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Sample records for fever public health

  1. Vaccination against Q fever for biodefense and public health indications

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Sara; Wolfe, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever, a disease that is often spread to humans via inhalational exposure to the bacteria from contaminated agricultural sources. Outbreaks have been observed all over the world with larger foci generating interest in vaccination programs, most notably in Australia and the Netherlands. Importantly, exposure rates among military personnel deployed to the Middle East can be relatively high as measured by seroconversion to C. burnetii-specific antibodies. Q fever has been of interest to the biodefense community over the years due to its low infectious dose and environmental stability. Recent advances in cell-free growth and genetics of C. burnetii also make this organism easier to culture and manipulate. While there is a vaccine that is licensed for use in Australia, the combination of biodefense- and public health-related issues associated with Q fever warrant the development of a safer and more effective vaccine against this disease. PMID:25566235

  2. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease. PMID:27400066

  3. Towards sustainable public health surveillance for enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Saha, Samir; Andrews, Jason R

    2015-06-19

    Enteric fever that results from infection by the typhoidal Salmonellas (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C) is a life-threatening preventable illness. Surveillance of enteric fever is important to understand current burden of disease, to track changes in human health burden from increasing antimicrobial resistance and to assess the impact of efforts to reduce disease burden. Since enteric fever occurs predominantly in low income communities, expensive surveillance is not sustainable. Traditional hospital-based surveillance does not estimate population burden and intensive community-based cohort studies do not capture the severe disease that is crucial to policy decisions. While cohort studies have been considered the gold standard for incidence estimates, the resources required to conduct them are great; as a consequence, estimates of enteric fever burden have been highly geographically and temporally restricted. A hybrid approach combining laboratory diagnosis that is already being conducted in healthcare centers with community-based surveillance of health care facility use offers a low-cost, sustainable approach to generate policy relevant data. PMID:25912287

  4. Yellow fever in Africa: public health impact and prospects for control in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Oyewale

    2002-06-01

    In the last two decades, yellow fever re-emerged with vehemence to constitute a major public health problem in Africa. The disease has brought untold hardship and indescribable misery among different populations in Africa. It is one of Africa's stumbling blocks to economic and social development. Despite landmark achievements made in the understanding of the epidemiology of yellow fever disease and the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine, yellow fever remains a major public health problem in both Africa and America where the disease affects annually an estimated 200,000 persons causing an estimated 30,000 deaths. Africa contributes more than 90% of global yellow fever morbidity and mortality. Apart from the severity in morbidity and mortality, which are grossly under reported, successive outbreaks of yellow fever and control measures have disrupted existing health care delivery services, overstretched scarce internal resources, fatigued donor assistance and resulted in gross wastage of vaccines. Recent epidemics of yellow fever in Africa have affected predominantly children under the age of fifteen years. Yellow fever disease can be easily controlled. Two examples from Africa suffice to illustrate this point. Between 1939 and 1952, yellow fever virtually disappeared in parts of Africa, where a systematic mass vaccination programme was in place. More recently, following the 1978-1979 yellow fever epidemic in the Gambia, a mass yellow fever vaccination programme was carried out, with a 97% coverage of the population over 6 months of age. Subsequently, yellow fever vaccination was added to the EPI Programme. The Gambia has since then maintained a coverage of over 80%, without a reported case of yellow fever, despite being surrounded by Senegal which experienced yellow fever outbreaks in 1995 and 1996. The resurgence of yellow fever in Africa and failure to control the disease has resulted from a combination of several factors, including: 1) collapse of

  5. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    PubMed

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26512362

  6. The impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus on public health.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Schmidt, Katja; Ozkul, Aykut; Groschup, Martin H

    2013-05-01

    Climatic, environmental and economic changes, as well as the steadily increasing global trade and personal mobility provide ample opportunities for emerging pathogens with zoonotic potential to spread to previously unaffected countries. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered to be one of the major emerging disease threats spreading to and within the European Union following an expanding distribution of its main vector, ticks of the genus Hyalomma. Every year more than 1000 human CCHF cases are reported from countries of southeastern Europe and Turkey. CCHFV can cause high case fatality rates and can be transmitted from human to human. There are no vaccine prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions available at present. Several EU-funded research projects focus currently on CCHFV which highlights the awareness for this problem at the European level. As public health deals with questions of prevention on a population level rather than healing and health on an individual level, the analysis of existing data plays a fundamental role to minimize its epidemic potential, by reducing infection risks, and to manage disease outbreaks. This review gives a summary of the current knowledge and data with focus at the interface between public health and CCHFV. Based on this knowledge, guidelines for the risk classification of a region and for outbreak prevention are given. This review will assist decision makers and public health authorities in understanding risk scenarios and in deciding on effective countermeasures, as well as human and veterinary scientists by highlighting existing gaps in knowledge. PMID:23458713

  7. Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to Africa's Public Health Sector in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Gething, Peter W.; Kirui, Viola C.; Alegana, Victor A.; Okiro, Emelda A.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the cost effectiveness of diagnosis-based treatment polices will depend on the presumed numbers of fevers harbouring infection. Here we compute the number of fevers likely to present to public health facilities in Africa and the estimated number of these fevers likely to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites. Methods and Findings We assembled first administrative-unit level data on paediatric fever prevalence, treatment-seeking rates, and child populations. These data were combined in a geographical information system model that also incorporated an adjustment procedure for urban versus rural areas to produce spatially distributed estimates of fever burden amongst African children and the subset likely to present to public sector clinics. A second data assembly was used to estimate plausible ranges for the proportion of paediatric fevers seen at clinics positive for P. falciparum in different endemicity settings. We estimated that, of the 656 million fevers in African 0–4 y olds in 2007, 182 million (28%) were likely to have sought treatment in a public sector clinic of which 78 million (43%) were likely to have been infected with P. falciparum (range 60–103 million). Conclusions Spatial estimates of childhood fevers and care-seeking rates can be combined with a relational risk model of infection prevalence in the community to estimate the degree of parasitemia in those fevers reaching public health facilities. This quantification provides an important baseline comparison of malarial and

  8. Dengue haemorrhagic fever — a public health problem and a field for research*

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, S. B.

    1980-01-01

    Dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) is an enigmatic and growing public health problem which is confined at present to countries of South-East Asia. Since 1956, over 350 000 patients have been hospitalized and nearly 12 000 deaths have been reported. Dengue viruses, a group of four flaviviruses, are transmitted to man by Aedes aegypti. Currently, dengue viruses are actively transmitted in 61 countries which circle the globe in the tropical zone and have a combined population of 1500 million. Because the precise antecedents to DHF/DSS are unknown, the public health hazard posed by this syndrome is potentially worldwide. Epidemiological studies in South-East Asia clearly link DHF/DSS to individuals who have had a previous dengue infection or who have acquired maternal dengue antibody. Such antibody may serve as an opsonin, enhancing dengue virus infection of mononuclear phagocytes—the type of cell in man to which dengue infection may be confined. Antibody-mediated infection of these cells is the central concept in the hypothesis of immune infection enhancement. This hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for design of future research. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive identification of ”risk factors” in DHF/DSS. This research could be approached by undertaking comparative prospective epidemiological studies in dengue-endemic areas with and without DHF/DSS. Although important progress is being made in the development of attenuated dengue vaccines for each dengue type, a clearer understanding of the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS may be required to provide guidelines for safe and lasting immunoprophylaxis in man. PMID:6966540

  9. Is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?

    PubMed

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-05-12

    Dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (DENV), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). The distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. The present global burden of dengue is considerable: 2.5 billion people over more than 100 countries are concerned; 50 to 100 million infections occur every year, with a number of fatal cases of approximately 20000. Although frequently asymptomatic or limited to a mild fever, dengue is responsible for severe cases mainly consecutive to the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications that can lead to shock and death, notably in children from poor-resource settings. The place of DENV as a transfusion-transmitted pathogen has been recognized only in 2008. At the present time, only five cases of transfusion-transmitted dengue, including one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, have been formerly documented. This review provides a general overview of dengue, its viruses and their vectors. It replaces the disease in the context of other viral diseases transmitted by arthropods. It discusses the threat of dengue on the supply of blood products in endemic and non endemic areas. Finally, it describes the specific and non specific measures available for improving the security of blood products with regards to this emerging risk. Interestingly, in 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks placed DENV in the highest category of emerging infectious agents for their potential impact on transfusion recipient safety for the next years in North America. PMID:25964876

  10. Is transfusion-transmitted dengue fever a potential public health threat?

    PubMed Central

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Memmi, Meriam; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an arboviruses due to single-stranded enveloped ribonucleic acid viruses, named dengue viruses (DENV), that include four serotypes and are mainly transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). The distribution of the disease was historically limited to intertropical areas; however, during the last thirty years, the perimeter of the disease extended considerably and temperate areas are now at risk of outbreaks. The present global burden of dengue is considerable: 2.5 billion people over more than 100 countries are concerned; 50 to 100 million infections occur every year, with a number of fatal cases of approximately 20000. Although frequently asymptomatic or limited to a mild fever, dengue is responsible for severe cases mainly consecutive to the occurrence of hemorrhagic complications that can lead to shock and death, notably in children from poor-resource settings. The place of DENV as a transfusion-transmitted pathogen has been recognized only in 2008. At the present time, only five cases of transfusion-transmitted dengue, including one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, have been formerly documented. This review provides a general overview of dengue, its viruses and their vectors. It replaces the disease in the context of other viral diseases transmitted by arthropods. It discusses the threat of dengue on the supply of blood products in endemic and non endemic areas. Finally, it describes the specific and non specific measures available for improving the security of blood products with regards to this emerging risk. Interestingly, in 2009, the American Association of Blood Banks placed DENV in the highest category of emerging infectious agents for their potential impact on transfusion recipient safety for the next years in North America. PMID:25964876

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes and re-emergence of scarlet fever as a public health problem

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Samson SY; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Explosive outbreaks of infectious diseases occasionally occur without immediately obvious epidemiological or microbiological explanations. Plague, cholera and Streptococcus pyogenes infection are some of the epidemic-prone bacterial infections. Besides epidemiological and conventional microbiological methods, the next-generation gene sequencing technology permits prompt detection of genomic and transcriptomic profiles associated with invasive phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer due to mobile genetic elements carrying virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, or mutations associated with the two component CovRS operon are important bacterial factors conferring survival advantage or invasiveness. The high incidence of scarlet fever in children less than 10 years old suggests that the lack of protective immunity is an important host factor. A high population density, overcrowded living environment and a low yearly rainfall are environmental factors contributing to outbreak development. Inappropriate antibiotic use is not only ineffective for treatment, but may actually drive an epidemic caused by drug-resistant strains and worsen patient outcomes by increasing the bacterial density at the site of infection and inducing toxin production. Surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection is important because it can complicate concurrent chickenpox and influenza. Concomitant outbreaks of these two latter infections with a highly virulent and drug-resistant S. pyogenes strain can be disastrous. PMID:26038416

  12. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  13. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  14. Estimating the spatial distribution of acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and associated risk factors using emergency call data in India. A symptom-based approach for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kauhl, Boris; Pilot, Eva; Rao, Ramana; Gruebner, Oliver; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The System for Early-warning based on Emergency Data (SEED) is a pilot project to evaluate the use of emergency call data with the main complaint acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) for syndromic surveillance in India. While spatio-temporal methods provide signals to detect potential disease outbreaks, additional information about socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk is necessary for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate whether a spatial epidemiological analysis at the ecological level provides information on urban-rural inequalities, socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk for AUF. Our results displayed higher risks in rural areas with strong local variation. Household industries and proximity to forests were the main socio-ecological exposure factors and scheduled tribes were the main population at risk for AUF. These results provide additional information for syndromic surveillance and could be used for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. PMID:25463924

  15. Household Water Treatment Uptake during a Public Health Response to a Large Typhoid Fever Outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Imanishi, Maho; Kweza, Patience F.; Slayton, Rachel B.; Urayai, Tanaka; Ziro, Odrie; Mushayi, Wellington; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Kuonza, Lazarus R.; Ayers, Tracy; Freeman, Molly M.; Govore, Emmaculate; Duri, Clemence; Chonzi, Prosper; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Manangazira, Portia; Kilmarx, Peter H.; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011–April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak. Although 75% of households were aware of chlorine solution and 85% received chlorine tablets, only 18% had reportedly treated stored water and had the recommended protective level of free chlorine residuals. Water treatment was more common among households that reported water treatment before the outbreak, and those that received free tablets during the outbreak (P < 0.01), but was not associated with chlorine solution awareness or use before the outbreak (P > 0.05). Outbreak response did not build on pre-existing prevention programs. PMID:24664784

  16. A public health issue related to collateral seismic hazards: The valley fever outbreak triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 17 January 1994 Northridge. California earthquake (M = 6.7), Ventura County, California, experienced a major outbreak of coccidioidomycosis (CM), commonly known as valley fever, a respiratory disease contracted by inhaling airborne fungal spores. In the 8 weeks following the earthquake (24 January through 15 March), 203 outbreak-associated cases were reported, which is about an order of magnitude more than the expected number of cases, and three of these cases were fatal. Simi Valley, in easternmost Ventura County, had the highest attack rate in the county, and the attack rate decreased westward across the county. The temporal and spatial distribution of CM cases indicates that the outbreak resulted from inhalation of spore-contaminated dust generated by earthquake-triggered landslides. Canyons North East of Simi Valley produced many highly disrupted, dust-generating landslides during the earthquake and its aftershocks. Winds after the earthquake were from the North East, which transported dust into Simi Valley and beyond to communities to the West. The three fatalities from the CM epidemic accounted for 4 percent of the total earthquake-related fatalities.

  17. Fever

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of body temperature remains one of the most common ways to assess health. An increase in temperature above what is considered to be a normal value is inevitably regarded as a sure sign of disease and referred to with one simple word: fever. In this review, we summarize how research on fever allowed the identification of the exogenous and endogenous molecules and pathways mediating the fever response. We also show how temperature elevation is common to different pathologies and how the molecular components of the fever-generation pathway represent drug targets for antipyretics, such as acetylsalicylic acid, the first “blockbuster drug”. We also show how fever research provided new insights into temperature and energy homeostasis, and into treatment of infection and inflammation. PMID:20305990

  18. A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions. PMID:25946247

  19. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  20. [The dengue fever in Mexico. Knowledge for improving the quality in health].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a systemic infectious disease of viral etiology, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It causes between 50 and 100 million cases annually over 100 countries. In most of the cases it presents as influenza-like illness or undifferentiated fever and more than 500,000 patients develop dengue hemorrhagic fever. In America, dengue fever is considered the most important resurgent disease and its hemorrhagic form is becoming more relevant, especially given the steady increase in the number of deaths. The first outbreaks of dengue in America were described in 1635. Since the apparition of dengue hemorrhagic fever, in 1962, it has been considered a public health problem because half of the population lives in endemic areas. The purpose of this paper is to carry a briefly review of the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of dengue fever, as well as create recommendations in order to improve the quality of care and decrease mortality in these patients. PMID:23331749

  1. Streptococcal Infections, Rheumatic Fever and School Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Milton

    1979-01-01

    Because rheumatic fever is a potentially serious complication of a streptococcal sore throat which can lead to permanent heart disease, this article advocates the expansion of school health services in medically underserved areas. (JMF)

  2. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Gun Violence Climate Change Environmental Health Generation Public Health Health Equity Health ... all about it > APHA Webinars Making the Connection: Climate Changes Health Join APHA and ecoAmerica for this series ...

  3. Twitter and public health.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use. PMID:24356087

  4. The place of health and the health of place: dengue fever and urban governance in Putrajaya, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, K; Elliott, S J; Schuster-Wallace, C

    2012-05-01

    This case study investigates the connections among urban planning, governance and dengue fever in an emerging market context in the Global South. Key informant interviews were conducted with leading figures in public health, urban planning and governance in the planned city of Putrajaya, Malaysia. Drawing on theories of urban political ecology and ecosocial epidemiology, the qualitative study found the health of place - expressed as dengue-bearing mosquitoes and dengue fever in human bodies in the urban environment - was influenced by the place of health in a hierarchy of urban priorities. PMID:22310527

  5. Reinventing public health.

    PubMed

    Lee, P; Paxman, D

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is a review of the current state of public health in light of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes buffeting the United States. As an assessment of progress in current public health efforts, we address the five major issues in public health for the 1990s raised by Breslow (8): reconstruction of public health; setting objectives for public health; from disease control to health promotion; determinants of health and health policy; continuing social inequities and their impacts on health; and the health implications of accelerating developments in technology. Finally, we look to the twenty-first century and provide five clear paths necessary to strengthen the capacity of public health agencies to protect and improve the health status of the population. PMID:9143710

  6. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    A fever is a body temperature that is higher than normal. It is not an illness. It is part of your body's defense against infection. Most bacteria ... cause infections do well at the body's normal temperature (98.6 F). A slight fever can make ...

  7. Training Public Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pamela A.; Brusuelas, Kristin M.; Baden, Daniel J.; Duncan, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  8. Training Public Health Advisors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  9. Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... of charts. A fever is defined as a temperature 1° or more above the normal 98.6°. Minor infections may cause mild or short-term temperature elevations. Temperatures of 103° and above are considered ...

  10. [Public health and public health systems sustainability].

    PubMed

    Repullo Labrador, José R; Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2006-01-01

    Public health and healthcare originally started out separately from one another in the past, having later further developed taking different paths in modern times. The major development the health systems underwent in the last half of the 20th century entailed a heightening of the individual standpoint and a division of these two approaches despite the attempts made to bring them together as of the WHO Alma-Ata Conference in 1978. The waning of rationalism and other social phenomena had a hand the collective or population-oriented focus being focused on to a lesser degree in Public Health, but these trends also gave rise to a growing problem of rationality in individual healthcare and sustainability in the public health systems. The debate on the current scene stands to set out the sustainability-related problems mediated by internal and external agents and to revise Public Health's possible contribution to the improvement thereof by advocating yet a further attempt at bringing together and integrating these two diverging standpoints. PMID:17193811

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  12. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    There are significant shortages in the public health workforce and it's expected to worsen. Efforts to reduce this shortage are varied and include building the workforce by increasing exposure of students and young professionals in applied public health experiences. Providing these experiences increases productivity, and may help alleviate some of the workforce shortages in public health. This article seeks to highlight the work done at the Family Health Services Division (FHSD) in the Hawai‘i Department of Health over the past 6 and half years in working with students in epidemiology practicum and fellowship experiences. PMID:24660128

  13. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. PMID:25439251

  14. Q fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever is antibiotics. For early-stage Q fever, doxycycline is the recommended antibiotic. If you have the ... fever. Your health care provider may prescribe both doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. You may need to take antibiotics ...

  15. Training Public Health Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Paul; And Others

    Funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity and carried out in Springfield, Massachusetts, during 1965-67, this training project sought to meet employment needs of disadvantaged high school graduates, the shortage of health professionals, and the need to improve and coordinate professional public health services. It combined a half-time,…

  16. Regional dust storm modeling for health services: The case of valley fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Galgiani, John N.; Pejanovic, Goran; Petkovic, Slavko; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Dacic, Milan; DiBiase, Scott; Prasad, Anup; El-Askary, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    On 5 July 2011, a massive dust storm struck Phoenix, Arizona (USA), raising concerns for increased cases of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis, or, cocci). A quasi-operational experimental airborne dust forecast system predicted the event and provides model output for continuing analysis in collaboration with public health and air quality communities. An objective of this collaboration was to see if a signal in cases of valley fever in the region could be detected and traced to the storm - an American haboob. To better understand the atmospheric life cycle of cocci spores, the DREAM dust model (also herein, NMME-DREAM) was modified to simulate spore emission, transport and deposition. Inexact knowledge of where cocci-causing fungus grows, the low resolution of cocci surveillance and an overall active period for significant dust events complicate analysis of the effect of the 5 July 2011 storm. In the larger context of monthly to annual disease surveillance, valley fever statistics, when compared against PM10 observation networks and modeled airborne dust concentrations, may reveal a likely cause and effect. Details provided by models and satellites fill time and space voids in conventional approaches to air quality and disease surveillance, leading to land-atmosphere modeling and remote sensing that clearly mark a path to advance valley fever epidemiology, surveillance and risk avoidance.

  17. Brazilian Spotted Fever with an Approach in Veterinary Medicine and One Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Sabrina Destri Emmerick; da Cunha, Nathalie Costa; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interaction between man and pathogens transmitted by arthropods, especially by ticks. It is on this background that a holistic approach stands out, for the sake of Public Health. Brazilian Spotted Fever is an endemic disease at the country's southeast, with Amblyomma sculptum as its major contributor, followed by A. aureolatum and potentially Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Dogs have been considered sentinels, and in some areas the disease in dogs can precede human disease. Considering the importance of this disease for human health, the serological evidence in dogs, and the transmission of ticks between dogs and their owners, this review aimed to elucidate the importance of the epidemiological investigation, the diagnosis in dogs, and the role of veterinarians in Public Health to control vector-borne zoonotic diseases. We encourage veterinarians to include this rickettsial infection in the diagnosis of febrile diseases of common occurrence in dogs. PMID:26881183

  18. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Canyon, Deon V

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place. PMID:24377080

  19. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    PubMed

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control. PMID:26493615

  20. Strengthening public health practice content in public health training.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    U.S. schools of public health have recognized the imperative to strengthen the public health practice content of training for future public health practitioners. Five strategies to develop administrative and curriculum programs within schools of public health to address this need are described: (1) institution of centers for public health program evaluation; (2) creation of automated field placement and apprenticeship programs; (3) formalization of linkages with professional management training programs to create a track for future senior managers of community health agencies; (4) establishment of cross-departmental applied public health faculty tracks; and (5) offering applied public health evaluation scholarships for students. These initiatives may provide incentives for the institution of a public health practice focus within schools of public health. PMID:10186683

  1. Transforming Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    ALDOUS, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809

  2. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  3. Globalisation and public health.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health. PMID:11801614

  4. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Button Leading research to understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases NIAID Home Health & ... NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Dengue Fever > Understanding Dengue Fever Understanding Cause Transmission Symptoms ...

  5. Nanotechnology and public health.

    PubMed

    Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation. PMID:16408476

  6. [Public health and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Papart, Jean-pierre

    2014-03-19

    The paper questions the legitimacy and relevance of a potential emergence of any public health policies relating to sexology, as they exist for most of the major medical issues. It discusses the two major areas of intervention of sexology namely problems related to access to pleasure on the one hand, violence, abuse and other sexual perversions on the other hand. The legitimacy and relevance of public health policy to prevent the latter, i.e. sexual violence cannot be questioned. However, interventions to promote erotic skills are beyond the role and responsibility of the State but can be assigned to the civil society, especially community associations engaged in culture, solidarity and the promotion of social links in general. PMID:24734361

  7. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  8. Geomatics and public health.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance. PMID:17193755

  9. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Victoria Y; Le‘au, Ruth Faioso

    2015-01-01

    Independent and American Samoa have a shared cultural, genetic, ethnolinguistic, and historical background but have been politically separated since 1899. In this essay, we examine the health of these two polities and identify two key health patterns that have emerged even as American Samoa has achieved a higher per capita income than Independent Samoa. Whereas the gender gap in life expectancy at birth has narrowed in Independent Samoa, this gap has not narrowed in American Samoa and its male life expectancy now lags behind that of Independent Samoa. Neonatal mortality rates in American Samoa are slightly higher than in Independent Samoa. These patterns may be linked to the higher rates of obesity and urbanization observed in American Samoa compared to Independent Samoa, as well as the differing political and institutional arrangements of the two polities. Limited data remains a persistent challenge to conducting analysis of public health in the Pacific islands, particularly in American Samoa. PMID:26019989

  10. Public Health Nursing Staff Health Education Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terence R.; And Others

    Health education attitudes toward prevention, detection, and treatment of selected chronic diseases and conditions confronting public health nursing staffs were investigated at a Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District, which is composed of 16 county public health units (CPHU). Findings were used to determine type of…

  11. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Western Sydney Local Health District, NSW, January-June 2011.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Sarah J; Sheppeard, Vicky K; Paterson, Jen M; Ralph, Anna P

    2012-09-01

    We undertook a study of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica enterica subtypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, presenting in residents of the Western Sydney Local Health District for the period January-June 2011. Twelve cases of S. Typhi and eight of S. Paratyphi A were notified. Patients were predominantly young adults (median age 26 years, 70% female) who had been visiting friends and relatives in India, Samoa, Bangladesh or Sri Lanka. No cases were associated with travel for less than 3 weeks; 17 (85%) required hospitalisation. None received pre-travel vaccination; reasons cited for this included pregnancy, expense, being too busy, or considering the disease too mild to warrant vaccination. Three S. Typhi isolates acquired at large social gatherings in Samoa had the same phage [corrected] type and susceptibility profiles; these results were communicated to Samoan public health personnel. There are opportunities to strengthen enteric fever prevention, including pre-travel health advice and S. Typhi vaccination for people visiting endemic areas for 3 or more weeks, especially those in the vulnerable 'visiting friends and relative' category. PMID:23043747

  12. Zika fever.

    PubMed

    Martínez de Salazar, Pablo; Suy, Anna; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Rodó, Carlota; Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome. PMID:26993436

  13. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  14. Feminism and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  15. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  16. [Public health: an interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F

    1993-01-01

    Presented as an opening lecture of the new postgraduate education programme of both the Technical and the Free University of Berlin, sponsored by the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology, this lecture recalls the foundation of the first School of Public Health (The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md., USA) by William Henry Welch, 75 years ago. Already in this early experience, several central topics of Public Health can be traced back: for instance the exact description of health problems of total population groups, the aetiological understanding of health problems as well as the transfer of knowledge in public health programmes. After a definition of the Public Health concept both in- and outside Germany, the article reviews three examples of core topics of Public Health. Drawing on results from the first report "Health of Zurich", applications of descriptive epidemiology for both priority finding in Public Health as well as aetiological research are illustrated. The second example, with data from a recent representative survey of adults swiss germans on the issue of discrimination against persons infected with HIV draws attention to the central importance of social sciences within Public Health. Finally, the third example discusses recent advances in health services research, including issues of health economics, an other important part of an interdisciplinary Public Health understanding. PMID:8451865

  17. Public Health 101 for Informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Denise; O'Carroll, Patrick; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Public health is a complex discipline that has contributed substantially to improving the health of the population. Public health action involves a variety of interventions and methods, many of which are now taken for granted by the general public. The specific focus and nature of public health interventions continue to evolve, but the fundamental principles of public health remain stable. These principles include a focus on the health of the population rather than of individuals; an emphasis on disease prevention rather than treatment; a goal of intervention at all vulnerable points in the causal pathway of disease, injury, or disability; and operation in a governmental rather than a private context. Public health practice occurs at local, state, and federal levels and involves various professional disciplines. Public health principles and practice are illustrated by a case study example of neural tube defects and folic acid. The application of information science and technology in public health practice provides previously unfathomed opportunities to improve the health of the population. Clinical informaticians and others in the health care system are crucial partners in addressing the challenges and opportunities offered by public health informatics. PMID:11687565

  18. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns. PMID:24328989

  19. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  20. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  1. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  2. [Biofilms and public health].

    PubMed

    Choisy, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Micro-organisms do not always exist in planctonic forms (single cells or small groups). To survive, especially in limiting media, they may adhere to inert or living surfaces. This enables them to multiply within a community protected by an extracellular matrix, thus forming a biofilm which protects them from antimicrobials. Biofilms have many potential consequences for public health. Some are positive, such as the commensal biofilms that protect against pathogenic bacteria, while environmental biofilms may be a source of outbreaks of respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases or infections associated with implanted medical devices. Respiratory tract infection can be caused by aerosols of fragmented biofilms growing in warm humid conditions (air cooling towers, hot springs, showers, etc.). Digestive tract infection can arise from biofilms formed during food manufacturing or packaging processes. Colonized implanted medical devices can lead to sepsis. This article examines the role of central venous catheters, taking into account the surgical site. In vivo studies show that the source of catheter infection may be exogenous or endogenous, while in vitro studies of biofilms show that ablation of the device is the best solution. Prevention is difficult, as biofilm formation is multifactorial. Physical and biological knowledge of biofilms may help to limit their formation and growth. PMID:22375373

  3. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317

  4. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities. PMID:1738801

  5. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  6. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  7. Health education interventions to raise awareness of rheumatic fever: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a significant global health burden associated with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), especially in developing countries. ARF and RHD most often strike children and young adults living in impoverished settings, where unhygienic conditions and lack of awareness and knowledge of streptococcal infection progression are common. Secondary prophylactic measures have been recommended in the past, but primary prevention measures have been gaining more attention from researchers frustrated by the perpetual prevalence of ARF and RHD in developing countries. Health education aims to empower people to take responsibility for their own well-being by gaining control over the underlying factors that influence health. We therefore conducted a review of the current best evidence for the use of health education interventions to increase awareness and knowledge of streptococcal pharyngitis and ARF. Methods and design This article describes the protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of health education interventions aimed at increasing awareness and knowledge of the symptoms, causes and consequences of streptococcal pharyngitis, rheumatic fever and/or rheumatic heart disease. Studies will be selected in which the effect of an intervention is compared with either a pre-intervention or a control, targeting all possible audience types. Primary and secondary outcomes of interest are pre-specified. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, controlled before–after studies and controlled clinical trials will be considered. We will search several bibliographic databases (for example, PubMed, EMBASE, World Health Organization Library databases, Google Scholar) and search sources for gray literature. We will meta-analyze included studies. We will conduct subgroup analyses according to intervention subtypes: printed versus audiovisual and mass media versus training workshops. Discussion This review will provide

  8. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Dengue Fever: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045

  9. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.

    2008-01-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  10. Advances in public health communication.

    PubMed

    Maibach, E; Holtgrave, D R

    1995-01-01

    There have been tremendous advances in recent years in the innovative use of communication to address public health problems. This article outlines the use of communication techniques and technologies to (positively) influence individuals, populations, and organizations for the purpose of promoting conditions conducive to human and environmental health. The approaches described include social marketing, risk communication, and behavioral decision theory, entertainment education, media advocacy, and interactive decision support systems. We also address criticism of these approaches among public health professionals because of perceived discrepancies in their inherent goals and objectives. In conclusion, we call for the rapid diffusion of state-of-the-art public health communication practices into public health service agencies and organizations. PMID:7639871

  11. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs. PMID:25152863

  12. Integrating Windblown Dust Forecasts with Public Safety and Health Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in real-time prediction of desert dust emissions and downstream plume concentrations (~ 3.5 km near-surface spatial resolution) succeed to the point of challenging public safety and public health services to beta test a dust storm warning and advisory system in lowering risks of highway and airline accidents and illnesses such as asthma and valley fever. Key beta test components are: high-resolution models of dust emission, entrainment and diffusion, integrated with synoptic weather observations and forecasts; satellite-based detection and monitoring of soil properties on the ground and elevated above; high space and time resolution for health surveillance and transportation advisories.

  13. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  14. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  15. Malaria, Typhoid Fever, and Their Coinfection among Febrile Patients at a Rural Health Center in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Birhanie, Meseret; Tessema, Belay; Ferede, Getachew; Endris, Mengistu; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria and typhoid fever are major public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries. People in endemic areas are at risk of contracting both infections concurrently. Objectives. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria, typhoid, and their coinfection among febrile patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 febrile patients suspected for malaria and/or typhoid fever from April to May, 2013, at Ayinba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected for blood culture, Widal test, and blood film preparation. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Results. The prevalence of malaria was 36.5% (n = 73). Among these 32 (43.8%), 30 (41.1%) and 11 (15.1%) were positive for P. falciparum, P. vivax, and mixed infections, respectively. The seroprevalence of typhoid fever was 38 (19%), but 1 (0.5%) with blood culture. Malaria typhoid fever coinfection was 13 (6.5%). 2–5-year-old children and poor hand washing habit were significantly associated with malaria and typhoid infection, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The prevalence of malaria and typhoid fever was found high. Further studies should be done on the other determinants of malaria and typhoid fever coinfection in different seasons and different study areas. PMID:26556415

  16. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Gubler, Duane J.

    1998-01-01

    Dengue fever, a very old disease, has reemerged in the past 20 years with an expanded geographic distribution of both the viruses and the mosquito vectors, increased epidemic activity, the development of hyperendemicity (the cocirculation of multiple serotypes), and the emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in new geographic regions. In 1998 this mosquito-borne disease is the most important tropical infectious disease after malaria, with an estimated 100 million cases of dengue fever, 500,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 25,000 deaths annually. The reasons for this resurgence and emergence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the waning years of the 20th century are complex and not fully understood, but demographic, societal, and public health infrastructure changes in the past 30 years have contributed greatly. This paper reviews the changing epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever by geographic region, the natural history and transmission cycles, clinical diagnosis of both dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, serologic and virologic laboratory diagnoses, pathogenesis, surveillance, prevention, and control. A major challenge for public health officials in all tropical areas of the world is to devleop and implement sustainable prevention and control programs that will reverse the trend of emergent dengue hemorrhagic fever. PMID:9665979

  17. SUPERFUND PUBLIC HEALTH EVALUATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual has been developed for use by a diverse audience, including EPA regional staff, state Superfund program staff, federal and state remedial contractors, and potentially responsible parties. Individuals having different levels of scienti...

  18. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  19. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  20. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers. (1) The Director is responsible for the designation of yellow fever vaccination...

  1. Ethical analysis in public health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy. PMID:11937202

  2. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting services are cost-effective and improve the health of children and families among those at increased risk. From 1985–2008, home visiting services in Hawai‘i were provided primarily through state funding of the Hawai‘i Healthy Start Program, but the program was severely reduced due to the economy and state budget changes over the past decade. The Maternal and Child Health Branch (MCHB) in the Family Health Services Division responded to these changes by seeking out competitive grant opportunities and collaborations in order to continue to promote home visiting services to those children and families in need. In 2010, the MCHB was awarded a federally funded Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grant for home visiting services to promote maternal, infant, and early childhood health, safety and development, strong parent-child relationships, and responsible parenting. In 2011, the MCHB was also awarded a competitive MIECHV development grant that funded the re-establishment of the hospital Early Identification program. Families in need of additional support identified through this program are referred for family strengthening services to a network of existing home visiting programs called the Hawai‘i Home Visiting Network (HHVN). The HHVN is supported by MIECHV and a small amount of state funds to assist programs with capacity building, training, professional development, quality assurance, and accreditation/certification support. The MIECHV grant requires that programs are evidence-based and address specific outcome measures and benchmarks. The HHVN provides home visiting services to families prenatally through 5 years of age that reside in specific at-risk communities, and is aimed at fostering positive parenting and reducing child maltreatment using a strength-based approach by targeting six protective factors: (1) social connections, (2) nurturing and attachment, (3) knowledge of parenting and child development, (4

  3. Stigmatization and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization. PMID:21797912

  4. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  5. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  6. Typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Wain, John; Hendriksen, Rene S; Mikoleit, Matthew L; Keddy, Karen H; Ochiai, R Leon

    2015-03-21

    Control of typhoid fever relies on clinical information, diagnosis, and an understanding for the epidemiology of the disease. Despite the breadth of work done so far, much is not known about the biology of this human-adapted bacterial pathogen and the complexity of the disease in endemic areas, especially those in Africa. The main barriers to control are vaccines that are not immunogenic in very young children and the development of multidrug resistance, which threatens efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Clinicians, microbiologists, and epidemiologists worldwide need to be familiar with shifting trends in enteric fever. This knowledge is crucial, both to control the disease and to manage cases. Additionally, salmonella serovars that cause human infection can change over time and location. In areas of Asia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) has been the main cause of enteric fever, but now S Typhi is being displaced by infections with drug-resistant S enterica serovar Paratyphi A. New conjugate vaccines are imminent and new treatments have been promised, but the engagement of local medical and public health institutions in endemic areas is needed to allow surveillance and to implement control measures. PMID:25458731

  7. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm. PMID:15675046

  8. Core Public Health Functions for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel; Garbutt, Barbara; Peters, Julia

    2015-07-24

    This special article defines the public health principles and core public health functions that are combined to produce the public health services essential for a highly-functioning New Zealand health system. The five core functions are: health assessment and surveillance; public health capacity development; health promotion; health protection; and preventive interventions. The core functions are interconnected and are rarely delivered individually. Public health services are not static, but evolve in response to changing needs, priorities, evidence and organisational structures. The core functions describe the different ways public health contributes to health outcomes in New Zealand and provide a framework for ensuring services are comprehensive and robust. PMID:26367356

  9. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  10. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  11. Noise and public health.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, D M; Roettger, R W

    1976-01-01

    Environmental noise has increased to the point that it affects large numbers of people. The most consistently demonstrated health effect of exposure to noise is hearing impairment. Other effects, such as stress reaction, irritability, fatigue and disturbances to physiologic function have been seen in laboratory research but are highly individualized and restricted to such specific populations as industrial workers. Rising background sound levels in communities due to increased traffic flow, industralization, work saving machinery, and other noise sources have caused community noise levels to become dangerously high. This factor is complicated by exposure to high sound level recreational activities with greater frequency and for longer periods. Recognizing the existence of the problem, governmental agencies have begun to identify the scope of the problem, to designate standards and regulations controlling noise sources, and to regulate allowable noise exposure for workers. PMID:10297834

  12. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  13. PUBLIC HEALTH AND PUBLIC MEDICAL CARE

    PubMed Central

    Chope, H. D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the historical development of the major movements and organizations dedicated to the preservation of the health and security of the American people. Statements of various national organizations on the need for integration of these various services for the protection of the indigent are presented, and the experience of one county department in San Mateo which operates a completely integrated department of public health and welfare is reviewed, giving the pros and cons of the operation of a number of disciplines through a single administration. The major advantage of an integrated department of this kind is that all the services having to do with human needs—the needs arising from emotional distress, economic reverses or illness—are combined under the direction of a physician. It is probable that failure of the health discipline to provide such services was a factor in the presentation of the Wagner Act in 1938 and the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill in 1943. Continued close cooperation between the various disciplines devoted to the protection of the health and welfare of American citizens can help in solving some of the current problems. PMID:13364660

  14. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  15. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  16. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  17. Thinking historically about public health.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Alison; Strange, Carolyn

    2007-12-01

    This paper argues that analysing past public health policies calls for scholarship that integrates insights not just from medical history but from a broad range of historical fields. Recent studies of historic infectious disease management make this evident: they confirm that prior practices inhere in current perceptions and policies, which, like their antecedents, unfold amidst shifting amalgams of politics, culture, law and economics. Thus, explaining public health policy of the past purely in medical or epidemiological terms ignores evidence that it was rarely, if ever, designed solely on medical grounds at the time. PMID:23674428

  18. Zoological medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management. PMID:17035205

  19. [National public health information system].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  20. Beyond antimalarial stock-outs: implications of health provider compliance on out-of-pocket expenditure during care-seeking for fever in South East Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand how stock-outs of the first line antimalarial, Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) and other non-compliant health worker behaviour, influence household expenditures during care-seeking for fever in the Ulanga District in Tanzania. Methods We combined weekly ACT stock data for the period 2009-2011 from six health facilities in the Ulanga District in Tanzania, together with household data from 333 respondents on the cost of fever care-seeking in Ulanga during the same time period to establish how health seeking behaviour and expenditure might vary depending on ACT availability in their nearest health facility. Results Irrespective of ACT stock-outs, more than half (58%) of respondents sought initial care in the public sector, the remainder seeking care in the private sector where expenditure was higher by 19%. Over half (54%) of respondents who went to the public sector reported incidences of non-compliant behaviour by the attending health worker (e.g. charging those who were eligible for free service or referring patients to the private sector despite ACT stock), which increased household expenditure per fever episode from USD0.14 to USD1.76. ACT stock-outs were considered to be the result of non-compliant behaviour of others in the health system and increased household expenditure by 21%; however we lacked sufficient statistical power to confirm this finding. Conclusion System design and governance challenges in the Tanzanian health system have resulted in numerous ACT stock-outs and frequent non-compliant public sector health worker behaviour, both of which increase out-of-pocket health expenditure. Interventions are urgently needed to ensure a stable supply of ACT in the public sector and increase health worker accountability. PMID:24161029

  1. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  2. Q fever in Bulgaria and Slovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Serbezov, V. S.; Kazár, J.; Novkirishki, V.; Gatcheva, N.; Kovácová, E.; Voynova, V.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of dramatic political and economic changes in the beginning of the 1990s, Q-fever epidemiology in Bulgaria has changed. The number of goats almost tripled; contact between goat owners (and their families) and goats, as well as goats and other animals, increased; consumption of raw goat milk and its products increased; and goats replaced cattle and sheep as the main source of human Coxiella burnetii infections. Hundreds of overt, serologically confirmed human cases of acute Q fever have occurred. Chronic forms of Q fever manifesting as endocarditis were also observed. In contrast, in Slovakia, Q fever does not pose a serious public health problem, and the chronic form of infection has not been found either in follow-ups of a Q-fever epidemic connected with goats imported from Bulgaria and other previous Q-fever outbreaks or in a serologic survey. Serologic diagnosis as well as control and prevention of Q fever are discussed. PMID:10341175

  3. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates...

  4. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; Validation stamps. 71.3 Section 71.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps. (a) Designation of yellow fever... health department, may revoke designation. (b) Validation stamps. International Certificates...

  5. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism

    PubMed Central

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-01-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form. PMID:19655049

  6. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  7. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  8. Jails, public health, and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh

    2010-10-01

    This article outlines and discusses five categories of information about individual jails that should be considered before making general statements about jails. These are (a) the process by which individuals come to and are processed through the jail, (b) the size of the jail, (c) the region of the country where the jail is situated, (d) classification/assessment techniques, and (e) architecture and supervision styles. It is hoped that this discussion will generate a better understanding of the complexity of jail systems across the nation and help public health professionals better target their research, programs, and policies directed at the jail/community health nexus. PMID:20881141

  9. [Aesthetic surgery and public health].

    PubMed

    Fogli, A

    2003-10-01

    The increasing number of requests for aesthetic surgery legitimately leads to the question of whether it can be covered by Public Health. If we look at the definition of the World Health Organization, the answer is without any doubt an affirmative one. However, economic considerations show that there is no social system in the world that covers aesthetic surgery, except for some definite interventions. Requests for aesthetic surgery occur in all social classes. It is a personal choice and a voluntary decision. It is no longer society who assists a sick or ill patient but it is the person that assumes the responsibility for himself. PMID:14599901

  10. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  11. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Social Science Biostatistics and Informatics Community Health Environmental Health Epidemiology Global Health Health Policy and Management Health Promotion and Communication Maternal and Child Health ...

  12. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  13. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  14. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  15. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  16. Hay fever holiday: health, leisure, and place in Gilded-Age America.

    PubMed

    Mitman, Gregg

    2003-01-01

    By the 1880s hay fever (also called June Cold, Rose Cold, hay asthma, hay cold, or autumnal catarrh) had become the pride of America's leisure class. In mid-August each year, thousands of sufferers fled to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, to the Adirondacks in upper New York State, to the shores of the Great Lakes, or to the Colorado plateau, hoping to escape the dreaded seasonal symptoms of watery eyes, flowing nose, sneezing fits, and attacks of asthma, which many regarded as the price of urban wealth and education. Through a focus on the White Mountains as America's most fashionable hay fever resort in the late nineteenth century, this essay explores the embodied local geography of hay fever as a disease. The sufferers found in the White Mountains physical relief, but also a place whose history affirmed their social identity and shaped their relationship to the natural environment. And, they, in turn, became active agents in shaping the geography of place: in the very material relationships of daily life, in the social contours of the region, and in the symbolic space that nature inhabited. In the consumption of nature for health and pleasure, this article suggests, lies an important, yet relatively unexplored, source for understanding changing perceptions of environment and place and the impact of health on the local and regional transformation of the North American landscape. PMID:14523262

  17. [Public health and private decisions].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, S

    1995-03-01

    The violent reactions of some members of the intellectual class with regard to certain political aspects of the fight against smoking oblige us to pose the general problem of the legitimacy of centralised public health decisions. There are three sources of legitimacy for intervention by public authorities: the existence of an externality (the risk that each imposes on the other by his or her behaviour); the invisibility of the risk in the eyes of non-professionals; the technical impossibility of individual protection against the risk. The unequal distribution of risk could be a fourth criteria of legitimate public action but one can also consider inequity as an automatic consequence of the existence of one or more of the first three conditions when they concern the less educated, less affluent, and less influential. The "hygiene" period of preventive policy, at the end of the 19th Century in Europe, corresponds to the strong externalities because of the contagiousness of infectious diseases and the patient inability to treat them in the curative domain. On the other hand, the ability to appreciate the risks, reflecting significant social differences, seems inversely proportional to the expectations of individuals toward the State. The demand for the liberty to protect oneself from health risks is all the stronger when individuals have the cognitive and material means to effectively do so. The fight against smoking thus must constantly update the external negative effects of smoking and the setbacks in curing the ill that it creates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749645

  18. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of ... 2009 FNLM Annual Awards Dinner celebrated advances in public health and medicine, along with the individuals and organizations ...

  19. The future of public health law.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1986-01-01

    Developments in medicine and constitutional law dictate modification of public health legislation in the United States. Traditionally overlooked by legislators, present public health laws provide inadequate decision-making criteria and inappropriate procedures for dealing with issues. Revised legislation should provide health care officials and agencies with the tools to balance individual rights against public health necessities. This Article makes four recommendations for legislative reform: (1) remove artificial legislative distinction between venereal and other communicable diseases; (2) provide criteria defining "public health necessity" to limit discretionary exercise of police power by health officials; (3) provide strong confidentiality protections in the collection and storage of public health information; (4) empower public health officials to select from a graded series of less restrictive alternatives in dealing with public health problems. PMID:3451680

  20. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  1. [Public health and the health system. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    Aboal-Viñas, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of the relationship between public health and the health system requires definition of a conceptual framework and the choice of a particular context. The chosen context of this discussion is the management of public organizations. With this in mind, functions will be associated with organizational macroprocesses. From this point of view, this article identifies the functions-processes that any health system should develop and their goals. The current situation of public health in the health system is analyzed through the study of public health budgets and the place they occupy in the hierarchy of the health departments of the autonomous communities. The "public health" budget program represents an average of 1.34% of health expenditure in the autonomous communities in 2010. Over 20% of public health organizations of the autonomous communities have a rank lower than general directorate. These data indicate the low weight assigned to public health in the health systems of the Spanish state. To change this situation, consensus must be reached on the desired relationship between public health and the health system. Such a consensus would then have to be accepted and work would have to be undertaken to improve results. Three alternatives are proposed: (i) public health would be an organization that would be above or outside the health system; (ii) public health would be synonymous with the public health system; and (iii) public health would form part of the health system with a range of assigned functions. Finally, we provide some recommendations to help define the most effective and efficient relationship between public health and the health system. PMID:20970219

  2. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  3. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  4. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  5. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  6. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  7. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  8. Seroprevalence of yellow fever virus in selected health facilities in Western Kenya from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kwallah, Allan ole; Inoue, Shingo; Thairu-Muigai, Anne Wangari; Kuttoh, Nancy; Morita, Kouichi; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF), which is caused by a mosquito-borne virus, is an important viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in equatorial Africa and South America. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of YFV in selected health facilities in Western Kenya during the period 2010-2012. A total of 469 serum samples from febrile patients were tested for YFV antibodies using in-house IgM-capture ELISA, in-house indirect IgG ELISA, and 50% focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT50). The present study did not identify any IgM ELISA-positive cases, indicating absence of recent YFV infection in the area. Twenty-eight samples (6%) tested positive for YFV IgG, because of either YFV vaccination or past exposure to various flaviviruses including YFV. Five cases were confirmed by FRNT50; of these, 4 were either vaccination or natural infection during the YF outbreak in 1992-1993 or another period and 1 case was confirmed as a West Nile virus infection. Domestication and routine performance of arboviral differential diagnosis will help to address the phenomenon of pyrexia of unknown origin, contribute to arboviral research in developing countries, and enhance regular surveillance. PMID:25672346

  9. Health Seeking Behaviour and Treatment Intentions of Dengue and Fever: A Household Survey of Children and Adults in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Elsinga, Jelte; Lizarazo, Erley F.; Vincenti, Maria F.; Schmidt, Masja; Velasco-Salas, Zoraida I.; Arias, Luzlexis; Bailey, Ajay; Tami, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue in Venezuela is a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of severe cases. Early diagnosis and timely treatment influences the outcome of dengue illness, as delay in care-seeking is significantly associated with complications leading to severe dengue. We aimed to understand patterns of health seeking behaviour (HSB) in individuals exposed to high dengue incidence in order to improve early attendance to health centres. Methods Between September 2013 and February 2014 a cross-sectional household survey was performed in Maracay, Venezuela. Intended HSB of adults and children’s parents/guardians was assessed with respect to fever or suspected dengue. Data was collected through structured questionnaires from 105 individuals. Results Most individuals felt at risk of dengue and believed it could be a deadly disease. In the case of suspected dengue, the majority (60%) would choose to first seek medical help versus first treating at home, in contrast to 11% in the case of fever. Amongst those who decided to visit a doctor, a suspected dengue infection would prompt them to search medical help earlier than if having only fever (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis modelling showed that the independent factors associated with the intention to firstly visit a doctor versus treating at home in the case of dengue were feeling at risk (OR = 3.29; p = 0.042) and being an adult (as opposed to caring for a child as a parent/guardian; OR = 3.33, p = 0.021), while having had a previous dengue infection (OR = 0.29; p = 0.031) and living in the neighbourhood Caña de Azúcar (OR = 0.28, p = 0.038) were negatively associated with seeking medical care as their first action. Conclusion Knowledge of HSB related to dengue is scarce in the Americas, our study attempts to contribute to a better understanding of HSB in this region. Improving early dengue disease recognition and awareness may enhance prompt attendance to medical care in affected populations and

  10. Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955

  11. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  12. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  13. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  14. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  15. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  16. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  17. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation. PMID:9718510

  18. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  19. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope. PMID:8545672

  20. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  1. Q Fever in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem. PMID:25092817

  2. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  3. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  4. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  5. Defining quality improvement in public health.

    PubMed

    Riley, William J; Moran, John W; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Bialek, Ronald; Cofsky, Abbey

    2010-01-01

    Many industries commonly use quality improvement (QI) techniques to improve service delivery and process performance. Yet, there has been scarce application of these proven methods to public health settings and the public health field has not developed a set of shared principles or a common definition for quality improvement. This article discusses a definition of quality improvement in public health and describes a continuum of quality improvement applications for public health departments. Quality improvement is a distinct management process and set of tools and techniques that are coordinated to ensure that departments consistently meet the health needs of their communities. PMID:20009636

  6. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  7. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  8. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  9. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  10. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  11. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  12. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p[498]-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921

  13. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    PubMed

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society. PMID:22594512

  14. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  15. Defining the Functions of Public Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J.; Corso, Liza C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  16. Defining the functions of public health governance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  17. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical undergraduates, teaching is unfocused, fragmented, and includes little epidemiology--the core subject for public health physicians. Teaching is mainly through long lectures with few group discussions. Student participation and motivation are low. As well as recommending redesign of the curriculum, Moore and Dixon suggested training in teaching methods for teachers. They also suggested that postgraduate training in public health should begin and should be targeted at hospital managers, teaching staff, and existing public health physicians. Images p913-a PMID:8490421

  18. [Maternal and infant health services and the public health clinic].

    PubMed

    Urasaki, S

    1986-11-01

    The public health clinic under the jurisdiction of prefectural government should continue to play a major role in maternal-child health services. Ministry of Health's revision plan for Maternal-child Health Law, according to which maternal-child health services are to be transferred totally to municipal (city-town-village) government, is strongly opposed by public health nurses and others. The plan goes against the current movement and effort to revitalize public health clinics, where more 50% of services rendered are maternal-child health related. Secondly, municipal health centers would have much more difficulty providing quality services than prefectural public health clinics which receive annual federal aid for their operation. Federal funding for maternal-child health care, regardless of jurisdictions, is currently 1/3 of standard unit cost. Extreme financial strain on municipal governments would result in regional differences in the quality of services and/or eventual financial burden on the patients. While the national government is trying to emphasize administrative aspects of the public health clinic, it is ordinary citizens' day to day health problems that people expect the clinic to deal with, individually, via check-ups, health counseling, home visits, public health education and telephone health hot line. PMID:3642046

  19. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  20. Applications of Health Information Exchange Information to Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health. PMID:25954386

  1. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  2. Public health finance: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Anthony D; Halverson, Paul K; Honoré, Peggy A; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to stimulate development of public health finance as a field of practice, policy, and scholarship, this article proposes a working definition of the term "public health finance," embeds it in the context of the maturing literature on the public health system and its infrastructure, and proposes a four-part typology that spans both public-sector and private-sector contributions to the financing of prevention and health promotion. A developmental strategy for the field--in applied research, training and education, and performance standards--is outlined as well. PMID:15552760

  3. Ethics, practice, and research in public health.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Buehler, James W

    2004-06-01

    Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies--an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291

  4. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors. PMID:19051110

  5. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  6. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  7. Climate Change: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  8. An Ethics Framework for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    More than 100 years ago, public health began as an organized discipline, its purpose being to improve the health of populations rather than of individuals. Given its population-based focus, however, public health perennially faces dilemmas concerning the appropriate extent of its reach and whether its activities infringe on individual liberties in ethically troublesome ways. In this article a framework for ethics analysis of public health programs is proposed. To advance traditional public health goals while maximizing individual liberties and furthering social justice, public health interventions should reduce morbidity or mortality; data must substantiate that a program (or the series of programs of which a program is a part) will reduce morbidity or mortality; burdens of the program must be identified and minimized; the program must be implemented fairly and must, at times, minimize preexisting social injustices; and fair procedures must be used to determine which burdens are acceptable to a community. PMID:11684600

  9. Public health and high volume hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation. PMID:23552646

  10. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda. PMID:11939386

  11. MEDICAL CARE AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Haven

    1952-01-01

    Medical care applies to the individual, and public health to the community. One is the concentrated application of diagnosis and treatment for the life, the comfort of a patient, and includes guidance in health as for motherhood, infancy, childhood and old age. Public health services, provided by the community through its local government and the local department of health, are concerned with the prevention of diseases of all kinds. Some are controlled by sanitary authority, but the majority of preventable diseases are dealt with by public health education. It is not the function of the health department to treat the sick. The family physicians, the hospitals and dispensaries provide for medical care. Medical care of the sick and public health protection are two parallel activities to make use of medical science, one for treatment, the other for prevention of disease. PMID:13009462

  12. Dengue Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Dengue Fever” will be included in “Health Information for International Travel, 2007-2008” which will be published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are viral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. The disease is found in tropical and s...

  13. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  14. Public health and nursing: a natural partnership.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Kub, Joan

    2009-11-01

    The health of individuals occurs within the context of their environment and the other individuals they interact with in the communities they live in, work in and visit. Promoting the health of the public requires multiple strategies aimed at improving the environment, the health knowledge of groups and individuals, maintaining adequate food and water, and reducing the spread of disease. Many disciplines are needed to meet these goals, but the largest segment of the professional health work force required to meet these needs is nursing. Historically, nursing leaders in public health such as Florence Nightingale and Lillian Wald made significant inroads related to serious health issues because they were nurses. Today across the globe, nurses provide the key components of public health interventions including well baby care, health education, screening and immunization clinics, disaster management and emergency preparedness. With the growing nursing shortage in acute care settings, the brain drain of nurses from certain areas of the world, the shrinking public dollars for preventive health care, the nursing workforce needed to continue to provide these essential health care services is threatened. It is essential to put the spot light on nursing's role in public health with the hopes of attracting more public funds and more nurses to provide these essential services. PMID:20049229

  15. Ebola fever epidemic 2014: a call for sustainable health and development policies.

    PubMed

    Flessa, Steffen; Marx, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 an Ebola epidemic emerged in Western Africa (particularly in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone), which with regard to incidence and prevalence exceeded any previous Ebola epidemic [1]. According to estimates of the World Health Organization more than 26,000 people (including suspected cases) suffered from Ebola until April 2015. About 40% of them died from this infectious disease [2]. The dynamics and intensity of the epidemic took many experts by surprise. Above all, it represented excessive demands on local health care systems as well as--at least initially--of international organizations tasked with coordinated intervention [3]. From a health economic perspective, especially, the complete dysfunctionality of local health care services is not surprising. The Ebola fever epidemic in Western Africa rather reveals fundamental failures in establishing health policies within those countries as well as in development policies of industrialized nations. In the following, some of these structural defects are outlined and conclusions from the Ebola epidemic are drawn. PMID:26143026

  16. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  17. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species. PMID:12562637

  18. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  19. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  20. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. PMID:27288163

  1. Recommendations for Undergraduate Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…

  2. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  3. SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

  4. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  5. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  6. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  7. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  8. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  9. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  10. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  11. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  12. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  13. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  14. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  15. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  16. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  17. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  18. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  19. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    PubMed

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge. PMID:21328202

  20. Management of children's fever by parents and caregivers: Practical measurement of functional health literacy.

    PubMed

    Emmerton, Lynne; Chaw, Xin Yao; Kelly, Fiona; Kairuz, Therese; Marriott, Jennifer; Wheeler, Amanda; Moles, Rebekah

    2014-12-01

    Functional health literacy is founded on general and numerical literacy and practical skills and is required for the appropriate and effective management of health symptoms in children. This study aimed to assess the health literacy skills of parents and caregivers of preschool-aged children, using a progressive scenario describing a child with fever and presenting tasks relating to selection of a medicine and hypothetical dosing of their child. Participants (n = 417) from 33 childcare- and health-related sites in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne and Auckland completed the study. Participants' responses were largely appropriate regarding actions in response to worsening symptoms, selection of an appropriate product (from a limited range), whereby 84.5% of responses were for a single-ingredient paracetamol product and use of the package directions to state the frequency of dosing (93.1% of frequencies appropriate for paracetamol and 66.7% for ibuprofen). However, in only 50.8% of cases was an appropriate weight-based dose calculated, and doses were not measured to within 10% of the stated dose in 16.7% of cases. Future studies should focus on skill development via educational campaigns for parents and caregivers. PMID:23908369

  1. Transforming public health through distance learning.

    PubMed

    Hirano, D; Dillenberg, J

    1998-09-01

    Public health agencies face old and new problems in the next century: emerging infectious and chronic diseases, health problems related to personal behaviors, a changing demography, and a deteriorating physical and social environment. To meet these challenges, public health agencies should consider the following: the advent of new communications technologies, the need for a strong workforce, and the need for new partnerships. Distance learning can serve as a means to facilitate a strong workforce and new partnerships. PMID:10187065

  2. Public health informatics: a CDC course for public health program managers.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P. W.; Yasnoff, W. A.; Wilhoite, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information science and technology are critical to the modern practice of public health. Yet today's public health professionals generally have no formal training in public health informatics--the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Responding to this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently developed, tested, and delivered a new training course in public health informatics. The course was designed for experienced public health program managers and included sessions on general informatics principles and concepts; key information systems issues and information technologies; and management issues as they relate to information technology projects. This course has been enthusiastically received both at the state and federal levels. We plan to develop an abbreviated version for health officers, administrators, and other public health executives. PMID:9929264

  3. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. PMID:12543872

  4. [Canton Hospital and public health in Canton].

    PubMed

    Li, Jichou; Guo, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Canton Hospital was not only the most influential missionary hospital in South China, but also the first one brought the concept and practice of public health to Guangzhou. In the late Qing Dynasty, it conducted free vaccination, plague treatment, health education and so on, demonstrating the importance of public health to the people. In the period of the Republic of China, it extensively cooperated with the government and social organizations in developing school health, maternal and child health, communicable disease control and epidemiological investigations to actively serve the social group. In the 1930s, its public health activities extended towards the rural areas of Guangzhou, and promoted the convergence of rural and urban medical and health services. The three-level medical system that it built provided demonstration model for the establishment of Chinese rural medical system. PMID:26815022

  5. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  6. Public Health Information and a Diverse Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Mark

    This paper discusses public health services of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). The paper provides an overview of SPC and the Pacific Islands, including geography, nationality/culture, and development status. SPC Community Health Programmes (CHP) in the following areas are then described: environmental health; AIDS and STD (sexually…

  7. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  8. Where Is the Future in Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Context: Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Methods: Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Findings: Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants’ health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. Conclusions: This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations. PMID:20579281

  9. Correctional health care: implications for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane L.; Leath, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    "Correctional Health Care: Implications for Public Health Policy" is the first in a series of articles that examines the special health care needs of persons who are incarcerated in America's correctional facilities. The intent of the series is to gain a better understanding about the unmet health needs of incarcerated persons, the importance of addressing the health service delivery system in correctional facilities, and the implications that may arise from neglecting to address these health issues on health outcomes for individual detainees and society at-large when detainees transition back into the community. This article provides a descriptive overview of the corrections population, their sociodemographics, health care needs, and health concerns that are in need of improvement. This article also offers recommendations for public policy consideration to improve the overall health of inmates and society at large. PMID:12069208

  10. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  11. Engaging local public health system partnerships to educate the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2013-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine concluded that keeping the public healthy required a well-educated public health workforce, thus leading to its recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health" [2]. In response to this call, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in strengthening (or building) a functional collaborative model between academic institutions and practitioners from local health departments to educate tomorrow's public health workforce. Local and regional health departments in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of collaborations with academic partners; (3) assess how they jointly promote public health workforce development; and (4) analyze which essential public health services their partnership addresses. Despite the lack of financial resources often cited for the absence of academic-local health department collaborations, some New England states reported that their academic institution and local public health department partnerships were valued and productive. The authors discuss how effective academic-community collaborations have the potential to facilitate a broad-based appreciation of public health among students via a wide array of public health curricula and applied experiential learning opportunities in public health settings. The authors propose a model for how to combine basic public health lessons with practical experience and leadership offered by local health departments, in order to foster a real understanding of public health, its importance, practice, and relevance in today's society from a public health workforce perspective. PMID:22940868

  12. Public Health and the Epidemic of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Brockmann, Brad; Dickman, Samuel; Alexander, Nicole; Rich, Josiah D.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Americans have been incarcerated in the past generation. In addition, arrests are concentrated in low-income, predominantly nonwhite communities where people are more likely to be medically underserved. As a result, rates of physical and mental illnesses are far higher among prison and jail inmates than among the general public. We review the health profiles of the incarcerated; health care in correctional facilities; and incarceration’s repercussions for public health in the communities to which inmates return upon release. The review concludes with recommendations that public health and medical practitioners capitalize on the public health opportunities provided by correctional settings to reach medically underserved communities, while simultaneously advocating for fundamental system change to reduce unnecessary incarceration. PMID:22224880

  13. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  14. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  15. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Public–private partnerships have become a common approach to health care problems worldwide. Many public–private partnerships were created during the late 1990s, but most were focused on specific diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Recently there has been enthusiasm for using public–private partnerships to improve the delivery of health and welfare services for a wider range of health problems, especially in developing countries. The success of public–private partnerships in this context appears to be mixed, and few data are available to evaluate their effectiveness. This analysis provides an overview of the history of health-related public–private partnerships during the past 20 years and describes a research protocol commissioned by the World Health Organization to evaluate the effectiveness of public–private partnerships in a research context. PMID:17138922

  16. Jurisdiction Size and Local Public Health Spending

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Rexford E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine if a minimum efficient scale (MES) holds with respect to the population serviced by a local health department (LHD) given the congestability, externality, and scale/scope economy effects potentially associated with public health services. Data Sources/Study Setting A nationally representative sample of LHDs in 2005. Study Design Multiple regression analysis is used to isolate the relation between population and spending while controlling for other factors known to influence local public health costs. Data Collection Data were obtained from the 2005 National Profile of Local Public Health Agencies, a project supported through a cooperative agreement between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Principal Findings The MES of a local public health department is approximately 100,000 people. After that size, additional population has little impact on public health spending per capita. Conclusions Seventy-seven percent of LHDs in the sample fall below the 100,000 MES. Higher levels of government may want to provide financial inducements so that smaller LHDs consolidate or enter into agreements with larger public health organizations to provide services. PMID:19656226

  17. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  18. Some observations on the communicable diseases as public health problems

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, W. Chas.; Assaad, F.

    1973-01-01

    Notwithstanding the deficiencies in reporting, an attempt is made in the present study to provide some useful information on the importance of the communicable diseases in the world over the decade 1957-58 to 1967-68. In this period health authorities in the developing countries almost invariably reported communicable diseases as their main public health problems, whereas, in the developed countries, the only communicable diseases still considered as public health problems were tuberculosis, venereal diseases, and hepatitis. In the developing countries nearly half of the principal causes of death were communicable diseases, and in both the developing and developed countries respiratory infections ranked high on the list. Deaths from tuberculosis have come down markedly in the developed countries and to a lesser degree in the developing countries. Infectious diseases of childhood are no longer a problem in the developed countries but are still important in the developing countries. The communicable diseases of importance to the developing countries may be divided into two groups—those requiring long-term development for their solution (e.g., dysentery, typhoid fever, parasitic diseases, and respiratory infections) and those that would respond rapidly to control by such methods as immunization. PMID:4545151

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. PMID:22118142

  20. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response. PMID:12508505

  1. Informatics critical to public health surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.

    2003-09-01

    Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.

  2. New horizons for public health in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Aringazina, Altyn; Macdonald, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    This paper, the first ever to review and critique public health developments in Kazakhstan, suggests ways in which public health can be improved strategically. The paper outlines the main threats to health in a dynamic economically developing country, but argues that with a health care reform agenda in place, and the Governments apparent support of public health policy initiatives, the time is right for new opportunities in the promotion of health. The paper utilises the Ottawa Charter, but suggests novel, more appropriate headings for Kazakhstan, to galvanise policy makers and professionals into tackling the growing burden of disease. It concludes by calling for greater transparency in relation to Government policy initiatives, and the need for greater national and international collaboration. PMID:17294711

  3. Crime is a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J

    1998-01-01

    Crime is a public health issue. It shares common causes with ill health, particularly poverty, and fear of violent crime is itself a major cause of anxiety. Community development in pre-school education, parental education, and among ethnic minorities, both reduces crime and promotes better health, for example in reducing the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs. Health workers should contribute in full to community development. PMID:9532958

  4. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  5. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative. PMID:7945762

  6. Public health system partnerships: role for local boards of health in preparing the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, recommended that public health education be accessible to undergraduate students. Promoting access to public health education will ideally contribute to a well-educated public health workforce, thus assuring the fulfillment of the public health mission. In response to this call to action, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in developing a functional partnership between academic institutions and local boards of health in preparing future public health professionals. Local boards of health in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of their collaborations with academic partners; and (3) assess how they jointly advance public health workforce development. Despite the main barriers of a lack of time, staff, and funding that are often cited for the absence of collaborations between institutions, one New England state, in particular, reported that their academic institution and local board of health partnerships were important and effective. The authors discuss how academic-practice collaborations hold the potential to combine basic public health principles with leadership and governance experience offered by local boards of health. Such partnerships are underutilized and have the potential to integrate core public health concepts while facilitating applied experiential learning opportunities in a professional public health setting, thus contributing to the development of the future public health workforce. PMID:23897268

  7. Public health communications and alert fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Methods Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5–10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the “noise” created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of “noise” when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. Results We calculated the mean number of

  8. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  9. Afterword: elaborating health and medicine's publics.

    PubMed

    Scott, J Blake

    2014-06-01

    This essay argues that medical and health humanists interested in the rhetorical work of publics can extend their research by attending to embodiment and infrastructure. In addition to discussing how such strategies are illustrated in the essays appearing in this special issue, I relate them to the rhetorical study of personal health records (PHRs) as described in consumer-directed arguments. I conclude by posing two questions to health and medical humanists: "How do discursive constructions of publics and more specific instantiations of embodied experiences mutually shape each other?" and "What do the infrastructures of health and medical users look like and involve in their enactment?" PMID:24748109

  10. Framing the Public Health of Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Ronda C.; Crews, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Caregiving has only recently been acknowledged by the nation as an important topic for millions of Americans. A psychological or sociological approach to care-giving services has been most often applied, with little attention to the population-based public health outcomes of caregivers. We conceptualize caregiving as an emerging public health issue involving complex and fluctuating roles. We contend that caregiving must be considered in the context of life span needs that vary according to the ages, developmental levels, mental health needs, and physical health demands of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:17194871

  11. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools and programs of public health are equipped with the population health skills to address the world’s most pressing health issues. ...

  12. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  13. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  14. Rewriting public health information in plain language.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rima E; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Colton, Tayla; Gregoire, John; Hyde, James

    2004-01-01

    Public health materials are often designed to inform and rally the public to spur action and maintain vigilance on important issues to family, work, community, and public policy. Limited access to public health information certainly curtails knowledge and awareness but may also hamper action and civic involvement. A growth in published assessments of health materials indicates an increased interest in the mismatch between the reading level of most health materials and the reading ability of the average adult. However, while several guidebooks offer suggestions for developing new materials, little attention has been given to the process of rewriting materials and grappling with bureaucratic language. We describe, in this case study, a process we used to assess and then rewrite a federally mandated report to consumers about the quality of their water. PMID:15360033

  15. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  16. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

  17. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... B. Lindberg, M.D., Director of the National Library of Medicine. 2 NIH researchers John T. Schiller, ...

  18. Protecting Labor Rights: Roles for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-01-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  19. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  20. Presenteeism: a public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Widera, Eric; Chang, Anna; Chen, Helen L

    2010-11-01

    "Presenteeism" occurs when an employee goes to work despite a medical illness that will prevent him or her from fully functioning at work. This problem has been well studied in the business and social science literature, and carries increased importance in the health care setting due to the risk of infectious disease transmission in vulnerable patient populations. In this manuscript, we discuss an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a long-term care facility and the role presenteeism played in disease transmission and extension of the outbreak. We use existing literature to point out the hazards of presenteeism in the health care sector. We will also discuss factors that may be involved in the decision to work while ill and propose policy changes that may reduce the incidence of presenteeism in health care organizations. PMID:20549378

  1. CANCER AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Francis Carter

    1916-01-01

    This article by Doctor Wood is especially interesting to health workers and indeed to all readers of the Journal on account of the fact that it treats in a concise manner some of the fundamental points of importance known at the present time regarding this devastating disease. It is particularly suggestive as it indicates various ways in which state and local health authorities can direct their activities so that the people may be informed of the fact that early cancer is curable in most instances. PMID:18009399

  2. The New Hampshire public health network: creating local public health infrastructure through community-driven partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kassler, William J; Goldsberry, Yvonne P

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, under the auspices of the Turning Point program, New Hampshire's public health stakeholders convened a strategic planning process to transform the state public health system. What emerged was a fundamental vision that the public health system could only be improved by strengthening the capacity of local communities to address local health issues. A plan was developed to create regional public health structures, in areas with no local health departments, to deliver essential public health services at the local level. Seven years later, that plan has become the New Hampshire Public Health Network. The network now covers 67% of the New Hampshire population and includes 113 (48%) cities and towns. Pre- and postevaluations to assess local public health infrastructure at the inception of the program and following 2 years of funding and technical assistance showed significant improvement in local public health capacity and performance. This article describes the development of local public health structures in New Hampshire where none had previously existed. PMID:15711445

  3. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners. PMID:25521905

  4. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  5. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  6. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    PubMed Central

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  7. Corporate philanthropy, lobbying, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Tesler, Laura E; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-12-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators' pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  8. Corporate Philanthropy, Lobbying, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Tesler, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    To counter negative publicity about the tobacco industry, Philip Morris has widely publicized its philanthropy initiatives. Although corporate philanthropy is primarily a public relations tool, contributions may be viewed as offsetting the harms caused by corporate products and practices. That such donations themselves have harmful consequences has been little considered. Drawing on internal company documents, we explored the philanthropy undertaken as part of Philip Morris's PM21 image makeover. Philip Morris explicitly linked philanthropy to government affairs and used contributions as a lobbying tool against public health policies. Through advertising, covertly solicited media coverage, and contributions to legislators’ pet causes, Philip Morris improved its image among key voter constituencies, influenced public officials, and divided the public health field as grantees were converted to stakeholders. PMID:18923118

  9. Health lifestyles: audience segmentation analysis for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Slater, M D; Flora, J A

    1991-01-01

    This article is concerned with the application of market segmentation techniques in order to improve the planning and implementation of public health education programs. Seven distinctive patterns of health attitudes, social influences, and behaviors are identified using cluster analytic techniques in a sample drawn from four central California cities, and are subjected to construct and predictive validation: The lifestyle clusters predict behaviors including seatbelt use, vitamin C use, and attention to health information. The clusters also predict self-reported improvements in health behavior as measured in a two-year follow-up survey, e.g., eating less salt and losing weight, and self-reported new moderate and new vigorous exercise. Implications of these lifestyle clusters for public health education and intervention planning, and the larger potential of lifestyle clustering techniques in public health efforts, are discussed. PMID:2055779

  10. Public health care provisions: access and equity.

    PubMed

    Bin Juni, M H

    1996-09-01

    Within the current exercise of reforming the health care system, underlying all issues, is the reassessment of the role of government. It is a government's responsibility and concern that the health sector be accessible and equitable to the population, and more important that the health sector be more efficient and affordable. Many governments in the world attempt to provide universal health care services to their population through public health care provisions. This paper reviews and analyses the experience of the Malaysian health system, focusing on the performance of the system in relation to access and equity. The performance of the Malaysian health system has been impressive. At minimum cost it has achieved virtually accessible and equitable health care to the entire population. This is evident by analysing almost all the commonly used indicators. These clearly show that when matched to comparable countries, health outcome is even better than predicted value. PMID:8870140

  11. Child-Invented Health Education Games: A Case Study for Dengue Fever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.; Coombs, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The study's goal was to demonstrate the ability of an 8-year-old child to create educational games for the topic of dengue fever control. A naturalistic descriptive case study method was employed. The child had two dengue fever educational game creation activities. The study demonstrated that a child could develop functional games related to…

  12. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don E

    2003-01-01

    Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII) offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries). The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security) framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin PMID:12525262

  13. Algal blooms and public health

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, P.R. . Harvard Medical School)

    1993-06-01

    Alterations in coastal ecology are expanding the geographic extent, frequency, magnitude, and species complexity'' of algal blooms throughout the world, increasing the threat of fish and shellfish poisonings, anoxia in marine nurseries, and of cholera. The World Health Organization and members of the medical profession have described the potential health effects of global climate change. They warn of the consequences of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) rays and of warming: the possible damage to agriculture and nutrition, and the impact on habitats which may alter the distribution of vector-borne and water-based infectious diseases. Algal growth due to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and warming are already affecting marine microflora and aquatic plants; and there is now clear evidence that marine organisms are a reservoir for enteric pathogens. The pattern of cholera in the Western Hemisphere suggests that environmental changes have already begun to influence the epidemiology of this infectious disease. 106 refs.

  14. Nuclear Education in Public Health and Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winder, Alvin E.; Stanitis, Mary Anne

    1988-01-01

    A survey of 20 public health schools and 240 university schools of nursing found that nuclear war related content was most likely to be appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention. (FMW)

  15. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  16. Challenges in Sustaining Public Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability remains a key challenge in public health. The perspective article by Fagen and Flay adds to our understanding of technical factors associated with sustaining health interventions in schools. In this commentary, the Fagen and Flay article (2009) is considered within the broader literature on sustainability. By taking a broad view,…

  17. Public Health Nursing for People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Dena; And Others

    Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related conditions (ARC) need continual care and support, at a level which can severely tax the health resources of a community. Public health nursing should have a central role in the effective and efficient response to this devastating problem. Since the early stages of the AIDS…

  18. Outreach to public health professionals: lessons learned from a collaborative Iowa public health project*

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Linda J.; Hasson, Seana; Ross, Faith VanToll; Martin, Elaine Russo

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that special attention be given to the information needs of unaffiliated public health professionals. In response, the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) Greater Midwest Region initiated a collaborative outreach program for public health professionals working in rural east and central Iowa. Five public health agencies were provided equipment, training, and support for accessing the Internet. Key factors in the success of this project were: (1) the role of collaborating agencies in the implementation and ongoing success of information access outreach projects; (2) knowledge of the socio-cultural factors that influence the information-seeking habits of project participants (public health professionals); and (3) management of changing or varying technological infrastructures. Working with their funding, personnel from federal, state, and local governments enhanced the information-seeking skills of public health professionals in rural eastern and central Iowa communities. PMID:10783972

  19. National Public Health Performance Standards assessment: first steps in strengthening North Dakota's public health system.

    PubMed

    Baird, John R; Carlson, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    North Dakota, as a rural state with a decentralized public health system, has found the National Public Health Performance Standards Program useful in assessing performance of the state's public health system. The local instrument was used for local public health systems and on Native American reservations. A description of the process as well as aggregated results of the local performance assessment is presented. An importance ranking scale was combined with the performance scores to identify priority areas. Priority needs were specifically identified for developing community health profiles, working more closely with community partnerships, and increasing emphasis on health education activities. The process was a good opportunity for bringing partners together in local public health systems and for developing interest in using the more complete strategic planning tools in Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships. PMID:16103817

  20. Public Health 101 Nanocourse: A Condensed Educational Tool for Non–Public Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Kreatsoulas, Catherine; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Nelson, Candace C.; Kanjee, Usheer; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows—including those at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH)—have somewhat limited opportunities outside of traditional coursework to learn holistically about public health. Because this lack of familiarity could be a barrier to fruitful collaboration across disciplines, HSPH postdocs sought to address this challenge. In response, the Public Health 101 Nanocourse was developed to provide an overview of five core areas of public health (biostatistics, environmental health sciences, epidemiology, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences) in a two half-day course format. We present our experiences with developing and launching this novel approach to acquainting wider multidisciplinary audiences with the field of public health. PMID:25706019

  1. Remote Sensing, Air Quality, and Public Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstratio'n projects which could be part of the EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  2. Integrating Social Theory Into Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Louise; Gendron, Sylvie; Bilodeau, Angèle; Chabot, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The innovative practice that resulted from the Ottawa Charter challenges public health knowledge about programming and evaluation. Specifically, there is a need to formulate program theory that embraces social determinants of health and local actors’ mobilization for social change. Likewise, it is imperative to develop a theory of evaluation that fosters reflexive understanding of public health programs engaged in social change. We believe advances in contemporary social theory that are founded on a critique of modernity and that articulate a coherent theory of practice should be considered when addressing these critical challenges. PMID:15798114

  3. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    PubMed Central

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  4. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  5. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  6. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.

    2000-02-23

    Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.

  7. 25 years of public health leadership in Africa: the Ethiopian Public Health Association.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Damen Haile; Asnake, Mengistu

    2010-01-01

    This commentary discusses the historical development, organization and activities of the Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), a professional civil society organization that operates on the principles of protection of public interest and professional standards in health in areas of health development in Ethiopia. The important roles played by the EPHA in health training, research and policy advocacy have been highlighted. Some of the important health system interventions that have been effected in the country through the influence and active participation of the Association have also been pointed out. As an active member of the Executive Board of the World Federation of Public Health Associations, EPHA serves as a role model for public health professional associations in the African Region with regard to increasing their influence in health policy and interventions within their respective countries. PMID:21370778

  8. Strong links for Public Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Caan, Woody

    2015-08-01

    The new, national Public Mental Health Network offers health visitors and school nurses an opportunity to gain more of a voice within policy. The Network is hosted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and works closely with Public Health England and NHS England to improve population mental health and to prevent mental illness.The CPHVA, RCN and other professional bodies have a vital role to fill in shaping development of the Network, including sharing good practice, interprofessional education and innovative public health research. In the past, the public health community has often been slow and uncoordinated in responding to either grassroots needs or government imperatives. In particular, voices advocating for better mental health for children and families have not been heard. Trade Unionists know that solidarity amplifies the voice of individuals. My own interest as a professor is to build on all we know that makes families, schools, neighbourhoods (and groups of practitioners) more resilient--and capable of more and more. PMID:26368996

  9. A public health perspective on research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, D R; Miller, F G

    2006-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient‐participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re‐assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. PMID:17145915

  10. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  11. [The Caribbean origins of the National Public Health System in the USA: a global approach to the history of medicine and public health in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This article defines global history in relation to the history of medicine and public health. It argues that a global approach to history opens up a space for examining the reverberations transmitted from the geographic periphery towards western regions, which have traditionally dominated modern historiography. It analyzes two medical interventions in the Caribbean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, showing how these events had profound consequences in the USA. The successes achieved in the Caribbean in terms of yellow fever and ancylostoma control, as well as providing a model for health campaigns in the southern USA, inspired the centralization of public health in North America under the centralizing control of the federal government. PMID:25742109

  12. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Veronica Eileen; Mayer, Christen; Sherman, Barry R

    2016-01-01

    The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) degree for the past 7 years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to culminate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course, students achieve the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys. PMID:27148516

  13. Undergraduate Public Health Capstone Course: Teaching Evidence-Based Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Veronica Eileen; Mayer, Christen; Sherman, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The University at Albany School of Public Health has offered a Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) degree for the past 7 years. The final requirement of the BSPH degree is a capstone evidence-based public health class designed to culminate the degree program. This capstone course is framed by identifying a public health problem and creating a literature review based on this problem. The issues are selected through collaboration between the students and instructors. Developmental and analytical tools necessary to complete the literature review are provided throughout the semester. By the end of the course, students achieve the necessary competencies and skills to identify a public health problem, analyze information from peer-reviewed literature, and synthesize the relationship between a health issue and its correlated outcome. Successes were measured through achievement of core BSPH competencies, quality of final paper and presentation, and qualitative data gleaned from end of semester self-reported student surveys. PMID:27148516

  14. The changing global context of public health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Beaglehole, R

    2000-08-01

    Future health prospects depend increasingly on globalisation processes and on the impact of global environmental change. Economic globalisation--entailng deregulated trade and investment--is a mixed blessing for health. Economic growth and the dissemination of technologies have widely enhanced life expectancy. However, aspects of globalisation are jeopardising health by eroding social and environmental conditions, exacerbating the rich-poor gap, and disseminating consumerism. Global environmental changes reflect the growth of populations and the intensity of economic activity. These changes include altered composition of the atmosphere, land degradation, depletion of terrestrial aquifers and ocean fisheries, and loss of biodiversity. This weakening of life-supporting systems poses health risks. Contemporary public health must therefore encompass the interrelated tasks of reducing social and health inequalities and achieving health-sustaining environments. PMID:10981904

  15. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity

  16. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Schomberg, John P.; Haimson, Oliver L.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant’s likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74

  17. Social marketing: its place in public health.

    PubMed

    Ling, J C; Franklin, B A; Lindsteadt, J F; Gearon, S A

    1992-01-01

    This review of the public health role of social marketing begins by tracing the history of social marketing and noting that social marketing adopts the traditional marketing framework of product, price, place, and promotion and embraces several methods of commercial marketing as well as consumer research. However, no universally acknowledged definition exists. A review of the literature is divided into three time periods representing early theoretical development, the evaluation of experiences, and increasing acceptance. Concerns about social marketing are discussed in terms of ethics, disempowerment, and the commercialization of health information. Examples of social marketing are then provided from developing countries and are analyzed in groupings defined as tangible products, sustained health practices, and service utilization. Practitioners' views and concerns are also reviewed. The strengths of social marketing include knowledge of the audience, systematic use of qualitative methods, use of incentives, closer monitoring, strategic use of the mass media, realistic expectations, aspiring to high standards, and recognition of price. Weaknesses of social marketing include its time, money, and human requirements; the fact that marketing elements are missing (public health lacks the flexibility to adjust products and services to clients' interests and preferences); and the potential serious impact on the future of Public Service Announcements, which may die out because social marketers pay for air time. After placing social marketing in context with other practices designed to achieve social change, the review ends with the prediction that the public health role of social marketing is likely to increase. The World Health Organization's recent call for health promotion and the UN Children's Fund's social mobilization actions are provided as examples of this increased role. It is noted, however, that social marketing alone cannot solve public health problems. PMID

  18. ARSENIC AND HUMAN HEALTH: EPIDEMIOLOGIC PROGRESS AND PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Argos, Maria; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia. While arsenic is an established human carcinogen and has been associated with a multitude of health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, a mode of action has yet to be determined for some aspects of arsenic toxicity. Herein, we emphasize the role of recent genetic and molecular epidemiologic investigations of arsenic toxicity. Additionally, we discuss considerations for the public health impacts of arsenic exposure through drinking water with respect to primary and secondary prevention efforts. PMID:22962196

  19. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring a randomized controlled trial to learn more about the best ... recently called attention to Valley fever and this randomized controlled trial . How is Valley fever treated? For ...

  20. Yellow Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The virus is transmitted to people by the ... fever Maps of Yellow fever endemic areas in Africa and South America Yellow fever vaccination Prevention Vaccine ...

  1. Forging the future: the public health imperative.

    PubMed Central

    Allukian, M

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980s, national policy promoted military expenditures and downsized domestic programs. These priorities, along with tax reform and deregulation, created a "domestic gulf crisis" with a new wave of vulnerable populations--poor children, the homeless, the elderly, and the uninsured. Our lack of a national health program compounds the problem. The 1990s will be a decade of change and challenge. To forge a healthier and stronger future for our nation, we must implement five public health imperatives: (1) We must have a national health program that is universal, comprehensive, and prevention-oriented, with built-in assurances for quality, efficiency, and a strong public health infrastructure. (2) We must have a comprehensive national health education and promotion program for all schoolchildren. (3) Women must have freedom of choice. (4) Prevention and public health must become one of our country's highest health priorities. (5) The federal government must increase its leadership, commitments, and resources to reach the goals set forth in Healthy Communities 2000 and Healthy People 2000. PMID:8484444

  2. [Unraveling R₀: considerations for public health applications].

    PubMed

    Ridenhour, Benjamin; Kowalik, Jessica M; Shay, David K

    2015-08-01

    We assessed public health use of R0, the basic reproduction number, which estimates the speed at which a disease is capable of spreading in a population. These estimates are of great public health interest, as evidenced during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vírus pandemic. We reviewed methods commonly used to estimate R0, examined their practical utility, and assessed how estimates of this epidemiological parameter can inform mitigation strategy decisions. In isolation, R0 is a suboptimal gauge of infectious disease dynamics across populations; other disease parameters may provide more useful information. Nonetheless, estimation of R0 for a particular population is useful for understanding transmission in the study population. Considered in the context of other epidemiologically important parameters, the value of R0 may lie in better understanding an outbreak and in preparing a public health response. PMID:26581059

  3. Public health aspects of mental health: the last 75 years of the American Journal of Public Health.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C L; Westermeyer, J

    1985-01-01

    The American Journal of Public Health has reflected the relationship of public health to the field of mental health over its 75-year history. The earliest volumes of the Journal addressed movements and concerns within public mental health. Quantitative analysis of mental health articles shows wide fluctuations over the last 75 years, probably due to variations in federal funding for mental health research. Topical emphases in the Journal have included social issues and improved mental health, the contributions of epidemiological studies, and technological advances in prevention and treatment. PMID:3890568

  4. Postgraduate training in public health medicine: St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service.

    PubMed

    Rook, R; Adshead, F

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the development of the St George's Hospital Medical School Library public health information service. Begun in 1997 as a pilot project to support Public Health Specialist Registrars in South Thames West, it is now an established part of postgraduate training in the region. An outline of the service is described, including the evolution of the post of Public Health Librarian. Issues influencing the development of the service, and the establishment of the Librarian as part of the public health network are discussed. This is a transferable model of public health information provision, which as a centralized resource makes best use of available funding. As a LIS model it is an effective and efficient way of maximizing resources, and delivering a service to a specialist user group that is spread across a wide geographical area. PMID:11260291

  5. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  6. Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Al Thabiani; Al-Shami, Salman A; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dengue fever is considered as the main health problem in several parts (Mekkah, Jeddah, Jazan and Najran) of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious ineffectiveness in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. Several suggestions and recommendations were highlighted here to ensure effectiveness in the future control and management programs of dengue mosquito vector in KSA. PMID:25403705

  7. Lessons from tuberculosis control for public health.

    PubMed

    Frieden, T R

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in many ways exemplifies evidence-based public health practice, rigorously implemented, with appropriate emphasis on the central importance of political support for success. With more than 30 million patients treated in the past decade, TB control has important implications for managing both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Simple diagnostic tests, meticulously proven standardized treatment regimens with assured drug supply, supportive case management and a superb information system that tracks the progress of every patient, all facilitate effective program implementation. TB control shows that public health programs, including those that require long-term treatment in the primary care system, can be effective in poor countries; however, TB rates are heavily influenced by the social, environmental and epidemiologic context, emphasizing that treatment is not enough and that socio-economic factors may be more important determinants of epidemiologic trends than treatment programs. TB control is effective when it combines two essential components: a practical, implementable, proven technical package, and political commitment. Political commitment is also essential to implement other interventions that can improve health, including healthier air, water and food, as well as programs to prevent or reduce tobacco smoking, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and other growing public health problems. By implementing evidence-based practices, ensuring operational excellence, using information systems that facilitate accountability and evaluation, and obtaining and maintaining political support, we can address the public health challenges of the twenty-first century. PMID:19335945

  8. Airborne Dust Models in Valley Fever Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Galgiani, J. N.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A. J.; Prasad, A. K.; Djurdjevic, V.; Nickovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    Dust storms (haboobs) struck Phoenix, Arizona, in 2011 on July 5th and again on July 18th. One potential consequence: an estimated 3,600 new cases of Valley Fever in Maricopa County from the first storm alone. The fungi, Coccidioides immitis, the cause of the respiratory infection, Valley Fever, lives in the dry desert soils of the American southwest and southward through Mexico, Central America and South America. The fungi become part of the dust storm and, a few weeks after inhalation, symptoms of Valley Fever may appear, including pneumonia-like illness, rashes, and severe fatigue. Some fatalities occur. Our airborne dust forecast system predicted the timing and extent of the storm, as it has done with other, often different, dust events. Atmosphere/land surface models can be part of public health services to reduce risk of Valley Fever and exacerbation of other respiratory and cardiovascular illness.

  9. [Concepts of health education by public health nurses].

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Gisele; Bueno, Sonia Maria Villela

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study identifies the ideas regarding health education of 12 nurses who are part of the public health service of a city in the São Paulo countryside, and proposes a corresponding educational action. In this study, we used the methodology of action research. Data collection occurred in the second half of 2009 in the public health units of the mentioned municipality. Participant observation and interviews were implemented. The analysis and interpretation of data were conducted through categorization, based on the theory by Paulo Freire. As a result, the reductionism of health education in the pedagogical approach involving the transmission of knowledge was exposed, envisioning a biologicist tendency of academic training. However, in discussion circles, the awakening of political awareness related to the theme and the promotion of health was assumed. In conclusion, there is a need for changes in such training and for the facilitation of new modes of scientific production in the quest for social transformation. PMID:24601151

  10. Public health problems in the medieval statutes of Croatian Adriatic coastal towns: from public morality to public health.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Skrobonja, Ante; Culina, Tatjana; Bosnar, Alan; Frkovic, Vedran; Azman, Josip

    2013-06-01

    The article seeks out the regulations about public health in the oldest medieval statutes of fourteen cities of the eastern Croatian Adriatic coast, between the thirteenth and sixteenth century. The research revealed numerous examples of direct or indirect ways of protecting public health. Through the analyzed documents, a noteworthy relationship between public morality and public health can be noted. The described rules are important as a reflection of awareness about public health as a condition of survival and progress in the past. They witness a progressive transition from an original common law into a written law as well as the impact that religion had in influencing people's general opinion and lifestyle in light of public health problems. PMID:21674275

  11. Health care allocation, public consultation and the concept of 'health'.

    PubMed

    Edgar, A

    1998-09-01

    By comparing models of market-based allocation with state-controlled national health care systems, it will be suggested that the way in which different communities deal with the allocation of health care is central to their expression of what might be called a moral self-understanding. That is to say that the provision of health care may be expected to be a focus of communal debate, not simply about morally acceptable and unacceptable actions, but also about the community's understanding of what it is that makes for a worthwhile and morally defensible human life. This moral self-understanding is seen to be entwined with the different concepts of 'health' that are implicit in different systems of allocation. In conclusion, it will be suggested that decisions concerning health care allocation must be made in response to a continuing, public and open debate about what health and health care mean to a particular community. PMID:10185170

  12. One Health and paradigms of public biobanking.

    PubMed

    Capps, Benjamin; Lederman, Zohar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the idea of the public biobank governance framework with respect to the innovative paradigm of One Health. The One Health initiative has been defined as an integrative and interdisciplinary effort to improve the lives and well-being of human beings and non-human animals, as well as to preserve the environment. Here, we use this approach as a starting presumption with respect to institutional design. We examine the theoretical and legal framework underlying the concept of biobanking that, being public orientated, is for the public good. We suggest that this account of research practice does not ethically correlate with One Health principles. Instead, we argue that One Health requires a model of biobanking that is based on universal goods, that is, goods that serve human beings as well as non-human animals and the environment, and which we define in detail. Our purpose is to begin a discussion on how One Health principles might be implemented in health initiatives. PMID:24570395

  13. A tale of two fields: public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Klugman, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, public health and bioethics have been courting each other, trying to figure out a way to inform and assist one another. Ethics in public health began in epidemiology and public health in ethics began in health law. Attempts have been made to create both an ethics of and in public health. Although many edited volumes and even model curriculums have been created for the teaching of public health ethics, most efforts are mired in medical ethics and do not take the unique population perspective of public health. Several challenges to the development and teaching of public health ethics remain, including the issue of ethics being a required public health competency and the questions: what should be in a public health ethics curriculum, where will instructors be trained and how will such faculty be paid? A true public health ethics will help professionals address issues of values, critical thinking and decision making. PMID:19205316

  14. Health Resources Statistics; Health Manpower and Health Facilities, 1968. Public Health Service Publication No. 1509.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    This report is a part of the program of the National Center for Health Statistics to provide current statistics as baseline data for the evaluation, planning, and administration of health programs. Part I presents data concerning the occupational fields: (1) administration, (2) anthropology and sociology, (3) data processing, (4) basic sciences,…

  15. Ebola Virus Disease: essential public health principles for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. PMID:25493109

  16. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. PMID:25493109

  17. Public health nutrition: results and research.

    PubMed

    Binns, C W; Leong, J F

    2000-01-01

    Public health nutrition is focused on the prevention of diet-related diseases and the attainment of good health, through policy, education and health promotion. It involves many sectors of the community, cooperating to improve the health and wellbeing of the population with emphasis on prevention, equity, wellbeing and improved quality of life. In the majority of western countries, an epidemic of coronary heart disease (CHD) began after World War One, reaching its peak in the 1970's. In Asia, the epidemic began after WW2 with the rapid economic development of the region. In western countries, of which Australia is a typical example, health promotion activities and improved hospital treatment have been effective in reducing the impact of the CHD epidemic. The life expectancy of the population has steadily grown to 75.6 years for males and 81.3 years for females. Despite major advances in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, it is still the leading cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Australia. Furthermore, cardiovascular disease shares common risk factors with other leading causes of death, including lifestyle behaviours (diet, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, smoking), physiological states (obesity, hypertension, high blood cholesterol) and socioeconomic factors. For Asia, the challenge is to implement public health policies that will tackle the epidemic of chronic disease before it reaches its peak. Health Promotion policies will be important for all countries. The use of the disability adjusted life years (DALY) methodology to measure the association between the cause of disease and relate its occurrence to health outcomes will be an important public health planning tool. PMID:11338731

  18. Beyond the Golden Era of public health: charting a path from sanitarianism to ecological public health.

    PubMed

    Lang, Tim; Rayner, Geof

    2015-10-01

    The paper considers the long-term trajectory of public health and whether a 'Golden Era' in Public Health might be coming to an end. While successful elements of the 20th century policy approach need still to be applied in the developing world, two significant flaws are now apparent within its core thinking. It assumes that continuing economic growth will generate sufficient wealth to pay for the public health infrastructure and improvement needed in the 21st century when, in reality, externalised costs are spiralling. Secondly, there is evidence of growing mismatch between ecosystems and human progress. While 20th century development has undeniably improved public health, it has also undermined the capacity to maintain life on a sustainable basis and has generated other more negative health consequences. For these and other reasons a rethink about the role, purpose and direction of public health is needed. While health has to be at the heart of any viable notion of progress the dominant policy path offers new versions of the 'health follows wealth' position. The paper posits ecological public health as a radical project to reshape the conditions of existence. Both of these broad paths require different functions and purposes from their institutions, professions and politicians. The paper suggests that eco-systems pressures, including climate change, are already adding to pressure for a change of course. PMID:26427314

  19. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education.

    PubMed

    Fleckman, Julia M; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions. PMID:26389109

  20. Intercultural Competency in Public Health: A Call for Action to Incorporate Training into Public Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Fleckman, Julia M.; Dal Corso, Mark; Ramirez, Shokufeh; Begalieva, Maya; Johnson, Carolyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing national diversity, programs addressing cultural competence have multiplied in U.S. medical training institutions. Although these programs share common goals for improving clinical care for patients and reducing health disparities, there is little standardization across programs. Furthermore, little progress has been made to translate cultural competency training from the clinical setting into the public health setting where the focus is on population-based health, preventative programming, and epidemiological and behavioral research. The need for culturally relevant public health programming and culturally sensitive public health research is more critical than ever. Awareness of differing cultures needs to be included in all processes of planning, implementation and evaluation. By focusing on community-based health program planning and research, cultural competence implies that it is possible for public health professionals to completely know another culture, whereas intercultural competence implies it is a dual-sided process. Public health professionals need a commitment toward intercultural competence and skills that demonstrate flexibility, openness, and self-reflection so that cultural learning is possible. In this article, the authors recommend a number of elements to develop, adapt, and strengthen intercultural competence education in public health educational institutions. PMID:26389109

  1. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  2. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  3. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  4. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  5. 41 CFR 101-5.307 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Public Health Service... AND COMPLEXES 5.3-Federal Employee Health Services § 101-5.307 Public Health Service. (a) The only authorized contact point for assistance of and consultation with the Public Health Service is the...

  6. Remote sensing and urban public health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Vernon, S.

    1975-01-01

    The applicability of remote sensing in the form of aerial photography to urban public health problems is examined. Environmental characteristics are analyzed to determine if health differences among areas could be predicted from the visual expression of remote sensing data. The analysis is carried out on a socioeconomic cross-sectional sample of census block groups. Six morbidity and mortality rates are the independent variables while environmental measures from aerial photographs and from the census constitute the two independent variable sets. It is found that environmental data collected by remote sensing are as good as census data in evaluating rates of health outcomes.

  7. Carrying guns in public: legal and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S

    2013-03-01

    In District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to own handguns in the home for protection, invalidating a Washington, D.C. law banning most handgun possession. The Heller decision, however, provided lower courts with little guidance regarding how to judge the constitutionality of gun laws other than handgun bans. Nevertheless, lower courts have upheld the vast majority of federal, state, and local gun laws challenged since Heller. One area in which some lower courts have disagreed has been the constitutionality of laws regulating the ability to carry firearms in public. This issue may be the next to be addressed by the Supreme Court under its evolving Second Amendment jurisprudence. Courts should carefully consider the negative public health and safety implications of gun carrying in public as they weigh the constitutionality of these laws. PMID:23590749

  8. Women's Health. Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health Issues. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report identifies a broad spectrum of issues affecting women's health and is divided into four sections: (1) social factors affecting women's health; (2) women's physical health and well-being; (3) health concerns of older women; and (4) issues related to alcohol, drug use and abuse, and the mental health of women. The Public Health Service…

  9. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  10. [The interface between public health and cyberculture].

    PubMed

    Honorato, Eduardo Jorge Sant Ana

    2014-02-01

    This is an opinion piece that proposes a reflection on the current status of the interface between cyberculture and public health and its use as a means for research, not as a mere tool. Cyberculture thus represents a new form of interface between people. And it is precisely "through" and "by means of" social relations that individuals acquire skills and communication techniques. The forms and the means of the relationship alters, but the ends remain unchanged, namely to be in contact with other humans. In recent decades, with the advent of computers, the Internet and all the technological apparatus, human relationships are dependent on them, which is the modern so-called cyberculture. This now affects all areas of activity, and public health cannot be left behind, taking advantage of it and its benefits for its development. It is necessary to keep abreast of these changes and raise them from the theoretical to the practical plane, not only implementing public health policies but also taking the socio-virtual aspects into consideration. It is also necessary for the professionals involved to be updated on new forms of communication, interaction, research methodology, preparation of instruments, sampling approaches and all other phenomena arising from cyberculture that will work in partnership with public health. PMID:24863825

  11. Phytotechnologies--preventing exposures, improving public health.

    PubMed

    Henry, Heather F; Burken, Joel G; Maier, Raina M; Newman, Lee A; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L; Suk, William A

    2013-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have potential to reduce the amount or toxicity of deleterious chemicals and agents, and thereby, can reduce human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are tools for primary prevention in public health. Recent research demonstrates phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention in a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, plants can be used as sensors to identify environmental contamination and potential exposures. In this paper, we have presented applications and research developments in a framework to illustrate how phytotechnologies can meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food. Because communities can often integrate plant-based technologies at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, the use of these technologies can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure and improve environmental quality. These natural treatment systems also provide valuable ecosystem services to communities and society. In the future, integrating and coordinating phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development focused on prevention of environmental exposures to toxic compounds. Hence, phytotechnologies may provide sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges, improving public health and potentially reducing the burden of disease. PMID:23819283

  12. Phytotechnologies – Preventing Exposures, Improving Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Heather F.; Burken, Joel G.; Maier, Raina M.; Newman, Lee A.; Rock, Steven; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Phytotechnologies have the potential to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of deleterious chemicals/agents, and thereby, prevent human exposures to hazardous substances. As such, phytotechnologies are a tool for primary prevention within the context of public health. Research advances demonstrate that phytotechnologies can be uniquely tailored for effective exposure prevention for a variety of applications. In addition to exposure prevention, phytotechnologists have advanced the use of plants as sensors to delineate environmental contaminants and potential exposures. The applications presented in this paper are at various stages of development and are presented in a framework to reflect how phytotechnologies can help meet basic public health needs for access to clean water, air, and food resources. As plant-based technologies can often be integrated into communities at minimal cost and with low infrastructure needs, their use in improving environmental quality can be applied broadly to minimize potential contaminant exposure. These natural treatment systems concurrently provide ecosystem services of notable value to communities and society. In the future, integration and coordination of phytotechnology activities with public health research will allow technology development that focuses on prevention of environmental exposures. Such an approach will lead to an important role of phytotechnologies in providing sustainable solutions to environmental exposure challenges that improve public health and potentially reduce the burden of disease. PMID:23819283

  13. Five Critical Challenges for Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents comments and observations given by Dr. Shiriki K. Kumanyika as the Lautenberg Award Lecture at the commencement of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Rutgers School of Public Health, May 20, 2013. The award is named after Senator Frank Lautenberg, who served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey during 1982 to…

  14. Patient Activation: Public Libraries and Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Patient activation is a new term for a perennial problem. People know what they need to do for their health: exercise, eat right, and get enough rest--but how are they motivated to actually do these things? This is what patient activation is. From this author's vantage point as a medical librarian, public libraries are well-placed to be part of…

  15. Applying Nutrition Science to the Public's Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a bewildering array of nutrition information available to the public and to professionals. Nutrition messages are often conflicting, confusing, and often simply rhetoric. More consumer research is needed to understand more fully the best way to communicate health messages, recommendations, ...

  16. Public Health Pest Control. Bulletin 755.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Burton R.

    This manual gives general control principles and specific information on control of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous arthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. The specific information includes life-cycles and habitats, public health importance, non-chemical control, and control with pesticides. (BB)

  17. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  18. The taxing power and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michelle M; Cohen, I Glenn

    2012-11-01

    In its decision on the Affordable Care Act, the Supreme Court opened the door for Congress to use its taxing power to achieve myriad policy objectives. The federal government may now increasingly make creative use of taxes to pursue public health goals. PMID:23075142

  19. Women's health research: public policy and sociology.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, J D; Figert, A E

    1995-01-01

    In the space of just a few years, the amount and nature of scientific research on women's health has emerged as a major policy issue being addressed at the highest levels of the federal government and in the mainstream media. This debate has engaged members of Congress, the National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies, and medical, scientific, health, and women's organizations. Sociologists have made significant contributions to both the process by which the women's health research issue has ascended to public awareness and the content of its agenda. Many of these contributions go unrecognized and other potential contributions by medical sociologists remain unrealized. In order to advance both science and practice in women's health--by ensuring the inclusion of the sociological perspective--we encourage sociologists to participate more directly in the policy debates. PMID:7560844

  20. Evaluation and implementation of public health registries.

    PubMed

    Solomon, D J; Henry, R C; Hogan, J G; Van Amburg, G H; Taylor, J

    1991-01-01

    A rapid proliferation of registries has occurred during the last 20 years. Given the long-term commitment of resources associated with registries and limited public health funding, proposals for new registries should be carefully considered before being funded. A registry is defined as a data base of identifiable persons containing a clearly defined set of health and demographic data collected for a specific public health purpose. Criteria for evaluating whether a registry is needed, feasible, or the most effective and efficient means of collecting a specific set of health data are presented. They include an evaluation of the stated purpose; a review of the function, duration, and scope of the registry; consideration of existing alternative data sources; an assessment of the practical feasibility of the registry; the likelihood of sufficient start-up and long-term funding; and an evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the registry. Creating a public health registry is a complex process. A range of technical and organizational skills is required for a registry to be successfully implemented. Eight requirements are identified as crucial for the successful development of a new registry. They include an implementation plan, adequate documentation, quality control procedures, case definition and case-finding (ascertainment) procedures, determination of data elements, data collection and processing procedures, data access policy, and a framework for dissemination of registry data and findings. PMID:1902306

  1. Genetics in public health: Rarely explored.

    PubMed

    Aswini, Y B; Varun, S

    2010-05-01

    The availability and the integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease etiology and permit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventive intervention to avoid disease onset. Hence, our aim was to review and provide the insight into the role of genetics in public health and its scope as well as barriers. The use of genetics along with their goals and essential public health functions are discussed. From the era of eugenics to the present era, this area has seen many turns in which geneticists have put through their effort to tie together the strings of both molecular genetics and public health. Though still the dark clouds of eugenics, the predictive power of genes, genetic reductionism, non-modifiable risk factors, individuals or populations, resource allocation, commercial imperative, discrimination and understanding and education are hanging above. The technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed our perception of human diseases fuel the expectations for this proactive health. PMID:21031051

  2. A public health training center experience: professional continuing education at schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Potter, Margaret A; Fertman, Carl I; Eggleston, Molly M; Holtzhauer, Frank; Pearsol, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The Public Health Training Center (PHTC) national program was first established at accredited schools of public health in 2000. The PHTC program used the US Health Resources and Services Administration's grants to build workforce development programs, attracting schools as training providers and the workforce as training clients. This article is a reflection on the experience of two schools, whose partnership supported one of the PHTCs, for the purpose of opening a conversation about the future of continuing education throughout schools and degree programs of public health. This partnership, the Pennsylvania & Ohio Public Health Training Center (POPHTC), concentrated its funding on more intensive training of public healthcare workers through a relatively narrow inventory of courses that were delivered typically in-person rather than by distance-learning technologies. This approach responded to the assessed needs and preferences of the POPHTC's workforce population. POPHTC's experience may not be typical among the PHTCs nationally, but the collective experience of all PHTCs is instructive to schools of public health as they work to meet an increasing demand for continuing education from the public health workforce. PMID:18552638

  3. The Next Public Health Revolution: Public Health Information Fusion and Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Fleischauer, Aaron; Casani, Julie; Groseclose, Samuel L.

    2010-01-01

    Social, political, and economic disruptions caused by natural and human-caused public health emergencies have catalyzed public health efforts to expand the scope of biosurveillance and increase the timeliness, quality, and comprehensiveness of disease detection, alerting, response, and prediction. Unfortunately, efforts to acquire, render, and visualize the diversity of health intelligence information are hindered by its wide distribution across disparate fields, multiple levels of government, and the complex interagency environment. Achieving this new level of situation awareness within public health will require a fundamental cultural shift in methods of acquiring, analyzing, and disseminating information. The notion of information “fusion” may provide opportunities to expand data access, analysis, and information exchange to better inform public health action. PMID:20530760

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Grattan, Lynn M.; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels. PMID:27616971

  5. Training and Service in Public Health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  6. Training and service in public health, Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training, 2008 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguku, Patrick; Oyemakinde, Akin; Sabitu, Kabir; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo; Babirye, Rebecca; Gitta, Sheba; Mukanga, David; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya; Gidado, Saheed; Biya, Oladayo; Gana, Chinyere; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Abubakar, Aisha; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Ngobua, Samuel; Oleribe, Obinna; Poggensee, Gabriele; Nsubuga, Peter; Nyager, Joseph; Nasidi, Abdulsalami

    2014-01-01

    The health workforce is one of the key building blocks for strengthening health systems. There is an alarming shortage of curative and preventive health care workers in developing countries many of which are in Africa. Africa resultantly records appalling health indices as a consequence of endemic and emerging health issues that are exacerbated by a lack of a public health workforce. In low-income countries, efforts to build public health surveillance and response systems have stalled, due in part, to the lack of epidemiologists and well-trained laboratorians. To strengthen public health systems in Africa, especially for disease surveillance and response, a number of countries have adopted a competency-based approach of training - Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP). The Nigeria FELTP was established in October 2008 as an inservice training program in field epidemiology, veterinary epidemiology and public health laboratory epidemiology and management. The first cohort of NFELTP residents began their training on 20th October 2008 and completed their training in December 2010. The program was scaled up in 2011 and it admitted 39 residents in its third cohort. The program has admitted residents in six annual cohorts since its inception admitting a total of 207 residents as of 2014 covering all the States. In addition the program has trained 595 health care workers in short courses. Since its inception, the program has responded to 133 suspected outbreaks ranging from environmental related outbreaks, vaccine preventable diseases, water and food borne, zoonoses, (including suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers) as well as neglected tropical diseases. With its emphasis on one health approach of solving public health issues the program has recruited physicians, veterinarians and laboratorians to work jointly on human, animal and environmental health issues. Residents have worked to identify risk factors of disease at the human animal interface for

  7. Public health capacity in the provision of health care services.

    PubMed

    Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services. PMID:24687803

  8. The public health leadership certificate: a public health and primary care interprofessional training opportunity.

    PubMed

    Matson, Christine C; Lake, Jeffrey L; Bradshaw, R Dana; Matson, David O

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a public health leadership certificate curriculum developed by the Commonwealth Public Health Training Center for employees in public health and medical trainees in primary care to share didactic and experiential learning. As part of the program, trainees are involved in improving the health of their communities and thus gain a blended perspective on the effectiveness of interprofessional teams in improving population health. The certificate curriculum includes eight one-credit-hour didactic courses offered through an MPH program and a two-credit-hour, community-based participatory research project conducted by teams of trainees under the mentorship of health district directors. Fiscal sustainability is achieved by sharing didactic courses with MPH degree students, thereby enabling trainees to take advantage of a reduced, continuing education tuition rate. Public health employee and primary care trainees jointly learn knowledge and skills required for community health improvement in interprofessional teams and gain an integrated perspective through opportunities to question assumptions and broaden disciplinary approaches. At the same time, the required community projects have benefited public health in Virginia. PMID:24578368

  9. A pioneer of public health, Bernardino Ramazzini.

    PubMed

    Franco, G

    2013-01-01

    2014 marks the tercentenary of the death of Bernardino Ramazzini, an academic who lived in the Duchy of Modena in the second half of the seventeenth century. This event represents an occasion to remember his thinking, which is remarkably anticipatory of some concepts and trends of modern public health. Although the main merit of Bernardino Ramazzini lies in his contribution to the knowledge of occupational diseases, which granted him the title of father of Occupational Medicine, his work deserves a more detailed and complete consideration. In fact, the systematic approach to the clinical presentation of diseases and their relationship to work, gathered in the famed treatise De Morbis Artificum Diatriba, resulted in little attention being paid to the preventive aspects of his thinking. The free spirit, the tension for searching, the love for the discussion characterize his scientific attitude, which spans from the anticipation of an epidemiologic approach to studies on the impact of air and climate, from workplace surveillance to suggestions for the protection of health, from proposals of primary prevention tools to recommendations of lifestyle behaviour, from educational issues to health promotion. His scientific, cultural and humanitarian stature is evidenced by his overall scientific works revealing the modernity of his thinking in the light of the present trend of public health focusing on the needs of people and promoting occupational health as an integral component of the health concept. PMID:23703301

  10. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  11. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  12. Public Health Interventions and SARS Spread, 2003

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was contained largely through traditional public health interventions, such as finding and isolating case-patients, quarantining close contacts, and enhanced infection control. The independent effectiveness of measures to "increase social distance" and wearing masks in public places requires further evaluation. Limited data exist on the effectiveness of providing health information to travelers. Entry screening of travelers through health declarations or thermal scanning at international borders had little documented effect on detecting SARS cases; exit screening appeared slightly more effective. The value of border screening in deterring travel by ill persons and in building public confidence remains unquantified. Interventions to control global epidemics should be based on expert advice from the World Health Organization and national authorities. In the case of SARS, interventions at a country's borders should not detract from efforts to identify and isolate infected persons within the country, monitor or quarantine their contacts, and strengthen infection control in healthcare settings. PMID:15550198

  13. Active Learning by Design: An Undergraduate Introductory Public Health Course

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Karin B.

    2014-01-01

    Principles of active learning were used to design and implement an introductory public health course. Students were introduced to the breadth and practice of public health through team and individual-based activities. Team assignments covered topics in epidemiology, biostatistics, health behavior, nutrition, maternal and child health, environment, and health policy. Students developed an appreciation of the population perspective through an “experience” trip and related intervention project in a public health area of their choice. Students experienced several key critical component elements of a public health undergraduate major; they explored key public health domains, experience public health practice, and integrated concepts with their assignments. In this paper, course assignments, lessons learned, and student successes are described. Given the increased growth in the undergraduate public health major, these active learning assignments may be of interest to undergraduate public health programs at both liberal arts colleges and research universities. PMID:25566526

  14. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  15. Public Health Surveillance of Nonmalignant Blood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Michele G.; Hulihan, Mary M.; Byams, Vanessa R.; Oakley, Meredith A.; Reyes, Nimia; Trimble, Sean; Grant, Althea M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmalignant blood disorders currently affect millions of Americans, and their prevalence is expected to grow over the next several decades. This is owing to improvements in treatment leading to increased life expectancy of people with hereditary conditions, like sickle cell disease and hemophilia, but also the rising occurrence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The lack of adequate surveillance systems to monitor these conditions and their associated health indicators is a significant barrier to successfully assess, inform, and measure prevention efforts and progress toward national health goals. The CDC is strengthening surveillance activities for blood disorders by improving and developing new methods that are tailored to best capture and monitor the epidemiologic characteristics unique to each disorder. These activities will provide a robust evidence base for public health action to improve the health of patients affected by or at risk for these disorders. PMID:25245796

  16. Public health surveillance of nonmalignant blood disorders.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Michele G; Hulihan, Mary M; Byams, Vanessa R; Oakley, Meredith A; Reyes, Nimia; Trimble, Sean; Grant, Althea M

    2014-11-01

    Nonmalignant blood disorders currently affect millions of Americans, and their prevalence is expected to grow over the next several decades. This is owing to improvements in treatment leading to increased life expectancy of people with hereditary conditions, like sickle cell disease and hemophilia, but also the rising occurrence of risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The lack of adequate surveillance systems to monitor these conditions and their associated health indicators is a significant barrier to successfully assess, inform, and measure prevention efforts and progress toward national health goals. CDC is strengthening surveillance activities for blood disorders by improving and developing new methods that are tailored to best capture and monitor the epidemiologic characteristics unique to each disorder. These activities will provide a robust evidence base for public health action to improve the health of patients affected by or at risk for these disorders. PMID:25245796

  17. Public school teachers’ perceptions about mental health

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397

  18. Obesity, Health at Every Size, and Public Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals’ health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the “obesogenic environment.” Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non–weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity–based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  19. Health information systems: the foundations of public health.

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, Carla; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    Public health decision-making is critically dependent on the timely availability of sound data. The role of health information systems is to generate, analyse and disseminate such data. In practice, health information systems rarely function systematically. The products of historical, social and economic forces, they are complex, fragmented and unresponsive to needs. International donors in health are largely responsible for the problem, having prioritized urgent needs for data over longer-term country capacity-building. The result is painfully apparent in the inability of most countries to generate the data needed to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. Solutions to the problem must be comprehensive; money alone is likely to be insufficient unless accompanied by sustained support to country systems development coupled with greater donor accountability and allocation of responsibilities. The Health Metrics Network, a global collaboration in the making, is intended to help bring such solutions to the countries most in need. PMID:16184276

  20. Obesity, health at every size, and public health policy.

    PubMed

    Bombak, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic diseases that may negatively affect individuals' health and the sustainability of the health care system. Despite increasing emphasis on obesity as a major health care issue, little progress has been made in its treatment or prevention. Individual approaches to obesity treatment, largely composed of weight-loss dieting, have not proven effective. Little direct evidence supports the notion of reforms to the "obesogenic environment." Both these individualistic and environmental approaches to obesity have important limitations and ethical implications. The low levels of success associated with these approaches may necessitate a new non-weight-centric public health strategy. Evidence is accumulating that a weight-neutral, nutrition- and physical activity-based, Health at Every Size (HAES) approach may be a promising chronic disease-prevention strategy. PMID:24328657

  1. Rift valley fever in the US: Commerce networks, climate, and susceptible vector and host populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne hemorrhagic viral disease with substantial negative impacts on public and animal health in its endemic range of sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) could enter the United States and lead to widespread morbidity and mortality in humans, domes...

  2. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

  3. Enlightened publics for public health: assessing disease in colonial Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Paul

    2013-03-01

    In the eighteenth century, a new genre of periodical literature appeared from Mexico City's presses that focused on disseminating scientific and medical knowledge to the colonial public. In part a natural extension of the healing manuals published for laypeople in previous centuries, the journals sought to introduce quantitative methods of environmental study and control and to expand the sphere of those residents who would take responsibility for their health. This article examines the content and format of these journals before turning to the response of urban publics during outbreaks of epidemics, when the broader social participation envisioned by enlightenment men of letters came to fruition through pasquinades and rumors conveying dissent, skepticism, and protest. PMID:23369446

  4. Sociocultural and Economic Dimensions of Rift Valley Fever

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Geoffrey Otieno; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary; Affognon, Hippolyte

    2015-01-01

    Health researchers have advocated for a cross-disciplinary approach to the study and prevention of infectious zoonotic diseases, such as Rift Valley Fever. It is believed that this approach can help bring out the social determinants and effects of the zoonotic diseases for the design of appropriate interventions and public health policy. A comprehensive literature review using a systematic search strategy was undertaken to explore the sociocultural and economic factors that influence the transmission and spread of Rift Valley Fever. Although the findings reveal a paucity of social research on Rift Valley Fever, they suggest that livestock sacrificial rituals, food preparation and consumption practices, gender roles, and inadequate resource base for public institutions are the key factors that influence the transmission. It is concluded that there is need for cross-disciplinary studies to increase the understanding of Rift Valley Fever and facilitate appropriate and timely response and mitigation measures. PMID:25688166

  5. Urban planning and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Kochtitzky, Chris S; Frumkin, H; Rodriguez, R; Dannenberg, A L; Rayman, J; Rose, K; Gillig, R; Kanter, T

    2006-12-22

    Urban planning, also called city and regional planning, is a multidisciplinary field in which professionals work to improve the welfare of persons and communities by creating more convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive places now and for the future. The centerpiece of urban planning activities is a "master plan," which can take many forms, including comprehensive plans, neighborhood plans, community action plans, regulatory and incentive strategies, economic development plans, and disaster preparedness plans. Traditionally, these plans include assessing and planning for community needs in some or all of the following areas: transportation, housing, commercial/office buildings, natural resource utilization, environmental protection, and health-care infrastructure. Urban planning and public health share common missions and perspectives. Both aim to improve human well-being, emphasize needs assessment and service delivery, manage complex social systems, focus at the population level, and rely on community-based participatory methods. Both fields focus on the needs of vulnerable populations. Throughout their development, both fields have broadened their perspectives. Initially, public health most often used a biomedical model (examining normal/abnormal functioning of the human organism), and urban planning often relied on a geographic model (analysis of human needs or interactions in a spatial context). However, both fields have expanded their tools and perspectives, in part because of the influence of the other. Urban planning and public health have been intertwined for most of their histories. In 1854, British physician John Snow used geographic mapping of an outbreak of cholera in London to identify a public water pump as the outbreak's source. Geographic analysis is a key planning tool shared by urban planning and public health. In the mid-1800s, planners such as Frederick Law Olmsted bridged the gap between the fields by advancing the concept

  6. Educating Nurses for Public Health Leadership. Project Report of the Interdisciplinary Graduate Program Models To Prepare Public Health Nurses for Leadership in a Changing Health Care System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josten, LaVohn; And Others

    This report discusses the role of graduate nurses in public health leadership and the development of new models of graduate education to prepare nurses for public health leadership. It reviews the need for graduate nurses in public health leadership positions, the health needs of the population, the role of public health in a changing health care…

  7. Returns on investment in public health: effect of public health expenditures on infant health, 1983-1990.

    PubMed

    Becker, E R; Principe, K; Adams, E K; Teutsch, S M

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we developed a broad conceptual framework focusing on how public health expenditures impact the nation's health. We then applied this framework to infant health outcomes and, using an eight-year state panel database, empirically analyzed how state public health expenditures, ceteris paribus, impact a state's level of teenage births and the receipt of prenatal care. Two hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease births to mothers less than 20 years of age. Hypothesis 2 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease the number of infants whose mothers received late or no prenatal care. We find support for both hypotheses but observe that the way public health expenditures are measured has an impact on the findings. Other important implications of the study are noted. To our knowledge, this is the first article that has taken an aggregate state perspective over time and applied it to specific measures of infant health. PMID:9718507

  8. One Health –One World Approaches to Detection and Control of Rift Valley Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of animals and humans that occurs in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae causes the disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Epidemics occur during years of unusually heavy rainfall that assessment models are being develop...

  9. STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269

  10. [The ALANAM statement on public health policy].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejando; Armas, Rodolfo

    2010-12-01

    The ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine) statement on public health policy, issued following its 19th Congress, held October 28–30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, declares that cardiovascular diseases, cancer, accidents and violence are the leading causes of death in the region, while in several of its member nations, emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases, malnutrition, and mother-child illnesses remain prevalent. The statement calls attention to the lack of functioning water supply and sewage systems in many villages and rural areas. After describing the social causes of the present state of public health in Latin America (poverty levels reaching upwards of 44% of the total population, or some 110 million people), it calls on governments, first, to spare no efforts in the task of eradicating extreme poverty in the short-term, and poverty in the long-term. Second, considering that about 15 million 3-to-6 year-olds have no access to education, it recommends extending educational services to these children, and to improve the quality of existing pre-school and primary education. Third, the statement calls for universal health care coverage and for equal access to good quality medical care for everyone, and for programs aimed at promoting healthy personal habits and self-care. In this regard, it also recommends that disease prevention programs be sustained over time, that national sanitary objectives be defined, and that its results be periodically reviewed. Fourth, it recommends that primary health care be extended to everyone, and that it be enhanced by improving coverage and coordination with secondary and tertiary level health care institutions. The statement lays special stress on the need for adopting public health policies aimed at lowering the cost of medicines; to this end, it calls for the creation of an official list of generic drugs. The statement ends by calling on governments to support public health research as a

  11. Benefits of radiation processing to public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampelmacher, E. H.

    The problem of foodborne diseases, in which especially food of animals origin and the infected animal is involved, is reviewed. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of meat and poultry may today, together with parasites in meat and fish be considered as an increasing public health problem. Control and prevention measures, especially including radiation processing is summarized and with regard to specific micro-organisms and parasites and to various food commodities suitable for irradiation purposes. The possibilities of this new processing technique for reduction and probably elimination of pathogens and parasites are discussed and recommendations are given for practical application of radiation in order to eliminate health risks eliminating from contaminated food.

  12. Florence Nightingale: nurse and public health pioneer.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2010-01-01

    August 2010 marks the centenary of the death of Florence Nightingale, who must be, without doubt, the most famous name in nursing. Most people, even those in the health professions, think of her as 'The Lady with the Lamp'; the heroine of the Crimean War, who tended the sick and wounded soldiers at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution, which continued long after Crimea, was in the organization of nursing training, in hospital planning, public and military health, and in effective collection of medical statistics. PMID:20081644

  13. Zika Virus: Implications for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Focosi, Daniele; Maggi, Fabrizio; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-07-15

    The World Health Organization has declared the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic a public health emergency of international concern. Lack of vaccines and reliable diagnostic tests, broad geographical distribution of mosquito species that can transmit the virus, and absence of population immunity in newly affected countries are causes for concern. Although most infected persons are asymptomatic, ZIKV has been associated with a rise in cases of neurological complications and fetal central nervous system malformations. This defines such an arbovirus as something whose transmission should be prevented. This review summarizes the current understanding of ZIKV biology and epidemiology, as well as possible interventions to prevent contagion and transmission. PMID:27048745

  14. [Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases--a challenge for public health].

    PubMed

    Do, P H; Caumes, E; Bricaire, F

    2000-01-20

    We have recently seen a worldwide explosion of infectious diseases: emerging diseases like the HIV/AIDS pandemic, or old diseases like cholera, tuberculosis, diphteria, plague, yellow fever, dengue, or malaria. These reemerging diseases are on the surge because of multiple factors: environmental changes, transformation of ecosystems, ongoing socioeconomic degradation and deterioration of public health systems in many countries. The increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics or virologic resistance to antiviral drugs are becoming a serious problem today. This global danger needs a global response. There must be a cooperation between the different actors in the field of public health. The general practitioner should look for good therapeutic compliance, control vaccinations, and give his patients health education, including prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:10686805

  15. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children. PMID:22953473

  16. Semantic interoperability between clinical and public health information systems for improving public health services.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd G M E

    2007-01-01

    Improving public health services requires comprehensively integrating all services including medical, social, community, and public health ones. Therefore, developing integrated health information services has to start considering business process, rules and information semantics of involved domains. The paper proposes a business and information architecture for the specification of a future-proof national integrated system, concretely the requirements for semantic integration between public health surveillance and clinical information systems. The architecture is a semantically interoperable approach because it describes business process, rules and information semantics based on national policy documents and expressed in a standard language such us the Unified Modeling Language UML. Having the enterprise and information models formalized, semantically interoperable Health IT components/services development is supported. PMID:17901617

  17. [Public health systems and methods of their financing].

    PubMed

    Kim, S V

    2001-01-01

    A correlation between type of the state as regards public consciousness (authoritarian, liberal, democratic) and type of public health is disclosed. The type of public health determines the ways of its financing (centralized management, tariff regulation, and free prices) and forms of regulation of financial flows in public health. PMID:11593814

  18. Massive Open Online Courses in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D.; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228

  19. Massive open online courses in public health.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Ira; Klaas, Brian; Yager, James D; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon

    2013-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a new and potentially transformative model for providing educational opportunities to learners not enrolled in a formal educational program. The authors describe the experience of developing and offering eight MOOCs on a variety of public health topics. Existing institutional infrastructure and experience with both for-credit online education and open educational resources mitigated the institutional risk and resource requirements. Although learners are able to enroll easily and freely and do so in large numbers, there is considerable variety in the level of participation and engagement among enrollees. As a result, comprehensive and accurate assessment of meaningful learning progress remains a major challenge for evaluating the effectiveness of MOOCs for providing public health education. PMID:24350228

  20. Public health and the value of disobedience.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    The writings of a sixteenth century French teenager may seem a stretch for a public health readership, but Etienne de la Boétie's treatise on Voluntary Servitude explains why unjust systems prevail and how they can be changed. They prevail, he shows, because we let them (the losers always vastly outnumber the winners); and they change when we retract our permission (as Ghandi demonstrated). These vital insights have inspired progress down the centuries--the enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, Tolstoy, the American civil rights movement as well as the Indian struggle against the British Empire. In an era when widening inequalities have become all too apparent, and the harm this does to the commonweal much better understood, this paper argues that La Boétie's analysis retains all its power and can inspire a new vision for public health. PMID:26027449

  1. [Quality management in a public health agency].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification. PMID:22425456

  2. Peak Oil, Food Systems, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Kirschenmann, Frederick L.; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all. PMID:21778492

  3. Regulatory reform proposals and the public health.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Kyle, A D

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would change policy for environmental health in important ways. Current approaches have been criticized for addressing the wrong set of priorities and consuming too many resources. The legislation requires additional analyses and sets new decision criteria to be applied to federal agency actions taken to protect the environment and public health. Close review of the legislation suggests that though it is intended to address identified problems, it is unlikely to lead to an improved basis for public policy and is likely to paralyze the regulatory process. Reform proposals that reduce rather than increase fragmentation of decision-making and that address problems comprehensively rather than selectively are needed. PMID:8732938

  4. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  5. Imported Lassa fever--New Jersey, 2004.

    PubMed

    2004-10-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral illness caused by Lassa virus, which is hosted by rodents in the Mastomys natalensis species complex and rarely imported to countries outside of those areas in Africa where the disease is endemic. Lassa fever is characterized by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and chest and abdominal pain. Approximately 15%-20% of patients hospitalized for Lassa fever die from the illness; however, approximately 80% of human infections with Lassa virus are mild or asymptomatic, and 1% of infections overall result in death. On August 28, 2004, a man aged 38 years residing in New Jersey died from Lassa fever after returning from travel to West Africa. This report summarizes the clinical and epidemiologic investigations conducted by federal, state, and local public health agencies. The findings illustrate the need for clinicians and public health officials to remain alert to emerging infectious diseases and to institute appropriate measures to promptly identify and limit spread of unusual pathogens. PMID:15457145

  6. Housing equity for health equity: a rights-based approach to the control of Lassa fever in post-war Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J Daniel; Barrie, M Bailor; Ross, Rachel A; Temple, Brian A; Moses, Lina M; Bausch, Daniel G

    2013-01-01

    Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the "multimammate rat," which frequently invades the domestic environment, putting humans at risk of Lassa fever. The highest reported incidence of Lassa fever in the world is consistently in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, a region that was at the center of Sierra Leone's civil war in which tens of thousands of lives were lost and hundreds of thousands of dwellings destroyed. Despite the end of the war in 2002, most of Kenema's population still lives in inadequate housing that puts them at risk of rodent invasion and Lassa fever. Furthermore, despite years of health education and village hygiene campaigns, the incidence of Lassa fever in Kenema District appears to be increasing. We focus on Lassa fever as a matter of human rights, proposing a strategy to improve housing quality, and discuss how housing equity has the potential to improve health equity and ultimately economic productivity in Sierra Leone. The manuscript is designed to spur discussion and action towards provision of housing and prevention of disease in one of the world's most vulnerable populations. PMID:23282054

  7. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  8. 40 CFR 158.2204 - Public health and nonpublic health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ingredients that, under the criteria in 40 CFR 153.125(a), is an active ingredient with respect to a public... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public health and nonpublic health... Public health and nonpublic health claims. (a) Public health claim. An antimicrobial pesticide...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2204 - Public health and nonpublic health claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ingredients that, under the criteria in 40 CFR 153.125(a), is an active ingredient with respect to a public... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public health and nonpublic health... Public health and nonpublic health claims. (a) Public health claim. An antimicrobial pesticide...

  10. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    PubMed

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo. PMID:26331506

  11. Public health implications of wireless technologies.

    PubMed

    Sage, Cindy; Carpenter, David O

    2009-08-01

    Global exposures to emerging wireless technologies from applications including mobile phones, cordless phones, DECT phones, WI-FI, WLAN, WiMAX, wireless internet, baby monitors, and others may present serious public health consequences. Evidence supporting a public health risk is documented in the BioInitiative Report. New, biologically based public exposure standards for chronic exposure to low-intensity exposures are warranted. Existing safety standards are obsolete because they are based solely on thermal effects from acute exposures. The rapidly expanding development of new wireless technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers means that failure to take immediate action to reduce risks may result in an epidemic of potentially fatal diseases in the future. Regardless of whether or not the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Such action is fully compatible with the precautionary principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration, the European Constitution Principle on Health (Section 3.1) and the European Union Treaties Article 174. PMID:19285839

  12. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  13. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Southern Kordofan

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a disease that poses a great threat to public health owing to its high mortality rate (30-70%), mode of transmission and geographic distribution. Here, we report on a nine years-old Sudanese boy from Southern Kordofan State who presented with Jaundice, high-grade fever, severe headache, abdominal pain and a history of hematemesis. The diagnosis of CCHF was confirmed based on clinical and serological findings. PMID:27493394

  14. Participation of health workers, school teachers and pupils in the control of rheumatic fever: evaluation of a training programme.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, S D; Grover, A; Kumar, R; Ganguly, N K; Wahi, P L

    1992-07-01

    In a rural community block of north India we initiated a programme for control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD). This included a training campaign for all 74 health workers, 773 school teachers and 12,500 older pupils (class V to X) to enable them to suspect and refer cases of RF/RHD and counsel them about secondary prophylaxis. Training material was used by project staff, medical officers and teachers to convey that this serious disease with onset between 5 and 15 years can be recognized by four simple criteria: fever with joint pain or swelling; breathlessness and fatigue; involuntary face and limb movements. One year later we evaluated awareness generated by training by administering a questionnaire to random samples in the intervention area and in a noncontiguous control area. Health workers, teachers and pupils of the intervention block were significantly better aware of the nature, severity and presentation of the disease and reported having recognized cases whom they had referred for diagnosis, prophylaxis and counselled for follow up. We conclude that a training protocol incorporating simple messages can effectively create practical awareness for RF/RHD control among teachers, health workers and pupils in a rural community. PMID:1428137

  15. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Scarlet Fever KidsHealth > ...

  16. Using public relations to promote health: a framing analysis of public relations strategies among health associations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H

    2010-01-01

    This study explored health organizations' public relations efforts to frame health issues through their press releases. Content analysis of 316 press releases from three health organizations-the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, and the American Diabetes Association-revealed that they used the medical research frame most frequently and emphasized societal responsibility for health issues. There were differences, however, among the organizations regarding the main frames and health issues: the American Diabetes Association was more likely to focus on the issues related to social support and education, while the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society were more likely to address medical research and scientific news. To demonstrate their initiatives for public health, all the organizations employed the social support/educational frame most frequently. Researchers and medical doctors frequently were quoted as trusted sources in the releases. PMID:20390976

  17. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. PMID:27598787

  18. Soil: A Public Health Threat or Savior

    SciTech Connect

    IL Pepper; CP Gerba; DT Newby; CW Rice

    2009-05-01

    Soil is the most complicated biomaterial on the planet due to complex soil architecture and billions of soil microbes with extreme biotic diversity. Soil is potentially a source of human pathogens, which can be defined as geo-indigenous, geo-transportable, or geotreatable. Such pathogens cumulatively can and do result in multiple human fatalities annually. A striking example is Helminths, with current infections worldwide estimated to be around two billion. However, soil can also be a source of antibiotics and other natural products that enhance human health. Soilborne antibiotics are used to treat human infections, but can also result in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Natural products isolated from soil resulted in 60% of new cancer drugs between the period 1983–1994. Soils are also crucial to human health through their impact on human nutrition. Finally, from a global perspective, soils are vital to the future well-being of nations through their impact on climate change and global warming. A critical review of soil with respect to public health leads to the conclusion that overall soil is a public health savior. The value of soil using a systems approach is estimated to be $20 trillion, and is by far the most valuable ecosystem in the world.

  19. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization. PMID:21847845

  20. Engineering and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J

    2006-12-22

    Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards. PMID:17183236

  1. History of public health crises in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomoaki; Ide, Hiroo; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-07-01

    In Japan, a number of serious public health crises involving environmental pollution, food-borne diseases, and health hazards due to pharmaceuticals (i.e., "Yakugai") have occurred in the past 50 years. Based on the literature, we summarize the initial investigations and the subsequent measures. Some common points emerge: (1) prolonged cause identification, (2) lack of countermeasures after the cause was identified, and (3) discrimination against victims and they contributed to spreading the damage. We identify lack of corporate ethics and ill-timed disclosure of information as the principal problems in Japan's crisis-management systems. Defects in information gathering were common to all of the cases, thus we suggest necessary corrective measures, such as the establishment of a new reporting system for health hazard-related information. PMID:17585323

  2. Ensuring public health's future in a national-scale learning health system.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A; Friedman, Charles; Jacobson, Peter; Rubin, Joshua C

    2015-04-01

    Data and information are fundamental to every function of public health and crucial to public health agencies, from outbreak investigations to environmental surveillance. Information allows for timely, relevant, and high-quality decision making by public health agencies. Evidence-based practice is an important, grounding principle within public health practice, but resources to handle and analyze public health data in a meaningful way are limited. The Learning Health System is a platform that seeks to leverage health data to allow evidence-based real-time analysis of data for a broad range of uses, including primary care decision making, public health activities, consumer education, and academic research. The Learning Health System is an emerging endeavor that is gaining support throughout the health sector and presents an important opportunity for collaboration between primary care and public health. Public health should be a key stakeholder in the development of a national-scale Learning Health System because participation presents many potential benefits, including increased workforce capacity, enhanced resources, and greater opportunities to use health information for the improvement of the public's health. This article describes the framework and progression of a national-scale Learning Health System, considers the advantages of and challenges to public health involvement in the Learning Health System, including the public health workforce, gives examples of small-scale Learning Health System projects involving public health, and discusses how public health practitioners can better engage in the Learning Health Community. PMID:25700654

  3. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

  4. Ethical Justification for Conducting Public Health Surveillance Without Patient Consent

    PubMed Central

    Heilig, Charles M.; White, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance by necessity occurs without explicit patient consent. There is strong legal and scientific support for maintaining name-based reporting of infectious diseases and other types of public health surveillance. We present conditions under which surveillance without explicit patient consent is ethically justifiable using principles of contemporary clinical and public health ethics. Overriding individual autonomy must be justified in terms of the obligation of public health to improve population health, reduce inequities, attend to the health of vulnerable and systematically disadvantaged persons, and prevent harm. In addition, data elements collected without consent must represent the minimal necessary interference, lead to effective public health action, and be maintained securely. PMID:22095338

  5. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... Federal Register requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for...

  6. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention,...

  7. Public health equity in refugee situations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions. PMID:21575218

  8. The current state of public health in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liming

    2004-01-01

    In the past 50 years, China has made great achievements in controlling infectious diseases and improving the public's health and hygiene. However, in the twenty-first century, owing to the negative effects brought on by aging of the population and the burdens of diseases, urbanization, industrialization, and globalization, Chinese public health officials are encountering greater difficulties than ever. Old operating models of public health cannot meet present requirements. The main problems are poor capacity to respond to public health emergencies, severe inequality of health care services, and lagging development of public health information systems. Public health in China can gradually meet the requirements of social development and the increasing public demand for health care services only when the public health is directed by informatization, globalization, technification, and humanization. PMID:15015923

  9. Organizing the public health-clinical health interface: theoretical bases.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Michèle; Reinharz, Daniel; Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the interface between public health and clinical health within the context of the search for networking approaches geared to a more integrated delivery of health services. The articulation of an operative interface is complicated by the fact that the definition of networking modalities involves complex intra- and interdisciplinary and intra- and interorganizational systems across which a new transversal dynamics of intervention practices and exchanges between service structures must be established. A better understanding of the situation is reached by shedding light on the rationale underlying the organizational methods that form the bases of the interface between these two sectors of activity. The Quebec experience demonstrates that neither the structural-functionalist approach, which emphasizes remodelling establishment structures and functions as determinants of integration, nor the structural-constructivist approach, which prioritizes distinct fields of practice in public health and clinical health, adequately serves the purpose of networking and integration. Consequently, a theoretical reframing is imperative. In this regard, structuration theory, which fosters the simultaneous study of methods of inter-structure coordination and inter-actor cooperation, paves the way for a better understanding of the situation and, in turn, to the emergence of new integration possibilities. PMID:16645802

  10. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  11. Public health citation patterns: an analysis of the American Journal of Public Health, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L.; Wallis, Lisa C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The research sought to determine the publication types cited most often in public health as well as the most heavily cited journal titles. Methods: From a pool of 33,449 citations in 934 articles published in the 2003–2005 issues of American Journal of Public Health, 2 random samples were drawn: one (n = 1,034) from the total set of citations and one (n = 1,016) from the citations to journal articles. For each sampled citation, investigators noted publication type, publication date, uniform resource locator (URL) citation (yes/no), and, for the journal article sample, journal titles. The cited journal titles were analyzed using Bradford zones. Results: The majority of cited items from the overall sample of 1,034 items were journal articles (64.4%, n = 666), followed by government documents (n = 130), books (n = 122), and miscellaneous sources (n = 116). Publication date ranged from 1826–2005 (mean = 1995, mode = 2002). Most cited items were between 0 and 5 years old (50.3%, n = 512). In the sample of 1,016 journal article citations, a total of 387 journal titles were cited. Discussion: Analysis of cited material types revealed results similar to citation analyses in specific public health disciplines, including use of materials from a wide range of disciplines, reliance on miscellaneous and government documents, and need for older publications. PMID:17971888

  12. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    PubMed

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable. PMID:25591411

  13. Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePlus

    ... by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg, Lassa fever, and yellow fever viruses. ... Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death. VHFs ...

  14. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from areas that have a dengue fever epidemic, the risk of contracting dengue fever is small for international travelers./p> Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, ... Nile Virus First Aid: Vomiting Are Insect Repellents With DEET ...

  15. Rheumatic fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ASO test) Complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (EKG) Sedimentation rate (ESR -- a test that measures inflammation ... criteria include: Fever High ESR Joint pain Abnormal EKG You'll likely be diagnosed with rheumatic fever ...

  16. Valley Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  17. Can the right to health inform public health planning in developing countries? A case study for maternal healthcare from Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Nurul Qomariyah, Siti

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in developing countries despite international advocacy, development targets, and simple, affordable and effective interventions. In recent years, regard for maternal mortality as a human rights issue as well as one that pertains to health, has emerged. Objective We study a case of maternal death using a theoretical framework derived from the right to health to examine access to and quality of maternal healthcare. Our objective was to explore the potential of rights-based frameworks to inform public health planning from a human rights perspective. Design Information was elicited as part of a verbal autopsy survey investigating maternal deaths in rural settings in Indonesia. The deceased's relatives were interviewed to collect information on medical signs, symptoms and the social, cultural and health systems circumstances surrounding the death. Results In this case, a prolonged, severe fever and a complicated series of referrals culminated in the death of a 19-year-old primagravida at 7 months gestation. The cause of death was acute infection. The woman encountered a range of barriers to access; behavioural, socio-cultural, geographic and economic. Several serious health system failures were also apparent. The theoretical framework derived from the right to health identified that none of the essential elements of the right were upheld. Conclusion The rights-based approach could identify how and where to improve services. However, there are fundamental and inherent conflicts between the public health tradition (collective and preventative) and the right to health (individualistic and curative). As a result, and in practice, the right to health is likely to be ineffective for public health planning from a human rights perspective. Collective rights such as the right to development may provide a more suitable means to achieve equity and social justice in health planning. PMID:20027244

  18. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  19. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis.

    PubMed

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Weber, David Jay

    2015-09-01

    Today's public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people. PMID:26180978

  20. Healing at Home: 100 Years of Public Health Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Ellen T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Now More than Ever" (Fahy); "Healing at Home" (photo essay); "Amelia Greenwald: Pioneer in International Public Health Nursing" (Mayer); "Alaska's Watched Pot" (Nord); and "Gertrude Weld Peabody: Unsung Patron of Public Health Nursing Education" (Doona). (JOW)

  1. Labour market outcomes of public health graduates: evidence from Australia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ian W; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-09-01

    Little information is available on the public health workforce. This study contributes to the gap in the literature and examines the demographic characteristics, career destinations and earnings of Masters in Public Health (MPH) graduates in Australia, using data from the 1999-2009 waves of the Graduate Destination Survey. It was found that public health graduates had a high amount of female representation and very low proportions of indigenous representation. Public health graduates experienced a relatively low unemployment rate and 85% were employed within 120 days of graduation. However, close to half of the graduates did not work in the health industry or in health-related roles. The mean salaries of public health graduates working in public health roles were relatively low compared to those in other occupations, but they had a range comparable to that observed for public health professionals in the USA and were higher than those of other Masters graduates in some other health fields. The results indicate strong demand and positive employment prospects for public health graduates in Australia. Strategies to target recruitment and/or retention of female or indigenous graduates in the public health workforce should be a priority. Mapping of public health graduate destinations and employment prospects should might be prioritised, given its strong potential to facilitate workforce planning and provide potential public health workers with more comprehensive career trajectories. PMID:23782503

  2. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    PubMed

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments. PMID:21171877

  3. Q fever.

    PubMed

    Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogen Coxiella burnetii causing acute and chronic clinical manifestations. The name "Q fever" derives from "Query fever" and was given in 1935 following an outbreak of febrile illness in an abattoir in Queensland, Australia. C burnetii is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism (class B by the Centers for Disease Control). PMID:18755387

  4. Toxoplasma oocysts as a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Yolken, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of Toxoplasma gondii have focused attention on the importance of oocysts shed in the feces of infected cats. Cat feces deposited annually into the environment in the United States total approximately 1.2 million metric tons. The annual oocyst burden measured in community surveys is 3 to 434 oocysts per square foot and is greater in areas where cats selectively defecate. Because a single oocyst can possibly cause infection, this oocyst burden represents a major potential public health problem. The proper disposal of cat litter, keeping cats indoors, reducing the feral cat population, and protecting the play areas of children might potentially reduce the oocyst burden. PMID:23849140

  5. Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

  6. Applications of remote sensing in public health.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C. M.; Fuller, C. E.; Schneider, H. J.; Kennedy, E. E.; Jones, H. G.; Morrison, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Current research concerning the determination of the habitat of mosquito vectors of disease is discussed. It is shown how advanced interpretative processes have enabled recognition of the breeding areas of salt marsh mosquitoes and the breeding sites of the mosquito responsible for the transmission of St. Louis strain of encephalitis and of human filariasis. In addition, remote sensing data have also been useful in the study of the habitat of endemic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in Florida. The beginning of the application of remote sensing to such public health aspects as air, water, and urban degradation is noted.

  7. Public health research systems in the European union

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level) research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them) and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations), while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU ministries of health should

  8. [A transdisciplinary model for public health research].

    PubMed

    Betancourt, José Aureliano

    2013-11-01

    Human resources education for health workers has been predominantly discipline-oriented and fragmented, influencing research design and, in turn, scientific output. Several authors argue that university education should transition from disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity. To gather the theoretical underpinnings for this subject of international interest, a literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EBSCO, and SciELO databases in 2012, using the terms "transdisciplinary and translational research" in Spanish and English. The majority of authors believe that identifying problems from different perspectives by specialists and community members and leaders will be conducive to more effective intersectoral interventions. They suggest undertaking organizational change to reshape reshaping work styles and self-organizational forms of scientific activity. Finally, a transdisciplinary model for public health research has been proposed that is based on traditional project design tools, but with variations borrowed from a complex systems approach. PMID:24553764

  9. Undergraduate Public Health Education: Alternative Choices within the BSPH Degree

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Karen; Merrell, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The University of South Florida’s College of Public Health has been in existence since 1984. After many years of only offering a public health minor, a Bachelors of Science in Public Health was offered. This article explores the creation, development, scheduling, and lessons learned of this degree. PMID:25207267

  10. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  11. Disciplines in Counseling--The Public Health Nurse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, M. Joan

    Counseling is an integral part of nursing, especially public health nursing. The normal day to day situations in which a public health nurse finds herself offer great potential for counselling. The technique used primarily by public health nurses is that of basic listening, which is so necessary for ascertaining and understanding situations and…

  12. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  13. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  14. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  15. 10 CFR 871.2 - Public health and safety exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public health and safety exemption. 871.2 Section 871.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PLUTONIUM § 871.2 Public health and safety exemption... property damage, or other significant threat to the public health and safety....

  16. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  17. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  18. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  19. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  20. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  1. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  2. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  3. 38 CFR 3.753 - Public Health Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public Health Service. 3... Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Retirement § 3.753 Public Health Service... of the Public Health Service, who was receiving disability compensation on December 31, 1956,...

  4. 19 CFR 4.70 - Public Health Service requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public Health Service requirements. 4.70 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.70 Public Health Service... Public Health Service....

  5. Collaboration, Competencies and the Classroom: A Public Health Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lauren E.; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The University of Guelph Master of Public Health program is a professional degree program that seeks to prepare graduates to meet complex public health needs by developing their proficiency in the 36 public health core competencies. Provision of experiential learning opportunities, such as a semester-long practicum, is part of student development.…

  6. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...

  7. Evidence in public health: steps to make it real.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cassia Baldini; Yonekura, Tatiana; Campos, Celia Maria Sivalli; Figueiro, Mabel Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the methodological trends in the development of systematic reviews in public health, and examines the reviews of the Cochrane Public Health Group in order to exemplify syntheses of evidence in public health and its implementation and impact on practice and research. PMID:25458137

  8. Private wealth and public health: a critique of Richard Epstein's defense of the "old" public health.

    PubMed

    Novak, William J

    2003-01-01

    This article is a response to Richard Epstein's recent legal and economic critiques of contemporary public health law. The power of Epstein's critical position stems from the convergence of three problems, each with distinctive intellectual histories: (1) an age-old debate within political liberalism about the proper relationship of individual right and state power; (2) a somewhat more recent biomedical policy contest over the necessary scale and scope of public health interventions in modern societies; and (3) an ongoing legal-jurisprudential argument about the overall trajectory and implications of American constitutional history. My critique of Epstein's position follows this same tripartite format, moving from an initial discussion of the history of liberalism to the history of public health and, finally, to a critique of Epstein's general legal history of state regulation in America. PMID:14563082

  9. Capacity building in public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review capacity building in public health nutrition (PHN), the need for which has been stressed for many years by a range of academics, national and international organisations. Although great strides have been made worldwide in the science of nutrition, there remain many problems of undernutrition and increasingly of obesity and related chronic diseases. The main emphasis in capacity building has been on the nutrition and health workforce, but the causes of these health problems are multifactorial and require collaboration across sectors in their solution. This means that PHN capacity building has to go beyond basic nutrition and beyond the immediate health workforce to policy makers in other sectors. The present paper provides examples of capacity building activities by various organisations, including universities, industry and international agencies. Examples of web-based courses are given including an introduction to the e-Nutrition Academy. The scope is international but with a special focus on Africa. In conclusion, there remains a great need for capacity building in PHN but the advent of the internet has revolutionised the possibilities. PMID:25604975

  10. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. PMID:26565730

  11. Economics, management, and public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dahl, T

    1977-02-01

    Research has shown that including a nutritional functional area in comprehensive health care delivery can reduce the total cost per registrant. The savings occur when nutritionists substitute for more costly medical personnel in a team-care setting. Further research has demonstrated that the cost of nutritional care is related to the performance of nutritional staff, i.e., productivity, which may be improved as much as 25 to 70% through simple managerial techniques. The implications for nutritional planning and operations are discussed. Nevertheless, the greatest potential for improving nutritional health rests with the patient himself. Thus, the future orientation in public health nutrition must be directed toward the problems of shifting the major part of the responsibility from the provider to the patient, with accompanying competence in self-care and health maintenance. A promising approach to the idea of greater patient responsibility and autonomy is the so-called Vinland Center concept. Originally developed in Norway, a center incorporating the principles is now being planned in Minnesota and is expected to begin operation in 1979. Funds for the planning effort were given to the U.S. as a Bicentennial gift from Norway. The concept is explained. PMID:402409

  12. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    PubMed

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments. PMID:25504242

  13. Are schools of public health needed to address public health workforce development in Canada for the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Ted H; Bickford, M Joan

    2006-01-01

    In addition to establishing Canadian federal institutions for public health to work in cooperation with provincial and local health authorities, the infrastructure of public health for the future depends on a multi-disciplinary and well-prepared workforce. Traditionally, Canada trained its public health workforce in schools of public health (or hygiene), but in recent decades this has been carried out in departments and centres primarily within medical faculties. Recent public health crises in Canada have led to some new federal institutions and reorganization of public health activities as well as other reforms. This commentary proposes re-examination of the context of public health workforce training and especially for schools of public health as independent faculties within universities as in the United States or, as developed more recently in Europe, semi-independent schools within medical faculties. The multi-disciplinary nature of public health professionals and the complex challenges of the "New Public Health" call for a new debate on this vital issue of public health workforce development. Public health needs a new image and higher profile of training, research and service to meet provincial and national needs, based on international standards of accreditation and recognition. PMID:16827418

  14. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  15. Rethinking public health: promoting public engagement through a new discursive environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye

    2014-01-01

    I reexamine the notion of public health after reviewing critiques of the prevalent individualistic conception of health. I argue that public health should mean not only the health of the public but also health in the public and by the public, and I expound on the social contingency of health and highlight the importance of the interpersonal dimensions of health conditions and health promotion efforts. Promoting public health requires activating health-enhancing communicative behaviors (such as interpersonal advocacy and mutual responsibility taking) in addition to individual behavioral change. To facilitate such communicative behaviors, it is imperative to first construct a new discursive environment in which to think and talk about health in a language of interdependence and collective efforts. PMID:24228674

  16. Rethinking Public Health: Promoting Public Engagement Through a New Discursive Environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I reexamine the notion of public health after reviewing critiques of the prevalent individualistic conception of health. I argue that public health should mean not only the health of the public but also health in the public and by the public, and I expound on the social contingency of health and highlight the importance of the interpersonal dimensions of health conditions and health promotion efforts. Promoting public health requires activating health-enhancing communicative behaviors (such as interpersonal advocacy and mutual responsibility taking) in addition to individual behavioral change. To facilitate such communicative behaviors, it is imperative to first construct a new discursive environment in which to think and talk about health in a language of interdependence and collective efforts. PMID:24228674

  17. Typhoid fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... water and eat well-cooked food. Water treatment, waste disposal, and protecting the food supply from contamination are important public health measures. Carriers of typhoid must not be allowed to work as food handlers.

  18. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the Following Meeting Name: ICD-9-CM... Information: Donna Pickett, Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. Public health genetic counselors: activities, skills, and sources of learning.

    PubMed

    McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge. PMID:25475919

  20. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder". PMID:26074740

  1. Food Safety Informatics: A Public Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Cynthia A.; Larkin, Stephanie N.; Akers, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish “near-in-time” or “just-in-time” electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in “real time” can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  2. [Public health management in invasive meningococcal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, I; Arndt, U

    2004-12-01

    At the 54(th) Scientific Congress of the German Professional Association of Public Health Service Physicians and Dentists in Marburg on 6th May 2004 the working group on meningococci (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Meningokokken, AGMK) organised the international workshop "Public Health Management of invasive Meningococcal Disease". In recent years significant changes in the epidemiology of meningococcal disease took place in Europe: in some countries and regions the number of disease caused by meningococci serogroup C has increased significantly. In the Netherlands this increase led to the introduction of an immunisation programme with conjugated meningococcal vaccines targeting children aged 1 up to 18 years. In Switzerland a peak in the number of reported meningococcal group C cases could be observed in some regions. Therefore, a regional vaccination programme has been introduced. Nevertheless, compared with Germany, the indications for vaccination against meningococci in Switzerland are more extensive. In the workshop, Professor Ulrich Vogel and Dr. Ingrid Ehrhard presented the epidemiological situation in Germany and the recommended prophylaxis regimen against meningococci. PMID:15609213

  3. Competency development in public health leadership.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K; Rowitz, L; Merkle, A; Reid, W M; Robinson, G; Herzog, B; Weber, D; Carmichael, D; Balderson, T R; Baker, E

    2000-01-01

    The professional development of public health leaders requires competency-based instruction to increase their ability to address complex and changing demands for critical services. This article reviews the development of the Leadership Competency Framework by the National Public Health Leadership Development Network and discusses its significance. After reviewing pertinent literature and existing practice-based competency frameworks, network members developed the framework through sequential use of workgroup assignments and nominal group process. The framework is being used by network members to develop and refine program competency lists and content; to compare programs; to develop needs assessments, baseline measures, and performance standards; and to evaluate educational outcomes. It is a working document, to be continually refined and evaluated to ensure its continued relevance to performance in practice. Understanding both the applications and the limits of competency frameworks is important in individual, program, and organizational assessment. Benefits of using defined competencies in designing leadership programs include the integrated and sustained development of leadership capacity and the use of technology for increased access and quality control. PMID:10936996

  4. Food safety informatics: a public health imperative.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Cynthia A; Larkin, Stephanie N; Akers, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    To date, little has been written about the implementation of utilizing food safety informatics as a technological tool to protect consumers, in real-time, against foodborne illnesses. Food safety outbreaks have become a major public health problem, causing an estimated 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths in the U.S. each year. Yet, government inspectors/regulators that monitor foodservice operations struggle with how to collect, organize, and analyze data; implement, monitor, and enforce safe food systems. Currently, standardized technologies have not been implemented to efficiently establish "near-in-time" or "just-in-time" electronic awareness to enhance early detection of public health threats regarding food safety. To address the potential impact of collection, organization and analyses of data in a foodservice operation, a wireless food safety informatics (FSI) tool was pilot tested at a university student foodservice center. The technological platform in this test collected data every six minutes over a 24 hour period, across two primary domains: time and temperatures within freezers, walk-in refrigerators and dry storage areas. The results of this pilot study briefly illustrated how technology can assist in food safety surveillance and monitoring by efficiently detecting food safety abnormalities related to time and temperatures so that efficient and proper response in "real time" can be addressed to prevent potential foodborne illnesses. PMID:23569605

  5. [Occupational injury, a public health priority].

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclos, Jordi; Benach, Joan; Serra, Consol

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review is to stimulate new ideas and actions for the prevention of this important public health problem. In 2002 and 2003, respectively, the number of non-fatal occupational injuries was 971,406 and 906,638. Thus, every day in Spain there are more than 2500 non-fatal and between 2 and 3 fatal occupational injuries. Although the profile of the at-risk worker population has changed greatly over the past decade, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the risk of occupational injury still centers on blue collar workers, whether qualified or nonqualified, in the primary and secondary sectors of economic activity. The most common mechanisms of occupational injuries are overexertion for non-fatal injuries and traffic-related for fatal events. The adverse health consequences of new types of employment, which emphasize flexibility and deregulation of the labour market, are exemplified by the association between temporary employment and increased risk of occupational injury. New injury prevention programs have emerged in the last decade, but they appear to have had limited impact. Preventive activities should focus both on working conditions at the company level (micro) as well as on employment and industrial public policies (macro). Greater evaluation is needed of these latter policies. PMID:17193816

  6. Using NASA Using Remote Sensing in Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue; Haynes, John

    2011-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety.

  7. Public health challenges posed by chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H; Fay, M; Mumtaz, M M

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 40 million people live within a 4-mile radius of waste sites that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has assessed to date. Human populations living in the vicinity of such sites are often subjected to complex chemical exposures that may contribute to the total body burden of oxogenous chemicals. Apart from the contaminants found at waste sites, exposure may also include environmental, occupational, and personal agents. Concurrent exposure to chemicals such as welding fumes, indoor air pollutants, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and prescription and nonprescription drugs makes the health assessment of exposure to waste site chemicals a more complex task. Voluntary exposures such as these frequently entail exposures to relatively high chemical concentrations and can usually be well defined and quantified. Conversely, involuntary exposures from waste sites may be at low concentrations and hence difficult to characterize and quantify. Of the approximately 1450 waste sites evaluated by the ATSDR, 530 (37%) had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways. Results of public health assessments conducted at 167 sites during 1993 to 1995 show that about 1.5 million people have been exposed to site-specific contaminants. At 10% or more of the sites that had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways, 56 substances were identified. Of these, 19 are either known or anticipated human carcinogens, and 9 are associated with reproductive or endocrine-disrupting effects. In this paper we present important concerns regarding hazardous waste sites including the impact on human health, ecology, and quality of life. To address such human-health related issues, the ATSDR has established a mixtures program that consists of three components: trend analysis to identify combinations of chemicals of concern, experimental studies to identify data that would be useful in the development and implementation of predictive decision

  8. [Legitimizing and responsibilities of public health reports: public health reports or social court reports?].

    PubMed

    Borgers, D; Streich, W

    1996-11-01

    Since 1970 various initiatives have been taken to improve the information bases of health reporting. However, the efforts made up to now by the Länder, the Federal Government and its corporate bodies are characterised by a lack of experience and shortage of resources; moreover, they are viewed with a critical eye by the public and in the political area. In this contribution the authors describe various topics and delimitations of a health reporting system which go far beyond health statistics and health programmes altogether. The chances of a national health reporting system are based on the assumption that an objective judgement based on expert knowledge and science will be possible and that beyond all particularistic interests, expert knowledge can be organised in a democratic process. Public health reporting varies between two extremes: On the one hand, the current reporting in the media on health-related subjects which is characterised by disagreement among experts, particularistic interests and emotions, and on the other hand the national health reporting, which, on the platform of policy marketing and political image shaping, is suspected of degenerating to a kind of "royal court reporting". A health reporting system based on expert knowledge and characterised by topics with relevance to health policy, expert quality of its information and neutrality to particularistic interests, should go beyond these two extremes. Given the political conditions of budgeting and distribution conflicts, health reporting has to deal with two main aspects: effectiveness and efficiency of employed resources and with the problems of a fair distribution of these resources to provide equal chances in the health sector. What cannot be solved, by questions of procedure, however, is the problem of truth and objective knowledge as well as the problem of confidence. If the general public lacks confidence in national expert knowledge, a society discourse will not lead to political

  9. Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the Symposium on Career Opportunities in Biomedical and Public Health Sciences is to encourage minority collegiate and junior and senior high school students to pursue careers in biomedical and public health sciences. The objectives of the Symposium are to: (1) Provide information to participants concerning biomedical and public health science careers in government, academe and industry; (2) Provide information to minority students about training activities necessary to pursue a biomedical or public health science career and the fiscal support that one can obtain for such training; and (3) Provide opportunities for participating minority biomedical and public health role models to interact with participants.

  10. Assessing public health emergency preparedness: concepts, tools, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher; Lurie, Nicole; Wasserman, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly seeking to determine whether the federal government's recent investments in public health preparedness have left the public health system better prepared to respond to large-scale public health emergencies. Yet, there remain questions about how to define "public health emergency preparedness," how much preparedness is enough, and how preparedness can be measured and assessed. This chapter identifies the key challenges associated with measuring public health preparedness and reviews approaches currently in use. We also identify some emerging measurement techniques that might help address some of these challenges. PMID:17129174

  11. Expenditures for Public Health: Assessing Historical and Prospective Trends

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    We integrated publicly available fiscal and budgetary data to assess historical and prospective trends in public health system funding at the federal, state, and local levels in relation to the recommended objectives outlined in the Institute of Medicine's definitive 2002 report. Although historical growth rates for public health expenditures at all levels were competitive with other major funding objects (requested or funded budget items), outlays for health care services and medical research dwarfed public health spending in absolute amounts. Competition for scarce discretionary resources, competing policy priorities, and protracted fiscal pressures will make it difficult for public health systems to achieve the recommended objectives. PMID:19696394

  12. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  13. A Review of the Invasive Mosquitoes in Europe: Ecology, Public Health Risks, and Control Options

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Schaffner, Francis; Versteirt, Veerle; Hendrickx, Guy; Zeller, Herve; Bortel, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There has been growing interest in Europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of Aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within Europe through ground transport. More recently, five other non-European aedine mosquito species have been found in Europe, and in some cases populations have established locally and are spreading. Concerns have been raised about the involvement of these mosquito species in transmission cycles of pathogens of public health importance, and these concerns were borne out following the outbreak of chikungunya fever in Italy in 2007, and subsequent autochthonous cases of dengue fever in France and Croatia in 2010. This article reviews current understanding of all exotic (five introduced invasive and one intercepted) aedine species in Europe, highlighting the known import pathways, biotic and abiotic constraints for establishment, control strategies, and public health significance, and encourages Europe-wide surveillance for invasive mosquitoes. PMID:22448724

  14. Translational physiology: from molecules to public health

    PubMed Central

    Seals, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    The term ‘translational research’ was coined 20 years ago and has become a guiding influence in biomedical research. It refers to a process by which the findings of basic research are extended to the clinical research setting (bench to bedside) and then to clinical practice and eventually health policy (bedside to community). It is a dynamic, multidisciplinary research approach. The concept of translational physiology applies the translational research model to the physiological sciences. It differs from the traditional areas of integrative and clinical physiology by its broad investigative scope of basic research to community health. Translational physiology offers exciting opportunities, but presently is under-developed and -utilized. A key challenge will be to expand physiological research by extending investigations to communities of patients and healthy (or at risk) individuals. This will allow bidirectional physiological investigation throughout the translational continuum: basic research observations can be studied up to the population level, and mechanisms can be assessed by ‘reverse translation’ in clinical research settings and preclinical models based on initial observations made in populations. Examples of translational physiology questions, experimental approaches, roadblocks and strategies for promotion are discussed. Translational physiology provides a novel framework for physiology programs and an investigational platform for physiologists to study function from molecular events to public health. It holds promise for enhancing the completeness and societal impact of our work, while further solidifying the critical role of physiology in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:23732641

  15. Mobilizing Local Authorities Around Public Health Priorities.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Benoit; Huppé, Vicky; Tourigny, André

    2016-07-01

    Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Status (LARES) was conducted in Europe in 2002 to 2003 to study the relationship between citizens' health and built environments. One of its objectives was to put public health priorities on the agenda of local decision-makers to implement solutions for the community. We adapted the LARES protocol as a pilot project in a small French-Canadian town in Quebec Province in 2012. The distinguishing feature of this project was the collaborative approach taken with local actors, especially the municipality, which was committed a priori to using survey data from an urban planning perspective. The project produced interesting results that were used to motivate actions concerning people living in bad sanitary conditions; to draft the urban plan including the development of parks, green spaces, and bicycle paths; and to allow the municipality to meet eligibility criteria for access to renovation programs. If a partnership with the local actors and their commitment to promote and realize the project were obtained at the beginning, then the survey could be replicated in other communities. PMID:27196661

  16. The globalization of public health, I: Threats and opportunities.

    PubMed Central

    Yach, D; Bettcher, D

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of public health poses new threats to health but also holds important opportunities in the coming century. This commentary identifies the major threats and opportunities presented by the process of globalization and emphasizes the need for transnational public health approaches to take advantage of the positive aspects of global change and to minimize the negative ones. Transnational public health issues are areas of mutual concern for the foreign policies of all countries. These trends indicate a need for cross-national comparisons (e.g., in the areas of health financing and policy development) and for the development of a transnational research agenda in public health. PMID:9585736

  17. Competencies for public health finance: an initial assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Kathleen N; Kurz, Richard S; McBride, Timothy; Schmitz, Homer H

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study in this article was to identify The needs of public health managers with regard to public health finance. A survey of public health practitioners regarding competencies was conducted and a review of course offerings in finance among schools of public health was performed. Most public health practitioners surveyed believe that a broad array of management competencies are required to administer the finances of a public health facility or department. Respondents added 35 competencies to those initially given to them for review. Most added competencies that were more specific than the original competencies or could be viewed as subpoints of the original competencies. Many schools offered no courses specifically addressing public health care finance, with a few offering at most only one public health finance course. All schools offered at least one corporate finance course, and the majority offered two or more courses. We conclude with a number of recommendations for education and competency development, suggesting several next steps that can advance the field of public health's understanding of what managers need to master in public health finance to effectively function as public health managers. PMID:15552772

  18. Schools of public health and the health of the public: enhancing the capabilities of faculty to be influential in policymaking.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort B; Huber, George A

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members of schools of public health contribute to better health largely through their teaching, research, and community service roles. We suggest attention to another role: exerting their influence to ensure effective public health policy. Using recent actions taken at the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Public Health as a template, we describe some of the key steps that public health schools can take to help their faculties be more influential in public health policy. These steps include (1) building infrastructures to support and facilitate this role, (2) teaching faculty members how to be more influential in the policy arena, and (3) aligning incentives and rewards for faculty who contribute to improved public health by influencing the formation and implementation of public health policy. PMID:19910342

  19. The complexities of multi-level governance in public health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews some of the challenges to developing national public health programs, focussing on the distribution of constitutional authority for public health and governance challenges that arise from this. Constitutional authority for public health resides primarily with the provinces. The federal government has obtained the authority to legislate in this area primarily through its power over criminal law. Challenges facing the establishment of national public health programs include the ambiguity over constitutional responsibility, challenges in managing externalities and spillovers, and issues related to funding and data ownership. Policy-making is also complicated by the importance of municipal and supranational governments in public health. National programs need to be structured in a way that balances the advantages of regional approaches to public health challenges with the benefits of a coordinated central response. To do so, policy-makers need to address unique challenges to public health governance. PMID:15622787

  20. A personalist approach to public-health ethics.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo; Gainotti, Sabina

    2008-08-01

    First we give an overview of the historical development of public health. Then we present some public-health deontology codes and some ethical principles. We highlight difficulties in defining ethics for public health, with specific reference to three of them that concern: (i) the adaptability to public health of the classical principles of bioethics; (ii) the duty to respect and safeguard the individual while acting within the community perspective that is typical of public health; and (iii) the application-oriented nature of public health and the general lack of attention towards the ethical implications of collective interventions (compared with research). We then mention some proposals drafted from North American bioethics "principles" and utilitarian, liberal and communitarian views. Drawing from other approaches, personalism is outlined as being the theory that offers a consistent set of values and alternative principles that are relevant for public health. PMID:18797621

  1. Recent Developments in Public Health Nursing in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Cooper, Kelly; Ruiz-Larios, Jose Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an assessment of the participation and training of nurses in public health areas in the Americas. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews with key informants from Mexico, Colombia, and Paraguay. Results demonstrate that there is significant variation in definitions of public health nursing across the region and current systematized data about the workforce profile of public health nursing personnel is not available for many countries in the Americas. There are significant regional differences in the levels and types of training of nurses working in public health areas and an increasing number of nurses are pursuing training in public health at the master’s and doctoral levels. Many nurses carry out some or all of the essential functions of public health, but are not considered to be public health nurses. Generally, auxiliary and technical nurses have a broader presence in public health areas than professional nurses. In the future, regional health systems reforms should support increased recruitment and training of public health nurses, as well as stronger roles in public health research and health care at the individual, community, and population levels. PMID:20617000

  2. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases. PMID:26039392

  3. Evaluation of dengue fever reports during an epidemic, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vega, Liliana; Pacheco, Oscar; de la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Díaz-Quijano, Fredi Alexander

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of dengue fever reports and how they relate to the definition of case and severity. METHODS Diagnostic test assessment was conducted using cross-sectional sampling from a universe of 13,873 patients treated during the fifth epidemiological period in health institutions from 11 Colombian departments in 2013. The test under analyses was the reporting to the National Public Health Surveillance System, and the reference standard was the review of histories identified by active institutional search. We reviewed all histories of patients diagnosed with dengue fever, as well as a random sample of patients with febrile syndromes. The specificity and sensitivity of reports were estimated for this purpose, considering the inverse of the probability of being selected for weighting. The concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search was calculated using Kappa statistics. RESULTS We included 4,359 febrile patients, and 31.7% were classified as compatible with dengue fever (17 with severe dengue fever; 461 with dengue fever and warning signs; 904 with dengue fever and no warning signs). The global sensitivity of reports was 13.2% (95%CI 10.9;15.4) and specificity was 98.4% (95%CI 97.9;98.9). Sensitivity varied according to severity: 12.1% (95%CI 9.3;14.8) for patients presenting dengue fever with no warning signs; 14.5% (95%CI 10.6;18.4) for those presenting dengue fever with warning signs, and 40.0% (95%CI 9.6;70.4) for those with severe dengue fever. Concordance between reporting and the findings of the active institutional search resulted in a Kappa of 10.1%. CONCLUSIONS Low concordance was observed between reporting and the review of clinical histories, which was associated with the low reporting of dengue fever compatible cases, especially milder cases. PMID:26039392

  4. New Developments in Undergraduate Education in Public Health: Implications for Health Education and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michael D.; Wykoff, Randy; King, Laura Rasar; Petersen, Donna J.

    2012-01-01

    The article provides an overview of efforts to improve public health and health education training and on the potential use of Critical Component Elements (CCEs) for undergraduate health education programs toward more consistent quality assurance across programs. Considered in the context of the Galway Consensus Conference, the authors discuss the…

  5. Overview of Graduate Programs in Public Health Outside Schools of Public Health, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Engin Inel

    A 2-year project that identified and described characteristics of graduate programs outside schools of public health is briefly summarized. The project also established linkages among professional organizations representing graduates from these programs. Recommendations of the advisory committee, which was composed of representatives from these…

  6. An Analysis of State Public Health Emergency Declarations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Disaster responses often involve coordination among multiple levels of government and public and private sector collaboration. When emergencies raise health concerns, governments must include public health and health care systems in their response. A state government’s declaration of “public health emergency” can provide that state’s health sector with flexibility and guidance about response parameters. Although events including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy and the H1N1 influenza outbreak provided opportunities for states to deploy their public health emergency powers, little has been reported about how states have used their authority to declare a public health emergency. I present a systematic identification and analysis of states’ public health emergency declarations, examine why these declarations were issued, and discuss their potential value. PMID:25033156

  7. Culture, Health, and Science: A Multidisciplinary Liberal Arts Alternative to the Public Health Major.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lynn M; Knight, Sabina; Gubrium, Aline C

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2003 call by the Institute of Medicine to educate undergraduates in public health, various models have emerged for incorporating public health into the liberal arts and sciences. One model is a professionalized public health major that uses core public health competencies to prepare a workforce of health professionals. A second model offers a broad-based public health major rooted in liberal arts principles, resisting the utilitarian trend toward human capital formation. A third model resists even the label of "public health," preferring instead to introduce undergraduates to many ways of analyzing human health and healing. The multidisciplinary Culture, Health, and Science Program, based on six key commitments for preparing liberal arts students to analyze health and respond to global health challenges, is offered as an alternative to the public health major. PMID:26857453

  8. Microsporidiosis Acquired Through Solid Organ Transplantation: A Public Health Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hocevar, Susan N.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Spak, Cedric W.; Rosenblatt, Randall; Diaz-Luna, Hector; Castillo, Isabel; Luna, Sergio; Friedman, Glen C.; Antony, Suresh; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Tiller, Rebekah V.; Peterson, Tammie; Blau, Dianna M.; Sriram, Rama R.; da Silva, Alexandre; de Almeida, Marcos; Benedict, Theresa; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Visvesvara, Govinda S.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microsporidial species most commonly recognized as a cause of renal, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in immunosuppressed patients, was identified as the cause of a temporally associated cluster of febrile illness among 3 solid organ transplant recipients from a common donor. Objective To confirm the source of the illness, assess donor and recipient risk factors, and provide therapy recommendations for ill recipients. Design Public health investigation. Setting Two transplant hospitals and community interview with the deceased donor’s family. Patients Three transplant recipients and the organ donor. Measurements Specimens were tested for microsporidia by using culture, immunofluorescent antibody, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. Donor medical records were reviewed and a questionnaire was developed to assess for microsporidial infection. Results Kidneys and lungs were procured from the deceased donor and transplanted to 3 recipients who became ill with fever 7 to 10 weeks after the transplant. Results of urine culture, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction testing were positive for Encephalitozoon cuniculi of genotype III in each recipient; the organism was also identified in biopsy or autopsy specimens in all recipients. The donor had positive serologic test results for Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Surviving recipients received albendazole. Donor assessment did not identify factors for suspected Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Limitation Inability to detect organism by culture or polymerase chain reaction in donor due to lack of autopsy specimens. Conclusion Transmission of microsporidiosis through organ transplantation is described. Microsporidiosis is now recognized as an emerging transplant-associated disease and should be considered in febrile transplant recipients when tests for routinely encountered agents are unrevealing. Donor-derived disease is critical

  9. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  10. Future Directions for Public Health Education Reforms in India

    PubMed Central

    Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Negandhi, Himanshu; Yeravdekar, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    Health systems globally are experiencing a shortage of competent public health professionals. Public health education across developing countries is stretched by capacity generation and maintaining an adequate ‘standard’ and ‘quality’ of their graduate product. We analyzed the Indian public health education scenario using the institutional and instructional reforms framework advanced by the Lancet Commission report on Education of Health Professionals. The emergence of a new century necessitates a re-visit on the institutional and instructional challenges surrounding public health education. Currently, there is neither an accreditation council nor a formal structure or system of collaboration between academic stakeholders. Health systems have little say in health professional training with limited dialogue between health systems and public health education institutions. Despite a recognized shortfall of public health professionals, there are limited job opportunities for public health graduates within the health system and absence of a structured career pathway for them. Public health institutions need to evolve strategies to prevent faculty attrition. A structured development program in teaching–learning methods and pedagogy is the need of the hour. PMID:25295242

  11. Competency Guidelines for Public Health Laboratory Professionals: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ned-Sykes, Renée; Johnson, Catherine; Ridderhof, John C; Perlman, Eva; Pollock, Anne; DeBoy, John M

    2015-05-15

    These competency guidelines outline the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for public health laboratory (PHL) professionals to deliver the core services of PHLs efficiently and effectively. As part of a 2-year workforce project sponsored in 2012 by CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), competencies for 15 domain areas were developed by experts representing state and local PHLs, clinical laboratories, academic institutions, laboratory professional organizations, CDC, and APHL. The competencies were developed and reviewed by approximately 170 subject matter experts with diverse backgrounds and experiences in laboratory science and public health. The guidelines comprise general, cross-cutting, and specialized domain areas and are divided into four levels of proficiency: beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. The 15 domain areas are 1) Quality Management System, 2) Ethics, 3) Management and Leadership, 4) Communication, 5) Security, 6) Emergency Management and Response, 7) Workforce Training, 8) General Laboratory Practice, 9) Safety, 10) Surveillance, 11) Informatics, 12) Microbiology, 13) Chemistry, 14) Bioinformatics, and 15) Research. These competency guidelines are targeted to scientists working in PHLs, defined as governmental public health, environmental, and agricultural laboratories that provide analytic biological and/or chemical testing and testing-related services that protect human populations against infectious diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, environmental hazards, treatable hereditary disorders, and natural and human-made public health emergencies. The competencies support certain PHL workforce needs such as identifying job responsibilities, assessing individual performance, and providing a guiding framework for producing education and training programs. Although these competencies were developed specifically for the PHL community, this does not preclude their broader application to other professionals

  12. Public Health Service report on fluoride benefits and risks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-14

    This report, Public Health Service Report on Fluoride Benefits and Risks is a summary of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of Review of Fluoride Benefits and Risks: Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs, published in February 1991. The full report was prepared by an ad hoc subcommittee of the United States Public Health Service's Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs (CCEHRP) at the request of the Assistant Secretary for Health. The full report can be obtained from the Public Health Service, Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. PMID:26350114

  14. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  15. Analytical challenges for emerging public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rolka, Henry; Walker, David W; English, Roseanne; Katzoff, Myron J; Scogin, Gail; Neuhaus, Elizabeth

    2012-07-27

    The root of effective disease control and prevention is an informed understanding of the epidemiology of a particular disease based on sound scientific interpretation of evidence. Such evidence must frequently be transformed from raw data into consumable information before it can be used for making decisions, determining policy, and conducting programs. However, the work of building such evidence in public health practice--doing the right thing at the right time--is essentially hidden from view. Surveillance involves acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data and information from several sources across various systems. Achieving the goals and objectives of surveillance investments requires attention to analytic requirements of such systems. The process requires computer programming, statistical reasoning, subject matter expertise, often modeling, and effective communication skills. PMID:22832996

  16. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  17. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sebastián; Rincon, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs. PMID:27537921

  18. Limited liability and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Teret, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Corporations, through their products and behaviors, exert a strong effect on the well-being of populations. Industries including firearms, motor vehicles, tobacco, and alcohol produce and market products negatively impact public health. All of these industries are composed of corporations, which are legal fictions designed to provide limited exposure to liability, through a variety of mechanisms, for their investors and directors. This means that when actions are taken on behalf of a corporate entity, the individuals responsible generally will not face personal liability for the negative results of those actions. To illustrate this point, this article considers corporate products or practices that have caused harm in varied settings, and analyzes the role that limited liability played in these cases. In addition, the article identifies ways to modify or eliminate some of the principles and practices that accompany limited liability. PMID:18076511

  19. Nanotechnology and environmental and public health considerations.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology has arrived on the scene much as did predecessor technologies--hailed for its purpose and accepted with enthusiasm amid bursts of research, funding, and news of creative applications. But the early efforts to consider its environmental aspects have been small even though the implications for environmental and public health are broad. A well-crafted policy framework is needed, one linked to a clearer understanding of the direct and indirect effects, benefits, and risk of nanotechnology. A precautious approach would foster policy interventions to prevent harms by slowing developments where the risks are high and focus scientific effort on dispelling ignorance and uncertainty, especially in those areas where the consequences of being wrong are substantial. This kind of approach also would impose the burden of demonstrating the safety of the technology primarily on its proponents. The process of producing guidelines for other technologies is considered. PMID:17208882

  20. Some trends in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, M R

    1975-05-01

    Some of the recent changes in the schools of public health include: an increasing number of schools and of graduates; a decrease in both the awarding of the MPH degree as compared with other masters degrees, and the DrPH degree as compared with the PhD; a trend toward lengthening the time for achieving the MPH degree; an increase in part-time study for graduate degrees; institution of undergraduate programs and external masters degree programs; a thrust toward greater continuing education activities; and a broadened base for the student population in terms of the heterogeneity of professional backgrounds and prior experience, a wider age range with more younger students, more women students, fewer foreign students, and an increase in minority representation. PMID:1115295

  1. Public mental health. II: The psychological dimension.

    PubMed

    Curle, A

    1997-01-01

    Alienation, which is the source of much violence, is widespread throughout the world, deriving from and connected with adverse social and economic conditions. It is a state of estrangement from society often associated with bitterness and resentment; these exacerbate conflict and lead to war and other types of violence. Alienation is the antithesis of compassion and other feelings on which the good society is based. It is partially maintained by a web of psychological falsehoods, knots, relating to: awareness, happiness, identity, permanence, separateness, guilt and inferiority, and violence. These knots foster confused thinking that makes us more vulnerable to alienation. Unravelling the knots and cutting through the web of psychological falsehoods helps to release the human potential for positive, peaceful and non-violent action. Medicine can best contribute to weakening wide-spread alienation through the development of public mental health, working at the interface with the social, economic and cultural actors in the development of civil society. PMID:9080784

  2. Florida's tuberculosis epidemic. Public health response.

    PubMed

    Witte, J J; Bigler, W J

    1994-03-01

    Florida ranked fourth in the nation with 1,707 tuberculosis cases reported in 1992 for a rate of 12.7 per 100,000 population. Thirteen percent of these patients had AIDS. Recent cases in prisons, shelters, hospitals and schools have stimulated interest and media coverage. Resurgence of strains of multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious concern. The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, in collaboration with allied agencies, has utilized several initiatives in response. The most significant, Tuberculosis Epidemic Containment Plan, details intervention strategies needed to eliminate TB in the state by the year 2010. Successful implementation depends upon local TB prevention and control coalitions that include private and public sector providers. PMID:8195774

  3. Synthetic Cathinones: A New Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: “new psychoactive substances”, “synthetic cathinones”, “substituted cathinones”, “mephedrone”, “methylone”, “MDPV”, “4-MEC”, “addiction”, and “substance use disorder”. PMID:26074740

  4. [Typhoid fever in Lebanon: epidemiological study].

    PubMed

    Naji-Rammal, Soraya; Bedrossian, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. From 2000 through 2008, the infectious disease surveillance unit at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health received 6148 reports of typhoid cases. A case is considered positive for typhoid or paratyphoid fever when fever of at least 38 degrees C persists for three days, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi is isolated from blood, bone marrow, or stool. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA v.10 software. The most cases were recorded in 2003 (n=891), followed by 2007 (n=879), while the fewest were recorded in 2005 (n=461). The distribution of typhoid was not homogeneous between age groups: the age group most affected were those aged 20-39 years, followed by those from 10-19 years; those older than 60 years were least affected. Nor was the geographic distribution, by district (combining Nabatieh and the South together), homogeneous. The most affected individuals were in the North (n=2,192), followed by Bekaa (n=1,651) and Mount Lebanon (n= 1,094). Beirut was the least affected, with 210 cases. The results indicate that typhoid fever remains endemic in Lebanon and that the risk of epidemic episodes is still present. PMID:20696646

  5. The Indian Health Program of the U.S. Public Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Arlington, VA.

    As reported in this publication, about 410,000 Alaskan Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts receive a full range of curative, preventive, and rehabilitative health services--including hospitalization, outpatient medical care, public health nursing, maternal and child health care, dental and nutrition services, and health education. The U.S. Public Health…

  6. Balancing in a crisis? Bioterrorism, public health and privacy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Janlori

    2005-01-01

    Post-September 11, the government has been rapidly funding public health initiatives to bolster the Nation's ability to respond to bioterrorist attacks. While the infusion of money into the public health system is laudable, the pressure to enact legislation quickly has resulted in laws and policies that ignore privacy and civil liberties and that favor anti-bioterror initiatives over more common public health concerns. A public health agenda that ignores privacy and civil liberties will undermine public trust, leading people to not fully participate in critical public health activities. Our Nation is far more likely to succeed in preventing and responding to a potential act of bioterrorism if we embrace the principle that advancing public health and preserving individual liberties are symbiotic and inextricable. PMID:16477799

  7. Transparency during public health emergencies: from rhetoric to reality

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, P; Thompson, A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Effective management of public health emergencies demands open and transparent public communication. The rationale for transparency has public health, strategic and ethical dimensions. Despite this, government authorities often fail to demonstrate transparency. A key step in bridging the gap between the rhetoric and reality is to define and codify transparency to put in place practical mechanisms to encourage open public health communication for emergencies. The authors demonstrate this approach using the example of the development and implementation process of a public health emergency information policy. PMID:19705012

  8. Which public and why deliberate?--A scoping review of public deliberation in public health and health policy research.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2015-04-01

    Deliberative methods are of increasing interest to public health researchers and policymakers. We systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature to identify public health and health policy research involving deliberative methods and report how deliberative methods have been used. We applied a taxonomy developed with reference to health policy and science and technology studies literatures to distinguish how deliberative methods engage different publics: citizens (ordinary people who are unfamiliar with the issues), consumers (those with relevant personal experience e.g. of illness) and advocates (those with technical expertise or partisan interests). We searched four databases for empirical studies in English published 1996-2013. This identified 78 articles reporting on 62 distinct events from the UK, USA, Canada, Australasia, Europe, Israel, Asia and Africa. Ten different types of deliberative techniques were used to represent and capture the interests and preferences of different types of public. Citizens were typically directed to consider community interests and were treated as a resource to increase democratic legitimacy. Citizens were preferred in methodological studies (those focused on understanding the techniques). Consumers were directed to focus on personal preferences; thus convened not as a source of policy decisions, but of knowledge about what those affected by the issue would accept. Advocates-who are most commonly used as expert witnesses in juries-were sometimes engaged to deliberate with consumers or citizens. This almost always occurred in projects directly linked to policy processes. This suggests health policymakers may value deliberative methods as a way of understanding disagreement between perspectives. Overall however, the 'type' of public sought was often not explicit, and their role not specified. This review provides new insight into the heterogeneity and rising popularity of deliberative methods, and indicates a need for greater

  9. Injury and violence: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Rockett, I R

    1998-12-01

    This report examined injury and violence from a public health perspective. The discussion focuses on the magnitude of the problem, age and regional patterns, war mortality, motor vehicle accidents, natural disasters, US injury and violence mortality and morbidity trends by age, the history of injury, the relationship between energy and injury, similarities between disease and injuries, injury and violence prevention, risk factors, and medical care. The US has two Centers for Disease Control surveillance systems for monitoring behavior that increases the risk of injury or disease. A youth surveillance system surveys high school students about high risk behavior, such as use of weapons and nonuse of seat belts. The surveillance system misses the homeless and people without telephones and undersamples minorities, low income people, and males. Youth surveillance misses groups with high dropout rates, such as Blacks and Hispanics. Lower income people have higher disease and injury rates. US Black males are particularly vulnerable. Health professionals that aim to reduce injury risks must address underlying conditions that perpetuate poverty, such as residential segregation, racial discrimination, unemployment, and inferior educational opportunities. Survival of the injured is dependent on the speed with which Emergency Medical Teams can treat the injury. Treatment within the first hour is a critical determining factor. Specialized trauma centers and emerging technologies, such as geographic information systems, improve survival. The global diffusion of beliefs, values, and practices can promote or inhibit injury and violence. PMID:12321948

  10. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health

    PubMed Central

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it’s too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world’s largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  11. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Urban Public Health: Is There a Pyramid?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000–2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development. PMID:23358233

  13. Discretionary Fortification—A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Valerie, Tarasuk

    2014-01-01

    ‘Discretionary fortification’ refers to the addition of vitamins and minerals to foods at the discretion of manufacturers for marketing purposes, but not as part of a planned public health intervention. While the nutrients added may correspond to needs in the population, an examination of novel beverages sold in Toronto supermarkets revealed added nutrients for which there is little or no evidence of inadequacy in the population. This is consistent with the variable effects of manufacturer-driven fortification on nutrient adequacy observed in the US. Nutrient intakes in excess of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels are now observed in the context of supplement use and high levels of consumption of fortified foods. Expanding discretionary fortification can only increase nutrient exposures, but any health risks associated with chronically high nutrient loads from fortification and supplementation remain to be discovered. Regulatory bodies are focused on the establishment of safe levels of nutrient addition, but their estimation procedures are fraught with untested assumptions and data limitations. The task of determining the benefits of discretionary fortification is being left to consumers, but the nutrition information available to them is insufficient to allow for differentiation of potentially beneficial fortification from gratuitous nutrient additions. PMID:25329969

  14. Social marketing and public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, R C; Flora, J A

    1988-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of community-based health education programs has out-paced the knowledge base of behavior change strategies that are appropriate and effective for public health interventions. However, experiences from a variety of large-scale studies suggest that principles and techniques of social marketing may help bridge this gap. This article discusses eight essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and program participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in program design and pretesting of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, development of a process tracking system, and a management process of problem analysis, planning, implementation, feedback and control functions. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programs that reach larger numbers of the target audience. PMID:3056876

  15. Urban public health: is there a pyramid?

    PubMed

    Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Yang, Zhifeng; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Jiao

    2013-02-01

    Early ecologists identified a pyramidal trophic structure in terms of number, biomass and energy transfer. In 1943, the psychologist Maslow put forward a pyramid model to describe layers of human needs. It is indicated that the pyramid principle is universally applicable in natural, humanistic and social disciplines. Here, we report that a pyramid structure also exists in urban public health (UPH). Based on 18 indicators, the UPH states of four cities (Beijing, Tokyo, New York, and London) are compared from the point of view of five aspects, namely physical health, living conditions, social security, environmental quality, and education and culture. A pyramid structure was found in each city when focusing on 2000-2009 data. The pyramid of Beijing is relatively similar to that of Tokyo, and the pyramids of New York and London are similar to each other. A general development trend in UPH is proposed and represented by different pyramid modes. As a basic conjecture, the UPH pyramid model can be verified and developed with data of more cities over a longer period, and be used to promote healthy urban development. PMID:23358233

  16. How energy policies affect public health.

    PubMed Central

    Romm, J J; Ervin, C A

    1996-01-01

    The connection between energy policy and increased levels of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease has become clearer in the past few years. People living in cities with high levels of pollution have a higher risk of mortality than those living in less polluted cities. The pollutants most directly linked to increased morbidity and mortality include ozone, particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and oxides of nitrogen. Energy-related emissions generate the vast majority of these polluting chemicals. Technologies to prevent pollution in the transportation, manufacturing, building, and utility sectors can significantly reduce these emissions while reducing the energy bills of consumers and businesses. In short, clean energy technologies represent a very cost-effective investment in public health. Some 72% of the Federal government's investment in the research, development, and demonstration of pollution prevention technologies is made by the Department of Energy, with the largest share provided by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This article will examine the connections between air pollution and health problems and will discuss what the Department of Energy is doing to prevent air pollution now and in the future. Images p390-a p391-a p392-a p393-a p394-a p395-a p396-a p397-a PMID:8837627

  17. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue. PMID:23539499

  18. Housing equity for health equity: a rights-based approach to the control of Lassa fever in post-war Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Poor quality housing is an infringement on the rights of all humans to a standard of living adequate for health. Among the many vulnerabilities of those without adequate shelter is the risk of disease spread by rodents and other pests. One such disease is Lassa fever, an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. Lassa virus is maintained in the rodent Mastomys natalensis, commonly known as the “multimammate rat,” which frequently invades the domestic environment, putting humans at risk of Lassa fever. The highest reported incidence of Lassa fever in the world is consistently in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, a region that was at the center of Sierra Leone’s civil war in which tens of thousands of lives were lost and hundreds of thousands of dwellings destroyed. Despite the end of the war in 2002, most of Kenema’s population still lives in inadequate housing that puts them at risk of rodent invasion and Lassa fever. Furthermore, despite years of health education and village hygiene campaigns, the incidence of Lassa fever in Kenema District appears to be increasing. We focus on Lassa fever as a matter of human rights, proposing a strategy to improve housing quality, and discuss how housing equity has the potential to improve health equity and ultimately economic productivity in Sierra Leone. The manuscript is designed to spur discussion and action towards provision of housing and prevention of disease in one of the world’s most vulnerable populations. PMID:23282054

  19. Arsenic in North Carolina: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Messier, Kyle P.; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NCDHHS) database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7,712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806 μg/L. Additionally, 1,436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. PMID:21982028

  20. The public health implications of asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J.; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availability, affordability, dissemination and efficacy of optimal asthma management plans in both developed and developing countries. The workplace environment contributes significantly to the general burden of asthma. Patients with occupational asthma have higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy workers. The surveillance of asthma as part of a global WHO programme is essential. The economic cost of asthma is considerable both in terms of direct medical costs (such as hospital admissions and the cost of pharmaceuticals) and indirect medical costs (such as time lost from work and premature death). Direct costs are significant in most countries. In order to reduce costs and improve quality of care, employers and health plans are exploring more precisely targeted ways of controlling rapidly rising health costs. Poor control of asthma symptoms is a major issue that can result in adverse clinical and economic outcomes. A model of asthma costs is needed to aid attempts to reduce them while permitting optimal management of the disease. This paper presents a discussion of the burden of asthma and its socioeconomic implications and proposes a model to predict the costs incurred by the disease. PMID:16175830