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) contained serum antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected antibodies to this spirochete in 35.7 and 27.3% of 56 P. leucopus and 535 P. gossypinus serum samples, respectively, collected in Connecticut, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. Antibody titers ranged from 1:160 to greater than or equal to 1:40,960. On the basis of adsorption tests, the antibodies detected appeared to be specific to Borrelia spirochetes. Seropositive rodents in the eastern and southern United States, areas where human cases of Lyme borreliosis have been reported, indicate a widespread geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi or a closely related spirochete. PMID:1624561

  15. Analysis of the determinants of bba64 (P35) gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi using a gfp reporter.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Aarti; Hathaway, Marianne; McClain, Natalie; Ramesh, Geeta; Ramamoorthy, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    The bba64 (P35) gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, encodes a surface-exposed lipoprotein. The expression of bba64 in vitro is tightly regulated and dependent on several environmental factors. In nature, its expression is induced in the tick vector during feeding and maintained during infection of the vertebrate host. The pattern of expression of bba64 suggests that it imparts a critical function to the pathogen. A previous study has shown that the expression of bba64 is down-regulated in the absence of RpoS, suggesting that the alternative sigma factor may be involved in its expression. A DNA-binding protein has also been shown to specifically recognize a sequence in the 5' regulatory region of the gene. Therefore, the contribution of these putative determinants to the differential expression of bba64 was investigated. The role of RpoS was critically evaluated by genetic complementation of the rpoS mutant using a chromosomally targeted copy of the wild-type gene. The results confirm that RpoS is indeed required for the expression of bba64. The role of the upstream DNA-binding site was examined using bba64 promoter-gfp transcriptional fusions in a shuttle vector. The DNA-binding site was studied by targeting mutations to an inverted repeat sequence (IRS), the most prominent feature within the binding site, as well as by deletion of the entire sequence upstream of the basal promoter. Quantitative assessment of gene expression demonstrated that neither the IRS nor the sequence upstream of the promoter was essential for expression. Moreover, the expression of the reporter (GFP) appeared to remain RpoS-dependent in all cases, based on the co-expression of GFP and OspC in a subpopulation of spirochaetes and the selective expression of GFP in the stationary phase. Collectively, the data indicate that RpoS is the sole determinant of differential bba64 expression in cultured spirochaetes. PMID:18174146

  16. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elsner, Rebecca A.; Hastey, Christine J.; Olsen, Kimberly J.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host’s ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure to develop long

  17. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  18. Lyme borreliosis caused by diverse genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Ni, X-B; Jia, N; Jiang, B-G; Sun, T; Zheng, Y-C; Huo, Q-B; Liu, K; Ma, L; Zhao, Q-M; Yang, H; Wang, X; Jiang, J-F; Cao, W-C

    2014-08-01

    The variety of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi) genospecies leads to distinction in clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis (LB). There are reports of LB clinical characteristics in China, where the B. burgdorferi genospecies in ticks and animal hosts are different from those in Europe and North America. During May to September in 2010 and 2011, all patients who had erythema migrans (EM, more than 5 cm in diameter) after a recent tick-bite, and sought medical care at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital, Heilongjiang Province of northeastern China, were enrolled in the study. Specific PCR was used to determine the B. burgdorferi genospecies in the disseminated patients. Of 265 EM patients, B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in blood specimens from 15 of 55 disseminated patients. Sequence analyses of 5S-23S rRNA, flagellin, ospC, 16S rRNA and ospA genes revealed that 11 patients were infected with Borrelia garinii, three with Borrelia afzelii and one with Borrelia valaisiana-related genospecies. Among 15 patients, 40%, 13.3% and 13.3% manifested pruritus, pain and ulceration, respectively. Systemic symptoms, arthralgia or a swollen joint and lymphadenopathy were observed in 26.7%, 13.3% and 6.7% patients, respectively. In northeastern China, three genospecies of LB patients were detected. The B. burgdorferi genospecies identified in this study was predominantly B. garinii. A case infected with B. valaisiana-related genospecies was reported for the first time. PMID:24438159

  19. Geographical differences in seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Norway, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; White, Richard A; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Aase, Audun

    2016-07-01

    Detection of specific antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a useful aid for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. However, antibodies are present in the general population. The seroprevalence increase with age, and varies according to the prevalence of infected ticks. We performed a seroprevalence study of IgM and IgG antibody reactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Norway by age-groups and geography, in order to provide a reference set of seroprevalence to inform the interpretation of positive test results. We used two commercially available enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and a multiplexed bead assay to detect Borrelia IgG antibodies in a convenience sample of 3057 sera collected from clinical chemistry laboratories in 10 of 19 counties in Norway between December 2011 and January 2013. We estimated seroprevalence by age and county by a logistic regression model. IgM antibodies were detected by two commercially available EIAs and a multiplexed bead assay. The overall seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG was 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-6.6%) and 4.2% (2.6-6.8%) by the two EIAs, respectively. The seroprevalence increased by age, and by geography from north to south. The IgG assays showed a good agreement for positive test results. All sera positive for IgG in the multiplexed bead assay reacted with the VlsE antigen, and also had high antibody levels by EIA. The Borrelia seroprevalence varied by geography and increased by age. The results indicate regional differences in pre-test probabilities for positive test results, and can inform the interpretation of laboratory results. PMID:26961275

  20. Cotransmission of Divergent Relapsing Fever Spirochetes by Artificially Infected Ornithodoros hermsi▿†

    PubMed Central

    Policastro, Paul F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.

    2011-01-01

    The soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, which ranges in specific arboreal zones of western North America, acts as a vector for the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. Two genomic groups (genomic group I [GGI] and GGII) of B. hermsii are differentiated by multilocus sequence typing yet are codistributed in much of the vector's range. To test whether the tick vector can be infected via immersion, noninfected, colony-derived O. hermsi larvae were exposed to reduced-humidity conditions before immersion in culture suspensions of several GGI and GGII isolates. We tested for spirochetes in ticks by immunofluorescence microscopy and in mouse blood by quantitative PCR of the vtp locus to differentiate spirochete genotypes. The immersed larval ticks were capable of spirochete transmission to mice at the first nymphal feeding. Tick infection with mixed cultures of isolates DAH (vtp-6) (GGI) and MTW-2 (vtp-5) (GGII) resulted in ticks that caused spirochetemias in mice consisting of MTW-2 or both DAH and MTW-2. These findings show that this soft tick species can acquire B. hermsii by immersion in spirochete suspensions, that GGI and GGII isolates can coinfect the tick vector by this method, and that these spirochetes can be cotransmitted to a rodent host. PMID:21965393

  1. Clozapine and Fever: A Case of Continued Therapy With Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Valentina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Alcoverro, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine is a major atypical antipsychotic drug used in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (Patel and Allin. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2011;1:25-29). It interferes with dopamine binding to D1, D2, D3, and D5 receptors but has high affinity to D4. It also has an anticholinergic effect and antagonizes α-adrenergic, histaminergic, and serotoninergic receptors (Oerther and Ahlenius. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000;292:731-736). Clozapine has proved effective in treating positive and negative symptoms in patients with refractory schizophrenia, thus accounting for its frequent use. Despite its effectiveness, this drug is not without its adverse effects. The most well known is agranulocytosis. There are, however, many others, such as myocarditis, aspiration pneumonia, ileus, fever, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglycemia, tachycardia, and weight gain, among others (Bruijnzeel et al. Asian J Psychiatr 2014;11:3-7). Fever induced by clozapine is a common phenomenon (Lowe et al. Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:1700-1704), which usually occurs in the first 4 weeks of treatment, and its prevalence oscillates from 0.5% and 55%, depending on the study (Jeong et al. Schizophr Res 2002;56:191-193; Young et al. Schizophr Bull 1998;24:381-390). The fever lasts for 2.5 days on average, and unless the treatment is discontinued, it generally abates between day 8 and 16 of treatment (Kohen et al. Ann Pharmacother 2009;43:143-146). There are several different theories about the physiopathological mechanism; it could be a variation of malignant neuroleptic syndrome, an infection secondary to neutropenia, and allergic reaction or the emergence of the immunomodulating effect of clozapine. Some case reports in the bibliography have shown that patients in treatment with clozapine can develop a mild leukocytosis, but the presence of other concurrent symptoms, which indicate infection, is not common (Tham and Dickson. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:880-884). The theory of an allergic reaction is

  2. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Juricová, Z; Hubálek, Z

    2009-10-01

    Sera of 642 wild boars (Sus scrofa) shot by hunters in ten administrative regions of the Czech Republic during 1995-2000, were tested by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgG. Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bb) were detected in serum samples from all 10 regions, and overall seroprevalence rate was 12.8%. Titres of antibodies ranged from 1:80 to 1:640. Borrelia antibodies were most frequent in the animals from three administrative regions of the Czech Republic: Moravskoslezsky (25.0%), Pardubicky (25.0%) and Královehradecky (24.1%), followed by the regions Plzen sky (16.7%), Olomoucky (13.3%), Jihomoravsky (12.8%), Vysoc ina (11.1%), Jihoc esky (11.1%), Zlínsky (10.3%), and Liberecky (8.9%). Seasonal seroprevalence rate increased in March and April, the peak was in May. The results suggest frequent exposure of wild boars to ixodid ticks infected with Bb, predominantly in rural and forested regions. The study also reviews the importance of wild boar in Lyme borreliosis (LB) ecology. Wild boar serology may provide another means of surveillance of endemic areas of LB. PMID:18973452

  3. Serological reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from distinct areas in Romania.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Timea; Cadar, Daniel; Krupaci, Alexandra Florina; Bordeanu, Armela; Brudaşcă, Gheorghe Florinel; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Mircean, Viorica; Gliga, Lucia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Spînu, Marina

    2011-09-01

    Lyme disease is a perfect model of the complex relationship between host, vector, and the vector-borne bacteria. Both dogs and horses in Romania are exposed to infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroreactivity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and horses from different regions of Romania. 276 samples from dogs and 260 samples from horses located in different regions of Romania were analyzed by ELISA and IFA, respectively. The effect of several factors potentially affecting seroreactivity (location, age, gender, occupation, and vector exposition risk) was evaluated using Fisher's exact test (R 2.12.0). The overall prevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies was 6.52% (18/276) in dogs, with a significantly higher positivity (46.15%, 6/13, p = 0.0005) recorded in a midcountry region. Seroreactivity was correlated with occupation, with working dogs being more exposed. The results may indicate that Lyme borreliosis foci are restricted to small areas, but further studies on Borrelia prevalence in tick populations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. In horses, a global seroprevalence of 11.92% (31/260) was observed. No correlations were found between positive results and age, sex, county, or occupation. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Romanian dogs and horses. PMID:21612524

  4. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Hulínská, D; Votýpka, J; Vanousová, D; Hercogová, J; Hulínský, V; Drevová, H; Kurzová, Z; Uherková, L

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been first isolated from the blood of two Czech patients simultaneously with a cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from their erythema migrans lesions. Cultivation of different Borrelia spp. from 12 erythema migrans biopsies, from 2 blood, one liquor and one placenta sample in BSK-H medium was successful. Adapted conventional methods targeting 16S rRNA and OspA genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial sequencing of these genes together with microscopical examinations of the blood smears provided a direct detection of the B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, B. valaisiana and B. bissettii in the skin, B. garinii in the blood, placenta and liquor in 24 (36.3 %) patients, and A. phagocytophilum in 10 (15 %) patients with erythema migrans. Positive indirect IgM immunofluorescence against Anaplasma sp. was obtained in 7 cases, specific IgG antibodies were detected in 12 patients. Three women suffering from erythema migrans in the first trimester had positive PCR for Anaplasma and/or for Borrelia in the blood and two of them, later, in the placenta. Interpretation of laboratory data can bring important contribution to establishing the role of Anaplasma sp. in erythema migrans and forming the principle of precaution with laboratory diagnosis during pregnancy which always should be reflected in the resistance of Anaplasma sp. toward penicillins. PMID:19649743

  5. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis: a comparison of three CSF anti-Borrelia antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A J; Christiansson, M; Tjernberg, I; Löfgren, S; Matussek, A

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires the detection of intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia-specific antibodies, but in very early disease, the sensitivity may be low. We compared the performance of the second-generation IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis test (Oxoid), based on purified native flagellum antigen, with two newly developed tests based on several recombinant antigens for the diagnosis of LNB. Patients investigated for LNB during 2003 through 2007 were included (n = 175); 52 with definite LNB, four with possible LNB and 119 non-LNB patients. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analysed with the IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis (Oxoid), VIDAS Lyme IgG (bioMérieux) and recomBead Borrelia IgM and IgG (Mikrogen) assays. Intrathecal antibody indices (AIs) were calculated according to the manufacturers' protocols. The IDEIA test performed with an overall sensitivity (IgM and IgG AIs taken together) of 88 % and a specificity of 99 %. The VIDAS test showed a sensitivity of 86 % and a specificity of 97 %. An overall sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 97 % were achieved by the recomBead test. We conclude that the three assays performed equally well regarding specificity, but our data suggest an improved diagnostic sensitivity with the recomBead Borrelia test. PMID:24263552

  6. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    PubMed

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato. PMID:9431909

  7. Morphoea and Borrelia burgdorferi: results from the Scottish Highlands in the context of the world literature

    PubMed Central

    Goodlad, J R; Davidson, M M; Gordon, P; Billington, R; Ho-Yen, D O

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Previous studies investigating the link between infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and morphoea have produced conflicting results. Often, these studies have been undertaken in patients from different regions or countries, and using methods of varying sensitivity for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi infection. This study aimed to establish whether a relation could be demonstrated in the Highlands of Scotland, an area with endemic Lyme disease, with the use of a sensitive method for detecting the organism. Methods: The study was performed on biopsies of lesional skin taken from 16 patients from the Highlands of Scotland with typical clinical features of morphoea. After histological confirmation of the diagnosis, a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers to a unique conserved region of the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin gene was performed on DNA extracts from each biopsy. A literature search was also performed for comparable studies. Results: None of the 16 patients had documented clinical evidence of previous infection with B burgdorferi. DNA was successfully extracted from 14 of the 16 cases but all of these were negative using PCR for B burgdorferi specific DNA, despite successful amplification of appropriate positive controls in every test. The results were compared with those of other documented studies. Conclusions: Examination of the literature suggests that there is a strong geographical relation between B burgdorferi and morphoea. These results, in which no such association was found, indicate that morphoea may not be associated with the subspecies of B burgdorferi found in the Highlands of Scotland. PMID:12456775

  8. Viral haemorrhagic fever in children.

    PubMed

    MacDermott, Nathalie E; De, Surjo; Herberg, Jethro A

    2016-05-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are currently at the forefront of the world's attention due to the recentZaire ebolavirusepidemic in West Africa. This epidemic has highlighted the frailty of the world's public health response mechanisms and demonstrated the potential risks to nations around the world of imported cases of epidemic diseases. While imported cases in children are less likely, the potential for such a scenario remains. It is therefore essential that paediatricians are aware of and prepared for potential imported cases of tropical diseases, VHFs being of particular importance due to their propensity to cause nosocomial spread. Examining the four families of viruses-Filoviridae,Arenaviridae,BunyaviridaeandFlaviviridae, we describe the different types of VHFs, with emphasis on differentiation from other diseases through detailed history-taking, their presentation and management from a paediatric perspective. PMID:26787609

  9. A fever from the tropics.

    PubMed

    Gherardin, T

    2000-03-01

    Shirley is a 42 year old woman who has rung you 5 days after returning from a 3 week resort holiday in Malaysia and Thailand. You saw her before her trip and administered a hepatitis A vaccine and advised her that she did not require anti malarial drugs as she was only going to large cities and beach resorts. She says she has had a high fever, headache and body aches for several days and that she feels exhausted, but is well enough to come to the surgery. When you see her later that morning, she looks fairly well, although she is moving rather gingerly. She says she has been resting, is drinking lots of fluids, has some anorexia, but no other significant symptoms. Examination reveals a temperature of 38 degrees C and she has a fine morbilliform rash on her body, limbs and neck. There are no other abnormal findings. PMID:10785992

  10. Antimicrobial therapies for Q fever

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Q fever is caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii and has both acute and chronic forms. The acute disease is a febrile illness often with headache and myalgia that can be self-limiting whereas the chronic disease typically presents as endocarditis and can be life threatening. The normal therapy for the acute disease is a two week course of doxycycline, whereas chronic disease requires 18-24 months of doxycycline in combination with hydroxychloroquine. Alternative treatments are used for pregnant women, young children, and those who cannot tolerate doxycycline. Doxycycline resistance is rare but has been reported. Co-trimoxazole is a currently recommended alternative treatment, but quinolones, rifampin, and newer macrolides may also provide some benefit. PMID:24073941

  11. Effective Vaccine for Lassa Fever

    PubMed Central

    Fisher-Hoch, S. P.; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques with vaccinia virus-expressed Lassa virus structural proteins separately and in combination, with the object of inducing a predominantly TH1-type immune response. Following Lassa virus challenge, all unvaccinated animals died (0% survival). Nine of 10 animals vaccinated with all proteins survived (90% survival). Although no animals that received full-length glycoprotein alone had a high titer of antibody, 17 of 19 survived challenge (88%). In contrast, all animals vaccinated with nucleoprotein developed high titers of antibody but 12 of 15 died (20% survival). All animals vaccinated with single glycoproteins, G1 or G2, died, but all those that received both single glycoproteins (G1 plus G2) at separate sites survived, showing that both glycoproteins are independently important in protection. Neither group had demonstrable antibody levels prior to challenge. We demonstrate that in primates, immune responses to epitopes on both glycoproteins are required to protect against lethal challenge with Lassa virus without having untoward side effects and that this protection is likely to be primarily cell mediated. We show that an effective, safe vaccine against Lassa virus can and should be made and that its evaluation for human populations is a matter of humanitarian priority. PMID:10888616

  12. A clinicopathological study of human yellow fever*

    PubMed Central

    Francis, T. I.; Moore, D. L.; Edington, G. M.; Smith, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    During an epidemic of yellow fever in the Jos Plateau area of Nigeria, 9 adult males with clinically diagnosed yellow fever were studied by haematological, biochemical, virological, serological, and liver biopsy methods. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 55 years and the duration of illness was 3-62 days. No virus was isolated from any patient but all patients should biochemical evidence of severe hepatocellular damage. Leucopenia was a feature of the late acute stage of the disease. Five sera had antibodies to yellow fever at titres greater than 1: 32, 3 of them being monospecific for yellow fever. The classical histological features of yellow fever were present only in the acute or late acute stages, when complement-fixation tests may be negative. With convalescence and the production of complement-fixing antibodies in high titres, the histological features resembled those of a persisting nonspecific hepatitis. In an endemic area, the histological features of yellow fever will depend on the stage of the disease and a picture of nonspecific hepatitis would not exclude yellow fever in the absence of confirmation from serological tests. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2AFig. 2BFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4538039

  13. Borrelia chilensis, a new member of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex that extends the range of this genospecies in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Larisa B.; Tomova, Alexandra; González-Acuña, Daniel; Murúa, Roberto; Moreno, Claudia X.; Hernández, Claudio; Cabello, Javier; Cabello, Carlos; Daniels, Thomas J.; Godfrey, Henry P.; Cabello, Felipe C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B. burgdorferi B31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group Borrelia chilensis VA1, in honor of its country of origin. PMID:24148079

  14. Detection of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks in northeast Missouri.

    PubMed

    Hudman, D A; Sargentini, N J

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) and Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) in northeast Missouri for the presence of Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria. We collected actively questing ticks from four sites within Adair County, Missouri. A total of 15,162 ticks were collected, of which 13,980 were grouped in 308 pools (lone star ticks, 288 pools; American dog ticks, 20 pools) and tested for presence/absence of bacteria using polymerase chain reaction. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 308 pools tested, 229 (74.4%) were infected with bacteria and the overall MLE of the infection rate per 100 ticks was calculated as 2.9% (CI 2.61-3.21). Infection rates varied among life stages, 28.6% (CI 23.89-33.97) in adults, 7.0% (CI 5.10-9.86) in nymphs, and 1.0% (CI 0.75-1.20) in larvae. In the 116 adult lone star pools, infection rates were calculated for Borrelia lonestari (1.4%), Borrelia spp. (2.7%), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (6.1%), Ehrlichia ewingii (3.3%), Rickettsia amblyommii (18.3%), and Rickettsia montanensis (0.4%). Infection rates for the 52 nymphal lone star pools were calculated as B. lonestari (1.03%), Borrelia spp. (0.40%), E. chaffeensis (2.02%), E. ewingii (0.24%), and R. amblyommii (2.70%). In the 20 adult American dog tick pools, infection rates were determined as E. chaffeensis (9.47%), E. ewingii (5.47%), and R. montanensis (8.06%). Eight Borrelia samples were sequenced with five 99-100% identical to B. burgdorferi (s.l.) and three 99% identical to B. lonestari. Eight samples were sequenced for E. chaffeensis (all 99-100% identical) and one sample was sequenced for E. ewingii (99% identical). Seven samples were sequenced for Rickettsia and three were 99% identical to R. montanensis and four were 100% identical to R. amblyommii. This study demonstrates B. lonestari, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, R. amblyommii, and R. montanensis in northeast

  15. Isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from puffins (Fratercula arctica) and seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae) on the Faeroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Gylfe; Olsen, B; Strasevicius, D; Marti Ras, N; Weihe, P; Noppa, L; Ostberg, Y; Baranton, G; Bergström, S

    1999-04-01

    This is the first report on the isolation of Lyme disease Borrelia from seabirds on the Faeroe Islands and the characteristics of its enzootic cycle. The major components of the Borrelia cycle include the puffin (Fratercula arctica) as the reservoir and Ixodes uriae as the vector. The importance of this cycle and its impact on the spread of human Lyme borreliosis have not yet been established. Borrelia spirochetes isolated from 2 of 102 sampled puffins were compared to the borreliae previously obtained from seabird ticks, I. uriae. The rrf-rrl intergenic spacer and the rrs and the ospC genes were sequenced and a series of phylogenetic trees were constructed. Sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis grouped the strains together with Borrelia garinii. In a seroepidemiological survey performed with residents involved in puffin hunting on the Faeroe Islands, 3 of 81 serum samples were found to be positive by two commonly used clinical tests: a flagellin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. These three positive serum samples also had high optical density values in a whole-cell ELISA. The finding of seropositive Faeroe Islanders who are regularly exposed to I. uriae indicate that there may be a transfer of B. garinii by this tick species to humans. PMID:10074497

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi CheD Promotes Various Functions in Chemotaxis and the Pathogenic Life Cycle of the Spirochete.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ki Hwan; Hobbs, Gerry; Motaleb, M A

    2016-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi possesses a sophisticated chemotaxis signaling system; however, the roles of the majority of the chemotaxis proteins in the infectious life cycle have not yet been demonstrated. Specifically, the role of CheD during host colonization has not been demonstrated in any bacterium. Here, we systematically characterized the B. burgdorferi CheD homolog using genetics and biochemical and mouse-tick-mouse infection cycle studies. Bacillus subtilis CheD plays an important role in chemotaxis by deamidation of methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein receptors (MCPs) and by increasing the receptor kinase activity or enhancing CheC phosphatase activity, thereby regulating the levels of the CheY response regulator. Our biochemical analysis indicates that B. burgdorferi CheD significantly enhances CheX phosphatase activity by specifically interacting with the phosphatase. Moreover, CheD specifically binds two of the six MCPs, indicating that CheD may also modulate the receptor proteins. Although the motility of the cheD mutant cells was indistinguishable from that of the wild-type cells, the mutant did exhibit reduced chemotaxis. Importantly, the mutant showed significantly reduced infectivity in C3H/HeN mice via needle inoculation. Mouse-tick-mouse infection assays indicated that CheD is dispensable for acquisition or transmission of spirochetes; however, the viability of cheD mutants in ticks is marginally reduced compared to that of the wild-type or complemented cheD spirochetes. These data suggest that CheD plays an important role in the chemotaxis and pathogenesis of B. burgdorferi We propose potential connections between CheD, CheX, and MCPs and discuss how these interactions play critical roles during the infectious life cycle of the spirochete. PMID:27021244

  17. BadR (BB0693) controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Borrelia burgdorferi via recognizing TAAAATAT motifs.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhiming; Zhou, Jianli

    2015-12-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the alternative sigma factor RpoS plays a central role during Bb's adaptation to ticks and mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that RpoS is not expressed during the early stages of spirochetal growth or when Bb resides in ticks during the intermolt phase, but the molecular details of these events remain unknown. In the current study, biomagnetic bead separation of rpoS promoter-binding proteins, coupled with genetic inactivation, was employed to identify BadR (BB0693) as a negative regulator that controls growth phase-dependent induction of rpoS and bosR in Bb. When badR was inactivated, the expression of rpoS and bosR was induced only during the early stages of bacterial growth, but not during the stationary growth phase. Recombinant BadR bound to the promoter DNA of rpoS and the regulatory region upstream of bosR via AT-rich TAAAATAT motifs. Mutations in this motif markedly inhibited or abolished rBadR binding. These results suggest that BadR directly influences the expression of both rpoS and bosR in Bb. This newly recognized role for BadR to fine-tune the activation of the RpoN-RpoS pathway at strategic times in Bb's life cycle potentially represents another layer of gene control over σ(54)-dependent gene regulation. PMID:26331438

  18. A Surface-Exposed Region of a Novel Outer Membrane Protein (P66) of Borrelia spp. Is Variable in Size and Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bunikis, Jonas; Luke, Catherine J.; Bunikiene, Elena; Bergström, Sven; Barbour, Alan G.

    1998-01-01

    A model of the 66-kDa outer membrane protein (P66) of Lyme disease Borrelia spp. predicts a surface-exposed loop near the C terminus. This region contains an antigen commonly recognized by sera from Lyme disease patients. In the present study, this region of P66 and homologous proteins of other Borrelia spp. were further investigated by using monoclonal antibodies, epitope mapping of P66 of Borrelia burgdorferi, and DNA sequencing. A monoclonal antibody specific for B. burgdorferi bound to the portion of P66 that was accessible to proteolysis in situ. The linear epitope for the antibody was mapped within a variable segment of the surface-exposed region. To further study this protein, the complete gene of Borrelia hermsii for a protein homologous to P66 was cloned. The deduced protein was 589 amino acids in length and 58% identical to P66 of B. burgdorferi. The B. hermsii P66 protein was predicted to have a surface-exposed region in the same location as that of B. burgdorferi’s P66 protein. With primers designed on the basis of conserved sequences and PCR, we identified and cloned the same regions of P66 proteins of Borrelia turicatae, Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia coriaceae, and Borrelia anserina. The deduced protein sequences from all species demonstrated two conserved hydrophobic regions flanking a surface-exposed loop. The loop sequences were highly variable between different Borrelia spp. in both sequence and size, varying between 35 and 45 amino acids. Although the actual function of P66 of Borrelia spp. is unknown, the results suggest that its surface-exposed region is subject to selective pressure. PMID:9537355

  19. Treating Allergies, Hay Fever, and Hives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hay Fever, and Hives: Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price There are newer antihistamines. Antihistamines are drugs that ... prescription only, monthly costs reflect nationwide retail average prices for February 2013, rounded to the nearest dollar. ...

  20. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epub 2013 Sep 9. Review. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Kedem R, Berkun Y, Langevitz P, Livneh ... 090401. Epub 2009 Dec 15. Citation on PubMed Lidar M, Livneh A. Familial Mediterranean fever: clinical, molecular ...

  2. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  3. Treatment of Fever After Stroke: Conflicting Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wrotek, Sylwia E.; Kozak, Wieslaw E.; Hess, David C.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 50% of patients hospitalized for stroke develop fever. In fact, experimental evidence suggests that high body temperature is significantly correlated to initial stroke severity, lesion size, mortality, and neurologic outcome. Fever occurring after stroke is associated with poor outcomes. We investigated the etiology of fever after stroke and present evidence evaluating the efficacy and safety of interventions used to treat stroke-associated fever. Oral antipyretics are only marginally effective in lowering elevated body temperature in this population and may have unintended adverse consequences. Nonpharmacologic approaches to cooling have been more effective in achieving normothermia, but whether stroke outcomes can be improved remains unclear. We recommend using body temperature as a biomarker and a catalyst for aggressive investigation for an infectious etiology. Care must be taken not to exceed the new standard of a maximum acetaminophen does of 3 g/day to avoid patient harm. PMID:22026396

  4. Moxalactam in the treatment of typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Uwaydah, M; Vartivarian, S; Shatila, S; Raad, I; Harakeh, H; Nassar, N T

    1986-01-01

    Moxalactam therapy was evaluated in 25 patients with typhoid fever. A satisfactory initial response was observed in all cases. Treatment for 3 days resulted in a much higher relapse rate (three of five patients) than did treatment for 5 days (one of nine patients). None of the 11 patients treated for 10 to 11 days relapsed. Moxalactam is effective in typhoid fever, but its use is better restricted to special indications. PMID:3532946

  5. An Unusual Manifestation of Q Fever: Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Gülden; Öztürk, Bengi; Memikoğlu, Osman; Coşkun, Belgin; Yalçı, Aysun; Metin, Özge; Ünal, Hatice; Kurt, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Q fever has rarely been reported and can be difficult to diagnose, especially in immunocompromised patients. In the present report, we describe an unusual case of Q fever that presented as peritonitis and was treated with long-term combination therapy with doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin for five weeks in a patient who had been on peritoneal dialysis for six years due to hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:25899561

  6. Immunity against Ixodes scapularis Salivary Proteins Expressed within 24 Hours of Attachment Thwarts Tick Feeding and Impairs Borrelia Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sukanya; DePonte, Kathleen; Marcantonio, Nancy; Liang, Xianping; Royce, Thomas E.; Nelson, Kenneth F.; Booth, Carmen J.; Koski, Benjamin; Anderson, John F.; Kantor, Fred; Fikrig, Erol

    2007-01-01

    In North America, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis, an obligate haematophagus arthropod, is a vector of several human pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. In this report, we show that the tick salivary gland transcriptome and proteome is dynamic and changes during the process of engorgement. We demonstrate, using a guinea pig model of I. scapularis feeding and B. burgdorferi transmission, that immunity directed against salivary proteins expressed in the first 24 h of tick attachment — and not later — is sufficient to evoke all the hallmarks of acquired tick-immunity, to thwart tick feeding and also to impair Borrelia transmission. Defining this subset of proteins will promote a mechanistic understanding of novel I. scapularis proteins critical for the initiation of tick feeding and for Borrelia transmission. PMID:17505544

  7. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  8. Proposed biomolecular theory of fasting during fevers due to infection.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, E

    2001-10-01

    The folk admonition to starve a fever may have a scientific basis. Fevers due to infectious organisms that produce neuraminidase (sialidase) may contribute to the pathophysiology of autoimmune conditions. Neuraminidase unmasks host cellular lectins that interact with food lectins and can induce human leukocyte antigen type II (HLA II) expression. HLA II can then bind food lectins and serve as targets for antibody production. Some of these antibodies can then cross-react and attack healthy tissue, inducing disease. The example of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is discussed, helping to explain why infectious organisms and dairy product ingestion appear to be linked to some cases of this disease. Genetic variants and other factors may contribute to disease pathogenesis, so this model does not explain all instances of autoimmune disease. Fasting as a way to avoid the process by not introducing food lectins is briefly reviewed. Neuraminidase inhibitors might be useful in preventing genesis of autoimmunity during infection, although this possibility has not been formally tested. PMID:11703168

  9. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  10. [An experimental study of the capacity of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst, 1913) to ingest, maintain and transmit Borrelia].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Vasil'eva, I S; Gutova, V P; Ershova, A S; Burakova, O V; Naumov, R L; Petrova, A D

    1999-01-01

    For the first time a possibility of the gamasina mites' O. bacoti participation in Lyme disease spirochetes' circulation has been demonstrated. It has been experimentally shown that Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are received by O. bacoti, survive in them for at least 21 days and are transmitted to white mice through mites' bites. Mice's infestation has occurred in 23% of cases. It is suggested that other bloodsucking gamasina mites inhabiting the Lyme borreliosis reservoir rodents nests may be capable of participating in borrelia circulation in the Lyme disease endemic areas. PMID:10703202

  11. An African swine fever virus Bc1-2 homolog, 5-HL, suppresses apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C L; Neilan, J G; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L

    1996-01-01

    Here, we show that the African swine fever virus 5-HL gene is a highly conserved viral gene and contains all known protein domains associated with Bcl-2 activity, including those involved with dimerization, mediating cell death, and protein-binding functions, and that its protein product, p21, suppresses apoptotic cell death in the mammalian lymphoid cell line FL5.12. Thus, 5-HL is a true functional viral member of the Bcl-2 gene family. PMID:8676523

  12. An African swine fever virus Bc1-2 homolog, 5-HL, suppresses apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Neilan, J G; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L

    1996-07-01

    Here, we show that the African swine fever virus 5-HL gene is a highly conserved viral gene and contains all known protein domains associated with Bcl-2 activity, including those involved with dimerization, mediating cell death, and protein-binding functions, and that its protein product, p21, suppresses apoptotic cell death in the mammalian lymphoid cell line FL5.12. Thus, 5-HL is a true functional viral member of the Bcl-2 gene family. PMID:8676523

  13. Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Puertas, P; Rodríguez, F; Oviedo, J M; Ramiro-Ibáñez, F; Ruiz-Gonzalvo, F; Alonso, C; Escribano, J M

    1996-01-01

    African swine fever virus induces in convalescent pigs antibodies that neutralized the virus before and after binding to susceptible cells, inhibiting both virus attachment and internalization. A further analysis of the neutralization mechanisms mediated by the different viral proteins showed that antibodies to proteins p72 and p54 are involved in the inhibition of a first step of the replication cycle related to virus attachment, while antibodies to protein p30 are implicated in the inhibition of virus internalization. PMID:8764090

  14. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  15. Acute Q fever in southern Taiwan: atypical manifestations of hyperbilirubinemia and prolonged fever.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chen; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2008-02-01

    The clinical information of acute Q fever in Taiwan was limited. A clinical study of 109 adults with serologically documented acute Q fever in the past decade (1994-2005) at 3 referral hospitals in southern Taiwan was reported. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Males predominated (98, 90%). There is a significant correlation between monthly average temperature and case numbers of acute Q fever (r = 0.74, P = 0.006). Fever (99%), chills (69%), and headache (45%) were the common symptoms, and relative bradycardia (44/60, 73 %) was often noted. Acute hepatitis, defined as either serum aspartate aminotransferase >or=60 IU/L or alanine aminotransferase >or=78 IU/L, was found in 88 (85%) cases, and more than one-third (31/87, 36%) had hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin >or=1.4 mg/dL) at initial presentation. The intervals between initiation of appropriate therapy to defervescence were longer in patients with hyperbilirubinemia than those without hyperbilirubinemia, irrespective of tetracycline or fluoroquinolone therapy. Of note, 8 (7.3%) cases experienced a prolonged period of fever (>28 days). In southern Taiwan, the predominant presentation of acute Q fever is acute febrile illness with hepatitis with or without jaundice. Acute Q fever should be added to the list of differential diagnoses of patients with fever, headache, relative bradycardia, elevated serum aminotransferase levels, or prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time, irrespective of jaundice. PMID:17949935

  16. Malignant catarrhal fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Russell, George C; Stewart, James P; Haig, David M

    2009-03-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle and other ungulates caused by the ruminant gamma-herpesviruses alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). These viruses cause inapparent infection in their reservoir hosts (wildebeest for AlHV-1 and sheep for OvHV-2), but fatal lymphoproliferative disease when they infect MCF-susceptible hosts, including cattle, deer, bison, water buffalo and pigs. MCF is an important disease wherever reservoir and MCF-susceptible species mix and currently is a particular problem in Bali cattle in Indonesia, bison in the USA and in pastoralist cattle herds in Eastern and Southern Africa. MCF is characterised by the accumulation of lymphocytes (predominantly CD8(+) T lymphocytes) in a variety of organs, often associated with tissue necrosis. Only a small proportion of these lymphocytes appear to contain virus, although recent results with virus gene-specific probes indicate that more infected cells may be present than previously thought. The tissue damage in MCF is hypothesised to be caused by the indiscriminate activity of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic T/natural killer cells. The pathogenesis of MCF and the virus life cycle are poorly understood and, currently, there is no effective disease control. Recent sequencing of the OvHV-2 genome and construction of an AlHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are facilitating studies to understand the pathogenesis of this extraordinary disease. Furthermore, new and improved methods of disease diagnosis have been developed and promising vaccine strategies are being tested. The next few years are likely to be exciting and productive for MCF research. PMID:18760944

  17. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  18. Borrelia garinii Induces CXCL13 Production in Human Monocytes through Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Tobias A.; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Popp, Bernadette; Kastenbauer, Stefan; Fingerle, Volker; Pfister, Hans-Walter; Koedel, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an important role for the B-cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13 in the B-cell-dominated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infiltrate in patients with neuroborreliosis (NB). High levels of CXCL13 were present in the CSF of NB patients. It has not been clear, however, whether high CSF CXCL13 titers are specific for NB or are a characteristic of other spirochetal diseases as well. Furthermore, the mechanisms leading to the observed CXCL13 expression have not been identified yet. Here we describe similarly elevated CSF CXCL13 levels in patients with neurosyphilis, while pneumococcal meningitis patient CSF do not have high CXCL13 levels. In parallel, challenge of human monocytes in vitro with two of the spirochetal causative organisms, Borrelia garinii (the Borrelia species most frequently found in NB patients) and Treponema pallidum, but not challenge with pneumococci, induced CXCL13 release. This finding implies that a common spirochetal motif is a CXCL13 inducer. Accordingly, we found that the lipid moiety N-palmitoyl-S-(bis[palmitoyloxy]propyl)cystein (Pam3C) (three palmitoyl residues bound to N-terminal cysteine) of the spirochetal lipoproteins is critical for the CXCL13 induction in monocytes. As the Pam3C motif is known to signal via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and an anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody blocked CXCL13 production of human monocytes incubated with B. garinii, this suggests that TLR2 is a major mediator of Borrelia-induced secretion of CXCL13 from human monocytes. PMID:17562761

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Borrelia afzelii K78 and Comparative Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Wolfgang; Bunikis, Ignas; Weber-Lehman, Jacqueline; Comstedt, Pär; Kutschan-Bunikis, Sabrina; Stanek, Gerold; Huber, Jutta; Meinke, Andreas; Bergström, Sven; Lundberg, Urban

    2015-01-01

    The main Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe and Asia are Borrelia afzelii, B. garinii, B. burgdorferi and B. bavariensis. This is in contrast to the United States, where infections are exclusively caused by B. burgdorferi. Until to date the genome sequences of four B. afzelii strains, of which only two include the numerous plasmids, are available. In order to further assess the genetic diversity of B. afzelii, the most common species in Europe, responsible for the large variety of clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis, we have determined the full genome sequence of the B. afzelii strain K78, a clinical isolate from Austria. The K78 genome contains a linear chromosome (905,949 bp) and 13 plasmids (8 linear and 5 circular) together presenting 1,309 open reading frames of which 496 are located on plasmids. With the exception of lp28-8, all linear replicons in their full length including their telomeres have been sequenced. The comparison with the genomes of the four other B. afzelii strains, ACA-1, PKo, HLJ01 and Tom3107, as well as the one of B. burgdorferi strain B31, confirmed a high degree of conservation within the linear chromosome of B. afzelii, whereas plasmid encoded genes showed a much larger diversity. Since some plasmids present in B. burgdorferi are missing in the B. afzelii genomes, the corresponding virulence factors of B. burgdorferi are found in B. afzelii on other unrelated plasmids. In addition, we have identified a species specific region in the circular plasmid, cp26, which could be used for species determination. Different non-coding RNAs have been located on the B. afzelii K78 genome, which have not previously been annotated in any of the published Borrelia genomes. PMID:25798594

  20. Novel methods for surveying reservoir hosts and vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi in Northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Veronica Aili

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in North America and presents challenges to clinicians, researchers and the public in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a zoonotic pathogen obligate upon hematophagous arthropod vectors and propagates in small mammal reservoir hosts. Identifying factors governing zoonotic diseases within regions of high-risk provides local health and agricultural agencies with necessary information to formulate public policy and implement treatment protocols to abate the rise and expansion of infectious disease outbreaks. In the United States, the documented primary reservoir host of Lyme disease is the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus, and the arthropod vector is the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Reducing the impact of Lyme disease will need novel methods for identifying both the reservoir host and the tick vector. The reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus is difficult to distinguish from the virtually identical Peromyscus maniculatus that also is present in Northern Minnesota, a region where Lyme disease is endemic. Collection of the Ixodes tick, the Lyme disease vector, is difficult as this is season dependent and differs from year to year. This study develops new strategies to assess the extent of Borrelia burgdorferi in the local environment of Northern Minnesota. A selective and precise method to identify Peromyscus species was developed. This assay provides a reliable and definitive method to identify the reservoir host, Peromyscus leucopus from a physically identical and sympatric Peromyscus species, Peromyscus maniculatus. A new strategy to collect ticks for measuring the disbursement of Borrelia was employed. Students from local high schools were recruited to collect ticks. This strategy increased the available manpower to cover greater terrain, provided students with valuable experience in research methodology, and highlighted the